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Intro

Contents

Schlumberger
225 Schlumberger Drive
Sugar Land, Texas 77478
www.slb.com
2009 Schlumberger. All rights reserved.
No part of this book may be reproduced, stored
in a retrieval system, or transcribed in any
form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,
including photocopying and recording, without
the prior written permission of the publisher.
While the information presented herein is
believed to be accurate, it is provided as is
without express or implied warranty.
Specifications are current at the time of printing.
09-FE-0058
An asterisk (*) is used throughout this document to
denote a mark of Schlumberger.

Intro

Contents

Intro

Contents

Contents

Contents

Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
General

Symbols Used in Log Interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gen-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1


Estimation of Formation Temperature with Depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gen-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Estimation of Rmf and Rmc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gen-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Equivalent NaCl Salinity of Salts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gen-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Concentration of NaCl Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gen-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Resistivity of NaCl Water Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gen-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Density of Water and Hydrogen Index of Water and Hydrocarbons

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gen-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Density and Hydrogen Index of Natural Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gen-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10


Sound Velocity of Hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gen-9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Gas Effect on Compressional Slowness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gen-9a

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Gas Effect on Acoustic Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gen-9b

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxation Times of Water

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gen-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxation Times of Hydrocarbons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gen-11a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15


Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxation Times of Hydrocarbons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gen-11b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Capture Cross Section of NaCl Water Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gen-12

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Capture Cross Section of NaCl Water Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gen-13

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Capture Cross Section of Hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gen-14

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

EPT* Propagation Time of NaCl Water Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gen-15

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

EPT Attenuation of NaCl Water Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gen-16

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

EPT Propagation TimeAttenuation Crossplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gen-16a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24


Gamma Ray

Scintillation Gamma Ray338- and 11116-in. Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GR-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25


Scintillation Gamma Ray338- and 11116-in. Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GR-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Scintillation Gamma Ray338- and 11116-in. Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GR-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
SlimPulse* and E-Pulse* Gamma Ray Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GR-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
ImPulse* Gamma Ray4.75-in. Tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GR-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
PowerPulse* and TeleScope* Gamma Ray6.75-in. Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GR-9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
PowerPulse Gamma Ray8.25-in. Normal-Flow Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GR-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
PowerPulse Gamma Ray8.25-in. High-Flow Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GR-11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
PowerPulse Gamma Ray9-in. Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GR-12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
PowerPulse Gamma Ray9.5-in. Normal-Flow Tool

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GR-13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

PowerPulse Gamma Ray9.5-in. High-Flow Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GR-14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35


geoVISION675* GVR* Gamma Ray6.75-in. Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GR-15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
RAB* Gamma Ray8.25-in. Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GR-16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
arcVISION475* Gamma Ray4.75-in. Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GR-19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

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arcVISION675* Gamma Ray6.75-in. Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GR-20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39


arcVISION825* Gamma Ray8.25-in. Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GR-21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
arcVISION900* Gamma Ray9-in. Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GR-22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
arcVISION475 Gamma Ray4.75-in. Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GR-23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
arcVISION675 Gamma Ray6.75-in. Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GR-24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
arcVISION825 Gamma Ray8.25-in. Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GR-25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
arcVISION900 Gamma Ray9-in. Tool

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GR-26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

EcoScope* Integrated LWD Gamma Ray6.75-in. Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GR-27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46


EcoScope Integrated LWD Gamma Ray6.75-in. Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GR-28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Spontaneous Potential
Rweq Determination from ESSP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SP-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Rweq versus Rw and Formation Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SP-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Rweq versus Rw and Formation Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SP-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Bed Thickness CorrectionOpen Hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SP-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Bed Thickness CorrectionOpen Hole (Empirical) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SP-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Bed Thickness CorrectionOpen Hole (Empirical) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SP-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Density

Porosity Effect on Photoelectric Cross Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dens-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56


Apparent Log Density to True Bulk Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dens-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Neutron

Dual-Spacing Compensated Neutron Tool Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58


Compensated Neutron Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neu-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Compensated Neutron Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neu-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Compensated Neutron Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neu-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Compensated Neutron Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neu-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Compensated Neutron Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neu-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Compensated Neutron Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neu-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Compensated Neutron Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neu-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Compensated Neutron Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neu-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Compensated Neutron Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neu-9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
APS* Accelerator Porosity Sonde. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neu-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
APS Accelerator Porosity Sonde Without Environmental Corrections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neu-11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
CDN* Compensated Density Neutron, adnVISION* Azimuthal Density
Neutron, and EcoScope* Integrated LWD Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neu-30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
adnVISION475* Azimuthal Density Neutron4.75-in. Tool and 6-in. Borehole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neu-31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
adnVISION475 BIP Neutron4.75-in. Tool and 6-in. Borehole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neu-32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
adnVISION475 Azimuthal Density Neutron4.75-in. Tool and 8-in. Borehole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neu-33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
adnVISION475 BIP Neutron4.75-in. Tool and 8-in. Borehole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neu-34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

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Intro

Contents

adnVISION675* Azimuthal Density Neutron6.75-in. Tool and 8-in. Borehole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neu-35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84


adnVISION675 BIP Neutron6.75-in. Tool and 8-in. Borehole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neu-36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
adnVISION675 Azimuthal Density Neutron6.75-in. Tool and 10-in. Borehole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neu-37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
adnVISION675 BIP Neutron6.75-in. Tool and 10-in. Borehole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neu-38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
adnVISION825* Azimuthal Density Neutron8.25-in. Tool and 12.25-in. Borehole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neu-39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
CDN Compensated Density Neutron and adnVISION825s* Azimuthal Density Neutron
8-in. Tool and 12-in. Borehole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neu-40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
CDN Compensated Density Neutron and adnVISION825s Azimuthal Density Neutron
8-in. Tool and 14-in. Borehole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neu-41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
CDN Compensated Density Neutron and adnVISION825s Azimuthal Density Neutron
8-in. Tool and 16-in. Borehole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neu-42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
EcoScope* Integrated LWD BPHI Porosity6.75-in. Tool and 8.5-in. Borehole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neu-43 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
EcoScope Integrated LWD BPHI Porosity6.75-in. Tool and 9.5-in. Borehole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neu-44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
EcoScope Integrated LWD TNPH Porosity6.75-in. Tool and 8.5-in. Borehole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neu-45 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
EcoScope Integrated LWD TNPH Porosity6.75-in. Tool and 9.5-in. Borehole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neu-46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
EcoScope Integrated LWD6.75-in. Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neu-47 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
CMR* Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CMR-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Resistivity Laterolog
ARI* Azimuthal Resistivity Imager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RLl-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
High-Resolution Azimuthal Laterolog Sonde (HALS). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RLl-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
High-Resolution Azimuthal Laterolog Sonde (HALS). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RLl-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
High-Resolution Azimuthal Laterolog Sonde (HALS). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RLl-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
High-Resolution Azimuthal Laterolog Sonde (HALS). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RLl-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
High-Resolution Azimuthal Laterolog Sonde (HALS). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RLl-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
High-Resolution Azimuthal Laterolog Sonde (HALS). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RLl-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
High-Resolution Azimuthal Laterolog Sonde (HALS). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RLl-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
High-Resolution Azimuthal Laterolog Sonde (HALS). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RLl-9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
HRLA* High-Resolution Laterolog Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RLl-10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
HRLA High-Resolution Laterolog Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RLl-11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
HRLA High-Resolution Laterolog Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RLl-12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
HRLA High-Resolution Laterolog Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RLl-13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
HRLA High-Resolution Laterolog Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RLl-14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
GeoSteering* Bit Resistivity6.75-in. Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RLl-20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
GeoSteering arcVISION675 Resistivity6.75-in. Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RLl-21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
GeoSteering Bit Resistivity in Reaming Mode6.75-in. Tool

