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[G.R. No. 158763. March 31, 2006.

]
JOSE C. MIRANDA, ALER!O ". DALMACIO, a#$ ROMEO . OCON, %&'('(o#&r), *).
+IRGILIO M. !,LIAO, r&)%o#$&#'.
Herrera Batacan & Associates Law Firm for petitioners.
Nicasio B. Bautista for respondent.
S-LLA,S
1.REMEDIAL LAW !RIMINAL "R#!ED$RE DI%&IN!&I#N BE&WEEN !$%&#D' #F &HE
LAW AND ($RI%DI!&I#N #)ER &HE "ER%#N. * #ur pronouncement in %antia+o s,ows a
distinction -etween custod. of t,e /aw and 0urisdiction o1er t,e person. !ustod. of t,e /aw is re2uired
-efore t,e court can act upon t,e app/ication for -ai/3 -ut is not re2uired for t,e ad0udication of ot,er
re/iefs sou+,t -. t,e defendant w,ere t,e mere app/ication t,erefor constitutes a wai1er of t,e defense
of /ac4 of 0urisdiction o1er t,e person of t,e accused. !ustod. of t,e /aw is accomp/is,ed eit,er -.
arrest or 1o/untar. surrender3 w,i/e 0urisdiction o1er t,e person of t,e accused is ac2uired upon ,is
arrest or 1o/untar. appearance. #ne can -e under t,e custod. of t,e /aw -ut not .et su-0ect to t,e
0urisdiction of t,e court o1er ,is person3 suc, as w,en a person arrested -. 1irtue of a warrant fi/es a
motion -efore arrai+nment to 2uas, t,e warrant. #n t,e ot,er ,and3 one can -e su-0ect to t,e
0urisdiction of t,e court o1er ,is person3 and .et not -e in t,e custod. of t,e /aw3 suc, as w,en an
accused escapes custod. after ,is tria/ ,as commenced. Bein+ in t,e custod. of t,e /aw si+nifies
restraint on t,e person3 w,o is t,ere-. depri1ed of ,is own wi// and /i-ert.3 -indin+ ,im to -ecome
o-edient to t,e wi// of t,e /aw. !ustod. of t,e /aw is /itera//. custod. o1er t,e -od. of t,e accused. It
inc/udes3 -ut is not /imited to3 detention.
5.ID. ID. A% A 6ENERAL R$LE3 #NE WH# %EE7% AN AFFIRMA&I)E RELIEF I% DEEMED
&# HA)E %$BMI&&ED &# &HE ($RI%DI!&I#N #F &HE !#$R&. * &,e statement in "ico 1.
(ud+e !om-on+3 (r.3 cited -. t,e !ourt of Appea/s s,ou/d not ,a1e -een separated from t,e issue in
t,at case3 w,ic, is t,e app/ication for admission to -ai/ of someone not .et in t,e custod. of t,e /aw.
&,e entire para+rap, of our pronouncement in "ico reads8 A person app/.in+ for admission to -ai/ must
-e in t,e custod. of t,e /aw or ot,erwise depri1ed of ,is /i-ert.. A person w,o ,as not su-mitted
,imse/f to t,e 0urisdiction of t,e court ,as no ri+,t to in1o4e t,e processes of t,at court. Respondent
(ud+e s,ou/d ,a1e di/i+ent/. ascertained t,e w,erea-outs of t,e app/icant and t,at ,e indeed ,ad
0urisdiction o1er t,e -od. of t,e accused -efore considerin+ t,e app/ication for -ai/. W,i/e we stand -.
our a-o1e pronouncement in "ico insofar as it concerns -ai/3 we c/arif. t,at3 as a +enera/ ru/e3 one w,o
see4s an affirmati1e re/ief is deemed to ,a1e su-mitted to t,e 0urisdiction of t,e court. As we ,e/d in
t,e aforecited case of %antia+o3 see4in+ an affirmati1e re/ief in court3 w,et,er in ci1i/ or crimina/
proceedin+s3 constitutes 1o/untar. appearance.
9.ID. ID. E:!E"&I#N &# &HE R$LE. * &,ere is3 ,owe1er3 an e;ception to t,e ru/e t,at fi/in+
p/eadin+s see4in+ affirmati1e re/ief constitutes 1o/untar. appearance3 and t,e conse2uent su-mission of
one<s person to t,e 0urisdiction of t,e court. &,is is in t,e case of p/eadin+s w,ose pra.er is precise/.
for t,e a1oidance of t,e 0urisdiction of t,e court3 w,ic, on/. /eads to a specia/ appearance. &,ese
p/eadin+s are8 =1> in ci1i/ cases3 motions to dismiss on t,e +round of /ac4 of 0urisdiction o1er t,e person
of t,e defendant3 w,et,er or not ot,er +rounds for dismissa/ are inc/uded =5> in crimina/ cases3 motions
to 2uas, a comp/aint on t,e +round of /ac4 of 0urisdiction o1er t,e person of t,e accused and =9>
motions to 2uas, a warrant of arrest. &,e first two are conse2uences of t,e fact t,at fai/ure to fi/e t,em
wou/d constitute a wai1er of t,e defense of /ac4 of 0urisdiction o1er t,e person. &,e t,ird is a
conse2uence of t,e fact t,at it is t,e 1er. /e+a/it. of t,e court process forcin+ t,e su-mission of t,e
person of t,e accused t,at is t,e 1er. issue in a motion to 2uas, a warrant of arrest.
?. ID. ID. ID. AD($DI!A&I#N #F A M#&I#N &# @$A%H A WARRAN& #F ARRE%&
RE@$IRE% NEI&HER ($RI%DI!&I#N #)ER &HE "ER%#N #F &HE A!!$%ED3 N#R
!$%&#D' #F LAW #)ER &HE B#D' #F &HE A!!$%ED A% M$!H I& I% IN!#N6R$#$%
&# 6RAN& BAIL &# #NE WH# I% FREE3 I& I% LI7EWI%E IN!#N6R$#$% &# RE@$IRE #NE
&# %$RRENDER HI% FREED#M BEF#RE A%%ER&IN6 I&. * We ,o/d t,at t,e circumstances
forcin+ us to re2uire custod. of t,e /aw in app/ications for -ai/ are not present in motions to 2uas, t,e
warrant of arrest. If we a//ow t,e +rantin+ of -ai/ to persons not in t,e custod. of t,e /aw3 it is
foreseea-/e t,at man. persons w,o can afford t,e -ai/ wi// remain at /ar+e3 and cou/d e/ude -ein+ ,e/d
to answer for t,e commission of t,e offense if e1er ,e is pro1en +ui/t.. #n t,e ot,er ,and3 if we a//ow
t,e 2uas,a/ of warrants of arrest to persons not in t,e custod. of t,e /aw3 it wou/d -e 1er. rare t,at a
person not +enuine/. entit/ed to /i-ert. wou/d remain scotAfree. &,is is -ecause it is t,e same 0ud+e
w,o issued t,e warrant of arrest w,o wi// decide w,et,er or not ,e fo//owed t,e !onstitution in ,is
determination of pro-a-/e cause3 and ,e can easi/. den. t,e motion to 2uas, if ,e rea//. did find
pro-a-/e cause after persona//. e;aminin+ t,e records of t,e case. Moreo1er3 pursuant to t,e
presumption of re+u/arit. of officia/ functions3 t,e warrant continues in force and effect unti/ it is
2uas,ed and t,erefore can sti// -e enforced on an. da. and at an. time of t,e da. and ni+,t.
Furt,ermore3 t,e continued a-sence of t,e accused can -e ta4en a+ainst ,im in t,e determination of
pro-a-/e cause3 since f/i+,t is indicati1e of +ui/t. In fine3 as muc, as it is incon+ruous to +rant -ai/ to
one w,o is free3 it is /i4ewise incon+ruous to re2uire one to surrender ,is freedom -efore assertin+ it.
