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Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions

1
LINES AND PLANES IN 3 DIMENSIONS

9. 1 Angle Between Lines And Planes

9.1.1 a)Based on the diagram, calculate the angle between the line and the plane given
Example 1: Plane :EFGH
Line :GC









Angle : CGH
tan CGH =
GH
CH

=
8
4


CGH = 26.57
o
/ 26
o
34


1. a) Plane : ABCD
Line : DV












Angle :


b) Plane : SRLK
Line : QL












Angle :

Example 2 : Plane : PSK
Line : KR










Angle : RKS

tan RKS =
KS
SR

=
5
12

RKS = 67.38
o
/ 67
o
23

2. a) Plane : CDEH
Line : FD











Angle :

b) Plane : URST
Line : RX











Angle :


P
Q
R
S
L K
G H
E
F
D
A
B
C
6 cm
8 cm
4 cm
P
Q
R
S
L
K
12 cm
7 cm
5 cm
A
B
C
D
V
10 cm
8 cm
3 cm
12 cm
5 cm
G
H
E
F
D
A
B
C
15 cm
6 cm
8 cm
R
S
U
T
Y
X
24 cm
7 cm
4 cm
Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions
2
Example 3 : Plane : JKLM
Line : NK
NM = 11 cm













Angle : NKM

KM =
2 2
9 12 + = 15 cm

tan NKM =
KM
NM

=
15
11

NKM = 36.25
o
/ 36
o
15


3. a) Plane : ABCD
Line : AV












b) Plane : ABCD
Line : DG

























c) Plane : QRST
Line : TP



















d) Plane : QPWT
Line : RX


e) Plane : SRUT
Line : PN


















J
K
L
M
N
12 cm
9 cm
A
B
C
D
V
8 cm
6 cm
4 cm
G
H
E
F
D
A
B
C
6 cm
5 cm
12 cm
5 cm
R
T
Q
P
S 12 cm
7 cm
Q
P
W
S
V
U
R
T
X

Y
8 cm
12 cm
R
U
S
P
T
Q
N
M
6 cm
5 cm
12 cm
Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions
3
Exercise 1 : Based on the diagram, calculate the angle between the line and the plane given

a) The diagram shows a cuboid. Calculate the
angle between line NE and the plane of GFKN





















b) The diagram shows a cuboid with a
horizontal base JKLM .Calculate the angle
between line KS and the plane of SRLM.
c) The diagram shows a prism. Calculate the
angle between line RY and the plane of STY.
























d) The diagram shows a prism. Calculate the
angle between line QE and the plane of DCE.
J
K
Q
M
R S
P
L
6 cm
5 cm
8 cm
R
S
U
T
Y
X
6 cm
8 cm
14 cm
B
A
F
E
D
C
Q
P
6 cm
5 cm
12 cm
G
H
E
F
L
K
N
M
12 cm
5 cm
16 cm
Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions
4
e) The diagram shows a pyramid . Given that
HP = 13 cm. Calculate the angle between line
PG and the plane of EHP.






















f) The diagram shows a prism. Calculate the
angle between line UV and the plane of PSWV.













g) The diagram shows a pyramid with a
horizontal base DEFG. Given that VO = 9 cm.
Calculate the angle between line GV and the
plane of DEFG.






















h) The diagram shows a pyramid with a
triangle base CHD. Calculate the angle
between line CA and the plane of ADH.