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RLl-22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

geoVISION* Resistivity Sub6.75-in. Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RLl-23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118


geoVISION Resistivity Sub8.25-in. Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RLl-24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
GeoSteering Bit Resistivity6.75-in. Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RLl-25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

Intro

Contents

CHFR* Cased Hole Formation Resistivity Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RLl-50. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121


CHFR Cased Hole Formation Resistivity Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RLl-51. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
CHFR Cased Hole Formation Resistivity Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RLl-52. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Resistivity Induction
AIT* Array Induction Imager Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RInd-1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

AIT Array Induction Imager Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126


Resistivity Electromagnetic
arcVISION475 and ImPulse 434-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tools2 MHz

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REm-11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

arcVISION475 and ImPulse 434-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tools2 MHz

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REm-12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

arcVISION475 and ImPulse 434-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tools2 MHz

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REm-13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

arcVISION475 and ImPulse 434-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tools2 MHz

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REm-14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

arcVISION675 634-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REm-15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135


arcVISION675 634-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REm-16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
arcVISION675 634-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REm-17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
arcVISION675 634-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REm-18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
arcVISION675 634-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool2 MHz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REm-19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
arcVISION675 634-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool2 MHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REm-20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
arcVISION675 634-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool2 MHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REm-21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
arcVISION675 634-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool2 MHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REm-22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
arcVISION825 814-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REm-23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
arcVISION825 814-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REm-24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
arcVISION825 814-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REm-25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
arcVISION825 814-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REm-26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
arcVISION825 814-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool2 MHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REm-27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
arcVISION825 814-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool2 MHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REm-28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
arcVISION825 814-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool2 MHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REm-29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
arcVISION825 814-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool2 MHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REm-30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
arcVISION900 9-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REm-31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
arcVISION900 9-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REm-32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
arcVISION900 9-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REm-33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
arcVISION900 9-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REm-34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
arcVISION900 9-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool2 MHz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REm-35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
arcVISION900 9-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool2 MHz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REm-36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
arcVISION900 9-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool2 MHz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REm-37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

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Intro

Contents

arcVISION900 9-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool2 MHz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REm-38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158


arcVISION675, arcVISION825, and arcVISION900 Array Resistivity Compensated Tools400 kHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REm-55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
arcVISION and ImPulse Array Resistivity Compensated Tools2 MHz

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REm-56 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

arcVISION675 and ImPulse Array Resistivity Compensated Tools2 MHz and 16-in. Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REm-58 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
arcVISION675 and ImPulse Array Resistivity Compensated Tools2 MHz and 22-in. Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REm-59 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
arcVISION675 and ImPulse Array Resistivity Compensated Tools2 MHz and 28-in. Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REm-60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
arcVISION675 and ImPulse Array Resistivity Compensated Tools2 MHz and 34-in. Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REm-61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
arcVISION675 and ImPulse Array Resistivity Compensated Tools2 MHz and 40-in. Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REm-62 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
arcVISION675 and ImPulse Array Resistivity Compensated Tools2 MHz with Dielectric Assumption . . . . . . . . . . . REm-63 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Formation Resistivity
Resistivity Galvanic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rt-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
High-Resolution Azimuthal Laterlog Sonde (HALS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rt-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
High-Resolution Azimuthal Laterlog Sonde (HALS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rt-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
geoVISION675* Resistivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rt-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
geoVISION675 Resistivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rt-11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
geoVISION675 Resistivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rt-12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
geoVISION675 Resistivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rt-13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
geoVISION825* 814-in. Resistivity-at-the-Bit Tool

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rt-14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175

geoVISION825 8 4-in. Resistivity-at-the-Bit Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rt-15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176


1

geoVISION825 814-in. Resistivity-at-the-Bit Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rt-16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177


geoVISION825 814-in. Resistivity-at-the-Bit Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rt-17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
arcVISION Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rt-31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
arcVISION and ImPulse Array Resistivity Compensated Tools2 MHz

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rt-32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180

arcVISION Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rt-33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181


arcVISION and ImPulse Array Resistivity Compensated Tools2 MHz

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rt-34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182

arcVISION Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rt-35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183


arcVISION and ImPulse Array Resistivity Compensated Tools2 MHz

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rt-36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

arcVISION675 Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rt-37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185


arcVISION675 and ImPulse Array Resistivity Compensated Tools2 MHz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rt-38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
arcVISION Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rt-39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
arcVISION and ImPulse Array Resistivity Compensated Tools2 MHz

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rt-40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

arcVISION Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz in Horizontal Well . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rt-41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
arcVISION and ImPulse Array Resistivity Compensated Tools2 MHz in Horizontal Well . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rt-42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

Intro

vii

Contents

Lithology
Density and NGS* Natural Gamma Ray Spectrometry Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lith-1
NGS Natural Gamma Ray Spectrometry Tool

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lith-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194

Platform Express* Three-Detector Lithology Density Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lith-3


Platform Express Three-Detector Lithology Density Tool

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lith-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

Density Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lith-5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198

Density Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lith-6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200

Environmentally Corrected Neutron Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lith-7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202

Environmentally Corrected APS Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lith-8

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

Bulk Density or Interval Transit Time and Apparent Total Porosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lith-9

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206

Bulk Density or Interval Transit Time and Apparent Total Porosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lith-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Density Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lith-11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Density Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lith-12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
Porosity
Sonic Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P o r-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Sonic Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P o r-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Density Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P o r-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
APS Near-to-Array (APLC) and Near-to-Far (FPLC) Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P o r-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Thermal Neutron Tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P o r-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Thermal Neutron ToolCNT-D and CNT-S 212-in. Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P o r-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
adnVISION475 4.75-in. Azimuthal Density Neutron Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P o r-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
adnVISION675 6.75-in. Azimuthal Density Neutron Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P o r-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
adnVISION825 8.25-in. Azimuthal Density Neutron Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P o r-9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
EcoScope* 6.75-in. Integrated LWD Tool, BPHI Porosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P o r-10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
EcoScope 6.75-in. Integrated LWD Tool, TNPH Porosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P o r-10a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
CNL* Compensated Neutron Log and Litho-Density* Tool (fresh water in invaded zone) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P o r-11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
CNL Compensated Neutron Log and Litho-Density Tool (salt water in invaded zone) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P o r-12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
APS and Litho-Density Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P o r-13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
APS and Litho-Density Tools (saltwater formation) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P o r-14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
adnVISION475 4.75-in. Azimuthal Density Neutron Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P o r-15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
adnVISION675 6.75-in. Azimuthal Density Neutron Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P o r-16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
adnVISION825 8.25-in. Azimuthal Density Neutron Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P o r-17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
EcoScope 6.75-in. Integrated LWD Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P o r-18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
EcoScope 6.75-in. Integrated LWD Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P o r-19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Sonic and Thermal Neutron Crossplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P o r-20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Sonic and Thermal Neutron Crossplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P o r-21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Density and Sonic Crossplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P o r-22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
Density and Sonic Crossplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P o r-23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Density and Neutron Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P o r-24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241

viii

Intro

Contents

Density and APS Epithermal Neutron Tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P o r-25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243


