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Evaluation of foreign degrees and

qualications in the Netherlands


Country
module
Romania
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Information about the structure of the education system of Romania and
the evaluation of degrees obtained in Romania.





International Recognition Department
2012 Nuffic, The Hague


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Evaluation chart

In the following chart, the left part lists foreign qualifications with corresponding levels in the EHEA and
European qualification frameworks. The right part lists the Dutch comparisons, with
corresponding levels in the Netherlands and European qualification frameworks.

Degree or qualification and
EHEA-QF level

EQF
level
Dutch equivalent and NLQF
level
EQF
level
Diploma de absolvire a scolii
profesionale/ Diploma de
absolvire a scoli de ucenici

MBO diploma (qualification level 1
or 2)

1/2 1/2
Certificat de absolvire a scolii
post-liceale

MBO diploma (qualification level 3
or 4)

3/4 3/4
Certificat de absolvire a
liceului

at least 4 years of HAVO





Diploma de Bacalaureat
(obtained before 2005)

HAVO diploma 4 4
Diploma de Bacalaureat
(obtained since 2005)

VWO diploma* 4+ 4
Diploma de absolvire
(University college)

3 years of HBO 6 6
Diploma de Licen
(5 to 6 years)

(at least) a WO bachelors degree

6 6
Diploma de Licen
(4 years)

HBO bachelors degree or 2 years
of WO

6 6
Diploma de Licen (Ciclul I)
(3 years, obtained after 2005)

1
st
6 HBO or WO bachelors degree 6 6
Diploma de Licen
(5 to 6 years, obtained after
2005 in the field of medicine)

1
st
6 WO or HBO masters degree 7 7
Diploma de Studii
aprofundate
(1 to 3 semesters)

1
st
6 WO or HBO masters degree 7 7
Diploma de studii academice
postuniversitare
(2 to 4 semesters)

2
nd
7 WO or HBO masters degree 7 7
Diploma de Master
(1 to 2 years)

2
nd
7 WO or HBO masters degree 7 7
Diploma de Master (Ciclul II)
(1 to 2 years, obtained after
2005)

2
nd
7 WO or HBO masters degree 7 7
Diploma de studii
postuniversitare de
2
nd
7 WO or HBO masters degree 7 7
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specializare
(at least 1 year)

Certificat de Absolvire
(cursuri de perfectionare
postuniversitare)

2
nd
7 WO or HBO masters degree 7 7

NB

* The evaluation of this degree has been changed compared to version 2, October 2011.

- The information provided in the table is a general recommendation from which no rights may
be derived.
- NLQF = Netherlands Qualifications Framework. EQF = European Qualifications Framework
- The information provided in the table is a general recommendation from which no rights may
be derived.
- Information on the Dutch equivalent qualifications is available in our Netherlands Country
Module. See: www.nuffic.nl/international-organizations/docs/diploma-recognition/country-
modules/country-module-netherlands.pdf
- The information regarding international study programmes at VMBO and MBO level is issued
by SBB, the foundation for Cooperation on Vocational Education, Training and the Labour
Market.

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Introduction
Since 1990, Romania has been a parliamentary republic, with a president as head of state. From 1965
until late 1989, Romania was a socialist state under the rule of Nicolae Ceauescu. After the fall of
Ceauescu, the country entered a transition period whose goals included the realization of a free
market economy, membership of the European Union and educational reforms.

In the 1990s, the education system was reformed and many educational laws were created. First of all,
in 1990 there was the Interim Education Decree, a transitional law that set the period of compulsory
education at 7 years, once again allowed the existence of private institutions and urged a new
accreditation system. In 1993, the Law on the Accreditation of Higher Education Institutions and the
Recognition of Diploma no. 88/1993 was passed, followed by the Law on Education no. 84/1995,
including amendments that were implemented during this period. In 2004, the Lege nr. 288/2004
Privind Organizarea Studiilor Universitare was passed, which reformed higher education and adapted
it to the Bologna Process by dividing it into the three stages of Bachelor, Master and Doctor.

Political responsibility for the education system is in the hands of the Ministry of Education, whose
name has changed regularly over the course of time. In the 1980s, the ministry was called the
Ministerul Educatiei si Invatamintului (Ministry of Education and Training); in the 1990s, Ministerul
Invatamintului si Stiintei (Ministry of Education and Science), subsequently the Ministerul
Invatamantului (Ministry of Education), then the Ministerul Educatiei Nationale (Ministry of National
Education), Ministerul Educatiei, Cercetarii si Tineretului (Ministry of Education, Research and Youth)
and Ministerul Educatiei, Cercetarii i Inovrii (Ministry of Education, Research and Inovation). The
current name is the Ministerul Educatiei, Cercetarii, Tineretului i Sportului (Ministry of Education,
Research, Youth and Sports).