E F
G
H
P
7 cm
9 cm
P
Q
R
S
X
W
V
U
5 cm
4 cm
3 cm
7 cm
D
E
F
G
V
O
12 cm
5 cm
D
B
C
H
A
6 cm
8 cm
2 cm
Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions
5
9. 2 Angle Between Two Planes

9.2.1 a) Calculate the angle between the two planes.
Example 1: Plane EFGH and
plane GHDA










Angle :
DHE = AGF

tan DHE =
GF
AF

=
6
9

DHE = 56.31
o
/ 56
o
19


1. a) Plane KLSP and plane
JKLM

b) Plane PSWV and plane
VUXW













Example 2 : Plane PQLK and
plane SRLK









Angle :
QLR = PKS


tan QLR =
LR
QR

=
7
10

QLR = 55
o



2. a) Plane ABCD and plane
ADEF







b) Plane URST and plane
XRSY
G
H
E
F
D
A
B
C
8 cm
6 cm
9 cm
P
Q
R
S
X
W
V
U
7 cm
4 cm
6 cm
5 cm
J
K
Q
M
R S
P
L
20 cm
12 cm
15 cm
P
Q
R
S
L
K
12 cm
10 cm
7 cm
B
A
F
E
D
C
20 cm
10 cm
13 cm
R
S
U
T
Y
X
12
cm
9 cm
5 cm
Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions
6
Example 3 : Plane TRQ and
plane SRQP








Angle : TRS

tan TRS =
RS
TS

=
11
4


QLR = 19.98
o
/ 19
o
59



3. a) Plane ABCD and plane
ABV












b) Plane PQSR and plane
PQKL
Example 4: Plane DEV and
DEFG . VO = 7 cm










Angle : VMO

tan VMO =
MO
VO

=
6
7


VMO = 49.40
o
/ 49
o
24







4a) Plane GCB and plane
ABCD
b) Plane PMNT and Plane
KLMN


















A
B
C
D
V
P
Q
R
S
L
K
T
R
S
Q
P
A
B
C
D
G
O
L
5 cm
5 cm
11 cm
4 cm
8 cm
5 cm
4 cm
3 cm
D
E
F
G
V
O
M
10 cm
12 cm
8 cm
12 cm
10 cm
T
L
M
N
K
F
P
9 cm
12 cm
10 cm
Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions
7
Example 5 : Plane ABE and
plane ABCD










Angle : ELK

EK =
2 2
9 15 = 12
tan ELK =
LK
EK

=
36
12

ELK =

4 a) Plane SRQ and plane
SRUT
















b) Plane SURP and plane PTR

















Exercise 1

a) The diagram shows a pyramid with a
horizontal base ABCD. Given that VO = 9 cm.
Calculate the angle between the plane VAD
and the plane of ABCD.





















b) The diagram shows a cuboid with a
horizontal base JKLM .Calculate the angle
between the plane SRKJ and the plane of
SRLM.
B
A
F
E
D
C
L
K
18 cm
15 cm
36 cm
R
U
S
P
T
Q
N
M
8 cm
5 cm
Q
P
W
S
U
R
T
V
10 cm
4 cm
12 cm
J
K
Q
M
R S
P
L
B
C
D
A
V
O
10 cm
8 cm
7 cm
6 cm
9 cm
Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions
8
c) The diagram shows a prism. Calculate the
angle between the plane PLM and the plane of
PLNQ.





















d) The diagram shows a prism. Calculate the
angle between the plane QRC and the plane of
PQRS.
e) The diagram shows a pyramid. Calculate
the angle between the plane FGP and the plane
of EFGH
























f) The diagram shows a prism. Name the angle
between the plane ABCD and the plane of
DQR.













K
M
L
N
Q
P
20 cm
10 cm
5 cm
Q
P
D
C
S
R
A
B
8 cm
10 cm
15 cm
E F
G
H
P
18 cm
24 cm
14cm
P
Q
14cm

R
S
C
D
A
B
13 cm
7cm
9cm
Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions
9
How to answer the SPM format Question

Example 1
Diagram 1 shows a pyramid LPQRS .














The base PQRS is a horizontal rectangle. J is
the midpoint of RS. The vertex L is 8 cm
vertically above the point J. Calculate the angle
between the line QL and the base PQRS.