Density, Neutron, and Rxo Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P o r-26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Hydrocarbon Density Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P o r-27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Saturation
Porosity Versus Formation Resistivity Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SatOH-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
Spherical and Fracture Porosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SatOH-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Saturation Determination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SatOH-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Saturation Determination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SatOH-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
Graphical Determination of Sw from Swt and Swb. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SatOH-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Porosity and Gas Saturation in Empty Hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SatOH-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
EPT Propagation Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SatOH-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
EPT Attenuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SatOH-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
Capture Cross Section Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SatCH-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Capture Cross Section Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SatCH-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
RST* Reservoir Saturation Tool1.6875 in. and 2.5 in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
RST Reservoir Saturation Tool1.6875 in. and 2.5 in. in 6.125-in. Borehole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SatCH-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
RST Reservoir Saturation Tool1.6875 in. and 2.5 in. in 9.875-in. Borehole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SatCH-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
RST Reservoir Saturation Tool1.6875 in. and 2.5 in. in 8.125-in. Borehole with 4.5-in. Casing at 11.6 lbm/ft . . . . SatCH-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
RST Reservoir Saturation Tool1.6875 in. and 2.5 in. in 7.875-in. Borehole with 5.5-in. Casing at 17 lbm/ft . . . . . . SatCH-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
RST Reservoir Saturation Tool1.6875 in. and 2.5 in. in 8.5-in. Borehole with 7-in. Casing at 29 lbm/ft. . . . . . . . . . . SatCH-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
RST Reservoir Saturation Tool1.6875 in. and 2.5 in. in 9.875-in. Borehole with 7-in. Casing at 29 lbm/ft . . . . . . . . SatCH-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
Permeability
Permeability from Porosity and Water Saturation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Perm-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
Permeability from Porosity and Water Saturation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Perm-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
Fluid Mobility Effect on Stoneley Slowness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Perm-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
Cement Evaluation
Cement Bond LogCasing Strength. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cem-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
Appendixes
Appendix A

Linear Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275


Log-Linear Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
Water Saturation Grid for Resistivity Versus Porosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277

Appendix B

Logging Tool Response in Sedimentary Minerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279

Appendix C

Acoustic Characteristics of Common Formations and Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281

Appendix D

Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282

Appendix E

Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285

Appendix F

Subscripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287

Appendix G

Unit Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290

Appendix H

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292

Intro

ix

Intro

Contents

Porosity
Foreword

Foreword

This edition of the Schlumberger chartbook presents several


innovations.
First, the charts were developed to achieve two purposes:
Correct raw measurements to account for environmental effects
Early downhole measurements were performed in rather uniform
conditions (vertical wells drilled through quasi-horizontal thick
beds, muds made of water with a narrow selection of additives,
and limited range of hole sizes), but today wells can be highly
deviated or horizontal, mud contents are diverse, and hole sizes
range from 2 to 40 in. Environmental effects may be large. In
addition, they compound. It is essential to correct for these effects
before the measurements are used.
Use environmentally corrected measurements for interpretation

Charts related to measurements that are no longer performed


are not included in this chartbook. However, because many oil and
gas companies use logs acquired years or even decades ago, the
second chartbook, Historical Log Interpretation Charts, contains
these old charts.
Why publish charts on paper in our electronic age? It is true that
software may be more effective than pencil to derive results. Even
more so, this chartbook cannot cope with the complex well situations
that are encountered. Using software is the only way to proceed.
Thus, the chartbook has two primary functions:
Training
The chartbook is essential for educating junior petrophysicists
about the different effects on the measurements. In the interpretation process, the chartbook unveils the relationships between
the different parameters.
Sensitivity analysis
A chart gives the user a graphical idea of the sensitivity of an output to the various inputs (see Chart Gen-1). The visual presentation is helpful for determining if an input parameter is critical.
The user can then focus on the most sensitive inputs.

Back to Contents

xi

Back to Contents

General

Symbols Used in Log Interpretation

Gen-1
(former Gen-3)

Gen
Resistivity of the zone
Resistivity of the water in the zone
Water saturation in the zone
Mud
Rm
Adjacent bed
Rs

hmc
Rmc

Uninvaded
zone
Flushed
zone

dh

(Bed
thickness)

Mudcake

Rx o

Rt

Zone of
transition
or
annulus

Rw

Ri

Sw

Rm f
Sx o
Rs

di
dj
Adjacent bed
(Invasion diameters)
rj
dh
Hole
diameter

Schlumberger

Purpose
This diagram presents the symbols and their descriptions and relations as used in the charts. See Appendixes D and E for identification of the symbols.

Description
The wellbore is shown traversing adjacent beds above and below the
zone of interest. The symbols and descriptions provide a graphical
representation of the location of the various symbols within the wellbore and formations.

Back to Contents

General

Estimation of Formation Temperature with Depth

Gen

Purpose
This chart has a twofold purpose. First, a geothermal gradient can
be assumed by entering the depth and a recorded temperature at
that depth. Second, for an assumed geothermal gradient, if the temperature is known at one depth in the well, the temperature at
another depth in the well can be determined.
Description
Depth is on the y-axis and has the shallowest at the top and the
deepest at the bottom. Both feet and meters are used, on the left
and right axes, respectively. Temperature is plotted on the x-axis,
with Fahrenheit on the bottom and Celsius on the top of the chart.
The annual mean surface temperature is also presented in
Fahrenheit and Celsius.

Example
Given:
Find:
Answer:

Bottomhole depth = 11,000 ft and bottomhole temperature = 200F (annual mean surface temperature = 80F).
Temperature at 8,000 ft.
The intersection of 11,000 ft on the y-axis and 200F
on the x-axis is a geothermal gradient of approximately
1.1F/100 ft (Point A on the chart).
Move upward along an imaginary line parallel to the constructed gradient lines until the depth line for 8,000 ft is
intersected. This is Point B, for which the temperature
on the x-axis is approximately 167F.

