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Why global politics?
Global politics is based on a comprehensive approach to
world affairs that takes into account developments at and
across all levels: global, regional, national, subnational
! variety of factors have transformed international
politics into global politics:
"#$ the emergence of new actors alongside states and
national governments
"%$ increased levels of interconnectedness and
"&$ a growing framework of regional and global governance
What is globali'ation?
Globali'ation is the emergence of a comple( web of
interconnectedness that means our lives are shaped by
events that occur "and decisions that are made$ at a
great distance from us
)istinctions are commonly drawn between economic,
cultural and political globali'ation
*here are significant debates about whether
globali'ation is actually happening and how far it has
transformed world politics
+erspectives on
global politics
*he two mainstream perspectives are ,-!./01 and
./2-,!./01: both are grounded in positivism and focus
on the balance between conflict and cooperation in state
relations, though they offer different accounts of this
3ritical theories "e4g4 1!,5/0*, 6-1/7/0*,
+80*0*,93*9,!./0*$ tend to adopt a postpositivist
approach to theory, and contest the global status :uo by
aligning themselves with the interests of marginali'ed or
oppressed groups4
,-!./0*: globali'ation has been made by states, for
states4 *he state remains the dominant unit in world
./2-,!.: globali'ation reflects the victory of the market
over irrational national allegiance and arbitrary state
borders4 1oreover, it brings social and political benefits4
3,/*/3!.: theorists have adopted a negative or
oppositional stance towards globali'ation4
3auses of World War *wo
*he World War 8ne peace settlements
*he global economic crisis of the #<&=s
7a'i e(pansionism "sometimes linked to the personal
influence of >itler$
?apanese e(pansionism in !sia
#<@A: a turning point
)ecoloni'ation: -uropean empires gradually
disintegrate4 !cross !sia, !frica and the 1iddle -ast,
this initiated political, economic and ideological
developments which would profoundly affect global
*he 3old War: tensions escalate between an
increasingly 90dominated West and a 0oviet
dominated -ast4
Why did
*he 3old War end?
*he structural weaknesses of 0ovietstyle communism
*he impact of Gorbachevs reform process
90 policy and the 0econd 3old War
-conomic and cultural globali'ation
,-!./0*: history has an enduring character4 /t repeats
itself and does not move forward
./2-,!.: characteri'ed by a belief in progress: history
marches forward as human knowledge and
understanding increases
3,/*/3!.: 1ar(ists believe that the primary driving
forces in history are material or economic factors4
+oststructuralists attempt to e(pose hidden meanings in
history that serve the interests of domination and
e(clude marginali'ed groups4
Dynamics of bipolarity: according to realists, states are
primarily concerned with their own survival4 WW//
created a bipolar world order in which the 90 and 0oviet
9nion had predominant influence4 *he shape of global
politics was therefore clear4
The ideological long war: capitalism and communism
represent incompatible modes of economic organi'ation4
8nce fascism was van:uished, -astWest conflict was
Was *he 3old War inevitable?
Western misperceptions about the Soviet Union: based
on the assumption that 0oviet foreign policy was
determined by ideology rather than territorial security
Soviet misperceptions about the US: 0oviet leaders
believed that 90 foreign policy was guided more by
ideological considerations rather than by strategic
Was *he 3old War inevitable?
,ealist *heory
2ased on combined ideas of human selfishnessCegoism
and the structural implications of international anarchy
/mplies a strong tendency towards conflict, though open
violence and war can be constrained by the balance of
*he key dynamics in the international system flow from
the distribution of power "capabilities$ between and
among states
.iberal *heory
2ased on a belief in harmony or balance
6ree trade, democracy, and the construction of
international organi'ations lead to peace, cooperation
and integration
8ver time, however, neoliberalism has become
increasingly indistinct from realism
Dey theories include 1ar(ism, social constructivism,
poststructuralism, feminism, green politics and
/n different ways, critical theorists challenge norms,
values and assumptions on which the global status :uo
is based
1any theorists :uestion the belief that there is an
obEective reality out there separate from the beliefs,
ideas and assumptions of the observer
3ritical *heories
>91!7 7!*9,-
,-!./0*: the core of human nature is fi(edF instinct
prevails over intellectF humans are selfseeking
./2-,!.: humans are selfseeking, but are also
governed by reason and are capable of personal self
3,/*/3!.: generally view human nature as plastic,
moulded by the e(periences and circumstances of social
Zones of peace
ublic opinion
!on"violent conflict resolution
#ultural bonds
/s democracy a guarantee of peace?
