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# 1.

## Molecules, Ions and

their Compounds
2. Chemical Equations
and Stoichiometry
MOLECULAR FORMULAS
Formula for glycine is C
2
H
5
NO
2

In one molecule there are
2 C atoms
5 H atoms
1 N atom
2 O atoms
WRITING FORMULAS
Can also write glycine formula as
H
2
NCH
2
COOH
to show atom ordering
or in the form of a structural formula
C
H
H C
H
H
O
O H N
Empirical and Molecular Formulas
Empirical Formula -
Molecular Formula -
The simplest formula for a compound that agrees with
the elemental analysis and gives rise to the smallest set
of whole numbers of atoms.
The formula of the compound as it exists, it may be a
multiple of the empirical formula.
MOLECULAR WEIGHT AND
MOLAR MASS
Molecular weight = sum of the atomic
weights of all atoms in the molecule.
Molar mass = molecular weight in grams
How many moles of alcohol are there
in a standard can of beer if there
are 21.3 g of C
2
H
6
O?
(a) Molar mass of C
2
H
6
O = 46.08 g/mol
(b) Calc. moles of alcohol
21.3 g
1 mol
46.08 g
= 0.462 mol
How many molecules of alcohol are
there in a standard can of beer if
there are 21.3 g of C
2
H
6
O?
= 2.78 x 10
23
molecules
We know there are 0.462 mol of C
2
H
6
O.
0.462 mol
6.022 x 10
23
molecules
1 mol

There are 2.78 x 10
23
molecules.
Each molecule contains 2 C atoms.
Therefore, the number of C atoms is

2.78 x 10
23
molecules
2 C atoms
1 molecule
= 5.57 x 10
23
C atoms

Table 3.1 Summary of Mass Terminology
Term Definition Unit
Isotopic mass Mass of an isotope of an element amu
Atomic mass
Molecular
(or formula) mass
(also called
molecular weight)
Molar mass (M)
(also called
atomic weight)
(also called
gram-molecular weight)
amu
amu
g/mol
Average of the masses of the naturally
occurring isotopes of an element
weighted according to their abundance
Sum of the atomic masses of the atoms
(or ions) in a molecule (or formula unit)
Mass of 1 mole of chemical entities
(atoms, ions, molecules, formula units)
Information Contained in the Chemical Formula of Glucose
C
6
H
12
O
6
( M = 180.16 g/mol)
Oxygen (O)
Mass/mole of
compound
6 atoms
96.00 g
Table 3.2
Carbon (C) Hydrogen (H)
Atoms/molecule
of compound
Moles of atoms/
mole of compound
Atoms/mole of
compound
Mass/molecule
of compound
6 atoms 12 atoms
6 moles
of atoms
12 moles
of atoms
6 moles
of atoms
6(6.022 x 10
23
)
atoms
12(6.022 x 10
23
)
atoms
6(6.022 x 10
23
)
atoms
6(12.01 amu)
=72.06 amu
12(1.008 amu)
=12.10 amu
6(16.00 amu)
=96.00 amu
72.06 g 12.10 g
Interconverting Moles, Mass, and Number of Chemical Entities
Mass (g) = no. of moles x
no. of grams
1 mol
No. of moles = mass (g) x
no. of grams
1 mol
No. of entities = no. of moles x
6.022x10
23
entities
1 mol
No. of moles = no. of entities x
6.022x10
23
entities
1 mol
g
M
IONS AND IONIC COMPOUNDS
IONS are atoms or groups of atoms with a positive or negative charge.
Taking away an electron from an atom gives a CATION with a positive
charge
Adding an electron to an atom gives an ANION with a negative charge.

Mg --> Mg
2+
+ 2 e-
F + e- --> F
-
PREDICTING ION CHARGES
In general
metals (Mg) lose electrons ---> cations
nonmetals (F) gain electrons ---> anions
METALS
M ---> n e- + M
n+

where n = periodic group
Na
+
sodium ion
Mg
2+
magnesium ion
Al
3+
aluminum ion

Transition metals --> M
2+
or M
3+

are common
Fe
2+
iron(II) ion
Fe
3+
iron(III) ion
NONMETALS
NONMETAL + n e- ------> X
n-

where n = 8 - Group no.