Romania has a unitary system of higher education, in which the same institution can provide both
academic and professional programmes. During the communist period, the education system was
centrally organized. In order to further develop the economy, emphasis was placed on technical
programmes. The curricula also contained a component of subjects that educated students about
communist philosophy. Institutes were highly specialized, and private education was forbidden.
Education institutions were given greater autonomy in the early 1990s, and distance was created from
the communist period by means of new legislation, adjusted curricula, a decrease in the number of
technical programmes, and the allowance of private education institutions. Until 2005, the Romanian
higher education system had three types of education programmes, namely: short-term programmes,
long-term programmes, and postgraduate programmes. The bachelors-masters degree structure was
introduced in the 2005/2006 academic year.

In March 2011, the Romanian Minister of Education, Research, Youth and Sports has announced a
radical reform in higher education. The European University Association (EUA) has been asked to
assist in this matter. The reform, which will affect the whole higher education field, implies that all
universities will be categorized in three categories: 1) research intensive, (2) teaching and research
oriented en (3) mainly teaching institutions. During the first phase all higher education institutions will
be asked to self-evaluate and to propose the category they feel they should be placed in.

The official language of education is Romanian, although programmes are also provided in Hungarian
and German (for small minorities that speak these languages), and sometimes also in French and
English.

Since 2003, compulsory education has been set at 10 years (Forms I-X), for pupils up to 18 years of
age. Compulsory education is free. Senior secondary and higher education are subsidized by public
funding, although some institutions are able to pass on some costs to students, such as examination
or school fees.

The academic year runs from September/October until June, covers 34 to 36 weeks and is divided into
semesters of 17 to 18 weeks.

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Primary and secondary education

Primary education
Primary education (invatamantul primar) lasts 4 years in Romania (Forms I-IV), and is intended for
pupils aged 6/7 to 10/11. This type of education is provided at a scoala primara.

Secondary education
Junior secondary education (invatatamantul gimnazial, secundar inferior, often translated as middle
education) also lasts 4 years (Forms V-VIII) and is provided at a gimnaziu for pupils aged 11-15 years.
Until 2004, pupils who completed Form VIII were awarded the Certificat de Capacitate, issued upon
completion of a national final examination (called the examen de capacitate), from 2004 onwards
known as the Test National de Cunostinte.
Until 1999, this certificate was known as the Certificat de absolvire a invatamintului de 8 ani (certificate
of completion of 8 years of education). Following completion of an entrance examination, pupils can
choose to continue on to senior secondary education in either the general track or the vocational track.
Those who do not pass the national final examination automatically go on to the vocational track.

Admission to senior secondary education is granted based on the mark (nota) for the national Form
VIII thesis (Tezele nationale unice), and on a yearly average across Forms V-VIII.

Senior general secondary education (Forms IX-XII) has two levels: invatamantul liceal (middle
secondary) and secundar superior (senior secondary). If the programme is taken as evening classes, it
lasts for 1 additional year (Form XIII). The programme is divided into:
- theoretical secondary education with a nominal duration of 4 years, in which pupils can choose
between the two subject clusters of umanist (humanities) and real (sciences), with the following
specialization options: matematica-fizica (mathematics physics), filologie (literature), istorie-
stiinte sociale (history-social sciences), informatica (computer technology), and limbi straine
(foreign languages). Every cluster offers the opportunity for further specialization.
- technical secondary education, which also lasts 4 years and has the following subject clusters:
technology, the service industry, environmental protection, and management of natural resources.
- secondary vocational education with a nominal duration of 4 to 5 years, with the following subject
clusters: military, theology, sport, art and education.

Pupils who have completed these programmes can take a national final examination (examenul de
bacalaureat) in order to obtain their Diploma de Bacalaureat, which grants admission to the entrance
examinations of higher education institutions. To pass the examenul de bacalaureat, pupils must
obtain a total average mark of at least 6, with no mark lower than 5 for any subject.
In 2004, the higher education system has been changed and the bachelors-masters degree structure
has been introduced the following academic year. .Romanias entry into the European Union in 2007
has lead to a reform of the secondary education system which, as far as possible, has been equalized
to the surrounding European countries. As a consequence the evaluation of this diploma has been
changed.