Back to Contents

General

Estimation of Formation Temperature with Depth

Gen-2
(former Gen-6)

Gen
Temperature gradient conversions: 1F/100 ft = 1.823C/100 m
1C/100 m = 0.5486F/100 ft
Annual mean
surface temperature
27
16

Temperature (C)

50

75

25

100

50

75

125
100

150

175

125

150

175
1

5
2
B
0.6

10

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4 1.6F/100 ft

Geothermal gradient

Depth
(thousands
of feet)

1.09

1.46

1.82

2.19

2.55 2.92C/100 m

15
5

Depth
(thousands
of meters)

20

7
25
8

80
60

100

150
100

Annual mean
surface temperature

200
150

250
200

300
250

350
300

350

Temperature (F)

Schlumberger

Back to Contents

General

Estimation of Rmf and Rmc

Gen-3

Fluid Properties

Gen

(former Gen-7)

Purpose
Direct measurements of filtrate and mudcake samples are preferred.
When these are not available, the mud filtrate resistivity (R mf) and
mudcake resistivity (R mc) can be estimated with the following
methods.

Mud Weight

Description
Method 1: Lowe and Dunlap
For freshwater muds with measured values of mud resistivity (R m)
between 0.1 and 2.0 ohm-m at 75F [24C] and measured values of
mud density (m) (also called mud weight) in pounds per gallon:
R
log mf
Rm

= 0.396 0.0475 m .

Example
Given:

Method 2: Overton and Lipson


For drilling muds with measured values of R m between 0.1 and
10.0 ohm-m at 75F [24C] and the coefficient of mud (K m) given
as a function of mud weight from the table:

Find:
Answer:

Km

10
11
12
13
14
16

1,200
1,320
1,440
1,560
1,680
1,920

0.847
0.708
0.584
0.488
0.412
0.380

18

2,160

0.350

From the table, Km = 0.584.


R mf = (0.584)(3.5)1.07 = 2.23 ohm-m at 75F.
R mc = 0.69(2.23)(3.5/2.23)2.65 = 5.07 ohm-m at 75F.

( )1.07
2.65

R
R mc = 0.69 R mf m .
R mf

kg/m3

R m = 3.5 ohm-m at 75F and mud weight = 12 lbm/gal


[1,440 kg/m3].
Estimated values of Rmf and Rmc.

R mf = K m R m

( )

lbm/gal

Back to Contents

General

Equivalent NaCl Salinity of Salts

Gen-4
(former Gen-8)

Gen

2.0

Li (2.5)

OH (5.5)

2.0

NH4 (1.9)

Mg

1.5

K
Ca

1.0

CO3
Na and CI (1.0)

1.0
K

Multiplier
SO4
0.5

NO3 (0.55)
Br (0.44)

Ca

CO3

HCO3

SO4

I (0.28)

HCO3

Mg
0.5
10

20

50

100

200

500

1,000 2,000

5,000 10,000 20,000

50,000 100,000

300,000

Total solids concentration (ppm or mg/kg)

Multipliers that do not vary appreciably for low concentrations

(less than about 10,000 ppm) are shown at the left margin of the chart
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to approximate the parts-per-million (ppm) concentration of a sodium chloride (NaCl) solution for which the total
solids concentration of the solution is known. Once the equivalent
concentration of the solution is known, the resistivity of the solution
for a given temperature can be estimated with Chart Gen-6.
Description
The x-axis of the semilog chart is scaled in total solids concentration
and the y-axis is the weighting multiplier. The curve set represents
the various multipliers for the solids typically in formation water.

Example
Given:

Find:
Answer:

Formation water sample with solids concentrations


of calcium (Ca) = 460 ppm, sulfate (SO4) = 1,400 ppm,
and Na plus Cl = 19,000 ppm. Total solids concentration
= 460 + 1,400 + 19,000 = 20,860 ppm.
Equivalent NaCl solution in ppm.
Enter the x-axis at 20,860 ppm and read the multiplier
value for each of the solids curves from the y-axis:
Ca = 0.81, SO4 = 0.45, and NaCl = 1.0. Multiply each
concentration by its multiplier:
(460 0.81) + (1,400 0.45) + (19,000 1.0) = 20,000 ppm.

Back to Contents

General

Concentration of NaCl Solutions

Gen-5

Gen
Concentrations of NaCl Solutions

g/L at
77F

ppm

0.15

150

grains/gal
at 77F

Density of NaCl
solution at
77F [25C]
1.00

10
0.2

200

0.3

300

0.4

400

0.5
0.6

500
600

0.8

800

1.0

1,000

1.5

1,500

2,000

3,000

4,000

5
6

5,000
6,000
8,000

10

10,000

15

15,000

20

20,000

30

30,000

40

40,000

50
60
80
100
125
150
200
250
300

60,000
80,000
100,000
150,000
200,000
250,000

F/100 ft

C/100 ft

API

Specific
gravity (sg) at 60F
0.60

2.0

12.5
15

1.9

0.62

3.5
90

0.64

20
1.8

25
30

0.66
80
0.68

1.7

40

3.0

50
60
70
80
90
100
125
150

70
60
50

1.4
2.5

40

200
1.3
30
1.005
500
600
700
800
900
1,000
1,250
1,500
2,000
2,500
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
10,000
12,500
15,000
17,500

1.2
20
1.1

0.74
0.76

1.5

250
300

0.70
0.72

1.6

2.0
10

1.0
0
1.01

0.78
0.80
0.82
0.84
0.86
0.88
0.90
0.92
0.94
0.96
0.98
1.00
1.02
1.04
1.06
1.08

0.9
1.02
0.8

1.5

1.03
1.04
1.05
1.06
1.07
1.08
1.09
1.10
1.12
1.14
1.16
1.18
1.20

0.7
0.6
1.0
1F/100 ft = 1.822C/100 m
1C/100 m = 0.5488F/100 ft

Schlumberger

Oil Gravity

100

400
8

Temperature Gradient
Conversion

Back to Contents

API =

141.5
131.5
sg at 60F

General

Resistivity of NaCl Water Solutions

Purpose
This chart has a twofold purpose. The first is to determine the resistivity of an equivalent NaCl concentration (from Chart Gen-4) at a
specific temperature. The second is to provide a transition of resistivity at a specific temperature to another temperature. The solution
resistivity value and temperature at which the value was determined
are used to approximate the NaCl ppm concentration.
Description
The two-cycle log scale on the x-axis presents two temperature
scales for Fahrenheit and Celsius. Resistivity values are on the left
four-cycle log scale y-axis. The NaCl concentration in ppm and
grains/gal at 75F [24C] is on the right y-axis. The conversion
approximation equation for the temperature (T) effect on the
resistivity (R) value at the top of the chart is valid only for the
temperature range of 68 to 212F [20 to 100C].

Example Two
Given:
Solution resistivity = 0.3 ohm-m at 75F.
Find:
Solution resistivity at 200F [93C].
Answer 1: Enter 0.3 ohm-m and 75F and find their intersection
on the 20,000-ppm concentration line. Follow the line to
the right to intersect the 200F vertical line (interpolate
between existing lines if necessary). The resistivity value
for this point on the left y-axis is 0.115 ohm-m.
Answer 2: Resistivity at 200F = resistivity at 75F [(75 + 6.77)/
(200 + 6.77)] = 0.3 (81.77/206.77) = 0.1186 ohm-m.