C
4-
,carbide
N
3-
, nitride O
2-
, oxide
S
2-
, sulde
F
-
, uoride
Cl
-
, chloride
Group 7A Group 6A
Group 4A
Group 5A
Br
-
, bromide
I
-
, iodide
Name derived
to stem
POLYATOMIC IONS

Note: many O
containing anions
have names ending
in ate (or -ite).
Naming binary ionic compounds
The name of the cation is the same as the name of the metal.
Many metal names end in -ium.
The name of the anion takes the root of the nonmetal name
and adds the suffix -ide.
Calcium and bromine form calcium bromide.
The name of the cation is written first, followed by that of the
anion.
Naming Acids
1) Binary acids solutions form when certain gaseous compounds
dissolve in water.
For example, when gaseous hydrogen chloride(HCl) dissolves in
water, it forms a solution called hydrochloric acid. Prefix hydro- +
anion nonmetal root + suffix -ic + the word acid - hydrochloric
acid
2) Oxoacid names are similar to those of the oxoanions, except for
two suffix changes:
Anion -ate suffix becomes an -ic suffix in the acid.
Anion -ite suffix becomes an -ous suffix in the acid.
The oxoanion prefixes hypo- and per- are retained. Thus,
BrO
4
-
is perbromate, and HBrO
4
is perbromic acid; IO
2
-
is iodite,
and HIO
2
is iodous acid.
Properties of Ionic Compounds
Forming NaCl from Na and Cl
2
A metal atom can
transfer an electron to
a nonmetal.
The resulting cation
and anion are attracted
to each other by
electrostatic
forces.
Electrostatic Forces
The oppositely charged ions in ionic compounds are attracted to one
another by ELECTROSTATIC FORCES.
These forces are governed by COULOMBS LAW.
Electrostatic Forces
COULOMBS LAW
As ion charge increases, the attractive force
_______________.
As the distance between ions increases, the
attractive force ________________.
This idea is important and will come up
many times in future discussions!
m.p. 804
o
C m.p. 2800
o
C
Molecular Compounds
Compounds without Ions
CH
4
methane
CO
2
Carbon dioxide
BCl
3

boron trichloride
All are
formed from
two or more
nonmetals.
Ionic
compounds
generally
involve a metal
and nonmetal
(NaCl)
Empirical & Molecular
Formulas
A pure compound always consists of the same
elements combined in the same proportions by
weight.
Therefore, we can express molecular composition as
PERCENT BY WEIGHT
Ethanol, C
2
H
6
O
52.13% C
13.15% H
34.72% O
Percent Composition
Consider some of the family of nitrogen-oxygen compounds:
NO
2
, nitrogen dioxide and closely related, NO, nitrogen
monoxide (or nitric oxide)
Structure of NO
2
Chemistry of NO,
nitrogen monoxide
Percent Composition
Consider NO
2
, Molar mass = ?
What is the weight percent of N and of O?
Wt. % O =
2 (16. 0 g O per mole )
46. 0 g
x 100% = 69 . 6%
Wt. % N =
14.0 g N
46.0 g NO
2
100% = 30.4 %
What are the weight percentages of
N and O in NO?
How to Determine a Formula?
Mass spectrometer
Mass Spectrum of Ethanol
Mass Spectrum of Ethanol
(from the NIST site)
46
45
CH
3
CH
2
OH
+

CH
3
CH
2
O
+

H
2
C=OH
+

31
CH
2
O
+
30
DETERMINE THE FORMULA OF A
COMPOUND OF Sn AND I
Sn(s) + some I
2
(s) ---> SnI
x

Data to Determine the formula of a Sn
I Compound
Reaction of Sn and I
2
is done using excess Sn.
Mass of Sn in the beginning = 1.056 g
Mass of iodine (I
2
) used = 1.947 g
Mass of Sn remaining = 0.601 g

Mass of Sn used = 0.455 g
Find moles of Sn used
0.455 g Sn
1 mol
118.7 g
= 3.83 x 10
-3
mol Sn
Tin and Iodine Compound
Now find the number of moles of I
2
that combined
with 3.83 x 10
-3
mol Sn. Mass of I
2
used was
1.947 g.
1.947 g I
2

1 mol
253.81 g
= 7.671 x 10
-3
mol I
2
How many mol of iodine atoms?
= 1.534 x 10
-2
mol I atoms
7.671 x 10
-3
mol I
2

2 mol I atoms
1 mol I
2
!
"
#
\$
%
&
Tin and Iodine Compound
Now find the ratio of number of moles of moles of I and Sn
that combined.