In terms of level, the Diploma de Bacalaureat, obtained before 2005, is comparable to a HAVO
diploma in the Netherlands.

In terms of level, the Diploma de Bacalaureat, obtained since 2005, is comparable to a VWO diploma
in the Netherlands.

Pupils who do not sit or pass the Diploma de Bacalaureat exam can apply for the Certificat de
absolvire a liceului (Certificate of secondary school completion). Although this certificate does not
grant access to higher education, it does provide entry to post-secondary education and the labour
market. Pupils of technical and secondary vocational programmes can also sit the examen de
certificare, and be awarded the Certificat de competente profesionale.

In terms of level, the Certificat de absolvire a liceului is comparable to at least 4 years of HAVO in the
Netherlands.

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Secondary vocational education

Situation until 2003
Until 2003, secondary vocational education (invatamantul profesional) was provided by scoli
profesionale (secondary vocational schools) in programmes lasting 2 to 3 years intended for pupils
aged 15-18, and at scoli de ucenici (apprenticeship schools) offering 2-year programmes.

Admission to scoli profesionale was granted based on a Certificat de Capacitate, low grades and a
test. After completion of the Scoli profesionale programmes, pupils were awarded the Diploma de
absolvire a scolii profesionale (Diploma of completion of vocational school).

Scoli de ucenici did require an entrance examination, yet a Certificat de Capacitate was not required.
Upon completion of a scoli de ucenici programme, pupils received a Certificat de absolvire a scolii de
ucenici.

In terms of level, the Diploma de absolvire a scolii profesionale/Diploma de absolvire a scoli de ucenici
is comparable in the Netherlands to an MBO diploma at qualification level 1 or 2, depending on the
duration and the specialization of the programme.

Completion of a 3-year secondary vocational programme and a Diploma de absolvire a scolii
profesionale gave pupils access to the an complementar: a 1-year continuation of upper secondary
education, and therefore the opportunity to obtain their Diploma de Bacalaureat.

Neither the Diploma de absolvire a scolii profesionale nor the Diploma de absolvire a scolii de ucenici
grant access to the entrance examinations for higher education.

Situation from 2003 onwards
Since 2003, secondary vocational education has been provided by Scoala de arte si meserii (craft and
trade schools), and qualification levels have been applied. An overview of the Scoala de arte si meserii
is available on the Ministry of Education website. See under Addresses. These are 2-year vocational
programmes with a major practical focus. At the end of the programme, students are awarded the
Certificat de absolvire. Students can also obtain a Certificat de calificare profesionala nivel I once they
have passed their examen de certificare. Further junior secondary education study is possible upon
completion of an additional year (an de completare), at the end of which pupils are awarded a
Certificat de absolvire. Students can also sit an examen de certificare to obtain their Certificat de
calificare profesionala nivel II. After completion of senior secondary education (Forms XI and XII),
pupils are eligible to take the national examen de bacalaureat and the examen de certificare a
competentelor profesionale. Students who pass both examinations are awarded both the Diploma de
Bacalaureat and the Certificat de calificare profesionala de nivel III.

Admission to the Scoala de arte si meserii is granted based on the general mark (nota) obtained in the
Test nationale cunostinte, and the annual average of the marks obtained during Form V-VIII.

Post-secondary education
In Romania, post-secondary education (invatamant postliceal) is categorized as pre-university
education. Post-secondary programmes have a nominal duration of 1 to 3 years, and are provided at
Scoli de specializare postliceala (specialized postsecondary schools) and Scoli de Maistri. At the end
of the programme, the Certificat de absolvire a scolii post-liceale (de specialitate) is awarded. Lyceum
graduates are eligible for admission upon completion of an entrance test (concurs); a Diploma de
Bacalaureat is not mandatory. The programmes are intended as final courses of study, preparing
pupils for the labour market.

The Certificat de absolvire a scolii postliceale does not grant access to higher education.

In terms of level, the Certificat de absolvire a scolii post-liceale is comparable in the Netherlands to an
MBO diploma at qualification level 3 or 4, depending on the duration and the specialization of the
programme.