Democracies at war
States are states
eace by other means
/s democracy a guarantee of peace?
Ch04 THE
3apitalism is a system of generali'ed commodity
production in which wealth is owned privately and
economic life is organi'ed according to market principles
-nterprise capitalism, social capitalism and state
capitalism differ in relation to the balance within them
between the market and the state
*riumph of 7eoliberalism?
7eoliberalism, with its absolute faith in the market,
reflects the ascendancy of enterprise capitalism
7eoliberals argue that the advance of neoliberalism has
coincided with three decades of growth in the world
3ritics argue that neoliberalism is associated with
widening ine:uality and social breakdown
-conomic Globali'ation
-conomic globali'ation is the process whereby all national
economies have, to a greater or lesser e(tent, become absorbed
into an interlocking global economy
*he 2retton Woods system laid the basis for later accelerated
economic globali'ation
-conomic interconnectedness achieved global dimensions in the
#<<=s with the collapse of communism and opening up of the
3hinese economy
*here are maEor debates about the e(tent to which economic life has
been globali'ed, as well as about the impact of globali'ation
G.82!. +8./*/3!. -38781B
G.82!. +8./*/3!. -38781B
,-!./0*: the state is the most significant political actor
./2-,!.: individuals are the key economic actors
3,/*/3!.: 1ar(ism portrays social classes as the key
economic actors
)oes economic globali'ation promote
prosperity and opportunity for all?
The magic of the mar$et: it is the only reliable means of
generating wealth
%veryone wins: although it ma$es the rich richer& it also
ma$es the poor less poor
%conomic freedom promotes other freedoms
Deepening poverty and ine'uality
The hollowing out of politics and democracy
#orruption of consumerist materialism: cultural and
social distinctiveness is lost
)oes economic globali'ation promote
prosperity and opportunity for all?
6eatures of the 0tate
*he state has four key features:
#4 a defined territory
%4 a permanent population
&4 an effective government
@4 the capacity to enter into relations with other states
/ts core characteristic, however, is sovereignty4 *his
can be understood in internal or e(ternal senses4
*he 0tate and Globali'ation
Globali'ation has been widely seen to curtail state
-conomic sovereignty has been compromised by
transborder trading, capital and other flows4
0ome believe these developments have transformed the
nature of the state, giving rise to the competition,
market or postmodern state4
*ransformation of the 0tate
*here is growing evidence of a return of state power4
*his has occurred as a response to new security threatsF
increasing use of the state as an agent of economic
moderni'ationF emphasis on statebuilding as a means
of promoting development4
1any claim that changes in the environment in which the
state operates mean that government is being displaced
by governance4 *his is associated with the stretching of
government across a number of levels, giving rise to
multilevel governance4
*>- 0*!*-
,-!./0*: states are unitary and coherent actors4 0tate
behaviour is determined by the wish to survive "Walt'
./2-,!.: the state arises out of the needs of society
and reflects the interests of individual citi'ens4
3,/*/3!.: 7eo1ar(ists and post1ar(ists have
abandoned the belief that the state is a reflection of the
class system, but continue to argue that world orders are
grounded in social relations4
ermeable borders
(ise of non"state actors
#ollective dilemmas
)nternational human rights
/s state sovereignty now an outdated
*yth of the borderless world
States remain dominant
ooled sovereignty
%nduring attraction of the nation"state
/s state sovereignty now an outdated
6eatures of
+ost/ndustrial 0ocieties
Growing atomism and the weakening of social
.ooser and more plurali'ed class formations4
0ocial levelling associated with mass education, rising
affluence and consumerism4
*hinning and widening of social connectedness has
been associated with a general increase in risk,
uncertainty and instability: e(amples include
environmental threats, economic crises and new security
3ultural Globali'ation
3ultural globali'ation is the process whereby
information, commodities and images that have been
produced in one part of the world enter into a global flow
that flattens out cultural differences between nations,
regions and individuals4
/t is associated with the spread of consumerism and the
rise of individualism4
*he idea of an emerging global monoculture has been
! Global 3ivil 0ociety?