Example One
Given:
NaCl equivalent concentration = 20,000 ppm.
Temperature of concentration = 75F.
Find:
Resistivity of the solution.
Answer: Enter the ppm concentration on the y-axis and the temperature on the x-axis to locate their point of intersection on the chart. The value of this point on the left
y-axis is 0.3 ohm-m at 75F.

continued on next page

Back to Contents

Gen

General

Resistivity of NaCl Water Solutions

Gen-6
(former Gen-9)

Gen
Conversion approximated by R2 = R1 [(T1 + 6.77)/(T2 + 6.77)]F or R2 = R1 [(T1 + 21.5)/(T2 + 21.5)]C
10
8
6
5

ppm

grains/gal
at 75F

200

10

300

15

400

20
25
30

500
600
700
800
1,0
00
1,2
00
1,4
00
1,7
00
2,0
00

50

3,0
00
4,0
00
5,0
00
6,0
00
7,0
00
8,0
00
10,
00
12, 0
000
14,
000
17,
0
20, 00
000

150

0.8
0.6
0.5
0.4
Resistivity
of solution
(ohm-m)

0.3
0.2

0.1
0.08
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
300
,000

0.01
F 50
C 10

75
20

30

100
40

125
150
200
50 60 70 80 90 100

250
300 350 400
120 140 160 180 200

Temperature
Schlumberger

Back to Contents

30,
000
40,
000
50,
000
60,
000
70,
0
80, 00
0
100 00
,
120 000
140,000
,0
170 00
,
200 000
250,000
,
280 000
,00
0

40

100

200
250
300
400
500

1,000
1,500
2,000
2,500
3,000
4,000
5,000

10,000
15,000
20,000

NaCl
concentration
(ppm or
grains/gal)

General

Density of Water and Hydrogen Index of Water and Hydrocarbons

Gen-7

Gen

Water
Temperature (C)
25 50
1.20
1.15
1.10

250
,000

100

150

Hydrogen Index of Salt Water

200
1.05

ppm

200
,000
ppm

150,0
00 p
p
100,00

1.00

0 pp

Water
density
(g/cm3)

1.05

50,000

Hydrogen
index

ppm

1.00

Dis

tille

dw

0.95

ate
r

0.95

0.90

0.90
0.85
40 100
Pressure

0.85
200

300

400 440

50

100

150

200

250

Salinity (kppm or g/kg)

Temperature (F)
7,000 psi NaCl
1,000 psi
14.7 psi
Hydrocarbons
Hydrogen Index of Live Hydrocarbons and Gas

1.2
1.0
0.8
Hydrogen
index

0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0

Schlumberger

1.0
0.8
0.4
0.6
0.2
Hydrocarbon density (g/cm3)

Purpose
These charts are for determination of the density (g/cm3) and hydrogen index of water for known values of temperature, pressure, and
salinity of the water. From a known hydrocarbon density of oil, a
determination of the hydrogen index of the oil can be obtained.
Description: Density of Water
To obtain the density of the water, enter the desired temperature (F
at the bottom x-axis or C at the top) and intersect the pressure and
salinity in the chart. From that point read the density on the y-axis.

1.2

Example: Density of Water


Given:
Temperature = 200F [93C], pressure = 7,000 psi, and
salinity = 250,000 ppm.
Answer: Density of water = 1.15 g/cm3.
Example: Hydrogen Index of Salt Water
Given:
Salinity of saltwater = 125,000 ppm.
Answer: Hydrogen index = 0.95.
Example: Hydrogen Index of Hydrocarbons
Given:
Oil density = 0.60 g/cm3.
Answer: Hydrocarbon index = approximately 0.91.

Back to Contents

General

Density and Hydrogen Index of Natural Gas

Gen-8

Hgas

Gen

Gas gravity = 0.6


(Air = 1.0)

0.3

0.7

100

0.6

150
200
250
300
350

0.2

0.5
0.4

Gas
density
(g/cm3)

Gas
temperature
(F)

0.3

0.1

0.2
0.1
0

10

Gas pressure 1,000 (psia)

0.5
Gas gravity = 0.65

0.4

Pressure (psi)
17,500
15,000
12,500
10,000

0.3

Gas
density
(g/cm3)

7,500
0.2

5,000

0.1

2,500

14.7

100

300

200

Purpose
This chart can be used to determine more than one characteristic
of natural gas under different conditions. The characteristics are
gas density (g), gas pressure, and hydrogen index (Hgas).

Example
Given:
Find:
Answer:

Gas density = 0.2 g/cm3 and temperature = 200F.


Gas pressure and hydrogen index.
Gas pressure = approximately 5,200 psi and Hgas = 0.44.

Description
For known values of gas density, pressure, and temperature, the value
of Hgas can be determined. If only the gas pressure and temperature
are known, then the gas density and Hgas can be determined. If the
gas density and temperature are known, then the gas pressure and
Hgas can be determined.
10

400

Temperature (F)

Schlumberger

Back to Contents

General

Sound Velocity of Hydrocarbons

Gen-9

Gen
Natural Gas

Temperature (C)
5,000

50

100

150

200

200

Gas gravity = 0.65

Pressure (psi)

4,000

250

17,500

Sound
velocity
(ft/s)

300

15,000

3,000

12,500

400

10,000

2,000

Sound
slowness
(s/ft)

500

7,500

14.7
5,000

1,000

1,000

2,500

2,000
0
50

100

150

200

250

300

350

Temperature (F)
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to determine the sound velocity (ft/s) and sound
slowness (s/ft) of gas in the formation. These values are helpful in
sonic and seismic interpretations.

Description
Enter the chart with the temperature (Celsius along the top x-axis
and Fahrenheit along the bottom) to intersect the formation
pore pressure.

Back to Contents

11

General

Gas Effect on Compressional Slowness

Gen-9a

Gen
Sandstone
200

tc
(s/ft)

200 s/ft

Wet
sand

110 s/ft
100
90 s/ft
70 s/ft
50
0

20

40

60

80

100

Liquid saturation (%)

Woods law (e = 5)

Power law (e = 3)

Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart illustrates the effect that gas in the formation has on the
slowness time of sound from the sonic tool to anticipate the slowness
of a formation that contains gas and liquid.

12

Description
Enter the chart with the compressional slowness time (tc) from the
sonic log on the y-axis and the liquid saturation of the formation on
the x-axis. The curves are used to determine the gas effect on the
basis of which correlation (Woods law or Power law) is applied. The
slowing effect begins sooner for the Power law correlation. The
Woods law correlation slightly increases tc values as the formation
liquid saturation increases whereas the Power law correlation
decreases tc values from about 20% liquid saturation.