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Admission to higher education
Admission to higher education institutions is based on Concurs de dosare, the evaluation of the
Diploma de Bacalaureat with an average mark of at least 6.
In addition to a Diploma de Bacalaureat with an average mark of at least 6, an university can require
students to take a competitive entrance examination, the Examen de Admitere. This examination must
be passed in at least two, sometimes in three subjects, depending on the students chosen
specialization. An interview may also be part of the admission process. The final decision is made by
the institution.

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Higher education

Higher education has undergone many changes since 1990. Many private institutions have opened
their doors, especially in the capital city of Bucharest, due to the state-run education system not being
able to cope with the increased demand for education once admission quotas were increased. State
institutions also opened additional locations in other cities. All institutions for junior engineers (institutul
de subingineri) that had provided 3-year technical (teacher-training) programmes leading to the
Diploma de Subinginer, were awarded university status by the government. These institutions include
the Universitatea din Bacau, Universitatea Eftimie Murgu din Resita, Universitatea din Oradea,
Universitatea din Pitesti, Universitatea Stefan cel Mare, din Suceava and the Universitatea Tehnica din
Tirgu Mures.

Technical specializations, which were considered so important during the communist regime to create
an industrialized society, became less popular and a wider range of new specializations appeared,
including programmes in economics, sociology and philology. Decentralization of education with
greater autonomy for institutions was also a focus in the new legislation, as were improvements to the
quality of education. As a result, a new accreditation body was established and new quality standards
were applied. When the private institutions opened their doors in the early 1990s, legislation had not
yet caught up. With the establishment of the new quality assurance criteria in 2002, 14 private
institutions were forced to cease their activities, given that they were unable to comply with the
accreditation requirements.

Before the start of the Bologna Process in Romania, higher education was provided at universities,
institutes, academies and university colleges. Previously education had always been strongly
centralized, with standard curricula that placed a large emphasis on memorization of facts. Creativity
and problem-solving were considered to be less relevant. Nowadays, the principle of university
autonomy is widespread and every university has its own University Chart. The law states that
everybody must have access to higher education, that politics or ideology must have no influence on
education and that institutions need more autonomy and must be able to choose their own
programmes, research activities, curricula and staff.

In 2009 higher education was provided by 56 state institutions and by 28 recognized and accredited
private institutions. The private institutions provide one third of all available higher education, and
focus particularly on professionally-oriented programmes in the fields of economy, management,
philology, theology and law. Private institutions are financed primarily through tuition fees and funding
by sponsors.

Higher education is unitary in character one institution can provide both academic and professional
programmes. Programmes can be taken in various ways: full-time (invatamant de zi), part-time
(invatamant cu frecventa redusa), through daytime or evening classes (invatamant seral) or via
distance education (invatamant la distanta). Study programmes taken as evening classes or distance
education can take an extra year to complete.

Romanian higher education has four types of programmes:
- short-term programmes (invatamant universitar de scurta durata) that take 3 years to complete,
provided by university colleges;
- long-term programmes, lasting 4 to 6 years (invatamant universitar de lunga durata);
various types of postgraduate programmes, with short programmes varying in length from 1 to 2
years;
- a 3- to - 5-year doctorate programme.

As of the 2005/2006 academic year, higher education has been divided into the three stages of
Licen (180-240 ECTS), Master (60-120 ECTS) and Doctor (3 to 5 years). The unitary studies leading
to the profession of farmacist (pharmacist), doctor medic (physician), doctor-medic dentist (dental
surgeon) and doctor medic veterinar (veterinary surgeon) take, respectively, 5,6,6 and 6 years to
complete and lead to the Diploma de Licen.



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University education
University education in Romania is divided into three study cycles.

In Romania, an institution can provide both academic and professional programmes which explains
why a study programme may also be compared to an HBO degree.

Situation until 2005

Short-term programmes (invatamant uni versitar de scurta durata)
Short-term programmes lasted for 3 years and were provided by university colleges. At the end of the
programme, students completed an examen de absolvire (final examination) and wrote a final paper or
conducted a (final examination) project. Successful candidates were awarded the Diploma de
absolvire, and only then could they continue on to long-term programmes or enter the labour market.
Students who did not pass the examen de absolvire were awarded a Certificat (de studii universitare
de scurta durata).

In terms of level, the Diploma de absolvire from a university college is comparable to 3 years of higher
professional education (HBO) in the Netherlands.