*he rise of new groups which sought to challenge
corporate globali'ation has been interpreted as the
emergence of a global civil society4
*his refers to a realm of autonomous groups and
associations that operate independently of government4
0upporters argue that it provides a kind of bottom up
democratic vision of a civili'ing world order4
3ritics :uestion the democratic credentials of social
movements and 7G8s and accuse them of distorting
national and global political agendas4
,-!./0*: realists give little attention to society: the
focus of their attention falls on the state4 /nternal social
and cultural arrangements are seen as irrelevant4
./2-,!.: society is viewed as a collection of individuals4
.iberals hold that there is a general balance of interests
in society that tends to promote harmony4
3,/*/3!.: approaches have been significantly
influenced by social constructivism4 0ocial, cultural and
historical factors are of primary interest in affecting the
behaviour of states and other actors4
/s globali'ation producing a global
+lobali,ation as homogeni,ation
-mericani,ation of the world
+lobal liberali,ation
/s globali'ation producing a global
+lobali,ation as hybridi,ation
(eturn of the local
#ultural polari,ation
7ations comprise a blend of cultural and political "and
obEective and subEective$ characteristics G nationalism is
therefore a comple( and deeply contested phenomenon
6rom a primordial perspective, nationalism is rooted in a
long cultural heritage
6rom a modernist perspective, national identity is forged in
response to changing social and historical circumstances
7ationalism has been a crosscutting ideology, associated
with a wide range of doctrines, movements and causes
What is nationalism?
/n the modern world, nationalism has been weakened by
an upsurge in international migration, which has led to a
growth of hybridity and multiculturalism in many societies
1ulticulturalism recognises the fact of cultural diversity4 /t
also holds that such differences should be respected and
publicly affirmed4
*his has led to debate about the e(tent to which cultural
diversity can be reconciled with political cohesion4
7ationalism, migration and
7ations and nationalism have demonstrated remarkable
resilience4 /n the post3old War period, it has been used
to underpin state selfassertion in a deideologi'ed
7ationalism has reemerged in the forms of cultural and
ethnic nationalism, and has provided a vehicle through
which the transformations brought about by globali'ation
can be resisted4
3ontemporary nationalism
,-!./0*: nationalism is a key au(iliary component of
state power and a source of internal cohesion
./2-,!.: the nation is a natural community4 .iberals
promote a tolerant and inclusive nationalism4
7ationalism and internationalism as complementary
3,/*/3!.: 1ar(ists argue nationalism distorts the
realities of une:ual class power
!ationalism as narcissism: nationalism is the enemy of
universal values and global Eustice
!egative integration: nationalism breeds a clear
distinction between them and us
!ationalism and power: nationalism is invariably
associated with the :uest for power, and therefore leads
to rivalry and conflict
/s nationalism inherently aggressive
and oppressive?
!ationalism and freedom: nationalism has no fi(ed
:ualities: it can have a liberating :uality, linked to the
goals of liberty, Eustice and democracy
#ivic nationalism: nationalism only becomes intolerant
when the nation is defined in narrow terms
#ultural belonging: a shared cultural inheritance binds
people together and promotes sociability
/s nationalism inherently aggressive
and oppressive?
*he ,ise of /dentity +olitics
/dentity politics seeks to challenge and overthrow
oppression by reshaping a groups identity through a
process of politicocultural selfassertion
0ince the end of the 3old War, politics has been
structured less by ideological rivalry and more by issues
of cultural difference
/t has been argued that culture has replaced ideology as
the key organising principle of global politics: factors
such as ethnicity, history, values and religion are of
growing significance in world affairs4
3hallenges to the West
+ostcolonialism: this sought to give the developing world
a distinctive political voice separate from the universalist
pretensions of liberalism and socialism
!sian values: the idea that !sian culture and beliefs may
constitute an alternative to western ones gained
prominence during the #<H=s and #<<=s
/slam and the West: the rise of political /slam and the
advent of the war on terror created the image of a deep
clash between /slam and the West
*he 3lash of 3ivili'ations
*he theory that, in the post3old War world, conflict would be
primarily cultural in character
/t attracted growing attention during the #<<=s as optimistic
e(pectations of the establishment of a liberal new world order were
/t was widely used as an e(planation of the changing nature of world
order, as global terrorism was seen as a symptom of a clash
between /slam and the West
0uch a view ignores the comple( and fragmented nature of
civili'ations, and the e(tent to which different cultures have
coe(isted peacefully
,-!./0*: realists tend to assume that identity is forged
through the overlapping ties of nationality and citi'enship
./2-,!.: individuals are defined by inner :ualities
specific to themselves, but this thinking is also
universalist, in that it implies that all humans share the
same status and are entitled to the same rights
3,/*/3!.: since the #<I=s, theorists have increasingly
understood identity in terms of difference4 3onventional
models of identity came to be seen as forms of cultural
/s there an emerging clash of
The rise of culture& which is destined to be the primary
force in ./
century politics
#ultural conflict: a stronger sense of cultural belonging
cannot but lead to tension and conflict
Tensions between& for instance& #hina and the US& and
between )slam and the West have an inescapable
civili,ational dimension
/s there an emerging clash of
#ivili,ations as comple0 and fragmented
The idea that cultural difference is always lin$ed to
political antagonism is highly 'uestionable
Trends towards cultural homogeni,ation: globali,ation
has blurred cultural differences in many parts of the
What is power?