Step 1 :
- Colour line QL and shade/colour plane PQRS
- Determine the meet point









Step 2 :
Identify normal and orthogonal projection











Normal line : LJ
Orthogonal projection : QJ

Step 3 :
Identify the angle











Angle : LQJ




Step 4 :
Calculate the angle


JQ =
2 2
5 12 = 13

tan LQJ =
QJ
LJ


=
13
8


LQJ =


Q
R
S
P
L
10 cm
12 cm
Diagram 1
J
cm
Q
R
S
P
L
10 cm
12 cm
J
Q
R
S
P
L
10 cm
12 cm
J
Q
R
S
P
L
10 cm
12 cm
J
Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions
10

Example 2
Diagram 2 shows a prism with horizontal
square ABCD. Trapezium KABL is the
uniform cross-section of the prism. The
rectangular surface NKAD is vertical while the
rectangular surface MLBC is inclined.
















Calculate the angle between the plane NBC and
the base ABCD.

Step 1 :
- Shade/colour plane ABCD
- Determine the line intersection between plane
NBC and the base ABCD














Line intersect : BC






Step 3 :
Identify the perpendicular line with BC and lies
on plane NBC and the base ABCD .













Line NC and DC are perpendicular with line
BC


Step 4 : Identify the angle














Angle : NCD


Step 5 :
Calculate the angle
tan NCD =
DC
ND


=
8
6


NCD = 36.89
o
/ 36
o
52

A
L
N
M
C
D
K
B
6 cm
8 cm
Diagram 2
A
L
N
M
C
D
K
B
6 cm
8 cm

A
L
N
M
C
D
K
B
6 cm
8 cm

A
L
N
M
C
D
K
B
6 cm
8 cm

Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions
11
Questions Based on the Examination Format

1. Diagram 1 shows a pyramid with a
rectangular base PQRS. V is vertically above P.












Calculate the angle between the line VR and
the plane PQRS.







2. Diagram 2 shows a cuboid with horizontal
base KLMN.












Calculate the angle between the line SL and the
base NKLM.


3. Diagram 3 shows a cuboid ACBDEFGH.
Given EH = FG = 8 cm.















Calculate the angle between the plane EHD and
the plane FEHG.

4. Diagram 4 shows a right prism with a
horizontal plane ABCD. It is a uniform prism
and its cross section is an isosceles triangle of
sides 4 cm. The thickness of the prism, EA = 4
cm.











Calculate the angle between the plane ABH
and the plane ABE.








DIAGRAM 1
DIAGRAM 2
DIAGRAM 3
A
B
C
H
E
D
DIAGRAM 4
K
L
M
N
R
S
P
Q
12 cm
4 cm
5 cm
P
Q
R
S
V
8 cm
6 cm
11 cm
F
E
H
B
C
D
A
G
7 cm
5 cm
6 cm
4 cm
Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions
12
5) Diagram 5 shows a pyramid with the
horizontal plane, TRS. The rectangle PQRS is
vertical plane.










Calculate the angle between the plane PTS and
the plane TQR.







6) Diagram 6 shows a cuboid. Z is the
midpoint of TW .












Calculate the angle between plane YVZ and the
horizontal plane XYVW.
7) Diagram 7 shows a right prism with base
the rectangular plane ABCD. Right triangle
BCF is the uniform cross-section of the prism.
The rectangular surface DCFE is vertical while
the rectangular surface BAEF is inclined.












Calculate the angle between the plane DB and
plane EDCF.










8) Diagram 8 shows a pyramid REFGH. The
base EFGH is a horizontal rectangle. R is the
midpoint of HG. The apex R is 9 cm vertically
above the point S.













Calculate the angle between line ER and the
plane EFGH.



Y
V
W
X
T
S
R
U
10 cm
6 cm
4 cm
Z
DIAGRAM 6
T
R
S
Q
P
12 cm
13 cm
10 cm
DIAGRAM 5
B
DIAGRAM 7
DIAGRAM 8
E
F
G
H
R
5 cm
24 cm
S
A
C
D
F
E
8 cm
6 cm
6 cm
Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions
13
9) Diagram 9 shows a cuboid. P is the midpoint
of line RQ.
