Long-term programmes (invatamant uni versitar de lunga durata)
Long-term programmes lasted 4 to 6 years, and concluded with what is known as an examen de
Licen. The Licen examination consisted of two parts: fundamental and specialist knowledge of the
subject area, and a final paper or a project.
After defending the final paper, successful candidates were awarded the qualification of Licentiat along
with the name of a specific specialization, as well as the Diploma de Licen. Technical and
agricultural specializations took 5 years, and graduates were awarded the Diploma de Inginer.
Programmes in medicine, veterinary science and architecture were 6 years long, and graduates were
awarded the Diploma de Doctor-Medic, Diploma de Doctor Veterinar or the Diploma de Arcitect. These
programmes permitted students to retake examinations three times within 5 years. Students who did
not pass the Licen examination were awarded a Certificat de studii universitare de lunga durata.
The Diploma de Licen grants access to the first stage, the preparatory stage of the doctorate.

In terms of level, the 5 or 6-year Diploma de Licen obtained at a university is (at least) comparable to
a WO bachelors degree in the Netherlands.

In terms of level, the 4-year Diploma de Licen obtained at a university is comparable to an HBO
bachelors degree or to 2 years of university education (WO) in the Netherlands,depending on the
specialization and type of study.

N.B: A 4-year Diploma de Licen may be compared to a WO bachelors degree in the Netherlands
when the study programme resembles the study programme of a Licen awarded after the
educational reforms in 2005 (a specialist study programme with an emphasis on research methods).

Postgraduate education (invatamant postuniversitar)
Postgraduate education included various programme types:
- advanced studies (studii aprofundate), with a nominal duration of 1 to 3 semesters and concluding
with a final paper (disertatie). The programme included further specialization in the field studied
during the lunga durata programme. Graduates were awarded the Diploma de Studii aprofundate.
- postgraduate academic studies (studii academice postuniversitare), with a nominal duration of 2 to
4 semesters. Successful candidates were awarded the Diploma de studii academice
postuniversitare.
- the masterat, with a nominal duration of 2 to 4 semesters, represented more in-depth study in a
certain subject area, as well as extended competences. Graduates with a lunga durata diploma
(obtained at university), regardless of the specialization, were eligible to participate in this study
programme. The programme concluded with a final paper (disertatie) which must be defended.
Graduates were awarded the Diploma de Master.
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- specialization studies (studii postuniversitare de specializare) took at least 2 semesters and were
accessible to graduates of long-term programmes. Upon completion, students received a Diploma
de studii postuniversitare de specializare.
- continuing education (cursure de perfectionare postuniversitare) was accessible to graduates of
either short or long-term programmes. The duration of the programme was determined by the
board of the institution, and the programme was intended for professional training, such as for the
professions of teacher, doctor or lawyer. Successful candidates were awarded the Certificat de
Absolvire.

In terms of level, the postgraduate certificate following a programme lasting at least 1 year is
comparable to a WO or HBO masters degree, depending on the specialization and type of study.

Doctorate
A doctorate took 3 to 5 years, and could be taken as either daytime classes or distance education.
There were two types of doctorates: academic doctorates and professional doctorates. The
programme was divided in two periods, a stadiu de pregatire or stagiu de doctorat (educational stage)
and the dissertation stage. The first stage consisted of examinations, the writing of academic reports
and conducting research (2 to 3 semesters) and would lead to the second stage, the writing of a
dissertation that had to be publicly defended (3 to 4 semesters). In the first stage, a candidate also had
to demonstrate the knowledge of second language besides the Romanian language. When a
candidate successfully completed the first period, he or she would submit a research proposal which
was reviewed by a committee of professors. When the proposal was accepted the candidate was
allowed to continue writing the thesis.

These programmes were provided exclusively by universities and research institutes (IOD Institutii
organizatoare de doctorat) that were authorized by the Ministry. The admission requirements included
an entrance examination (concurs) and a Diploma de Master or Diploma de Licen, as obtained prior
to the introduction of the Bologna Process (Law no. 288/2004). A Diploma de Doctor was issued by
the institutions with the permission of the National Council for the Recognition of Academic Titles,
Diplomas and Certificates. A 3- to 5-year doctorate was comparable to a WO doctorate in the
Netherlands.

Situation after 2005
In the 2005/2006 academic year, the higher education system in Romania was set up as follows:

Studii universitare de Licen
The first cycle within higher education lasts for 3 years (4 years for technical programmes). Practical
work experience is a compulsory element for technical specializations. The programmes culminate in
the Diploma de Licen, which allows the student in question to enter the labour market or to continue
on to the masters programme (Hotrrea Guvernului nr.88/2005).