+ower is the ability to influence the outcome of events
)istinctions can be drawn between actualCpotential
powerF relationalCstructural powerF and hardCsoft power
*he notion of power as material power over others has
been subEect to increased criticism, leading to more
nuanced and multidimensional conceptions of power
+ost3old War Global 8rder
*he end of the 3old War led to proclamations about the
advent of a new world order4 Bet this was always
imprecisely defined and the idea :uickly became
!s the sole remaining superpower, the 90! has
commonly been referred to as a global hegemon
*wentyfirst century world order increasingly has a
multipolar character4 *his is evident in the rise of so
called emerging powers, notably 3hina4
*>- -7) 86 *>- 38.) W!,
,-!./0*: -vents came as a shock to theorists and
created something of a crisis within realist theory
./2-,!.: !lthough events were not predicted, theorists
highlighted the tendency of economic moderni'ation to
create patterns of interdependence that favoured
integration and economic G rather than military G
3,/*/3!.: *he failure of conventional theories to e(plain
events gave impetus to social constructivism and the
roles played by ideas and perceptions
+lobal military dominance
%conomic resilience
The US population
Unrivalled structural power
)oes the 90! remain a global
(edundant military dominance: theres a huge gap
between the military and political capacity of the US
(elative economic decline
Damaged soft power: -mericas reputation has been
damaged by its association with the war on terror& and
by its association with corporate power
Declining diplomatic influence
)oes the 90! remain a global
Ch10 "AR AND
What is War?
War is a condition of armed conflict between two or more
parties, traditionally states4
*he classic account of war "developed by 3lausewit'$
views it as a continuation of politics by other means4
*his conception has been criticised for ignoring the
moral implications of war and on the grounds that it is
outdated, as war has become less effective as a policy
instrument and is less easy to interpret in instrumental
*he 3hanging 6ace of War
1any argue that the nature of war has changed since
the 3old War4 7ew wars tend to e(hibit the following
#4 *hey tend to be civil wars rather than interstate wars4
%4 /ssues of identity are usually prominent4
&4 Wars are asymmetrical, often fought between une:ual
@4 *he civilianCmilitary distinction has broken down4
A4 *hey are more barbaric than old wars4
?ustifying War
*hree broad positions have been adopted on this issue:
(ealpoliti$ G suggesting that war, as a political act G
needs no moral Eustification4
?ust war theory G suggesting that war can be Eustified
only if it conforms to moral principles4
+acifism G suggesting that war, as an unnecessary evil,
can never be Eustified4
W!, !7) +-!3-
,-!./0*: War is an enduring feature of international
relations: its possibility stems from inescapable
dynamics of power politics4
./2-,!.: +eace is a natural, but not inevitable,
condition for international relations4 War can arises from
three sets of "avoidable$ circumstances4
3,/*/3!.: 1ar(ist theorists tend to e(plain war primarily
in economic terms4 !narchist theorists associate war
with hegemony4
1bsolescence of war 2 the spread of democratic
governance has widened ,ones of peace
Trade not war 2 globali,ation offers a cheaper and
easier route to national prosperity in the form of trade
Unwinnable war 2 changes in the nature of warfare have
made it increasingly difficult to predict the outcome of
>as military power become redundant
in global politics?
>as military power become redundant
in global politics?