Human ri+,ts en0o. a ,i+,er preference in t,e ,ierarc,. of ri+,ts t,an propert. ri+,ts3 demandin+ t,at
due process in t,e depri1ation of /i-ert. must come -efore its ta4in+ and not after. DE!%I&
B. ID. ID. ID. @$A%HIN6 A WARRAN& #F ARRE%& BA%ED #N A %$B%E@$EN&L' FILED
"E&I&I#N F#R RE)IEW WI&H &HE %E!RE&AR' #F ($%&I!E AND BA%ED #N D#$B&%
EN6ENDERED B' &HE "#LI&I!AL !LIMA&E !#N%&I&$&E% 6RA)E AB$%E #F
DI%!RE&I#N. * We ne1ert,e/ess find +ra1e a-use of discretion in t,e assai/ed actions of (ud+e
An+,ad. (ud+e An+,ad seemed a /itt/e too ea+er of dismissin+ t,e crimina/ cases a+ainst t,e
petitioners. First3 ,e 2uas,ed t,e standin+ warrant of arrest issued -. ,is predecessor -ecause of a
su-se2uent/. fi/ed appea/ to t,e %ecretar. of (ustice3 and -ecause of ,is dou-ts on t,e e;istence of
pro-a-/e cause due to t,e po/itica/ c/imate in t,e cit.. %econd3 after t,e %ecretar. of (ustice affirmed t,e
prosecutor<s reso/ution3 ,e dismissed t,e crimina/ cases on t,e -asis of a decision of t,is !ourt in
anot,er case wit, different accused3 doin+ so two da.s after t,is !ourt reso/1ed to issue a temporar.
restrainin+ order a+ainst furt,er proceedin+ wit, t,e case. After (ud+e &uma/iuan issued warrants for
t,e arrest of petitioners3 petitioner Miranda appea/ed t,e assistant prosecutor<s reso/ution -efore t,e
%ecretar. of (ustice. (ud+e An+,ad3 s,ort/. after assumin+ office3 2uas,ed t,e warrant of arrest on t,e
-asis of said appea/. Accordin+ to (ud+e An+,ad3 C. . . prudence dictates =t,at> and -ecause of comit.3 a
deferment of t,e proceedin+s is -ut proper.C @uas,a/ on t,is -asis is +ra1e a-use of discretion. It is
inconcei1a-/e to c,ar+e (ud+e &uma/iuan as /ac4in+ in prudence and o-/i1ious to comit. w,en ,e
issued t,e warrants of arrest a+ainst petitioners 0ust -ecause t,e petitioners mi+,t3 in t,e future3 appea/
t,e assistant prosecutor<s reso/ution to t,e %ecretar. of (ustice. But e1en if t,e petition for re1iew was
fi/ed -efore t,e issuance of t,e warrants of arrest3 t,e fact remains t,at t,e pendenc. of a petition for
t,e re1iew of t,e prosecutor<s reso/ution is not a +round to 2uas, t,e warrants of arrest.
D.ID. ID. ID. AN E:HA$%&I)E DEBA&E #N &HE !REDIBILI&' #F A WI&NE%% I% N#&
WI&HIN &HE "R#)IN!E #F &HE DE&ERMINA&I#N #F "R#BABLE !A$%E. * We can
conc/ude t,at t,ere was no 1io/ation on t,e part of (ud+e &uma/iuan of Artic/e III3 %ection 53 of t,e
!onstitution. (ud+e An+,ad3 ,owe1er3 focused on t,e su-stanti1e part of said section3 i.e.3 t,e e;istence
of pro-a-/e cause. In fai/in+ to find pro-a-/e cause3 (ud+e An+,ad ru/ed t,at t,e confession of %"#5
Madera/ is incredi-/e for t,e fo//owin+ reasons8 =1> it was +i1en after a/most two .ears in t,e custod.
of t,e Nationa/ Bureau of In1esti+ation =5> it was +i1en -. someone w,o rendered ,imse/f
untrustwort,. for -ein+ a fu+iti1e for fi1e .ears =9> it was +i1en in e;c,an+e for an o-1ious reward of
disc,ar+e from t,e information and =?> it was +i1en durin+ t,e e/ection period amidst a Cpo/itica//.
c,ar+ed scenario w,ere C%antia+o !it. 1oters were pitted a+ainst eac, ot,er a/on+ t,e /ines of t,e
Miranda camp on one side and former !it. Ma.or Ame/ita %. Na1arro3 and a//e+ed/. t,at of DENR
%ecretar. He,erson A/1areE on t,e ot,er.C We painsta4in+/. went t,rou+, t,e records of t,e case and
found no reason to distur- t,e findin+s of pro-a-/e cause of (ud+e &uma/iuan. It is important to note
t,at an e;,austi1e de-ate on t,e credi-i/it. of a witness is not wit,in t,e pro1ince of t,e determination
of pro-a-/e cause. As we ,e/d in We--8 A findin+ of pro-a-/e cause needs on/. to rest on e1idence
s,owin+ t,at more /i4e/. t,an not a crime ,as -een committed and was committed -. t,e suspects.
"ro-a-/e cause need not -e -ased on c/ear and con1incin+ e1idence of +ui/t3 neit,er on e1idence
esta-/is,in+ +ui/t -e.ond reasona-/e dou-t and definite/.3 not on e1idence esta-/is,in+ a-so/ute
certaint. of +ui/t. As we// put in Brine+ar 1. $nited %tates3 w,i/e pro-a-/e cause demands more t,an
C-are suspicion3C it re2uires C/ess t,an e1idence w,ic, wou/d 0ustif. . . . con1iction.C A findin+ of
pro-a-/e cause mere/. -inds o1er t,e suspect to stand tria/. It is not a pronouncement of +ui/t. . . .
"ro-a-/e cause mere/. imp/ies pro-a-i/it. of +ui/t and s,ou/d -e determined in a summar. manner.
"re/iminar. in1esti+ation is not a part of tria/ . . .
F. ID. ID. ID. DI%MI%%IN6 A !RIMINAL !A%E #N &HE BA%I% #F A DE!I%I#N #F &HE
!#$R& IN AN#&HER !A%E WI&H DIFFEREN& A!!$%ED !#N%&I&$&E% 6RA)E AB$%E #F
DI%!RE&I#N. * (ud+e An+,ad ,ad no ri+,t to twist our decision and interpret it to t,e discredit of
%"#5 Madera/3 w,o was sti// at /ar+e w,en t,e e1idence of t,e prosecution in t,e LeaGo case was
presented. A decision3 e1en of t,is !ourt3 ac2uittin+ t,e accused t,erein of a crime cannot -e t,e -asis
of t,e dismissa/ of crimina/ case a+ainst different accused for t,e same crime. &,e -/under of (ud+e
An+,ad is e1en more pronounced -. t,e fact t,at our decision in LeaGo was -ased on reasona-/e dou-t.
We ne1er ru/ed in LeaGo t,at t,e crime did not ,appen we 0ust found t,at t,ere was reasona-/e dou-t
as to t,e +ui/t of t,e accused t,erein3 since t,e prosecution in t,at case re/ied on circumstantia/
e1idence3 w,ic, interestin+/. is not e1en t,e situation in t,e crimina/ cases of t,e petitioners in t,e case
at -ar as t,ere is ,ere an e.ewitness8 Rode/ Madera/. &,e accused in LeaGo furt,ermore ,ad no moti1e
to 4i// respondent &u/iao<s son3 w,ereas petitioners ,erein ,ad -een imp/icated in t,e testimon. of
respondent &u/iao -efore t,e %enate B/ue Ri--on !ommittee. It is preposterous to conc/ude t,at
-ecause of our findin+ of reasona-/e dou-t in LeaGo3 Cit is now -e.ond dou-t t,at Rode/ Madera/ made
untrut,fu/3 fa-ricated and per0ured statements and t,erefore t,e same is wit,out pro-a-/e 1a/ue.C #n
t,e contrar.3 if we are to permit t,e use of our decision in LeaGo3 an ac2uitta/ on t,e +round of
reasona-/e dou-t actua//. points to t,e pro-a-i/it. of t,e prosecution<s 1ersion of t,e facts t,erein. %uc,
pro-a-i/it. of +ui/t certain/. meets t,e criteria of pro-a-/e cause.
H. ID. ID. ID. ($D6E<% ABR$"& DI%MI%%AL #F INF#RMA&I#N% !REA&E% WILD
%$%"I!I#N% AB#$& HI% M#&I)E% IN D#IN6 %#. * We cannot /et unnoticed3 too3 (ud+e
An+,ad<s dismissa/ of t,e informations two da.s after we reso/1ed to issue3 upon t,e fi/in+ of a -ond3 a
temporar. restrainin+ order pro,i-itin+ ,im from furt,er proceedin+ wit, t,e case. &,e -ond was fi/ed
t,e da. after t,e informations were dismissed. W,i/e t,e dismissa/ of t,e case was a-/e to -eat t,e
effecti1it. date of t,e temporar. restrainin+ order3 suc, a-rupt dismissa/ of t,e informations =da.s after
t,is !ourt<s reso/1e to issue a &R# a+ainst (ud+e An+,ad> creates wi/d suspicions a-out t,e moti1es of
(ud+e An+,ad.
I. ID. ID. ID. N$LLIFI!A&I#N #F A "R#!EEDIN6 NE!E%%ARIL' !ARRIE% WI&H I& &HE
REIN%&A&EMEN& #F &HE #RDER% %E& A%IDE B' &HE N$LLIFIED "R#!EEDIN6. *
W,et,er t,e !ourt of Appea/s ordered t,e issuance of new warrants of arrest or mere/. ordered t,e
reinstatement of t,e warrants of arrest issued -. (ud+e &uma/iuan is mere/. a matter of scrupu/ous
semantics3 t,e s/i+,t inaccurac. w,ereof s,ou/d not -e a//owed to affect t,e dispositions on t,e merits3
especia//. in t,is case w,ere t,e ot,er dispositions of t,e !ourt of Appea/s point to t,e ot,er direction.
First/.3 t,e !ourt of Appea/s ,ad reinstated t,e 5B (une 5JJ1 #rder of (ud+e &uma/iuan3 w,ic, issued
t,e warrants of arrest. %econd/.3 t,e !ourt of Appea/s /i4ewise dec/ared t,e proceedin+s conducted -.