In terms of level, the 3-year Diploma de Licen obtained at a university (EHEA-QF 1
st
cycle / EQF
level 6) is comparable to an HBO or WO bachelors degree, depending on the specialization and type
of study.
Full description of learning outcomes relevant to this level:
http://ec.europa.eu/education/pub/pdf/general/eqf/leaflet_en.pdf

Studii universitare de masterat
The second cycle within higher education lasts for 1 to 2 years. It is also possible to complete the
Diploma de Licen and Diploma de Master programmes as a single study programme, in which case
the programme lasts 5 to 6 years (programmes in medicine, veterinary science and architecture take 6
years). These unitary cycle study programmes lead to the Diploma de Licen.

The Diploma de Licen grants access to the studii universitare de masterat. The masterat programme
is geared towards more detailed study of the subject area in which students obtained their Diploma de
Licen (Hotrrea Guvernului nr.404.2006). Graduates are awarded the Diploma de Master.

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In terms of level, the 1 or 2-year Diploma de Master obtained at a university (EHEA-QF 2
nd
cycle /
EQF level 7) is comparable to a WO or HBO masters degree in the Netherlands, depending on the
specialization and type of study.
Full description of learning outcomes relevant to this level:
http://ec.europa.eu/education/pub/pdf/general/eqf/leaflet_en.pdf

Studii universitare de doctorat
The third cycle within higher education lasts for 3 years and may be extended by 1 or 2 years. New
legislation relating to this stage was passed in Romania in 2005 (Hotrrea Guvernului, nr 567/2005).
The new system draws a distinction between two programme types:

- an academic/scientific programme, consisting of practical training and advanced
university studies (programul de pregatire) lasting 2 to 3 semesters. The programme also
involves advanced research (programul de cercetare stiintifica) and the writing of a final paper, which
takes 3 to 4 semesters.
- a professional programme that can be taken in the fields of Sport, Music or the Arts.
Candidates for this programme must sit an entrance examination and submit a Diploma de Masterat.
A Diploma de Licen obtained prior to implementation of the Bologna Process is sufficient for
admission to the entrance examination.

The Diploma de Doctor is awarded following completion of either programme. A Diploma de Doctor
awarded after a nominally 3-year programme at a university is comparable to the degree of Doctor in
the Netherlands.

Post-doctoral programmes
Two-year post-doctoral programmes were introduced in the 2005/2006 academic year. These
programmes are financed by the Ministry of Education and Research through subsidies proposed by
the National Council of Higher Education Scientific Research.



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Assessment systems
A 10-point system is used in both secondary and higher education, with 5 being the minimum pass
mark.

Numerical grade Description Romanian description Meaning

10 Zece Excellent Excellent
9 Noua Excellent Excellent
8 Opt Bun Good
7 Sapte Bun Good
6 Sase Suficient Sufficient
5 Cinci Suficient Sufficient
4 Patru Fail
3 Trei Fail
2 Doi Fail
1 Unu Fail

The ECTS was recommended in 1998, and has now been made compulsory.

More information on the ECTS system is available in the ECTS Users Guide issued by the European
Commission: http://ec.europa.eu/education/lifelong-learning-policy/doc/ects/guide_en.pdf.

See the following link for grade conversion: http://www.nuffic.nl/diplomawaardering/diplomawaardering/cijfersystemen.








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Bologna process
With the new law (Lege nr. 288 of June 2004) relating to the organization of university programmes,
Romanian higher education has conformed to the Bologna Process. In doing so, higher education has
been given a three-tiered structure: Studii universitare de Licen with a nominal duration of 3 to 4
years (180-240 ECTS); Studii universitare de masterat with a nominal duration of 1 to 2 years (60-120
ECTS) and Studii universitare de doctorat with a nominal duration of 3 years. The Diploma
Supplement (Suplimentul la Diploma) must be issued by institutions for free in a foreign language, and
the use of ECTS is obligatory.

Information on the current situation can be found on the official European Higher Education Area
(EHEA) website: www.ehea.info/country-details.aspx?countryId=38.




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Qualification frameworks
In 2005, the Bologna Framework (overarching framework for qualifications of the European higher
education area) was adopted. Development of a complete national qualifications framework, including
non higher education qualifications, is still under way.