War is endless 2 military power remains the only sure
guarantee of a states survival and security
!ew security challenges 2 terrorism shows how
globali,ation has made the world a more dangerous
3umanitarian wars 2 armed force has fre'uently been
used to achieve humanitarian ends
7uclear +roliferation
)uring the 3old War, vertical proliferation witnessed the buildup
of massive nuclear arsenals in the 90! and the 0oviet 9nion4
!fter initial early optimism, the post3old War era has been
characteri'ed by heightened an(iety about nuclear proliferation4
,easons for this include:
#4 -stablished nuclear powers continued to use nuclear strategies4
%4 *he incentives for states to ac:uire nuclear weapons have
&4 +roliferation is easier, as nuclear weapons and technology are ore
readily available4
@4 *here are heightened fears that nuclear weapons may get into the
wrong hands4
7uclear !rms 3ontrol
-rms control: mechanisms through which the proliferation of arms
is constrained by agreements limiting their production& distribution
and use4
! range of factors have made arms control difficult to bring about:
#4 *he security dilemma is an intractable problem4
%4 ,egardless of international agreements, states are liable to view
their buildup of arms as a legitimate means of providing defence
and ensuring deterrence4
&4 Great powers will only be bound be security regimes if they
calculate that it is in their interests to do so4
! 7uclear6ree World
1ost of the 0outhern hemisphere is now a nuclearfree 'one4
2oth peace activists and, more recently, senior politicians in the
90 and ,ussia have campaigned for a nuclearfree world4
!rguments for nuclear disarmament include:
#4 9se of nuclear weapons is morally indefensible4
%4 *he economic and political costs outweigh the benefits4
&4 0erious psychological implications: nuclear weapons generate
unending an(iety and dread4
*>- 2!.!73- 86 +8W-,
,-!./0*: !s only power can be a check on power, the
balance of power tends to lead to peace and stability4
./2-,!.: *he balance of power legitimi'es and
entrenches international rivalry, creating inherent
instability and deepening distrust4
3,/*/3!.: 0ocial constructivists emphasi'e that any
assessment of the balance of power is shaped by the
identities that states have of themselves and of other
-bsence of nuclear war
%ffective deterrence
)nternational stability
!uclear statesmanship
)o nuclear weapons promote peace
and stability?
5allibility of deterrent systems
Danger of nuclear imbalances
Useable nuclear weapons
)rresponsible nuclear powers
)o nuclear weapons promote peace
and stability?
What is *errorism?
*errorism refers broadly to the attempts to further
political ends by using violence to create a climate of
fear, apprehension and uncertainty
*errorism is a highly peEorative term and tends to be
used as a political tool
/t can be defined by the nature of the act itselfF its
victimsF and its perpetrators
1ainstream, radical and critical perspectives offer very
different views on the nature of terrorism and the value
of the concept
,ise of new terrorism?
! form of terrorism that is supposedly more radical and
devastating that traditional terrorism because of the nature
of its organi'ation, character, motivations and strategies4
+roponents of the idea of new terrorism suggest that
terrorism had become a religious imperative rather than a
pragmatic political strategy4
3ritics argue that the distinction is e(aggerated: religiously
inspired terrorism is not a new phenomenon, for instance4
7evertheless, <C## marked the emergence of a profoundly
more significant form of terrorism4
3ountering *errorism
Dey counterterrorism strategies include the
strengthening of state securityF military repressionF
political deals
0tate security and military approaches have often been
counterproductive and have provoked controversy
about the proper balance between freedom and security
-ffective solutions have usually involved encouraging
terrorists to abandon violence by drawing them into a
process of negotiation and diplomacy
,-!./0*: 9sually viewed as a violent challenge to the
established order by a nonstate group or movement
./2-,!.: *hinking is dominated by the ethical dilemmas
that are posed by the task of counterterrorism
3,/*/3!.: ,adicals believe that terrorism amounts to
the killing of unarmed civilians4 3onstructivists and
poststructuralists argue that much accepted knowledge
about terrorism amounts to stereotypes and
The wea$ness of the strong 2 freedom of movement and
freedom of association can be e0ploited by terrorist
The lesser evil
The necessity of dirty hands: it may be right for political
leaders to do wrong if this serves public morality
)oes the need for counter terrorism Eustify
restricting human rights freedoms?
#ounter"productive anti"terrorism 2 terrorism achieves it
ends through a governments response to violent
5reedom as a fundamental value
*oral authority and soft power 2 terrorism cannot be
combated through robust state security measures alone
)oes the need for counter terrorism Eustify
restricting human rights freedoms?
What are human rights?
>uman rights are supposedly universal, fundamental
and absolute4 )istinctions are nevertheless drawn
between civil and political rights, economic, social and
cultural rights, and solidarity rights4
>uman rights are protected by an e(panding array of
international human rights documents, with supporting
97 bodies, states and 7G8s
>owever states are also the greatest human rights
abusers, reflecting an inherent tension between human
rights and states rights
3hallenging human rights
0ince the #<I=s the universalist assumptions that
underpin human rights have come under growing
3ommunitarians and postmodernists argue that human
rights are philosophically unsound because morality is
always relative
+ostcolonialist theorists often view the doctrine of human
rights as an e(ample of western cultural imperialism,
even though they accept the broad notion
>umanitarian /ntervention
>umanitarian intervention flourished in the #<<=s due to the liberal
e(pectations linked to the prospect of a new world order and the
"temporary$ hegemony of the 90!