Back to Contents

General

Gas Effect on Acoustic Velocity

Gen-9b

Sandstone and Limestone

Gen
Sandstone
25
No gas
Gas bearing
20

Velocity
(1,000 ft/s)

15

Vp
10

Vs
5

0
0

10

30

20

40

Porosity (p.u.)
Limestone
25
No gas
Gas bearing
20

15
Vp

Velocity
(1,000 ft/s)
10

Vs
5

0
0

10

20

30

40

Porosity (p.u.)
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to determine porosity from the compressional
wave or shear wave velocity (Vp and Vs, respectively).

Description
Enter Vp or Vs on the y-axis to intersect the appropriate curve. Read
the porosity for the sandstone or limestone formation on the x-axis.

Back to Contents

13

General

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxation Times of Water

Gen-10

Gen
Transverse (Bulk and Diffusion)
Relaxation Time of Water

Longitudinal (Bulk) Relaxation


Time of Water
100

100
T1
10

Relaxation
time (s)

Relaxation
time (s)

1.0

0.1

10

T2 (TE = 0.2 ms)

1.0

T2 (TE = 0.32 ms)

0.1

T2 (TE = 1 ms)
T2 (TE = 2 ms)

0.01
20

60

100

140

180

0.01
20

60

100

140

180

Temperature (C)

Temperature (C)
Schlumberger

Purpose
Longitudinal (Bulk) Relaxation Time of Pure Water
This chart provides an approximation of the bulk relaxation time
(T1) of pure water depending on the temperature of the water.

Transverse (Bulk and Diffusion) Relaxation Time of Water


in the Formation
Determining the bulk and diffusion relaxation time (T2) from this
chart requires knowledge of both the formation temperature and
the echo spacing (TE) used to acquire the data. These data are presented graphically on the log and are the basis of the water or
hydrocarbon interpretation of the zone of interest.

14

Description
Longitudinal Relaxation Time
The chart relation is for pure waterthe additives in drilling fluids
reduce the relaxation time (T1) of water in the invaded zone. The
two major contributors to the reduction are surfactants added to the
drilling fluid and the molecular interactions of the mud filtrate contained in the pore spaces and matrix minerals of the formation.

Transverse Relaxation Time


The relaxation time (T2) determination is based on the formation
temperature and echo spacing used to acquire the measurement.
The TE value is listed in the parameter section of the log. Using
the T2 measurement from a known water sand or based on local
experience further aids in determining whether a zone of
interest contains hydrocarbons, water, or both.

Back to Contents

General

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxation Times of Hydrocarbons

Transverse (Bulk and Diffusion) Relaxation


Time of Crude Oil

Longitudinal (Bulk) Relaxation


Time of Crude Oil

10

Gen-11a

10

Light oil: 4560 API


0.650.75 g/cm3
1

TE = 0.2 ms
TE = 0.32 ms
TE = 1 ms
TE = 2 ms

1
Medium oil: 2540 API
0.750.85 g/cm3

0.1
T1 (s)

0.1

T1

0.01

Gen

T2 (s)
0.01

Heavy oil: 1020 API


0.850.95 g/cm3

0.001
0.0001
0.1

10

100

0.001

1,000

10,000 100,000

0.0001
0.1

10

Viscosity (cp)
Hydrocarbon Diffusion Coefficient

103

100
1,000
Viscosity (cp)

10,000 100,000

Water Diffusion Coefficient

20

15

104
Oil (9 at 20C)

Diffusion
(cm2/s)

Diffusion
(10 5 cm2/s)

105

10

Oil (40 at 20C)

106

107
0
Schlumberger

50

100

150

200

Temperature (C)

50

100

150

200

Temperature (C)

Purpose
Longitudinal (Bulk) Relaxation Time of Crude Oil
This chart is used to predict the T1 of crude oils with various viscosities and densities or specific gravities to assist in interpretation of
the fluid content of the formation of interest.

Transverse (Bulk and Diffusion) Relaxation Time


Known values of T2 and TE can be used to approximate the viscosity
by using this chart.
Diffusion Coefficients for Hydrocarbon and Water
These charts are used to predict the diffusion coefficient of hydrocarbon as a function of formation temperature and viscosity and
of water as a function of formation temperature.

Description
Longitudinal (Bulk) Relaxation Time
This chart is divided into three distinct sections based on the composition of the oil measured. The type of oil contained in the formation
can be determined from the measured T1 and viscosity determined
from the transverse relaxation time chart.

Transverse (Bulk and Diffusion) Relaxation Time


The viscosity can be determined with values of the measured T2 and
TE for input to the longitudinal relaxation time chart to identify the
type of oil in the formation.

Back to Contents

15

General

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxation Times of Hydrocarbons

Gen
Methane Diffusion Coefficient

35

Longitudinal (Bulk) Relaxation


Time of Methane

10

25C
75C
125C
175C

30
8

1,600 psi

Gen-11b

25

Diffusion
(104 cm2/s)

3,000

20

3,900

15

4,500

10

8,300

T1 (s)

15,500

22,800
0

0
0

50

100

150

200

3,000

Temperature (C)

100

Transverse (Bulk and Diffusion)


Relaxation Time of Methane

Hydrogen Index of Live Hydrocarbons and Gas


1.2
1.0
0.8

TE = 0.2 ms
Hydrogen
index

T2 (s)
0.1

0.6

TE = 0.32 ms
0.4

TE = 1 ms
0.01

0.2

TE = 2 ms
0.001
104

12,000

Pressure (psi)

10

9,000

6,000

0
0

102

103

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

Hydrocarbon density (g/cm )

Diffusion (cm /s)

Schlumberger

Purpose
Methane Diffusion Coefficient
This chart is used to determine the diffusion coefficient of methane
at a known formation temperature and pressure.

Hydrogen Index of Live Hydrocarbons and Gas


This chart is used to determine the hydrogen index from the hydrocarbon density.

Longitudinal and Transverse Relaxation Times of Methane


These charts are used to determine the longitudinal relaxation time
(T1) of methane by using the formation temperature and pressure
(see Reference 48) and the transverse relaxation time (T2) of
methane by using the diffusion and echo spacing (TE), respectively.
16

Back to Contents

General

Capture Cross Section of NaCl Water Solutions

Purpose
The sigma value ( w) of a saltwater solution can be determined from
this chart. The sigma water value is used to calculate the water saturation of a formation.
Description
Charts Gen-12 and Gen-13 define sigma water for pressure conditions of ambient through 20,000 psi [138 MPa] and temperatures
from 68 to 500F [20 to 260C]. Enter the appropriate chart for
the pressure value with the known water salinity on the y-axis and
move horizontally to intersect the formation temperature. The sigma
of the formation water for the intersection point is on the x-axis.