The National Agency for Qualifications in Higher Education (ACPART) was founded in 2005, with the
purpose of developing and implementing a national qualifications framework for higher education. The
National Qualifications Framework in Higher Education will include three qualification levels, namely:
level 6 Licen, level 7 Masterat and level 8 Doctorat. Each level is linked to a number of
descriptors, such as knowledge level, competencies and skills.
The expected implementation date is 2012.

The categories of titles and qualifications awarded by higher education institutions have already been
identified and included in the National Qualifications Register for Higher Education.
More detailed information on the methodology for the development of the National Qualifications
Framework in Higher Education can be found on the website of the Agentia Nationala Pentru
Calificarile din Invatamantul Superior si Parteneriat cu Mediul Economic si Social. See under
Addresses.

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Quality assurance and accreditation
In the early 1990s, the need for quality assurance in higher education increased due to the
establishment of many new institutions and study programmes, including private institutions. In 1993
the National Council for Academic Evaluation and Accreditation (NCAEA) was established, with the
purpose of accrediting higher education institutions. Until that time, study programmes and institutions
were approved by the ministry.

All state institutions in existence and operation in late 1989 were automatically recognized by the
government by means of the new accreditation law. This law, titled Law on the Accreditation of Higher
Education Institutions and Diploma Recognition (Law no. 88/1993) names two stages in the
accreditation process: provisional authorization, and accreditation. The first stage lasts a minimum of 3
years, during which the institution is not permitted to arrange any final examinations, award any
degrees or issue any diplomas. These tasks must be carried out by a recognized higher education
institution at the conclusion of the programme. During provisional authorization, institutions are
permitted to organize entrance examinations and take on students, draw up curricula, develop
research activities and provide educational programmes. During this stage, the institution draws up a
self-assessment report and submits an application to the NCAEA. They must satisfy five criteria:
programme content, qualifications and competences of the teaching staff, academic research
activities, material facilities, and finances. Following the official accreditation, an assessment is
conducted every 5 years. In cases in which the NCAEA did not approve the request for official
accreditation, institutions were given 1 additional year to satisfy the criteria.

Law no. 87/2006, approved by the Emergency Government Act no.75/2005 regarding quality
assurance in education, takes a cross-sector approach to quality assurance made possible by
involving all providers of education in Romania in the quality assurance process. The following topics
were addressed:
- the methodology of quality assurance in education
- quality assurance at institution level
- external assessment of quality education
- institutional organization involved in quality assurance

The quality of the education system is safeguarded by the following processes:
- production of a concrete schedule and expected learning outcomes
- monitoring of results
- internal and external assessment of results
- ongoing improvement of educational outcomes

Internal quality assurance
Every higher education institution is legally obliged to set up a quality assurance committee, whose
members must represent the most important stakeholders and student bodies.

External assessment of quality assurance
External assessment of quality assurance includes the following elements: institutional capacity
assessment of the educational institution; assessment of the effectiveness of the educational
institution; assessment of quality management at institutional level; quality assessment of study
programmes; assessment of the balance between an internal assessment and the actual situation;
comparison with study programmes of the same type at various education institutions.

The Romanian Agency for Quality Assurance in Preuniversity Education (Agentia Romana pentru
Asigurarea Calitatii in Invatamantul Preuniversitar ARACIP) and the Romanian Agency for Quality
Assurance in Higher Education (Agentia Romana pentru Asigurarea Calitatii in Invatamantul Superior
ARACIS) are autonomous and independent public institutions that serve the national interest. Both
organizations have competences in the field of accreditation and external quality assessment.

The website of the Romanian Minstery of Education contains lists of accredited institution. For more
information see: www.edu.ro/index.php/base/frontpage
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International treaties
Romania signed the Lisbon Convention in 1997, and ratified it in the law 172/1998. Romania has
bilateral mutual recognition agreements in the field of education with Cyprus, Hungary, Slovakia,
Bulgaria, Moldova, Ukraine and the Russian Federation. More information on these treaties can be
found on the website of the Centrul National de Recunoatere i Echivalare a Diplomelor (CNRED), de
Roemeense ENIC/NARIC (zie onder Adressen).