)eep concerns have been raised by 90 military involvement in
!fghanistan and /ra:
*he ,*8 laid down conditions for humanitarian intervention, based
on a largescale loss of life, where the state in :uestion is unwilling
or unable to act itself
>umanitarian intervention works best when its benefits e(ceed its
costs, in terms of lives lost and human suffering
>91!7 ,/G>*0
,-!./0*: >uman rights is a soft issue: it is impossible
and undesirable international relations in moral terms
./2-,!.: 8n a political level, liberals have used the
notion of human rights to establish the basis of
3,/*/3!.: !pproaches have tended to revise the
traditional, liberal view of human rights, or they have
been openly hostile to the idea itself
)ndivisible humanity
+lobal interdependence
(egional stability
romoting democracy
)nternational community
/s humanitarian intervention Eustified?
-gainst international law
!ational interests rule
Double standards
Simplistic politics
*oral pluralism
/s humanitarian intervention Eustified?
What is international law?
/nternational law is law that governs states and other
international actors, though its widely considered to be
soft law because its usually unenforceable
*he two most important sources of international law are
treaties and international custom
/nternational law is largely obeyed because states
calculate that in the long run it will bring benefit or reduce
/nternational law in flu(
/n its classical sense, international law has been firmly statecentric
*his has increasingly been challenged by a constitutionalist conception of
international law, whose scope includes the maintenance of at least
minimum standards of global Eustice
!n e(ample of the shift from international to world law has been the
evolution of the laws of war into a body of international humanitarian law
*he end of the 3old War allowed international humanitarian law to be
implemented more widely through international tribunals and courts
/7*-,7!*/87!. .!W
,-!./0*: 0ceptical about international law and its value,
realists usually draw a sharp distinction between
domestic and international law
./2-,!.: .iberals have a positive assessment of the
role and importance of international law4 ,egimes of
international law reflect the common interests and
rationality that bind statesmen together
3,/*/3!.: /nfluenced by poststructural analysis, critical
legal studies highlight the inherently indeterminate
nature of international law
Strengthening international humanitarian law
Tac$ling the global 6ustice gap 2 the )## provides the
basis for e0ternal remedies when internal remedies are
Deterring future atrocities 2 an aim of the )## is to shape
the future behaviour of political and military leaders
throughout the world4
/s the /nternational 3riminal 3ourt an effective
means of upholding order and Eustice?
/s the /nternational 3riminal 3ourt an effective
means of upholding order and Eustice?
Threat to sovereignty and national security
Unhelpful obsession with individual culpability
- political tool of the West
/s the /nternational 3riminal 3ourt an effective
means of upholding order and Eustice?
1easuring +overty
)istinctions are often drawn between absolute poverty G
founded on the idea of basic needs G and relative
poverty, in which the poor are the less well off rather
than the needy
7arrowly incomebased definitions of poverty have
increasingly been viewed as limited or misleading, as
greater attention is paid to the broader notion of human
*heories of )evelopment
*he orthodo( view of development takes economic
growth to be its goal and understands moderni'ation in
terms of westernstyle industriali'ation
*he alternative view reEects technocratic, topdown and
progrowth strategies, but encompasses a wide range of
views and approaches
1aking 0ense of
Global /ne:uality
/n recent years it is believed that the growing importance
of emerging economies has had an e:uali'ing impact,
counterbalanced by deepening poverty in sub0aharan
*he impact of globali'ation on poverty and ine:uality
cannot be resolved through empirical trends alone4
0ome claim that globali'ation will eventually raise all
boatsF, but others argue that globali'ation is based on
structural disparities that benefit some countries and
areas at the e(pense of others4
,-!./0*: ,ealists adopt a mercantilist view of economic
development, stressing an active role for the state4
./2-,!.: +rovides the basis for the orthodo( notion of
development as growth4
3,/*/3!.: )ominated by neo1ar(ist theories, which
draws on dependency theory and worldsystems theory
- more level playing"field 2 there are some structural
biases within the global economy that favour rich
countries at the e0pense of poor ones
7uilding domestic capacity 2 international aid is often
targeted towards long"term development pro6ects and is
oriented around capacity"building for the future
%mergency relief
)oes international aid work?