Calculate the angle between the plane LQY and
the plane MQRN.






10) Diagram 10 shows a right prism. Right
angled triangle SUT is the uniform cross-
section of the prism.















Calvulate the angle between the plane PSR and
the plane PUTR..
11) Diagram 11 shows a prism . The base
PQRS is a horizontal rectangle . X is the
midpoint of SR.












Calculate the angle between line PX and the
plane SRML.








12) Diagram 12 shows a right prism with
rectangle base EFGH. EFPQ and GHPQ are
rectangle.












Calculate the angle between line LQ and the
base EFGH.
DIAGRAM 9
cm
L
M

Q
P
R S
K N
Y
10 cm
6 cm
12 cm
U
Q
S
T
P
R
5 cm
12 cm
20 cm
DIAGRAM 10
P
Q
R
S
M
L
X
12 cm
8 cm
5 cm
DIAGRAM 11
cm
F
G
E
P
H
Q
M
L
6 cm
5 cm
12 cm
DIAGRAM 12
cm
Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions
14
Past Year SPM Questions

1. Nov 2003

Diagram 1 shows a prism with a horizontal square base HJKL. Trapezium EFLK is the uniform
cross-section of the prism. The rectangular surface DEKJ is vertical while the rectangular surface
GFLH is incline.



















Calculate the angle between the plane DLH and the base HJKL. [ 4 marks ]



2 July 2004, Q4

Diagram 2 shows a cuboid.

















Calculate the angle between the line AH and the plane ABCD. [4 marks]
K
F

D
G
H
J
E
L
6 cm
8 cm
Diagram 1
A B
G
D
C
E
F
H
12 cm
5 cm
9 cm
DIAGRAM 2
Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions
15

3. Nov 2004, Q3

Diagram 2 shows a pyramid VJKLM.















The base JKLM is a horizontal rectangle. Q is the midpoint of JM. The apex V is 8 cm
vertically above the point Q.

Calculate the angle between the line KV and the base JKLM. [ 4 marks ]


4. July 2005, Q2

Diagram 1 shows a right prism with rectangle ABCD as its horizontal base. Right angled
triangle FAB is the uniform cross-section of the prism. The rectangular surface BCEF is
inclined.















Calculate the angle between the plane ABE and the base ABCD. [3 marks]





B
E
A
C
D
F
12 cm
5 cm
3 cm
DIAGRAM 1
DIAGRAM 2
K
J
M
L
V
10 cm
12 cm
Q
cm
Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions
16

5. Nov 2005, Q4

Diagram 1 shows a right prism. Right angled triangled PQR is the uniform cross-section of
the prism.



















Calculate the angle between the plane RTU and the plane PQTU.


6. July 2006, Q4

Diagram 2 shows a right prism. The base HJKL is a horizontal rectangle. The right angled
triangle NHJ is the uniform cross-section of the prism.



















Identify and calculate the angle between the line KN and the plane HLMN.
U
Q
S
T
P
R
12 cm
5 cm
18 cm
DIAGRAM 1
DIAGRAM 2
J
M
H
K
L
N
6 cm
12 cm
8 cm
Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions
17
7. Nov 2006, Q2

Diagram 1 shows a right prism. The base PQRS is on horizontal rectangle. The right triangle
UPQ is the uniform cross section of the prism.



















Identify and calculate the angle between the line RU and the base PQRS.
[ 4 marks ]

8. SPM June 2007 Q2

Diagram shows a right prism. The base PQRS is a horizontal rectangle. Trapezium
PQVU is the uniform cross-section of the prism. The rectangle QRWV is a vertical plane
and the rectangle UVWT is an inclined plane.
















