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REPORT WRITING

OBJECTIVE
After completing this lesson, yo shol! "e #"le to$
%& Apply the pers#si'e, !irect, #n! in!irect #ppro#ches to (riting reports
)& E*pl#in the '#rios org#ni+#tion#l p#tterns th#t c#n "e se! in (riting reports
,& Prep#re #n inform#l letter report
-& Prep#re # form#l rese#rch report
.& /se 'is#ls in # report
REPORT0
Reports #re essenti#l p#rt of the commnic#tion process 1 ths they #re critic#l to m#n#gement !ecision
m#2ing& Goo! reports !o their 3o" 4ic2ly #n! effecti'ely& They commnic#te f#cts #n! i!e#s cle#rly #n!
logic#lly sing str#ightfor(#r! l#ng#ge so th#t re#!ers c#n effortlessly n!erst#n! (h#t is (ritten& On
the other h#n!, poor reports #re '#ge, (or!y, fll of 3#rgon, #n! !ifficlt to n!erst#n!, #n! they #re
often ignore! "ec#se they cont#in ncon'incing inform#tion& Bsiness c#nnot #ffor! the e*pense of
ineffecti'e reports& 5e'eloping effecti'e report (riting s2ills is therefore, 'ery import#nt to yor sccess
in "siness&
APPROAC6E0 IN WRITING A REPORT
Pers#si'e Appro#ch
The (riter mst prep#re # report th#t mst con'ince the re#!er to !o something #"ot (hich the re#!er
m#y feel positi'e, neg#ti'e, or in!ifferent& This is c#lle! the pers#si'e #ppro#ch& 7o c#n se the
pers#si'e #ppro#ch to (riting 3st #s effecti'ely (hen (riting reports #s (hen (riting other types of
commnic#tion 1 the AI5A 8O5E9
Attention 1 promise or imply some "enefits, re(#r! or #!'#nt#ge for the recei'er, e&g& !o yo nee! #
rel#*ing, effortless '#c#tion in the ne#r ftre:
Interest !escri"e ho( the recommen!#tion, pro!ct or ser'ice (ol! "enefit the recei'er, e&g& #fter #
h#r! !#y;s (or2, im#gine ho( gre#t yo (ill feel rel#*ing in or <Rel#tionic= recliner&
Desire pro'i!e physic#l !et#ils of yor pro!ct or ser'ice, sch #s !imensions, m#teri#ls, colors,
speci#l fe#tres #n! specifics #"ot the g#r#ntee, m#inten#nce, #n! so on&
Action - #s2s the recei'er to t#2e imme!i#te #ction, e&g& enclose! is #n #!!resses, st#mpe! en'elope for
yor prompt response to the sr'ey
5irect Appro#ch
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When yo present the prpose of yor report #t the "eginning, yo #re sing the !irect #ppro#ch& This
#ppro#ch is se! (hen yo thin2 the re#!er (ill recei'e the inform#tion positi'ely& With this #ppro#ch,
yo shol! "egin (ith$
#> Intro!ction s#lly sing the m#in point in the first sentence
"> ?ollo( the st#tement of the prpose (ith #n e*pl#n#tion of the f#cts #n!
c> En! (ith # smm#ry
In!irect Appro#ch
When yo sspect the re#!er might "e in!ifferent or e'en neg#ti'e, to the inform#tion yo #re presenting,
yo mst l#y gron!@(or2 first& In # report, this gron!(or2 incl!es !et#ils th#t cre#te # Ahoo2; to
stiml#te interest so the re#!er (ill contine re#!ing& When yo present yor conclsions #n!
recommen!#tions #t the en! of yor report, #fter gi'ing the re#!er the re#sons for them, yo #re follo(ing
the in!irect #ppro#ch&
ORGANI0ATIONA9 PATTERN0 ?OR REPORT0
#> Comp#re@ #n! 1 Contr#st P#ttern
This p#ttern ses the in!irect #ppro#ch, t(o or more elements #re comp#re! for simil#rities or
contr#ste! for !ifferences$
(Two items compared) @ T(o (or2shops #re #'#il#"le for tr#ining 1 ABetter Gr#mm#r 02ills; "y
02illp#th #n! A!e'eloping 7or Gr#mm#r 02ills; "y the Americ#n 8#n#gement #ssoci#tion&
(Item I )- ABetter Gr#mm#r 02ills; is # one@!#y (or2shop th#t re'ie(s gr#mm#r rles i!entifie!