)neffective help for the poor 2 there is little evidence that
aid boosts economic growth
Distorting mar$ets 2 aid tends to upset the balances of a
mar$et economy& which provide poor countries with their
best log"term prospect of development
#orruption and oppression
)oes international aid work?
*he -nvironment as
a Global /ssue
*he intrinsically transnational character of environmental
processes means that meaningful progress on
environmental issues can often only occur at an
international level
)isagreements about environmental problems are often
rooted in deeper philosophical debates about the
relationship between humankind and the natural world
,eformist and radical strategies are influenced by
contrasting views about whether human needs or larger
ecological balances should take precedence
3limate 3hange and
/nternational !ction
3limate change has dominated the international environmental
agenda since the early #<<=s
0ubstantial disagreement persists surrounding its conse:uences, as
well as how it should be tackled
-ffective international action to tackle climate change is hampered by:
3onflict between national selfinterest and the common good
*ensions between developed and developing nations
2iases within capitalism in favour of growth
! deeply rooted ethic of materialism and consumerism
,-!./0*: ,ealists are more concerned with survival
than sustainability
./2-,!.: .iberals view nature as a resource to satisfy
human needs
3,/*/3!.: 6eminists generally hold nature to be
creative and benign4 6rom the perspective of green
politics, nature is an interconnected whole which
embraces humans and nonhumans, as well as the
inanimate world4
Dangerous delays
*yth of easy solutions
%conomic restructuring
ost"material society
3an only radical action tackle the problem
of climate change?
%0aggerated fears
-dapt to change
*ar$et solutions
3uman ingenuity
3an only radical action tackle the problem
of climate change?
Jarieties of 6eminism
6eminism can be broadly defined as a movement for the social
advancement of women
*here are differences between liberal and radical traditions
*he gender lens of empirical feminism is primarily concerned to
add women to e(isting analytical frameworks4 /n relation to
international politics, this means recognising the previously invisible
contributions that women make to shaping world affairs4
*he gender lens of analytical feminism aims to highlight the gender
biases that pervade the theoretical framework and key concepts of
mainstream international theory4 *hese are deconstructed to reveal
masculinist biases that, in turn, help to legitimate gendered
Gendering Global +olitics
!ccording to feminists, patriarchal biases within the state
dictate that states will be competitive and potentially
War is often viewed as a gendered phenomenon,
reflecting tendencies such as the prevalence of mean in
senior political and military life
6eminist theori'ing on economic issues has tended to
stress the ways in which the se(ual division of labour
serves the economic interests of capitalism
G-7)-, ,-.!*/870
,-!./0*: ,ealists would usually view gender relations
as irrelevant to international and global affairs
./2-,!.: 3oncern with the principle of individualism
leads .iberals to be concerned about the issue of gender
3,/*/3!.: 1ar(ism tends to ignore or marginali'e
gender4 0ocial constructivists focus on the process of
sociali'ation that takes place within the family4
7iology is destiny 2 some argue that aggression is hard"
wired in men
*ilitari,ed masculinity 2 social conditioning ma$es more
-ggressive young males 2 wider demographic trends
Women as peacema$ers
Would a matriarchal society be more
The myth of natural aggression
*isleading gender stereotypes
ower trumps gender
States ma$e war
Would a matriarchal society be more
What !re /nternational
/nstitutions with formal procedures and a membership comprising three
or more states
*hey can be though of as instruments through which states pursue their
own interestsF arenas that facilitate debateF actors that can affect global
2ases for categori'ation depend on membership, competence, function
and decisionmaking authority
*he significance of the phenomenon of international organi'ation is
hotly disputed4 0ome argue it is a mechanism for traditional power
politicsF others claim they contain the seeds of supranational
*he 97
*he 97 is the only truly global organi'ation ever
constructed, whose principle aim is to maintain
international peace and security
Jeto powers of the +A "of the 0ecurity 3ouncil$ and the
lack of an independent military capacity has restricted
the 97 in this role
*he 97s social and economic responsibilities are
discharged by an array of programmes, funds and
speciali'ed agencies4 /ts main areas are human rights,
developments, poverty reduction and the environment4
6uture of *he 97
*he trend towards multipolarity "with the growing rise of 3hina,
/ndia, 2ra'il and 0outh !frica$ will have an impact on the 97s
workings, though the nature of this impact is difficult to determine
! more even distribution of global power could favour multilateralism
and collective security, facilitated by the 97
/t could however be associated with increased conflict and greater
instability, in which case the 97s role might resemble that of the
former .eague of 7ations
/n either scenario, reform of the 0ecurity 3ouncil is likely to stay on
the agenda
/7*-,7!*/87!. 8,G!7/;!*/87
,-!./0*: )eeply sceptical about international
organi'ations, viewing them as largely ineffective bodies
./2-,!.: 3ommitted supporters of international
organi'ations: international organi'ation reflects the
e(tent of interdependence in the global system
3,/*/3!.: 0ocial constructivists believe that levels of
cooperation depend on how states construe their own
identities and interests, as well those of other states
- proto"world government
)rrelevant debating society
8ac$ of moral compass
1utdated and unreformable
/s the 97 obsolete and unnecessary?