(ud+e An+,ad 1oid. !ertain/.3 t,e dec/aration of nu//it. of proceedin+s s,ou/d -e deemed to carr. wit,
it t,e reinstatement of t,e orders set aside -. t,e nu//ified proceedin+s. (ud+e An+,ad<s order 2uas,in+
t,e warrants of arrest ,ad -een nu//ified t,erefore t,ose warrants of arrest are ,encefort, deemed
un2uas,ed.
1J.ID. ID. ID. N# D#$BLE (E#"ARD' IN &HE REIN%&A&EMEN& #F A !RIMINAL !A%E
DI%MI%%ED BEF#RE ARRAI6NMEN&. * &,e reinstatement of a crimina/ case dismissed -efore
arrai+nment does not constitute dou-/e 0eopard.. Dou-/e 0eopard. cannot -e in1o4ed w,ere t,e
accused ,as not -een arrai+ned and it was upon ,is e;press motion t,at t,e case was dismissed.
&cEaA%
D E ! I % I # N
!HI!#ANAKARI#3 ( p8
&,is is a petition for re1iew on certiorari under Ru/e ?B of t,e Ru/es of !ourt3 assai/in+ t,e 1H
Decem-er 5JJ5 Decision 1 of t,e !ourt of Appea/s in !AA6.R. %" No. DFFFJ and its 15 (une 5JJ9
Reso/ution den.in+ petitioners< Motion for Reconsideration. &,e dispositi1e portion of t,e assai/ed
decision reads as fo//ows8
WHEREF#RE3 findin+ pu-/ic respondent (ud+e Anastacio D. An+,ad to ,a1e acted wit, +ra1e
a-use of discretion amountin+ to /ac4 or e;cess of 0urisdiction in issuin+ t,e assai/ed #rders3 t,e instant
petition for certiorari3 mandamus and pro,i-ition is ,ere-. 6RAN&ED and 6I)EN D$E !#$R%E3
and it is ,ere-. ordered8
1.&,e assai/ed (oint #rder dated Au+ust 1F3 5JJ13 #rder dated %eptem-er 513 5JJ13 (oint #rder
dated #cto-er 1D3 5JJ1 and (oint #rder dated No1em-er 1?3 5JJ1 dismissin+ t,e two =5> Informations
for Murder3 a// issued -. pu-/ic respondent (ud+e Anastacio D. An+,ad in !rimina/ !ases Nos. 9DA
9B59 and 9DA9B5? are ,ere-. RE)ER%ED and %E& A%IDE for ,a1in+ -een issued wit, +ra1e a-use of
discretion amountin+ to /ac4 or e;cess of 0urisdiction3 and anot,er entered $"H#LDIN63
AFFIRMIN6L3M and REIN%&A&IN6 t,e #rder dated (une 5B3 5JJ1 and (oint #rder dated (u/. D3 5JJ1
issued -. t,e t,en actin+ "residin+ (ud+e Wi/fredo &uma/iuan
5.!rimina/ !ases Nos. 9DA9B59 and 9DA9B5? are ,ere-. ordered REIN%&A&ED in t,e doc4et of
acti1e crimina/ cases of Branc, 9D of t,e Re+iona/ &ria/ !ourt of %antia+o !it.3 Isa-e/a and
9. "u-/ic respondent (ud+e Anastacio D. An+,ad is DIRE!&ED to I%%$E fort,wit, Warrants of
Arrest for t,e appre,ension of pri1ate respondents (ose C"empeC Miranda3 %"#9 A/-erto ". Da/macio3
"#9 Romeo B. #con and accused Rode/ &. Madera/ in said !rimina/ !ases Nos. 9DA9B59 and 9DA9B5?.
&,e factua/ and procedura/ antecedents of t,e case are as fo//ows8
#n H Marc, 1IID3 two -urnt cada1ers were disco1ered in "uro4 Ni-u/an3 Ramon3 Isa-e/a3
w,ic, were /ater identified as t,e dead -odies of )icente BauEon and E/iEer &u/iao3 son of pri1ate
respondent )ir+i/io &u/iao w,o is now under t,e witness protection pro+ram.
&wo informations for murder were fi/ed a+ainst %"#1 Wi/fredo LeaGo3 %"#1 Ferdinand
MarEan3 %"#1 Ru-en B. A+ustin3 %"#5 A/e;ander Micu3 %"#5 Rode/ Madera/3 and %"#? Emi/io
RamireE in t,e Re+iona/ &ria/ !ourt =R&!> of %antia+o !it..
&,e 1enue was /ater transferred to Mani/a. #n 55 Apri/ 1III3 t,e R&! of Mani/a con1icted a//
of t,e accused and sentenced t,em to two counts of rec/usion perpetua e;cept %"#5 Madera/ w,o was
.et to -e arrai+ned at t,at time3 -ein+ at /ar+e. &,e case was appea/ed to t,is !ourt on automatic re1iew
w,ere we3 on I #cto-er 5JJ13 ac2uitted t,e accused t,erein on t,e +round of reasona-/e dou-t.
%ometime in %eptem-er 1III3 %"#5 Madera/ was arrested. #n 5F Apri/ 5JJ13 ,e e;ecuted a
sworn confession and identified petitioners (ose !. Miranda3 "#9 Romeo B. #con3 and %"#9 A/-erto
". Da/macio3 a certain Bo.et de/a !ruE and Amado Doe3 as t,e persons responsi-/e for t,e deat,s of
)icente BauEon and E/iEer &u/iao.
Respondent &u/iao fi/ed a crimina/ comp/aint for murder a+ainst petitioners3 Bo.et de/a !ruE3
and Amado Doe3 and su-mitted t,e sworn confession of %"#5 Madera/. #n 5B (une 5JJ13 Actin+
"residin+ (ud+e Wi/fredo &uma/iuan issued warrants of arrest a+ainst petitioners and %"#5 Madera/.
#n 5I (une 5JJ13 petitioners fi/ed an ur+ent motion to comp/ete pre/iminar. in1esti+ation3 to
rein1esti+ate3 and to reca// andNor 2uas, t,e warrants of arrest.
In t,e ,earin+ of t,e ur+ent motion on D (u/. 5JJ13 (ud+e &uma/iuan noted t,e a-sence of
petitioners and issued a (oint #rder den.in+ said ur+ent motion on t,e +round t,at3 since t,e court did
not ac2uire 0urisdiction o1er t,eir persons3 t,e motion cannot -e proper/. ,eard -. t,e court. In t,e
meantime3 petitioners appea/ed t,e reso/ution of %tate "rosecutor Leo &. Re.es to t,e Department of
(ustice.
#n 1F Au+ust 5JJ13 t,e new "residin+ (ud+e Anastacio D. An+,ad too4 o1er t,e case and
issued a (oint #rder re1ersin+ t,e (oint #rder of (ud+e &uma/iuan. !onse2uent/.3 ,e ordered t,e
cance//ation of t,e warrant of arrest issued a+ainst petitioner Miranda. He /i4ewise app/ied t,is #rder to
petitioners #con and Da/macio in an #rder dated 51 %eptem-er 5JJ1. %tate "rosecutor Leo %. Re.es
and respondent &u/iao mo1ed for t,e reconsideration of t,e said (oint #rder and pra.ed for t,e
in,i-ition of (ud+e An+,ad3 -ut t,e motion for reconsideration was denied in a (oint #rder dated 1D
#cto-er 5JJ1 and t,e pra.er for in,i-ition was denied in a (oint #rder dated 55 #cto-er 5JJ1.
#n 5B #cto-er 5JJ13 respondent &u/iao fi/ed a petition for certiorari3 mandamus and pro,i-ition
wit, t,is !ourt3 wit, pra.er for a &emporar. Restrainin+ #rder3 see4in+ to en0oin (ud+e An+,ad from
furt,er proceedin+ wit, t,e case3 and see4in+ to nu//if. t,e #rders and (oint #rders of (ud+e An+,ad
dated 1F Au+ust 5JJ13 51 %eptem-er 5JJ13 1D #cto-er 5JJ13 and 55 #cto-er 5JJ1.
#n 15 No1em-er 5JJ13 t,is !ourt issued a Reso/ution reso/1in+ to +rant t,e pra.er for a
temporar. restrainin+ order a+ainst (ud+e An+,ad from furt,er proceedin+ wit, t,e crimina/ cases.
%,ort/. after t,e aforesaid reso/ution3 (ud+e An+,ad issued a (oint #rder dated 1? No1em-er 5JJ1
dismissin+ t,e two Informations for murder a+ainst petitioners. #n 1I No1em-er 5JJ13 t,is !ourt too4
note of respondent<s cas, -ond e1idenced -. #.R. No. 1BI5?B95 dated 1B No1em-er 5JJ13 and issued
t,e temporar. restrainin+ order w,i/e referrin+ t,e petition to t,e !ourt of Appea/s for ad0udication on
t,e merits.
Respondent &u/iao fi/ed wit, t,is !ourt a Motion to !ite "u-/ic Respondent in !ontempt3
a//e+in+ t,at (ud+e An+,ad Cde/i-erate/. and wi//fu//. committed contempt of court w,en ,e issued on
1B No1em-er 5JJ1 t,e #rder dated 1? No1em-er 5JJ1 dismissin+ t,e informations for murder.C #n 51
No1em-er 5JJ13 we referred said motion to t,e !ourt of Appea/s in 1iew of t,e pre1ious referra/ to it
of respondent<s petition for certiorari3 pro,i-ition and mandamus.