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Addresses
www.cnred.edu.ro
Website of the Centrul National de Recunoatere i Echivalare a Diplomelor (CNRED), the Romanian
ENIC/NARIC.

www.cnred.edu.ro/#cadru-legal-specific-pentru-recunoasterea-studiilor.
Website of the Centrul National de Recunoatere i Echivalare a Diplomelor (CNRED), the Romanian
ENIC/NARIC with information on the bilateral mutual recognition agreements in the field of education.

www.edu.ro
Website of the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports (mostly in Romanian).

www.edu.ro/index.php/articles/c105
Website of the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports, with detailed information and an
overview of the Scoala de arte si meserii.

www.edu.ro/index.php/articles/c108/
Website of the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports, with the list of all accredited state
and private Higher Education Institutions

www.edu.ro/index.php/articles/6603
Website of the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports, with information on the Diploma
Supplement.

www.aracis.ro
Website of the Romanian Agency for Quality Assurance in Higher Education.

www.cdep.ro/pls/legis
Website of the Romanian Chamber of Deputies, with information on legislation in higher education.

www.rncis.ro/portal/page?_pageid=54&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL
Website of the National Higher Education Qualifications Registry.

http://bacalaureat.edu.ro/
Website of the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports, with an online verification tool of
the results of the Bacalaureat.

www.s-bb.nl
Website of SBB, the foundation for Co-operation on Vocational Education, Training and the Labour
Market.


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Diploma Supplement
In the 2005/2006 academic year, all Romanian higher education institutions became legally obliged to
provide a Diploma Supplement free of charge in a major foreign language. More information is
available on the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports website. See under Addresses.

More information on the Diploma Supplement is available on the website of the European
Commission: http://ec.europa.eu/education/lifelong-learning-policy/doc1239_en.htm


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Composition of file
A complete file must include a certificate and a grade list in Romanian, accompanied by a sworn
translation in Dutch, English, German or French.


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List of higher education institutions
www.edu.ro/index.php/articles/c108.
Website of the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports with an overview of all accredited
public and private higher education institutions and all domains, specializations and subject clusters for
Licen programmes, as set out in the Government Decision (Hotrrea Guvernului) no. 676/2007 and
modified according to the Government Decision no. 981/2007 (modificata prin Hotrrea Guvernului
nr. 981/2007).


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Diplom de Bacalaureat diploma secondary education

- CLICK ON THE DIPLOMA TO RETURN TO THE EDUCATION SYSTEM -



Diplom de Bacalaureat - transcript























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Certificat de absolvire a liceului certificate secondary education

- CLICK ON THE DIPLOMA TO RETURN TO THE EDUCATION SYSTEM




















































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Diplom de absolvire a scolii profesional diploma secondary vocational education

- CLICK ON THE DIPLOMA TO RETURN TO THE EDUCATION SYSTEM -

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Diplom de absolvire a scolii profesional - transcript secondary vocational education



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Diplom de licent

- CLICK ON THE DIPLOMA TO RETURN TO THE EDUCATION SYSTEM -

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Diplom de licent - transcript


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Diplom de Master

- CLICK ON THE DIPLOMA TO RETURN TO THE EDUCATION SYSTEM -







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Diplom de master - transcript


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Qualification - Romania





Diploma de Bacalaureat (obtained since 2005)





___________________________________________________________________





general secondary education diploma


grants access to all higher education programmes in Romania, upon
completion of entrance examinations




__________________________________________________________________

This qualification is comparable to a VWO diploma in the Netherlands.









NB this information is a general recommendation from which no rights may be derived
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Qualification - Romania





Diploma de Absolvire






___________________________________________________________________





first cycle higher education diploma (EHEA Qualifications Framework)


grants access to the labour market and to masters programmes in Romania


has a nominal duration of 3 years



___________________________________________________________________

This qualification is comparable to 3 years of higher professional education (HBO) in
the Netherlands.










NB this information is a general recommendation from which no rights may be derived
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Qualification - Romania





Diploma de Licenta (obtained after 2005)





___________________________________________________________________





first cycle higher education diploma (EHEA Qualifications Framework)


grants access to masters programmes in Romania


has a nominal duration of 3 years




___________________________________________________________________

This qualification (EHEA-QF 1) is comparable to an HBO or WO bachelors degree in
the Netherlands, depending on the specialization and type of study.










NB this information is a general recommendation from which no rights may be derived
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Qualification - Romania





Diploma de Master





___________________________________________________________________




second cycle higher education diploma (EHEA Qualifications Framework)


grants access to PhD programmes in Romania


has a nominal duration of 1 to 2 years



___________________________________________________________________

This qualification (EHEA-QF 2) is comparable to a WO or HBO masters degree in
the Netherlands, depending on the specialization or type of study.











NB this information is a general recommendation from which no rights may be derived