#s those most often se!& A short session on (riting principles is #lso incl!e!& The cost is BCC
per session
(Item 2) 5e'eloping 7or Gr#mm#r 02ills; "y the Americ#n Associ#tion is # one@!#y (or2sop
th#t pro'i!es one@h#lf !#y on gr#mm#r #n! one@h#lf !#y on (riting principles& The cost is BDC per
employee&
(Recommendation) 1 #lthogh the (or2shop "y the Americ#n 8#n#gement Associ#tion is less
e*pensi'e, the gre#test pro"lem or employees #re h#'ing is (ith gr#mm#r& 8y recommen!#tions
is th#t or employees #tten! the A Better Gr#mm#r 02ill; (or2shop "y 02illp#th "ec#se it offers
more in@!epth re'ie( of gr#mm#r&
"> Jorn#listic Pattern
This p#ttern, (hich ses !irect #ppro#ch, con!enses into short p#r#gr#phs the #ns(ers to the si*
most common 4estions$ (hoE (h#tE (h#tE (hereE (henE ho(E #n! (hy&
(Main idea) @ An import#nt recommen!#tion of the 0econ! 6oo'er Commission (#s th#t # style
"o#r! "e cre#te! to st#n!#r!i+e style pr#ctices in go'ernment correspon!ence
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(Who)- To comply (ith this recommen!#tion, the gener#l 0er'ices #!ministr#tion, in
(What) cooper#tion (ith the Bre# of the B!get, coor!in#te! the !e'elopment of #
go'ernment@(i!e correspon!ence m#n#l&
(When) (Where) entire pro3ect (#s "egn in %C.F #n! (#s complete! in l#te %CGH in Accr#,
Gh#n#
(How) A (or2ing committee representing )% #gencies (#s responsi"le for !r#fting the m#n#l&
The committee ser'e! n!er the !irection of #n #!'isory "o#r! !r#(n from the l#rge !ep#rtments
#n! #gencies
(Why) in !e'eloping the m#n#l, the #!'isory "o#r! #n! the (or2ing committee soght to
#chie'e the follo(ing o"3ecti'es$
I) Pro'i!e # niform correspon!ence style m#n#l for the go'ernment
ii> Elimin#te time #n! cost e*pen!e! in prep#ring in!i'i!#l #gency m#n#ls
iii> 8inimise tr#ining time for cleric#l personnel
Conclusion- As # reslt of the corpor#ti'e effort, the st#n!#r!s !escri"e! in the m#n#l #re #
composite of goo! pr#ctices se! in m#ny #gencies& 8ost #gencies c#n #!opt pr#ctices (ith only
minor ch#nges in their present metho!s.
Cause-and effect Pattern
In this p#ttern, (hich #lso ses the !irect #ppro#ch, the (riter presents the re#sons th#t spport his or her
'ie( or opinion&
(Point of View) @ 0hol! the compters in the #cconting 5ep#rtment "e p!#te! to Pentinm %% mo!el
compters: 7es, I recommen! the compters "e p!#te! to Pentinm %%s&
(Reason 1 >@ At the present (e h#'e .HH compters (ith GG86+ spee!& We #re still sing 80 5O0
oper#ting system& Bec#se of the si+e of or #cconting compter soft(#re progr#mmes, it often t#2es
se'er#l mintes for comm#n!s to "e complete!, files to "e printe! or s#'e!, or the system to respon! in
other (#ys&
(Reasons 2)- The comp#ny (ill "e pgr#!ing to the l#test rele#se of Win!o(s& Or present system (ill
cst spport this l#test rele#se nor the ne(est 'ersion of or #cconting soft(#re& 8#n#gement h#s
gr#nte! #ppro'#l to p!#te these ne( 'ersions&
(Reason 3) @ The Compter 0er'ices 5ep#rtment (ill no longer spport # 5O0@"#se! system&
(Conclusion) 1 0ince (e (ill not "e #"le to contine or #cconting fnction #t its present le'el, the
compter e4ipment in the #cconting !ep#rtment shol! "e pgr#!e! to Pentinm %% mo!els&
Other Oranisational Patterns
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0t!y the follo(ing #!!ition#l p#tterns, (hich (ill help (rite logic#l, cle#rly presente! reports&
P#ttern E*pl#n#tion
Time Arr#nge !et#ils (ith respect to time$ from p#st to the
present, from the present to the p#st, or from the present
to the ftre& Present yor m#in i!e#s first, follo( it
(ith the e'ents #s they h#ppene! or (ill h#ppen, #n!