#n 1H Decem-er 5JJ53 t,e !ourt of Appea/s rendered t,e assai/ed decision +rantin+ t,e petition
and orderin+ t,e reinstatement of t,e crimina/ cases in t,e R&! of %antia+o !it.3 as we// as t,e
issuance of warrants of arrest a+ainst petitioners and %"#5 Madera/. "etitioners mo1ed for a
reconsideration of t,is Decision3 -ut t,e same was denied in a Reso/ution dated 15 (une 5JJ9.
Hence3 t,is petition.
&,e facts of t,e case -ein+ undisputed3 petitioners -rin+ fort, to t,is !ourt t,e fo//owin+
assi+nments of error8
FIR%& A%%I6NMEN& #F ERR#R
Wit, a// due respect3 t,e Honora-/e !ourt of Appea/s +ra1e/. erred in re1ersin+ and settin+
aside t,e (oint #rder of (ud+e Anastacio D. An+,ad dated Au+ust 1F3 5JJ13 %eptem-er 513 5JJ13
#cto-er 1D3 5JJ1 and No1em-er 1?3 5JJ1 issued in crimina/ cases num-ered 9DA9B59 and 9DA9B5?
and3 erred in up,o/din+3 affirmin+ and reinstatin+ t,e #rder dated (u/. D3 5JJ1 issued -. t,en Actin+
"residin+ (ud+e Wi/fredo &uma/iuan3 on t,e a//e+ed ru/e t,at an accused cannot see4 an. 0udicia/ re/ief
if ,e does not su-mit ,is person to t,e 0urisdiction of t,e court.
%E!#ND A%%I6NMEN& #F ERR#R
Wit, a// due respect3 t,e Honora-/e !ourt of Appea/s +ra1e/. erred in directin+ t,e
reinstatement of !rimina/ !ases No. 9DA9B59 and 9DA9B5? in t,e doc4et of Acti1e !rimina/ !ases of
Branc, 9D of t,e Re+iona/ &ria/ !ourt of %antia+o !it.3 ",i/ippines3 and in orderin+ t,e pu-/ic
respondent to reAissue t,e warrants of arrest a+ainst ,erein petitioners.
&HIRD A%%I6NMEN& #F ERR#R
Wit a// due respect3 t,e Honora-/e !ourt of Appea/s committed a re1ersi-/e error in orderin+ t,e
reinstatement of !rimina/ !ases No. 9DA9B59 and No. 9DA9B5? in t,e doc4et of acti1e crimina/ cases of
Branc, 9D of t,e re+iona/ tria/ court of %antia+o !it.3 ",i/ippines3 and in orderin+ t,e pu-/ic
respondent to issue warrants of arrest a+ainst ,erein petitioners3 t,e order of dismissa/ issued t,erein
,a1in+ -ecome fina/ and e;ecutor..
Ad0udication of a motion to 2uas, a
warrant of arrest re2uires neit,er
0urisdiction o1er t,e person of t,e
accused3 nor custod. of /aw o1er t,e
-od. of t,e accused.
&,e first assi+nment of error -rou+,t fort, -. t,e petitioner dea/s wit, t,e !ourt of Appea/s<
ru/in+ t,at8
LAMn accused cannot see4 an. 0udicia/ re/ief if ,e does not su-mit ,is person to t,e 0urisdiction
of t,e court. (urisdiction o1er t,e person of t,e accused ma. -e ac2uired eit,er t,rou+, compu/sor.
process3 suc, as warrant of arrest3 or t,rou+, ,is 1o/untar. appearance3 suc, as w,en ,e surrenders to
t,e po/ice or to t,e court. It is on/. w,en t,e court ,as a/read. ac2uired 0urisdiction o1er ,is person t,at
an accused ma. in1o4e t,e processes of t,e court ="ete M. "ico 1s. A/fonso ). !om-in+3 (r.3 A.M. No.
R&(AI1AFD?3 No1em-er D3 1II5>. &,us3 an accused must first -e p/aced in t,e custod. of t,e /aw -efore
t,e court ma. 1a/id/. act on ,is petition for 0udicia/ re/iefs.
from t,is premise3 t,e !ourt of Appea/s ru/ed t,at petitioners Miranda3 #con and Da/macio
cannot see4 an. 0udicia/ re/ief since t,e. were not .et arrested or ot,erwise depri1ed of t,eir /i-ert. at
t,e time t,e. fi/ed t,eir C$r+ent Motion to comp/ete pre/iminar. in1esti+ation to rein1esti+ate to
reca// andNor 2uas, warrants of arrest.C
"etitioners counter t,e findin+ of t,e !ourt of Appea/s -. ar+uin+ t,at 0urisdiction o1er t,e
person of t,e accused is re2uired on/. in app/ications for -ai/. Furt,ermore3 petitioners ar+ue3 assumin+
t,at suc, 0urisdiction o1er t,eir person is re2uired -efore t,e court can act on t,eir motion to 2uas, t,e
warrant for t,eir arrest3 suc, 0urisdiction o1er t,eir person was a/read. ac2uired -. t,e court -. t,eir
fi/in+ of t,e a-o1e $r+ent Motion.
In ar+uin+ t,at 0urisdiction o1er t,e person is re2uired on/. in t,e ad0udication of app/ications
for -ai/3 petitioners 2uote Retired !ourt of Appea/s (ustice #scar Herrera8
E;cept in app/ications for -ai/3 it is not necessar. for t,e court to first ac2uire 0urisdiction o1er
t,e person of t,e accused to dismiss t,e case or +rant ot,er re/ief. &,e outri+,t dismissa/ of t,e case
e1en -efore t,e court ac2uires 0urisdiction o1er t,e person of t,e accused is aut,oriEed under %ection
D=a>3 Ru/e 115 of t,e Re1ised Ru/es of !rimina/ "rocedure and t,e Re1ised Ru/es on %ummar.
"rocedure =%ec. 15a>. In A//ado 1s. Dio4no =595 %!RA 1I5>3 t,e case was dismissed on motion of t,e
accused for /ac4 of pro-a-/e cause wit,out t,e accused ,a1in+ -een arrested. In "au/ Ro-erts 1s. !ourt
of Appea/s =5B? %!RA 9JF>3 t,e !ourt was ordered to ,o/d t,e issuance of a warrant of arrest in
a-e.ance pendin+ re1iew -. t,e %ecretar. of (ustice. And in Lacson 1s. E;ecuti1e %ecretar. =9J1
%!RA 1J5 B >3 t,e !ourt ordered t,e case transferred from t,e %andi+an-a.an to t,e R&! w,ic,
e1entua//. ordered t,e dismissa/ of t,e case for /ac4 of pro-a-/e cause.
In ar+uin+3 on t,e ot,er ,and3 t,at 0urisdiction o1er t,eir person was a/read. ac2uired -. t,eir
fi/in+ of t,e a-o1e $r+ent Motion3 petitioners in1o4e our pronouncement3 t,rou+, (ustice F/orenE D.
Re+a/ado3 in %antia+o 1. )as2ueE F 8
&,e 1o/untar. appearance of t,e accused3 w,ere-. t,e court ac2uires 0urisdiction o1er ,is
person3 is accomp/is,ed eit,er -. ,is p/eadin+ to t,e merits =suc, as -. fi/in+ a motion to 2uas, or
ot,er p/eadin+s re2uirin+ t,e e;ercise of t,e court<s 0urisdiction t,ereo1er3 appearin+ for arrai+nment3
enterin+ tria/> or -. fi/in+ -ai/. #n t,e matter of -ai/3 since t,e same is intended to o-tain t,e
pro1isiona/ /i-ert. of t,e accused3 as a ru/e t,e same cannot -e posted -efore custod. of t,e accused
,as -een ac2uired -. t,e 0udicia/ aut,orities eit,er -. ,is arrest or 1o/untar. surrender.
#ur pronouncement in %antia+o s,ows a distinction -etween custod. of t,e /aw and 0urisdiction
o1er t,e person. !ustod. of t,e /aw is re2uired -efore t,e court can act upon t,e app/ication for -ai/3
-ut is not re2uired for t,e ad0udication of ot,er re/iefs sou+,t -. t,e defendant w,ere t,e mere
app/ication t,erefor constitutes a wai1er of t,e defense of /ac4 of 0urisdiction o1er t,e person of t,e
accused. H !ustod. of t,e /aw is accomp/is,ed eit,er -. arrest or 1o/untar. surrender3 I w,i/e
0urisdiction o1er t,e person of t,e accused is ac2uired upon ,is arrest or 1o/untar. appearance. 1J #ne
can -e under t,e custod. of t,e /aw -ut not .et su-0ect to t,e 0urisdiction of t,e court o1er ,is person3
suc, as w,en a person arrested -. 1irtue of a warrant fi/es a motion -efore arrai+nment to 2uas, t,e
warrant. #n t,e ot,er ,and3 one can -e su-0ect to t,e 0urisdiction of t,e court o1er ,is person3 and .et
not -e in t,e custod. of t,e /aw3 suc, as w,en an accused escapes custod. after ,is tria/ ,as
commenced. 11 Bein+ in t,e custod. of t,e /aw si+nifies restraint on t,e person3 w,o is t,ere-.
depri1ed of ,is own wi// and /i-ert.3 -indin+ ,im to -ecome o-edient to t,e wi// of t,e /aw. 15 !ustod.
of t,e /aw is /itera//. custod. o1er t,e -od. of t,e accused. It inc/udes3 -ut is not /imited to3 detention.