1.534 x 10
-2
mol I
3.83 x 10
-3
mol Sn
=
4.01 mol I
1.00 mol Sn
Empirical formula is SnI
4

Chemical Equations
Depict the kind of reactants and products and their relative amounts
in a reaction.
4 Al(s) + 3 O
2
(g) ---> 2 Al
2
O
3
(s)
The numbers in the front are called stoichiometric coefficients
The letters (s), (g), and (l) are the physical states of compounds.
Chemical Equations
Because the same atoms are present in
a reaction at the beginning and at the
end, the amount of matter in a system
does not change.
The Law of the Conservation of Matter
Demo of conservation of matter, See
Screen 4.3.
2HgO(s) ---> 2 Hg(liq) + O
2
(g)
Lavoisier, 1788
Balancing
Equations
____C
3
H
8
(g) + _____ O
2
(g) ---->

_____CO
2
(g) + _____ H
2
O(g)
____B
4
H
10
(g) + _____ O
2
(g) ---->

___ B
2
O
3
(g) + _____ H
2
O(g)
STOICHIOMETRY
- the study of the
quantitative aspects of
chemical reactions.
PROBLEM: If 454 g of NH
4
NO
3
decomposes, how much N
2
O
and H
2
O are formed? What is the theoretical yield of
products?
STEP 1
Write the balanced chemical
equation
NH
4
NO
3
---> N
2
O + 2 H
2
O
454 g of NH
4
NO
3
--> N
2
O + 2 H
2
O
STEP 2 Convert mass reactant
(454 g) --> moles
454 g
1 mol
80.04 g
= 5.68 mol NH
4
NO
3
STEP 3 Convert moles reactant
(5.68 mol) --> moles product

454 g of NH
4
NO
3
--> N
2
O + 2 H
2
O
STEP 3 Convert moles reactant --> moles product
Relate moles NH
4
NO
3
to moles product expected.
1 mol NH
4
NO
3
--> 2 mol H
2
O
Express this relation as the STOICHIOMETRIC
FACTOR.

2 mol H
2
O produced
1 mol NH
4
NO
3
used
5.68 mol NH
4
NO
3

2 mol H
2
O produced
1 mol NH
4
NO
3
used
= 11.4 mol H
2
O produced
454 g of NH
4
NO
3
--> N
2
O + 2 H
2
O
11.4 mol H
2
O
18.02 g
1 mol
= 204 g H
2
O
STEP 4 Convert moles product
(11.4 mol) --> mass product
Called the THEORETICAL YIELD
ALWAYS FOLLOW THESE STEPS IN
SOLVING STOICHIOMETRY PROBLEMS!
Reactions Involving a
LIMITING REACTANT
In a given reaction, there is not enough of one
reagent to use up the other reagent completely.
The reagent in short supply LIMITS the
quantity of product that can be formed.
An ice cream sundae analogy for limiting reactants.
LIMITING REACTANTS
Demo of limiting reactants
Methanol combustion
Rxn 1: Balloon inflates fully, some Zn left
* More than enough Zn to use up the 0.100 mol HCl

Rxn 2: Balloon inflates fully, no Zn left
* Right amount of each (HCl and Zn)
Rxn 3: Balloon does not inflate fully, no Zn left.
* Not enough Zn to use up 0.100 mol HCl
LIMITING REACTANTS
React solid Zn with 0.100
mol HCl (aq)
Zn + 2 HCl ---> ZnCl
2
+ H
2
1 2 3
Rxn 1 Rxn 2 Rxn 3
mass Zn (g) 7.00 3.27 1.31
mol Zn 0.107 0.050 0.020
mol HCl 0.100 0.100 0.100
mol HCl/mol Zn 0.93/1 2.00/1 5.00/1
Lim Reactant LR = HCl no LR LR = Zn
LIMITING REACTANTS
React solid Zn with 0.100 mol
HCl (aq)
Zn + 2 HCl ---> ZnCl
2
+ H
2
0.10 mol HCl [1 mol Zn/2 mol HCl]
= 0.050 mol Zn
PROBLEM: Mix 5.40 g of Al with
8.10 g of Cl
2
. What mass of Al
2
Cl
6
can form?
Mass
reactant
Stoichiometric
factor
Moles
reactant
Moles
product
Mass
product
Step 1 of LR problem:
compare actual mole ratio
of reactants to
theoretical mole ratio.
2 Al + 3 Cl
2
--->
Al
2
Cl
6
Reactants must be in the mole ratio
Step 1 of LR problem:
compare actual mole ratio of
reactants to theoretical
mole ratio.
mol Cl
2
mol Al
=
3
2
Deciding on the Limiting Reactant
If
There is not enough Al to use up all
the Cl
2