Example
Given:

Water salinity = 125,000 ppm, temperature = 68F at


ambient pressure, and formation temperature = 190F
at 5,000 psi.
Find:
w at ambient conditions and w of the formation.
Answer: w = 69 c.u. and w of the formation = 67 c.u.
If the sigma water apparent ( wa) is known from a clean water
sand, then the salinity of the formation can be determined by entering the chart from the sigma water value on the x-axis to intersect
the pressure and temperature values.

continued on next page

Back to Contents

17

Gen

General

Capture Cross Section of NaCl Water Solutions

Gen-12
(former Tcor-2a)

Gen

300

300
]
C
93 ]
F [ 0C

0 2
20 F [
68

275
250

250
225

200

200

Am
bi
en
t

225

175
150

C]
5 ]
20 0C
F [ [15 C]

3 ]
0
40 00F F [9 0C
3 00 [2
2 8F
6

125

300
275
250

1,0
00
ps
i[
6.9
M
Pa
]

100
75
50
25
Equivalent water salinity
(1,000 ppm NaCl)

275

175

200
175

150

150
125

125

100

C]
5 ]
20 0C
F [ [15 C]

3 ]
0
40 00F F [9 0C
3 00 [2
2 8F
6

50
25

300
275
250
225

5,0
00
ps
i[
34
M
Pa
]

75

225

200
175
150

125
100

100

75

75

50

50

25

25

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Schlumberger

18

Back to Contents

90

100 110 120

130

0
140

General

Capture Cross Section of NaCl Water Solutions

Gen-13
(former Tcor-2b)

300

300
C]
5 ]
20 0C
F [ [15 C]

3 ]
0
40 00F F [9 0C
3 00 [2
2 8F
6

275
250
225

275
250

10
,00
0p
si
[6
9M
Pa
]

225

200
175
150

200

300
C]
5 C]
[20 50 C]
F
0 [1 3 ]
40 00F F [9 0C
3 00 [2
2 8F
6

125

15
,00
0p
si
[1
03
M
Pa
]

100
75
50
25
Equivalent water salinity
(1,000 ppm NaCl)

Gen

175

150

125

125

100

225
200

300
C]
0 C]
[26 05 C]
F
2
0 [ 50 ]
50 00F F [1 93C ]
4 00 F [ 0C
3 00 [2
2 8F
6

20
,00
0p
si
[1
38
M
Pa
]

50
25

250

175

150

75

275

275
250
225
200
175
150
125

100

100

75

75

50

50

25

25

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100 110 120 130

0
140

Schlumberger

Purpose
Chart Gen-13 continues Chart Gen-12 at higher pressure values for
the determination of w of a saltwater solution.

Back to Contents

19

General

Capture Cross Section of Hydrocarbons

Gen

Purpose
Sigma hydrocarbon ( h) for gas or oil can be determined by using
this chart. Sigma hydrocarbon is used to calculate the water saturation of a formation.

Example
Given:

Description
One set of charts is for measurement in metric units and the other
is for measurements in customary oilfield units.
For gas, enter the background chart of a chart set with the reservoir pressure and temperature. At that intersection point move left
to the y-axis and read the sigma of methane gas.
For oil, use the foreground chart and enter the solution gas/oil
ratio (GOR) of the oil on the x-axis. Move upward to intersect the
appropriate API gravity curve for the oil. From this intersection
point, move horizontally left and read the sigma of the oil on
the y-axis.

Find:
Answer:

20

Reservoir pressure = 8,000 psi, reservoir temperature =


300F, gravity of reservoir oil = 30API, and solution
GOR = 200.
Sigma gas and sigma oil.
Sigma gas = 10 c.u. and sigma oil = 21.6 c.u.

Back to Contents

General

Capture Cross Section of Hydrocarbons

Gen-14
(former Tcor-1)

Gen

Reservoir pressure (psia)


20.0 0

4,000

8,000

12,000

16,000

20,000

Methane
17.5

68
125

15.0

300
400
500

12.5
h (c.u.)

Customary

200

10.0
Temperature (F)
7.5

Liquid hydrocarbons

22

30, 40, and 50API

5.0
20
20 and 60API

h (c.u.)

2.5

Co
nd
en
sa
te

18
0
16
10

100

1,000

10,000

Solution GOR (ft /bbl)


3

Reservoir pressure (mPa)


20.0

14

28

41

55

69

83

97

110

124

138

Methane
17.5

20
52

15.0

93

12.5
h (c.u.)

Metric

150
205
260

10.0
Temperature (C)
7.5

Liquid hydrocarbons

22

0.78 to 0.88 mg/m3

5.0
20
0.74 or 0.94 mg/m3

h (c.u.)

2.5

18

Co
nd
en
sa
te

0
16
2
Schlumberger

10

100

1,000

2,000

Solution GOR (m /m )
3

Back to Contents

21

General

EPT* Propagation Time of NaCl Water Solutions

Gen-15
(former EPTcor-1)

Gen

90

120C
250F

80

100C
200F
80C
175F

70

150F
60C
125F

60

40C
100F

tpw (ns/m)
50

75F
20C

40

30

20
0

50

100

150

200

250

Equivalent water salinity (1,000 ppm or g/kg NaCl)

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is designed to determine the propagation time (tpw) of
saltwater solutions. The value of t pw of a water zone is used to determine the temperature variation of the salinity of the formation water.

22

Description
Enter the chart with the known salinity of the zone of interest and
move upward to the formation temperature curve. From that intersection point move horizontally left and read the propagation time
of the water in the formation on the y-axis. Conversely, enter the
chart with a known value of tpw from the EPT Electromagnetic
Propagation Tool log to intersect the formation temperature curve
and read the water salinity at the bottom of the chart.

Back to Contents

General

EPT* Attenuation of NaCl Water Solutions

Gen-16
(former EPTcor-2)

Gen
5,000

120C
250F
100C
200F
80C
175F
150F
60C
125F
40C
100F

4,000

Attenuation,
Aw
(dB/m)

3,000

75F
20C
2,000

1,000

0
0

50

100

150

200

250

Equivalent water salinity (kppm or g/kg NaCl)


EPT-D Spreading Loss

40
60
80
100
120

Correction
to EATT
(dB/m)

140
160
180
200
0

10

15

20

25

30

Uncorrected t pl (ns/m)

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is designed to estimate the attenuation of saltwater solutions. The attenuation (Aw) value of a water zone is used in conjunction with the spreading loss determined from the EPT propagation
time measurement (tpl) to determine the saturation of the flushed
zone by using Chart SatOH-8.

Description
Enter the chart with the known salinity of the zone of interest and
move upward to the formation temperature curve. From that intersection point move horizontally left and read the attenuation of the water
in the formation on the y-axis. Conversely, enter the chart with a known
EATT attenuation value of Aw from the EPT Electromagnetic
Propagation Tool log to intersect the formation temperature curve
and read the water salinity at the bottom of the chart.