&,e statement in "ico 1. (ud+e !om-on+3 (r.3 19 cited -. t,e !ourt of Appea/s s,ou/d not ,a1e
-een separated from t,e issue in t,at case3 w,ic, is t,e app/ication for admission to -ai/ of someone not
.et in t,e custod. of t,e /aw. &,e entire para+rap, of our pronouncement in "ico reads8
A person app/.in+ for admission to -ai/ must -e in t,e custod. of t,e /aw or ot,erwise depri1ed
of ,is /i-ert.. A person w,o ,as not su-mitted ,imse/f to t,e 0urisdiction of t,e court ,as no ri+,t to
in1o4e t,e processes of t,at court. Respondent (ud+e s,ou/d ,a1e di/i+ent/. ascertained t,e
w,erea-outs of t,e app/icant and t,at ,e indeed ,ad 0urisdiction o1er t,e -od. of t,e accused -efore
considerin+ t,e app/ication for -ai/. 1?
W,i/e we stand -. our a-o1e pronouncement in "ico insofar as it concerns -ai/3 we c/arif. t,at3
as a +enera/ ru/e3 one w,o see4s an affirmati1e re/ief is deemed to ,a1e su-mitted to t,e 0urisdiction of
t,e court. 1B As we ,e/d in t,e aforecited case of %antia+o3 see4in+ an affirmati1e re/ief in court3
w,et,er in ci1i/ or crimina/ proceedin+s3 constitutes 1o/untar. appearance. H&D!A%
"ico dea/s wit, an app/ication for -ai/3 w,ere t,ere is t,e specia/ re2uirement of t,e app/icant
-ein+ in t,e custod. of t,e /aw. In Fe/iciano 1. "asico/an3 1D we ,e/d t,at CLtM,e purpose of -ai/ is to
secure one<s re/ease and it wou/d -e incon+ruous to +rant -ai/ to one w,o is free. &,us3 <-ai/ is t,e
securit. re2uired and +i1en for t,e re/ease of a person w,o is in t,e custod. of /aw.<C &,e rationa/e
-e,ind t,is specia/ ru/e on -ai/ is t,at it discoura+es and pre1ents resort to t,e former pernicious
practice w,erein t,e accused cou/d 0ust send anot,er in ,is stead to post ,is -ai/3 wit,out reco+niEin+
t,e 0urisdiction of t,e court -. ,is persona/ appearance t,erein and comp/iance wit, t,e re2uirements
t,erefor.
&,ere is3 ,owe1er3 an e;ception to t,e ru/e t,at fi/in+ p/eadin+s see4in+ affirmati1e re/ief
constitutes 1o/untar. appearance3 and t,e conse2uent su-mission of one<s person to t,e 0urisdiction of
t,e court. &,is is in t,e case of p/eadin+s w,ose pra.er is precise/. for t,e a1oidance of t,e 0urisdiction
of t,e court3 w,ic, on/. /eads to a specia/ appearance. &,ese p/eadin+s are8 =1> in ci1i/ cases3 motions
to dismiss on t,e +round of /ac4 of 0urisdiction o1er t,e person of t,e defendant3 w,et,er or not ot,er
+rounds for dismissa/ are inc/uded 1H =5> in crimina/ cases3 motions to 2uas, a comp/aint on t,e
+round of /ac4 of 0urisdiction o1er t,e person of t,e accused and =9> motions to 2uas, a warrant of
arrest. &,e first two are conse2uences of t,e fact t,at fai/ure to fi/e t,em wou/d constitute a wai1er of
t,e defense of /ac4 of 0urisdiction o1er t,e person. &,e t,ird is a conse2uence of t,e fact t,at it is t,e
1er. /e+a/it. of t,e court process forcin+ t,e su-mission of t,e person of t,e accused t,at is t,e 1er.
issue in a motion to 2uas, a warrant of arrest.
&o recapitu/ate w,at we ,a1e discussed so far3 in crimina/ cases3 0urisdiction o1er t,e person of
t,e accused is deemed wai1ed -. t,e accused w,en ,e fi/es an. p/eadin+ see4in+ an affirmati1e re/ief3
e;cept in cases w,en ,e in1o4es t,e specia/ 0urisdiction of t,e court -. impu+nin+ suc, 0urisdiction
o1er ,is person. &,erefore3 in narrow cases in1o/1in+ specia/ appearances3 an accused can in1o4e t,e
processes of t,e court e1en t,ou+, t,ere is neit,er 0urisdiction o1er t,e person nor custod. of t,e /aw.
Howe1er3 if a person in1o4in+ t,e specia/ 0urisdiction of t,e court app/ies for -ai/3 ,e must first su-mit
,imse/f to t,e custod. of t,e /aw.
In cases not in1o/1in+ t,e soAca//ed specia/ appearance3 t,e +enera/ ru/e app/ies3 i.e.3 t,e accused
is deemed to ,a1e su-mitted ,imse/f to t,e 0urisdiction of t,e court upon see4in+ affirmati1e re/ief.
Notwit,standin+ t,is3 t,ere is no re2uirement for ,im to -e in t,e custod. of t,e /aw. &,e fo//owin+
cases -est i//ustrate t,is point3 w,ere we +ranted 1arious re/iefs to accused w,o were not in t,e custod.
of t,e /aw3 -ut were deemed to ,a1e p/aced t,eir persons under t,e 0urisdiction of t,e court. Note t,at
none of t,ese cases in1o/1e t,e app/ication for -ai/3 nor a motion to 2uas, an information due to /ac4 of
0urisdiction o1er t,e person3 nor a motion to 2uas, a warrant of arrest8
1. In A//ado 1. Dio4no3 1I on t,e pra.er of t,e accused in a petition for certiorari on t,e +round
of /ac4 of pro-a-/e cause3 we issued a temporar. restrainin+ order en0oinin+ "A!! from enforcin+ t,e
warrant of arrest and t,e respondent 0ud+e t,erein from furt,er proceedin+ wit, t,e case and3 instead3 to
e/e1ate t,e records to us.
5. In Ro-erts3 (r. 1. !ourt of Appea/s3 5J upon t,e accused<s Motion to %uspend "roceedin+s and
to Ho/d in A-e.ance Issuance of Warrants of Arrest on t,e +round t,at t,e. fi/ed a "etition for Re1iew
wit, t,e Department of (ustice3 we directed respondent 0ud+e t,erein to cease and desist from furt,er
proceedin+ wit, t,e crimina/ case and to defer t,e issuance of warrants of arrests a+ainst t,e accused.
9.In Lacson 1. E;ecuti1e %ecretar.3 51 on t,e pra.er of t,e accused in a petition for certiorari on
t,e +round of /ac4 of 0urisdiction on t,e part of t,e %andi+an-a.an3 we directed t,e %andi+an-a.an to
transfer t,e crimina/ cases to t,e Re+iona/ &ria/ !ourt e1en -efore t,e issuance of t,e warrants of
arrest.
We ,o/d t,at t,e circumstances forcin+ us to re2uire custod. of t,e /aw in app/ications for -ai/
are not present in motions to 2uas, t,e warrant of arrest. If we a//ow t,e +rantin+ of -ai/ to persons not
in t,e custod. of t,e /aw3 it is foreseea-/e t,at man. persons w,o can afford t,e -ai/ wi// remain at
/ar+e3 and cou/d e/ude -ein+ ,e/d to answer for t,e commission of t,e offense if e1er ,e is pro1en
+ui/t.. #n t,e ot,er ,and3 if we a//ow t,e 2uas,a/ of warrants of arrest to persons not in t,e custod. of
t,e /aw3 it wou/d -e 1er. rare t,at a person not +enuine/. entit/ed to /i-ert. wou/d remain scotAfree.
&,is is -ecause it is t,e same 0ud+e w,o issued t,e warrant of arrest w,o wi// decide w,et,er or not ,e
fo//owed t,e !onstitution in ,is determination of pro-a-/e cause3 and ,e can easi/. den. t,e motion to
2uas, if ,e rea//. did find pro-a-/e cause after persona//. e;aminin+ t,e records of t,e case.
Moreo1er3 pursuant to t,e presumption of re+u/arit. of officia/ functions3 t,e warrant continues
in force and effect unti/ it is 2uas,ed and t,erefore can sti// -e enforced on an. da. and at an. time of
t,e da. and ni+,t. 55 Furt,ermore3 t,e continued a-sence of t,e accused can -e ta4en a+ainst ,im in
t,e determination of pro-a-/e cause3 since f/i+,t is indicati1e of +ui/t.
fine3 as muc, as it is incon+ruous to +rant -ai/ to one w,o is free3 it is /i4ewise incon+ruous to
re2uire one to surrender ,is freedom -efore assertin+ it. Human ri+,ts en0o. a ,i+,er preference in t,e
,ierarc,. of ri+,ts t,an propert. ri+,ts3 59 demandin+ t,at due process in t,e depri1ation of /i-ert.
must come -efore its ta4in+ and not after.