en! (ith # conclsion&
In!irect #ppro#ch
Enmer#tion 9ist sep#r#te !et#ils or e*pl#in # gener#li+#tion&
Begin (ith the m#in i!e# follo(e! "y #ny necess#ry
!et#ils&
5irect Appro#ch
0pecific Inst#nce This p#ttern illstr#tes the m#in i!e# "y telling #n
#nec!ote or !escri"ing #n inci!ent or e'ent& Begin (ith the
m#in i!e#, follo( it (ith the #nec!ote or !escription of #n i!e#
or e'ent or e'ent, #n! en! (ith # conclsion&
In!irect Appro#ch
Neg#ti'e 5et#il This p#ttern elimin#tes #ll "t one of the se'er#l possi"le
soltions to # pro"lem "y sho(ing ho( the others !o not
#pply& Present the m#in i!e#, follo( it (ith the soltions th#t
h#'e "een elimin#te! Ile#'ing the recommen!e! soltion>, #n!
en! (ith # conclsion&
In!irect Appro#ch
G/I5E9INE0 ?OR WRITING A REPORT
When (riting # report, yo shol! follo( #ll the principles of effecti'e (riting& In #!!ition, here #re
some specific gi!elines for report (riting$
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Jno( yor specific prpose "efore yo "egin (riting
T#2e !et#ile!, (ell@org#nise!, cle#rly (ritten notes
Pl#n #he#!$ h#'e #ll yor inform#tion g#there! "efore yo "eginE h#'e # thorogh n!erst#n!ing
of the inform#tion&
Write #n otline #n! stic2 to it&
?ocs on #ccr#te, '#li! f#cts
Be consistent in the form#t selecte!&
Jeep the #!ience in min!$ "e emph#tic$ #nticip#te the re#!ers; response&
A!#pt yor (riting style to fit the p#rticl#r sit#tion
Be complete$ incl!e e'erything yor re#!er nee!s to 2no(; yet #'oi! nnecess#ry, minte
!et#ils&
5e'elop coherence$ i!e#s shol! follo( # logic#l se4ence&
Write in # positi'e tone&
V#ry sentence length #n! 2eep sentences ncomplic#te!&
Incl!e only one m#in i!e# per p#r#gr#ph
Jeep s"3ects #n! 'er"s close together
8#2e se of tr#nsition#l Iconnecting> !e'ices #n! topic sentences&
O"ser'e proper mech#nics sch #s spelling, pnct#tion, #n! c#pit#li+#tion&
WRTING 9ETTER REPORT0
0hort letter reports #re # 4ic2 #n! e#sy (#y of sen!ing reports to "oth insi!e #n! otsi!e the comp#ny&
The style is simil#r to # typic#l letter in th#t it is s#lly single sp#ce! on org#ni+#tion#l letter he#! #n!
cont#ins st#n!#r! he#!ings for secon! #n! sccee!ing p#ges& The letter report !iffers from the or!in#ry
letter in th#t it is gener#lly longer 1 %H p#ges: 0i!e #n! p#r#gr#ph he#!ings #re se! to intro!ce topics
4ic2ly #n! specific#lly&
The follo(ing m#y "e incl!e! in # letter report$
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5#te, insi!e #!!ress, s#lt#tion, si!e he#!ing Ioption#l>, p#r#gr#ph he#!ing Ioption#l> secon!@ #n!