2 Al + 3 Cl
2
---> Al
2
Cl
6
mol Cl
2
mol Al
>
3
2
Lim reag = Al
If
There is not enough Cl
2
to use
up all the Al

2 Al + 3 Cl
2
---> Al
2
Cl
6
mol Cl
2
mol Al
<
3
2
Lim reag = Cl
2

Deciding on the Limiting Reactant
We have 5.40 g of Al and 8.10 g of Cl
2
Step 2 of LR problem: Calculate moles of
each reactant
5.40 g Al
1 mol
27.0 g
= 0.200 mol Al
8.10 g Cl
2

1 mol
70.9 g
= 0.114 mol Cl
2
Mix 5.40 g of Al with 8.10 g of Cl
2
. What mass of Al
2
Cl
6
can
form?
Limiting reactant = Cl
2

Base all calcs. on Cl
2
moles
Cl
2
moles
Al
2
Cl
6
mass
Cl
2
mass
Al
2
Cl
6
1 mol Al
2
Cl
6
3 mol Cl
2
2 Al + 3 Cl
2
---> Al
2
Cl
6

CALCULATIONS: calculate mass of
Al
2
Cl
6
expected.
Step 1: Calculate moles of Al
2
Cl
6

expected based on LR.
0.114 mol Cl
2

1 mol Al
2
Cl
6
3 mol Cl
2
= 0.0380 mol Al
2
Cl
6
0.0380 mol Al
2
Cl
6

266.4 g Al
2
Cl
6
mol
= 10.1 g Al
2
Cl
6
Step 2: Calculate mass of Al
2
Cl
6
expected
based on LR.
Cl
2
was the limiting reactant.
Therefore, Al was present in
excess. But how much?
First find how much Al was required.
Then find how much Al

is in excess.
How much of which reactant will
remain when reaction is complete?
2 Al + 3 Cl
2
products
0.200 mol 0.114 mol = LR
Calculating Excess Al
Excess Al = Al available - Al required
0.114 mol Cl
2

2 mol Al
3 mol Cl
2
= 0.0760 mol Al req' d
= 0.200 mol - 0.0760 mol
= 0.124 mol Al in excess
Determining the Formula of a Hydrocarbon
by Combustion
Active Figure 4.9
Using Stoichiometry to
Determine a Formula
Burn 0.115 g of a hydrocarbon, C
x
H
y
, and produce 0.379 g
of CO
2
and 0.1035 g of H
2
O.
C
x
H
y
+ some oxygen --->
0.379 g CO
2
+ 0.1035 g H
2
O
What is the empirical formula of C
x
H
y
?
Using Stoichiometry to
Determine a Formula
First, recognize that all C in CO
2
and all H in H
2
O is from
C
x
H
y
.
C
x
H
y
+ some oxygen --->
0.379 g CO
2
+ 0.1035 g H
2
O
Puddle of C
x
H
y

0.115 g
0.379 g CO
2

+O
2

+O
2

0.1035 g H
2
O
1 H
2
O molecule forms for
each 2 H atoms in C
x
H
y
1 CO
2
molecule forms for
each C atom in C
x
H
y
Using Stoichiometry to
Determine a Formula
First, recognize that all C in CO
2
and all H in H
2
O is from C
x
H
y
.
1. Calculate amount of C in CO
2

8.61 x 10
-3
mol CO
2
--> 8.61 x 10
-3
mol C
2. Calculate amount of H in H
2
O
5.744 x 10
-3
mol H
2
O -- >1.149 x 10
-2
mol H
C
x
H
y
+ some oxygen --->
0.379 g CO
2
+ 0.1035 g H
2
O
Using Stoichiometry to
Determine a Formula
Now find ratio of mol H/mol C to find values of x and y in C
x
H
y
.
1.149 x 10
-2
mol H/ 8.61 x 10
-3
mol C
= 1.33 mol H / 1.00 mol C
= 4 mol H / 3 mol C
Empirical formula = C
3
H
4

C
x
H
y
+ some oxygen --->
0.379 g CO
2
+ 0.1035 g H
2
O