@uas,in+ a warrant of arrest -ased
on a su-se2uent/. fi/ed petition for
re1iew wit, t,e %ecretar. of (ustice
and -ased on dou-ts en+endered -.
t,e po/itica/ c/imate constitutes
+ra1e a-use of discretion.
We ne1ert,e/ess find +ra1e a-use of discretion in t,e assai/ed actions of (ud+e An+,ad. (ud+e
An+,ad seemed a /itt/e too ea+er of dismissin+ t,e crimina/ cases a+ainst t,e petitioners. First3 ,e
2uas,ed t,e standin+ warrant of arrest issued -. ,is predecessor -ecause of a su-se2uent/. fi/ed appea/
to t,e %ecretar. of (ustice3 and -ecause of ,is dou-ts on t,e e;istence of pro-a-/e cause due to t,e
po/itica/ c/imate in t,e cit.. %econd3 after t,e %ecretar. of (ustice affirmed t,e prosecutor<s reso/ution3
,e dismissed t,e crimina/ cases on t,e -asis of a decision of t,is !ourt in anot,er case wit, different
accused3 doin+ so two da.s after t,is !ourt reso/1ed to issue a temporar. restrainin+ order a+ainst
furt,er proceedin+ wit, t,e case.
After (ud+e &uma/iuan issued warrants for t,e arrest of petitioners3 petitioner Miranda appea/ed
t,e assistant prosecutor<s reso/ution -efore t,e %ecretar. of (ustice. (ud+e An+,ad3 s,ort/. after
assumin+ office3 2uas,ed t,e warrant of arrest on t,e -asis of said appea/. Accordin+ to (ud+e An+,ad3
C. . . prudence dictates =t,at> and -ecause of comit.3 a deferment of t,e proceedin+s is -ut proper.C 5?
@uas,a/ on t,is -asis is +ra1e a-use of discretion. It is inconcei1a-/e to c,ar+e (ud+e &uma/iuan as
/ac4in+ in prudence and o-/i1ious to comit. w,en ,e issued t,e warrants of arrest a+ainst petitioners
0ust -ecause t,e petitioners mi+,t3 in t,e future3 appea/ t,e assistant prosecutor<s reso/ution to t,e
%ecretar. of (ustice. But e1en if t,e petition for re1iew was fi/ed -efore t,e issuance of t,e warrants of
arrest3 t,e fact remains t,at t,e pendenc. of a petition for t,e re1iew of t,e prosecutor<s reso/ution is
not a +round to 2uas, t,e warrants of arrest.
In We-- 1. de Leon3 5B we ,e/d t,at t,e petitioners t,erein cannot assai/ as premature t,e fi/in+
of t,e information in court a+ainst t,em on t,e +round t,at t,e. sti// ,a1e t,e ri+,t to appea/ t,e
ad1erse reso/ution of t,e D#( "ane/ to t,e %ecretar. of (ustice. %imi/ar/.3 t,e issuance of warrants of
arrest a+ainst petitioners ,erein s,ou/d not ,a1e -een 2uas,ed as premature on t,e same +round.
&,e ot,er +round in1o4ed -. (ud+e An+,ad for t,e 2uas,a/ of t,e warrant of arrest is in order if
true8 1io/ation of t,e !onstitution. Hence3 (ud+e An+,ad as4ed and reso/1ed t,e 2uestion8
In t,ese dou-/e murder cases3 did t,is !ourt comp/. or ad,ere to t,e a-o1eA2uoted
constitutiona/ proscription3 w,ic, is %ec. 53 Artic/e III Bi// of Ri+,ts to %ec. D=a>3 Ru/e 1153 Ru/es of
!rimina/ "rocedure and to t,e a-o1eAcited decisiona/ casesO &o t,is 2uer. or issue3 after a deep perusa/
of t,e ar+uments raised3 t,is !ourt3 t,rou+, LitsM re+u/ar "residin+ (ud+e3 finds merit in t,e contention
of ,erein accusedAmo1ant3 (ose C"empeC Miranda. 5D
(ud+e An+,ad is referrin+ to t,e fo//owin+ pro1ision of t,e !onstitution as ,a1in+ -een 1io/ated
-. (ud+e &uma/iuan8
%ec. 5.&,e ri+,t of t,e peop/e to -e secure in t,eir persons3 ,ouses3 papers and effects
a+ainst unreasona-/e searc,es and seiEures of w,ate1er nature and for an. purpose s,a// -e in1io/a-/e3
and no searc, warrant or warrant of arrest s,a// issue e;cept upon pro-a-/e cause to -e determined
persona//. -. t,e 0ud+e after e;amination under oat, or affirmation of t,e comp/ainant and t,e
witnesses ,e ma. produce3 and particu/ar/. descri-in+ t,e p/ace to -e searc,ed and t,e persons or
t,in+s to -e seiEed.
Howe1er3 after a carefu/ scrutin. of t,e records of t,e case3 inc/udin+ t,e supportin+ e1idence to t,e
reso/ution of t,e prosecutor in ,is determination of pro-a-/e cause3 we find t,at (ud+e An+,ad +ra1e/.
a-used ,is discretion.
Accordin+ to petitioners8
In t,is case3 t,e nu//it. of t,e order of (ud+e &uma/iuan3 for t,e arrest of t,e petitioners
is apparent from t,e face of t,e order itse/f3 w,ic, c/ear/. stated t,at t,e determination of pro-a-/e
cause was -ased on t,e certification3 under oat,3 of t,e fisca/ and not on a separate determination
persona//. made -. t,e (ud+e. No presumption of re+u/arit. cou/d -e drawn from t,e order since it
e;press/. and c/ear/. s,owed t,at it was -ased on/. on t,e fisca/<s certification. 5H
"etitioners< c/aim is untrue. (ud+e &uma/iuan<s (oint #rder contains no suc, indication t,at ,e
re/ied so/e/. on t,e prosecutor<s certification. &,e (oint #rder e1en indicated t,e contrar.8
$pon receipt of t,e information and reso/ution of t,e prosecutor3 t,e !ourt proceeded to
determine t,e e;istence of a pro-a-/e cause -. persona//. e1a/uatin+ t,e records . . . . 5I
&,e records of t,e case s,ow t,at t,e prosecutor<s certification was accompanied -. supportin+
documents3 fo//owin+ t,e re2uirement under Lim3 %r. 1. Fe/i; 9J and "eop/e 1. Intin+. 91 &,e
supportin+ documents are t,e fo//owin+8
1.Reso/ution dated 51 (une 5JJ1 of %tate "rosecutor Leo %. Re.es
5.Affida1it dated 55 Ma. 5JJ1 of Modesto 6utierreE
9.Affida1it dated 1I Ma. 5JJ1 of Romeo B. #con
?.(oint !ounter Affida1it dated 59 Ma. 5JJ1 of Ma.or (ose !. Miranda and Re.na/do de /a
!ruE
B.Affida1it dated 1I Ma. 5JJ1 of A/-erto Da/macio
D. Decision dated 55 Apri/ 1III of t,e Re+iona/ &ria/ !ourt of Mani/a3 Branc, ?1 in !rimina/
!ase No. IFA1DJ9BB
F.%worn statement dated 5F Apri/ 5JJ1 of Rode/ Madera/
H. Information dated 55 (une 5JJ1
I. Affida1itAcomp/aint of )ir+i/io &u/iao and
1J.MedicoA/e+a/ Reports of t,e cada1ers of E/eEer &u/iao and )icente BuaEon. aE&ADI
Hence3 procedura//.3 we can conc/ude t,at t,ere was no 1io/ation on t,e part of (ud+e
&uma/iuan of Artic/e III3 %ection 53 of t,e !onstitution. (ud+e An+,ad3 ,owe1er3 focused on t,e
su-stanti1e part of said section3 i.e.3 t,e e;istence of pro-a-/e cause. In fai/in+ to find pro-a-/e cause3
(ud+e An+,ad ru/ed t,at t,e confession of %"#5 Madera/ is incredi-/e for t,e fo//owin+ reasons8 =1> it
was +i1en after a/most two .ears in t,e custod. of t,e Nationa/ Bureau of In1esti+ation =5> it was
+i1en -. someone w,o rendered ,imse/f untrustwort,. for -ein+ a fu+iti1e for fi1e .ears =9> it was
+i1en in e;c,an+e for an o-1ious reward of disc,ar+e from t,e information and =?> it was +i1en durin+
t,e e/ection period amidst a Cpo/itica//. c,ar+ed scenario w,ere C%antia+o !it. 1oters were pitted
a+ainst eac, ot,er a/on+ t,e /ines of t,e Miranda camp on one side and former !it. Ma.or Ame/ita %.