sccee!ing@p#ge he#!ings, #n! closing complement#ry&
WRITING ?OR8A9 REPORT0
The form#l report is #ppropri#te for "oth e*tern#l #n! intern#l se
?orm#l reports #re se! for se'er#l prposes, incl!ing
Presenting !#t# on # speci#li+e! s"3ect
Attempting to fin! the c#ses n!erlying # pro"lem
Attempting to fin! (hether or not # pro"lem re#lly e*ists
An#ly+ing possi"le soltions to # p#rticl#r pro"lem
Prep#ring #n otline
I& CO8PANIE0 TO CONTACT
A& Type "y pro!ct
B& 0i+e
C& Nm"er
II& JIN50 O? CO8P/TER0 /0E5
A 8#infr#me
B Person#l Compters
%& IB8
)& IB8 1 comp#ti"le
,& 8#cintosh
-& Port#"le
III& T7PE0 O? CO8P/TER APP9ICATION0 /0E5
A& Wor! processing
B& 5#t#"#se
C& 0pre#!sheet
5& Present#tion
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E& Gr#phics
?& We" p#ge !e'elopment
G& 5es2top p"lishing
IV& 0JI990 REK/IRE5
A& Jey"o#r!ing
B& Progr#mming
C& Acconting
5& Writing
E. Other
G#thering Inform#tion for Rese#rch Reports
i& 0econ!#ry Rese#rch
ii. Prim#ry Rese#rch
5ocmenting Inform#tion
i& Cit#tions
ii& En!notes
iii& ?ootnotes
PART0 O? A ?OR8A9 REPORT
Title p#ge
T#"le of Contents
9etter or memo of #thori+#tion or tr#nsmitt#l
E*ecti'e 0mm#ry
Bo!y
o Intro!ction
o ?in!ings
o Conclsions #n! Recommen!#tion
Appen!i*, if #pplic#"le Im#y #lso "e pl#ce! #fter the Bi"liogr#phy
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Wor2s Cite! or References
Bi"liogr#phy
Bo!y of the Report
Intro!ction
5efining the prpose
e&g&
o to !etermine (h#t compter h#r!(#re configr#tions loc#l comp#nies se
o to !etermine (h#t soft(#re loc#l comp#nies crrently se
o to !etermine (h#t compter s2ills loc#l comp#nies re4ire for entry@le'el positions
o to en#"le the f#clty to m#2e !ecisions for prch#sing compter e4ipment #n! h#r!(#re&
o To en#"le the f#clty to !esign corse #ron! the nee!s of employers in the Accr# 8etropolit#n
Are#
5efining the 0cope #n! 9imit#tions
0ch # rese#rch c#n t#2e m#ny (ee2s to collect inform#tion, so "e c#refl not to select # topic th#t is too
l#rge in scope, so yo c#n h#n!le efficiently&
e&g& This in'estig#tion is limite! to comp#nies th#t employ %HH or more employees in the Accr#
8etropolit#n Are#&
E*pl#ining the Proce!re
5escri"e the metho!s th#t yo (ill se to g#ther the !#t# #n! #n#lyse it e&g&
The n#mes #n! #!!resses of the comp#nies th#t employe! one hn!re! or more employees (ere
prch#se! from the Gh#n# Ch#m"er of Commerce #n! In!stry&
8etho!ology
This report shol! pro'i!e the re#!er (ith # !et#ile! proce!res se!, @ ho( the !#t# (#s collecte!, "y
(h#t me#ns it (#s collecte! e&g& ?ocs Grop , intensi'e Inter'ie(ing, Content #n#lysis, Person#l
O"ser'#tion, Kestionn#ire, 0r'eys, E*periments, etc@ #long (ith #n #n#lysis of the !#t#, etc&
?in!ings
?ollo(ing the metho!ology in the report is #n e*pl#n#tion of the !et#ile! fin!ings& 7o c#n se
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o t#"les,
o gr#phs,
o ch#rt
o photogr#ph
o illstr#tions, etc& to report yor fin!ings&
Conclsions #n! recommen!#tions
/s#lly this section this section is consi!ere! to "e the most import#nt p#rt of the report& In the
Conclsion #n! Recommen!#tions the reslts of the report (ill #ppe#r& The conclsions tell the re#!er,
"#se! pon the !#t# collecte! #n! #n#lyse!, (h#t the reslts me#n&
R!POR"I#$
The Title P#ge
The title p#ge incl!es the complete title p#ge, the n#me #n! title of the #thor, the n#me #n! title of the
person for (hom the report is prep#re!, #n! the report is s"mitte!&
T#"le of Content
7o shol! prep#re the t#"le of content #fter the report is complete!, so yo (ill 2no( ho( m#ny p#ges
#re in the report #n! (h#t p#rt of the report is on (h#t p#ge&
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