-n indispensable body
eace$eeping successes
!ew agendas and new thin$ing
*end it& dont end it
/s the 97 obsolete and unnecessary?
!spects of
Global Governance
! broad process of interactive decisionmaking at the
global level4 /t hovers between Westphalian statesystem
and the idea of world government4
!lthough there are binding rules and norms, these arent
enforced by a supranational authority
.iberal theorists argue that is a definite trend in favour of
global governance, reflecting growing interdependence
*he trend towards global governance has been
particularly prominent in the economic sphere
*he 2retton Woods 0ystem
*he 2retton Woods system relates to the postwar
institutional architecture of the financial and monetary
/t was based on three bodies: the /16, the World 2ank,
and the General !greement on *ariffs and *rades
/t initially supervised the world economy largely through
the maintenance of stable e(change rates
*he system broke down in the early #<I=s as floating
e(change rates replaced fi(ed e(change rates
*he 2retton Woods 0ystem?
0upporters argue that the /16, the World 2ank, and the
W*8 have contributed to a remarkable e(pansion of the
global economy
3ritics claim that they have deepened global disparities
and helped to produce an unstable financial order
*he %==I=< financial crisis raised concerns about the
effectiveness of global economic governance
*here are maEor obstacles to reform, not least the
continuing dominance of neoliberal principles in many
countries, and the more diffuse location of global power
,-!./0*: -conomics is largely e(plained in political
terms4 ,ealists believe there is little scope for
cooperation among states in economic affairs4
./2-,!.: -conomic governance is accepted insofar as
it promotes, rather than restricts, openness and free
3,/*/3!.: 7eo1ar(ists believe that institutions of
global economic governance are constructed in line with
the dominant interests in the global capitalist system
G.82!. -38781/3 G8J-,7!73-
7enefits of speciali,ation
%fficiency and choice
eace and cosmopolitanism
)oes free trade ensure prosperity and
5ree trade as neo"colonialism
Development through protectionism
!ational security protectionism
)oes free trade ensure prosperity and
Jarieties of ,egionalism
,egionalism takes different forms depending on whether
the primary areas of cooperation are economic, security
or political
6ederalism, functionalism and neofunctionalism are the
main the main theories of regional integration
7ew regionalism is essentially economic in character,
usually taking the form of the development of regional
trade blocs
,egionalism and *he -9
!lthough forms of regionalism have emerged in !sia,
!frica and the !mericas, regional integration has been
taken furthest in -urope
*he -9s capacity to act within the global system as a
single entity has been enhanced by attempts to develop
a common foreign defence policy
*ensions between !tlanticists and -uropeanists and
an(ieties about the erosion of state sovereignty help to
e(plain why progress on this issue has been slow
(egional egoism 2 regionalism has not altered the
essentially conflictual nature of world politics
#ultural or civili,ational conflict
%ver deepening integration
)oes the advance of regionalism threaten
global order and stability?
!ationalism trumps regionalism
The global dominates the regional
8imits of regionalism
)oes the advance of regionalism threaten
global order and stability?
/mages and ,eality
!s a basis for e(plaining the behaviour of actors on the
world stage, image is important in shaping how people
see themselves, and how they see others
-mphasis on the importance of image in modern global
politics has been taken furthest by poststructuralists
/mages can also serve as wider e(planatory tools G
graphic ways of highlighting important trend and
developments in global politics
*he Jalue of /mages
Jalue arises less from the insight into the shape of the
global future and more from their ability to highlight key
trends in the global present
9ltimately, the future is unknowable: in part because
e(trapolations from present trends inevitably diverge
from their course4 1oreover, our knowledge of the
present is always unknowable4
3ontending /mages of
a Global 6uture
0ome influential images include:
! borderless world?
! world of democracies?
3ivili'ations in conflict?
! 3hinese century?
*he growth of international community?
*he rise of the global 0outh?
*he coming environmental catastrophe?
*owards cosmopolitan democracy?