Na1arro3 and a//e+ed/. t,at of DENR %ecretar. He,erson A/1areE on t,e ot,er.C 95
We painsta4in+/. went t,rou+, t,e records of t,e case and found no reason to distur- t,e
findin+s of pro-a-/e cause of (ud+e &uma/iuan.
is important to note t,at an e;,austi1e de-ate on t,e credi-i/it. of a witness is not wit,in t,e
pro1ince of t,e determination of pro-a-/e cause. As we ,e/d in We-- 99 8
A findin+ of pro-a-/e cause needs on/. to rest on e1idence s,owin+ t,at more /i4e/. t,an not a
crime ,as -een committed and was committed -. t,e suspects. "ro-a-/e cause need not -e -ased on
c/ear and con1incin+ e1idence of +ui/t3 neit,er on e1idence esta-/is,in+ +ui/t -e.ond reasona-/e dou-t
and definite/.3 not on e1idence esta-/is,in+ a-so/ute certaint. of +ui/t. As we// put in Brine+ar 1.
$nited %tates3 w,i/e pro-a-/e cause demands more t,an C-are suspicion3C it re2uires C/ess t,an
e1idence w,ic, wou/d 0ustif. . . . con1iction.C A findin+ of pro-a-/e cause mere/. -inds o1er t,e
suspect to stand tria/. It is not a pronouncement of +ui/t.
. . . "ro-a-/e cause mere/. imp/ies pro-a-i/it. of +ui/t and s,ou/d -e determined in a summar.
manner. "re/iminar. in1esti+ation is not a part of tria/ . . . .
Dismissin+ a crimina/ case on t,e
-asis of a decision of t,is !ourt in
anot,er case wit, different accused
constitutes +ra1e a-use of
discretion.
(ud+e An+,ad ,ad 2uas,ed t,e warrant of arrest on t,e +round3 amon+ ot,er t,in+s3 t,at t,ere
was a petition for re1iew of t,e assistant prosecutor<s reso/ution -efore t,e %ecretar. of (ustice.
Howe1er3 after t,e %ecretar. of (ustice affirmed t,e prosecutor<s reso/ution3 (ud+e An+,ad summari/.
dismissed t,e two crimina/ cases a+ainst t,e petitioners on t,e -asis of t,e fo//owin+ e;p/anation8
Rode/ Madera/ was one of t,e accused in "eop/e 1s. Wi/fredo Leano3 et a/.3 R&!3 Branc, ?13
Mani/a3 and -ased from ,is sworn statements3 ,e pinpointed to Mr. Miranda * t,e mastermind and
wit, ,im and t,e ot,er po/ice officers as t,e direct perpetrators3 t,e #cto-er I3 5JJ1 Decision of t,e
%upreme !ourt a-so/1in+ t,e fi1e cops of murder3 certain/. ma4es ,is sworn %tatements a Cnarration of
fa/se,ood and /iesC and t,at -ecause of t,e decision ac2uittin+ said officers Cw,o were /i4ewise fa/se/.
/in4ed -. said Rode/ Madera/ in ,is Apri/ 5F3 5JJ1 statements3 it is now -e.ond dou-t t,at Rode/
Madera/ made untrut,fu/3 fa-ricated and per0ured statements and t,erefore t,e same is wit,out
pro-a-/e 1a/ue.C &,is !ourt a+rees wit, t,e defense<s 1iews. Indeed3 of w,at use is Madera/<s
statements w,en t,e %upreme !ourt re0ected t,e prosecution<s e1idence presented and adduced in
!rimina/ !ase No. IFA1DJ9BB. Rode/ Madera/ is supposed to turn state witness in t,ese two =5> cases
-ut wit, t,e %upreme !ourt decision ad1erted to3 t,e pro-ati1e 1a/ue of ,is statements is practica//. ni/.
;;; ;;; ;;;
&,is !ourt finds merit to t,e manifestation of t,e accused Miranda dated #cto-er 1H3 5JJ13
pra.in+ for t,e summar. dismissa/ of t,e two =5> murder c,ar+es in 1iew of t,e /atest decision of t,e
%upreme !ourt in "eop/e of t,e ",i/ippines 1s. Wi/fredo LeaGo3 et a/.3 6.R. No. 19HHD3 ac2uittin+ t,e
accused t,erein and in effect disre+ardin+ a// t,e e1idence presented -. t,e prosecution in t,at case.
Accordin+/.3 t,e two =5> informations LforM murder fi/ed a+ainst (ose Miranda are ordered dismissed.
is a c/ear case of a-use of discretion. (ud+e An+,ad ,ad no ri+,t to twist our decision and
interpret it to t,e discredit of %"#5 Madera/3 w,o was sti// at /ar+e w,en t,e e1idence of t,e
prosecution in t,e LeaGo case was presented. A decision3 e1en of t,is !ourt3 ac2uittin+ t,e accused
t,erein of a crime cannot -e t,e -asis of t,e dismissa/ of crimina/ case a+ainst different accused for t,e
same crime. &,e -/under of (ud+e An+,ad is e1en more pronounced -. t,e fact t,at our decision in
LeaGo was -ased on reasona-/e dou-t. We ne1er ru/ed in LeaGo t,at t,e crime did not ,appen we 0ust
found t,at t,ere was reasona-/e dou-t as to t,e +ui/t of t,e accused t,erein3 since t,e prosecution in
t,at case re/ied on circumstantia/ e1idence3 w,ic, interestin+/. is not e1en t,e situation in t,e crimina/
cases of t,e petitioners in t,e case at -ar as t,ere is ,ere an e.ewitness8 Rode/ Madera/. &,e accused in
LeaGo furt,ermore ,ad no moti1e to 4i// respondent &u/iao<s son3 w,ereas petitioners ,erein ,ad -een
imp/icated in t,e testimon. of respondent &u/iao -efore t,e %enate B/ue Ri--on !ommittee.
It is preposterous to conc/ude t,at -ecause of our findin+ of reasona-/e dou-t in LeaGo3 Cit is
now -e.ond dou-t t,at Rode/ Madera/ made untrut,fu/3 fa-ricated and per0ured statements and
t,erefore t,e same is wit,out pro-a-/e 1a/ue.C 9B #n t,e contrar.3 if we are to permit t,e use of our
decision in LeaGo3 an ac2uitta/ on t,e +round of reasona-/e dou-t actua//. points to t,e pro-a-i/it. of
t,e prosecution<s 1ersion of t,e facts t,erein. %uc, pro-a-i/it. of +ui/t certain/. meets t,e criteria of
pro-a-/e cause.
We cannot /et unnoticed3 too3 (ud+e An+,ad<s dismissa/ of t,e informations two da.s after we
reso/1ed to issue3 upon t,e fi/in+ of a -ond3 a temporar. restrainin+ order pro,i-itin+ ,im from furt,er
proceedin+ wit, t,e case. &,e -ond was fi/ed t,e da. after t,e informations were dismissed. W,i/e t,e
dismissa/ of t,e case was a-/e to -eat t,e effecti1it. date of t,e temporar. restrainin+ order3 suc, a-rupt
dismissa/ of t,e informations =da.s after t,is !ourt<s reso/1e to issue a &R# a+ainst (ud+e An+,ad>
creates wi/d suspicions a-out t,e moti1es of (ud+e An+,ad.
Nu//ification of a proceedin+
necessari/. carries wit, it t,e
reinstatement of t,e orders set
aside -. t,e nu//ified proceedin+.
In t,eir second assi+nment of error3 petitioners c/aim t,at t,e !ourt of Appea/s did not reca// or
reinstate t,e warrants of arrest issued -. (ud+e &uma/iuan3 -ut instead directed (ud+e An+,ad to issue
apparent/. new warrants of arrest. 9D Accordin+ to t,e petitioners3 it was an error for t,e !ourt of
Appea/s to ,a1e done so3 wit,out a persona/ determination of pro-a-/e cause.
We disa+ree. W,et,er t,e !ourt of Appea/s ordered t,e issuance of new warrants of arrest or
mere/. ordered t,e reinstatement of t,e warrants of arrest issued -. (ud+e &uma/iuan is mere/. a matter
of scrupu/ous semantics3 t,e s/i+,t inaccurac. w,ereof s,ou/d not -e a//owed to affect t,e dispositions
on t,e merits3 especia//. in t,is case w,ere t,e ot,er dispositions of t,e !ourt of Appea/s point to t,e
ot,er direction. First/.3 t,e !ourt of Appea/s ,ad reinstated t,e 5B (une 5JJ1 #rder of (ud+e
&uma/iuan3 9F w,ic, issued t,e warrants of arrest. %econd/.3 t,e !ourt of Appea/s /i4ewise dec/ared
t,e proceedin+s conducted -. (ud+e An+,ad 1oid. !ertain/.3 t,e dec/aration of nu//it. of proceedin+s
s,ou/d -e deemed to carr. wit, it t,e reinstatement of t,e orders set aside -. t,e nu//ified proceedin+s.
(ud+e An+,ad<s order 2uas,in+ t,e warrants of arrest ,ad -een nu//ified t,erefore t,ose warrants of
arrest are ,encefort, deemed un2uas,ed.
E1en if3 ,owe1er3 t,e !ourt of Appea/s ,ad directed t,e issuance of new warrants of arrest
-ased on a determination of pro-a-/e cause3 it wou/d ,a1e -een /e+a//. permissi-/e for t,em to do so.