Identify and calculate the angle between the plane PQW and the base PQRS.
[3 marks]
P
R
W
Q
12 cm
T
S
U
7 cm
14 cm
5 cm
V
Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions
18
9. SPM Nov 2007 Q4

Diagram shows a right prism. The base PQRS is a horizontal rectangle. Right angled
triangle QRU is the uniform cross-section of the prism. V is the midpoint of PS.


















Identify and calculate the angle between the line UV and the plane RSTU.
[3 marks]


10. SPM June 2008

Diagram shows a cuboid ABCDEFGH with horizontal base ABCD. P, Q and R are the
midpoints of BC, AD and FE respectively.














Name and calculate the angle between the plane FPCR and the base ABCD.
[4 marks]
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
16 cm
12 cm
5 cm
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
P
R
Q
6 cm
8 cm
5 cm
Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions
19
11. SPM Nov 2008

Diagram shows a cuboid. M is the midpoint of the side EH and AM = 15 cm.





















a) Name the angle between the line AM and the plane ADEF.
b) Calculate the angle between the line AM and the plane ADEF.
[3 marks]







A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
M
8 cm
Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions
20
ANSWERS
Chapter 9 :Lines And Planes In 3 Dimensions

9.1.1
1a 16.70
o
/ 16
o
42 1b 54.46
o
/ 54
o
28 2a 68.20
o
/ 68
o
12 2b 29.74
o
/
29
o
45
3a 21.80
o
/ 21
o
48 3b 24.78
o
/ 24
o
47 3c 28.30
o
/ 28
o
18 3d 38.66
o
/
38
o
40
3e 18.43
o
/ 18
o
26


Exercise 1
a 50.91
o
/
50
o
54
b 26.57
o
/ 26
o
34

c 54.46
o
/ 54
o
28 d 71.57
o
/
71
o
34
e 28.30
o
/
28
o
18
f 51.34
o
/ 51
o
20 g 54.16
o
/ 54
o
10 h 53.13
o
/
53
o
8
9.2.1
1a 36.87
o
/
36
o
52
1b 74.05
o
/ 74
o
3 2a 67.38
o
/ 67
o
23 2b 29.05
o
/
29
o
3
3a 57.99
o
/ 58
o
3b 36.89
o
/ 36
o
52 4a 60
o
4b 53.13
o
/
53
o
8
5a 36.87
o
/
36
o
52
5b 63.43
o
/ 63
o
26
Exercise 1
a 66.04
o
/
66
o
2
b 33.69
o
/ 33
o
41 c 26.57
o
/
26
o
34
d 66.42
o
/
66
o
25
e 37.87
o
/
37
o
52
f 34.70
o
/ 34
o
42



PRACTICE SPM FORMAT

1 47.73
o
/
47
o
44
2 17.10
o
/ 17
o
6 3 54.46
o
/
54
o
28
4 56.31
o
/
56
o
19
5 63.43
o
/
63
o
26
6 36.87
o
/ 36
o
52 7 36.87
o
/
36
o
52
8 34.70
o
/
34
o
42
9 30.96
o
/
30
o
58
10 30.96
o
/ 30
o
58 11 53.13
o
/
53
o
8
12 18.43
o
/
18
o
26

Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions
21

SPM PAST YEAR QUESTIONS

1 Nov 2003 36.87
o
/ 36
o
52
2 Jul 2004 18.43
o
/ 18
o
26
3 Nov 2004 31.61
o
/ 31
o
36
4 Jul 2005 14.04
o
/ 14
o
2
5 Nov 2005 33.69
o
/ 33
o
41
6 Jul 2006 50.19
o
/ 50
o
12
7 Nov 2006 34.70 / 34
O
42
8 Jun 2007 , 54.46 or 54 28' WQR
9 Nov 2007 SUV , 31.61 or 31 36'
10 Jun 2008 , 32 QPR
11 Nov 2008 ,15.47 or 15 28' EAM