&,e records of t,e pre/iminar. in1esti+ation ,ad -een a1ai/a-/e to t,e !ourt of Appea/s3 and are a/so
a1ai/a-/e to t,is !ourt3 a//owin+ -ot, t,e !ourt of Appea/s and t,is !ourt to persona//. e;amine t,e
records of t,e case and not mere/. re/. on t,e certification of t,e prosecutor. As we ,a1e ru/ed in
A//ado 1. Dio4no and Ro-erts 1. !ourt of Appea/s3 t,e determination of pro-a-/e cause does not rest on
a su-0ecti1e criteria. As we ,ad reso/1ed in t,ose cases to o1erru/e t,e findin+ of pro-a-/e cause of t,e
0ud+es t,erein on t,e +round of +ra1e a-use of discretion3 in t,e same 1ein3 we can a/so o1erru/e t,e
decision of a 0ud+e re1ersin+ a findin+ of pro-a-/e cause3 a/so on t,e +round of +ra1e a-use of
discretion.
&,ere is no dou-/e 0eopard. in t,e
reinstatement of a crimina/ case
dismissed -efore arrai+nment
In t,eir t,ird assi+nment of error3 petitioners c/aim t,at t,e !ourt of Appea/s committed a
re1ersi-/e error in orderin+ t,e reinstatement of !rimina/ !ases No. 9DA9B59 and No. 9DA9B5?3 a//e+in+
t,at t,e order of dismissa/ issued t,erein ,ad -ecome fina/ and e;ecutor.. Accordin+ to petitioners8
It is a/so wort,. to point out at t,is 0uncture t,at t,e (oint #rder of (ud+e An+,ad dated
No1em-er 1?3 5JJ1 is N#& #NE of t,ose #rders w,ic, were assai/ed in t,e pri1ate respondent
&u/iao<s "etition for !ertiorari3 Mandamus and "ro,i-ition fi/ed -. t,e pri1ate respondent -efore t,e
!ourt of Appea/s. As carefu//. enumerated in t,e first pa+e of t,e assai/ed Decision3 on/. t,e fo//owin+
#rders issued -. (ud+e An+,ad were 2uestioned -. pri1ate respondent3 to wit8
1.>(oint #rder dated Au+ust 1F3 5JJ1
5.>#rder dated %eptem-er 513 5JJ1
9.> (oint #rder dated #cto-er 1D3 5JJ1 and
?.> (oint #rder dated #cto-er 553 5JJ1.
#-1ious/.3 t,e (oint #rder dated No1em-er 1?3 5JJ1 of (ud+e An+,ad3 w,ic, u/timate/.
dismissed !rimina/ !ases Nos. 9DA9B59 AND 9DA9B5? is N#& inc/uded in t,e /ist of t,e assai/ed
#rderN(oint #rders. Hence3 t,e !ourt of Appea/s s,ou/d not ,a1e passed upon t,e 1a/idit. or nu//it. of
t,e (oint #rder of No1em-er 1?3 5JJ1. 9H
"etitioners must ,a1e for+otten t,at respondent &u/iao<s "etition for !ertiorari3 "ro,i-ition and
Mandamus was fi/ed not wit, t,e !ourt of Appea/s3 -ut wit, t,is !ourt. &,e !ourt of Appea/s decided
t,e case -ecause we referred t,e same to t,em in our 1I No1em-er 5JJ1 Reso/ution. %uc, petition was
fi/ed on 5B #cto-er 5JJ13 around t,ree wee4s -efore t,e 1? No1em-er 5JJ1 #rder. $pon receipt of t,e
1? No1em-er 5JJ1 #rder3 ,owe1er3 respondent &u/iao /ost no time in fi/in+ wit, t,is !ourt a Motion to
!ite "u-/ic Respondent in !ontempt3 a//e+in+ t,at (ud+e An+,ad Cde/i-erate/. and wi//fu//. committed
contempt of court w,en ,e issued on 1B No1em-er 5JJ1 t,e #rder dated 1? No1em-er 5JJ1
dismissin+ t,e informations for murder.C #n 51 No1em-er 5JJ13 we referred said motion to t,e !ourt
of Appea/s3 in 1iew of t,e pre1ious referra/ of respondent &u/iao<s petition for certiorari3 pro,i-ition
and mandamus.
#ur referra/ to t,e !ourt of Appea/s of t,e Motion to !ite "u-/ic Respondent in !ontempt
p/aces t,e 1? No1em-er 5JJ1 #rder wit,in t,e issues of t,e case decided -. t,e !ourt of Appea/s. In
c/aimin+ t,at (ud+e An+,ad committed contempt of t,is !ourt in issuin+ t,e 1? No1em-er 5JJ1 #rder3
respondent &u/iao ,ad ascri-ed to (ud+e An+,ad an act muc, more serious t,an +ra1e a-use of
discretion.
Respondent &u/iao c/aims t,at (ud+e An+,ad issued t,e 1? No1em-er 5JJ1 #rder on 1B
No1em-er 5JJ13 antedatin+ it so as to a1oid t,e effects of our 15 No1em-er 5JJ1 Reso/ution. In said
15 No1em-er 5JJ1 Reso/ution3 we reso/1ed to issue a temporar. restrainin+ order en0oinin+ (ud+e
An+,ad from furt,er proceedin+ wit, t,e crimina/ cases upon t,e respondent &u/iao<s fi/in+ of a -ond
in t,e amount of "5J3JJJ.JJ. Respondent &u/iao ,ad fi/ed t,e -ond on 1B No1em-er 5JJB.
W,i/e we cannot immediate/. pronounce (ud+e An+,ad in contempt3 seein+ as diso-edience to
/awfu/ orders of a court and a-use of court processes are cases of indirect contempt w,ic, re2uire t,e
+rantin+ of opportunit. to -e ,eard on t,e part of respondent3 9I t,e pra.er to cite pu-/ic respondent in
contempt and for ot,er re/iefs 0ust and e2uita-/e under t,e premises s,ou/d -e construed to inc/ude a
pra.er for t,e nu//ification of said 1? No1em-er 5JJ1 #rder.
In an. case3 t,e reinstatement of a crimina/ case dismissed -efore arrai+nment does not
constitute dou-/e 0eopard.. Dou-/e 0eopard. cannot -e in1o4ed w,ere t,e accused ,as not -een
arrai+ned and it was upon ,is e;press motion t,at t,e case was dismissed. ?J
As to respondent &u/iao<s pra.er =in -ot, t,e ori+ina/ petition for certiorari as we// as in ,is
motion to cite for contempt> to dis2ua/if. (ud+e An+,ad from furt,er proceedin+ wit, t,e case3 we ,o/d
t,at t,e num-er of instances of a-use of discretion in t,is case are enou+, to con1ince us of an apparent
-ias on t,e part of (ud+e An+,ad. We furt,er reso/1e to fo//ow t,e case of "eop/e 1. %"#1 LeaGo3 ?1 -.
transferrin+ t,e 1enue of !rimina/ !ases No. 9DA9B59 and No. 9DA9B5? to t,e !it. of Mani/a3 pursuant
to Artic/e )III3 %ection ?3 of t,e !onstitution.
WHEREF#RE3 t,e petition is DENIED. &,e Decision dated 1H Decem-er 5JJ5 and t,e
Reso/ution dated 15 (une 5JJ9 of t,e !ourt of Appea/s are ,ere-. AFFIRMED3 wit, t,e modification
t,at !rimina/ !ases No. 9DA9B59 and No. 9DA9B5? -e transferred to and raff/ed in t,e Re+iona/ &ria/
!ourt of t,e !it. of Mani/a. In t,is connection3
1>Let a cop. of t,is decision -e furnis,ed t,e E;ecuti1e (ud+e of t,e R&! of t,e !it. of
%antia+o3 Isa-e/a3 w,o is directed to effect t,e transfer of t,e cases wit,in ten =1J> da.s after receipt
,ereof
5> &,e E;ecuti1e (ud+e of t,e R&! of t,e !it. of %antia+o3 Isa-e/a3 is /i4ewise directed to
report to t,is !ourt comp/iance ,ereto wit,in ten =1J> da.s from transfer of t,ese cases
9> &,e E;ecuti1e (ud+e of t,e !it. of Mani/a s,a// proceed to raff/e t,e crimina/ cases wit,in
ten =1J> da.s from t,e transfer
?>&,e E;ecuti1e (ud+e of t,e !it. of Mani/a is /i4ewise directed to report to t,is !ourt
comp/iance wit, t,e order to raff/e wit,in ten =1J> da.s from said comp/iance and
B>&,e R&! (ud+e to w,om t,e crimina/ cases are raff/ed is directed to act on said cases wit,
reasona-/e dispatc,.
D>Fina//.3 (ud+e Anastacio D. An+,ad is directed to issue fort,wit, warrants of arrest for t,e
appre,ension of petitioners (ose !. Miranda3 A/-erto ". Da/macio3 Romeo B. #con3 and accused Rode/
&. Madera/3 conforma-/. wit, t,e decision of t,e !ourt of Appea/s dated 1H Decem-er 5JJ5.
&,e &emporar. Restrainin+ #rder issued -. t,is !ourt dated ? Au+ust 5JJ9 is ,ere-. LIF&ED.
!osts a+ainst "etitioners.
%# #RDERED.
"an+ani-an3 !.(.3 'naresA%antia+o3 AustriaAMartineE and !a//e0o3 %r.3 ((.3 concur.