Back to Contents

23

General

EPT* Propagation TimeAttenuation Crossplot

Gen-16a

Sandstone Formation at 150F [60C]

Gen
1,000
Rmfa from EPT log (ohm-m)

0.02

0.05

900

0.1
Sandstone at 150F [60C]

800
700
0.2

600
Attenuation
(dB/m)

500

sity
(

EP
T)

400

0.5

E PT

por
o

300
200

1.0

100
10

2.0

50

40

30

20

5.0
10.0
50.0

0
7

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

tpl (ns/m)
*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to determine the apparent resistivity of the mud
filtrate (Rmfa) from measurements from the EPT Electromagnetic
Propagation Tool. The porosity of the formation (EPT) can also be
estimated. Porosity and mud filtrate resistivity values are used in
determining the water saturation.

Example
Given:
Find:
Answer:

Attenuation = 300 dB/m and tpl = 13 ns/m.


Apparent resistivity of the mud filtrate and EPT porosity.
Rmfa = 0.1 ohm-m and EPT = 20 p.u.

Description
Enter the chart with the known attenuation and propagation time
(tpl). The intersection of those values identifies Rmfa and EPT from
the two sets of curves. This chart is characterized for a sandstone
formation at a temperature of 150F [60C].

24

Back to Contents

Gamma RayWireline

Scintillation Gamma Ray338- and 11116-in. Tools

GR1

Gamma Ray Correction for Hole Size and Barite Mud Weight

(former GR-1)

Scintillation Gamma Ray


10.0

GR

7.0

5.0

3 38-in. tool, centered

3.0
11116-in. tool, centered

2.0
Correction
factor

3 38-in. tool, eccentered

11116-in. tool, eccentered

1.0

0.7
0.5

0.3
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

t (g/cm )
2

Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart provides a correction factor for measured values of formation gamma ray (GR) in gAPI units. The corrected GR values can be
used to determine shale volume corrections for calculating water
saturation in shaly sands.
Description
The semilog chart has the t factor on the x-axis and the correction
factor on the y-axis.
The input parameter, t, in g/cm2, is calculated as follows:
t=

( )

2.54 d sonde
Wmud 2.54 d h

8.345
2
2

) ,

Example
Given:
Find:
Answer:

GR = 36 API units (gAPI), dh = 12 in., mud weight =


12 lbm/gal, tool OD = 338 in., and the tool is centered.
Corrected GR value.

t=

( )

2.54 3.375
12 2.54 12

8.345
2
2

) = 15.88 g /cm2.

Enter the chart at 15.8 on the x-axis and move upward to


intersect the 338-in. centered curve. The corresponding
correction factor is 1.6.
1.6 36 gAPI = 58 gAPI.

where
Wmud = mud weight (lbm/gal)
dh = diameter of wellbore (in.)
dsonde = outside diameter (OD) of tool (in.).

Back to Contents

25

Gamma RayWireline

Scintillation Gamma Ray338- and 11116-in. Tools

GR-2

Gamma Ray Correction for Barite Mud in Various-Size Boreholes

(former GR-2)

1.2
1.0
11116-in. tool, centered

GR
0.8
Bmud

0.6
11116-in. tool, eccentered

0.4
338-in. tool, centered

0.2
338-in. tool, eccentered

0
7

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

Mud weight (lbm/gal)

1.2
1.0
0.8
Fbh

338-in. tool

0.6

11116-in. tool

0.4
0.2
0
0

10

dh dsonde (in.)
Schlumberger

Purpose
These charts are used to further correct the GR reading for various
borehole sizes.
Description
Two components needed to complete correction of the GR reading
are determined with these charts: barite mud factor (Bmud) and
borehole function factor (Fbh).
Example
Given:

Find:
Answer:

26

Borehole diameter = 6.0 in., tool OD = 338 in., the tool


is centered, mud weight = 12 lbm/gal, measured
GR = 36 gAPI.
Corrected GR value.
Enter the upper chart for Bmud versus mud weight at
12 lbm/gal on the x-axis. The intersection point with the
338-in. centered curve is Bmud < 0.15 on the y-axis.
Determine (dh dsonde) as 6 3.375 = 2.625 in. and enter

that value on the lower chart for Fbh versus


(dh dsonde) on the x-axis. Move upward to intersect
the 3 38-in. curve, at which Fbh = 0.81.
Determine the new value of t using the equation from
Chart GR-1:
t=

( )

2.54 d sonde
Wmud 2.54 d h

8.345
2
2

()

12 2.54 6 2.54 3.375

8.345 2
2

) = 4.8 g /cm2.

The correction factor determined from Chart GR-1 is 0.95.


The complete correction factor is
(Chart GR-1 correction factor) [1 + (Bmud Fbh)]
= 1.12 [1 + (0.15 0.81)] = 1.26.
Corrected GR = 36 1.26 = 45.4 gAPI.

Back to Contents

Gamma RayWireline

Scintillation Gamma Ray338- and 11116-in. Tools

GR-3

Borehole Correction for Cased Hole

(former GR-3)

Scintillation Gamma Ray


10.0

GR
7.0
5.0

338-in. tool

3.0

11116-in. tool

2.0
Correction
factor

1.0

0.7
0.5

0.3
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

t (g/cm2)
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to compensate for the effects of the casing,
cement sheath, and borehole fluid on the GR count rate in cased
holes for conditions of an eccentered 338-in. tool in an 8-in. borehole
with 10-lbm/gal mud.
Description
In small boreholes the count rate can be too large, and in larger
boreholes the count rate can be too small. The chart is based on
openhole Chart GR-1, modified by laboratory and Monte Carlo
calculations to provide a correction factor for application to
the measured GR count rate in cased hole environments:
t=

Find:
Answer:

2.54 Wm
d
d sonde + csg d ODcsg d IDcsg + cement d h d ODcsg .

2 8.345 IDcsg

Example
Given:

GR = 19 gAPI, hole diameter (dh) = 12 in., casing OD


(dODcsg) = 958 in. and 43.5 lbm/ft, casing ID (dIDcsg) =
8.755 in., casing density (csg) = 7.96 g/cm3, tool OD
(dsonde) = 338 in., cement density (cement) = 2.0 g/cm3,
and mud weight (Wm) = 8.345 lbm/gal.
Corrected cased hole GR value.
The chart input factor calculated with the equation is
t = 21.7 g/cm2. Enter the chart at 21.7 on the x-axis. At
the intersection point with the 338-in. curve, the value of
the correction factor on the y-axis is 2.0. The GR value is
corrected by multiplying by the correction factor:
19 gAPI 2.0 = 38 gAPI.

Back to Contents

27

Gamma RayLWD

SlimPulse* and E-Pulse* Gamma Ray Tools

GR-6

Borehole Correction for Open Hole

11

GR

10
9

17.5-in. bit

8
13.5-in. bit

7
6
Correction
factor

12.25-in. bit

5
4

9.875-in. bit
8.5-in. bit

3
2

7-in. bit
6-in. bit

1
0
8

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

Mud weight (lbm/gal)

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to provide a correction factor for gamma ray
values measured with the SlimPulse third-generation slim measurements-while-drilling (MWD) tool or the E-Pulse electromagnetic
telemetry tool. These environmental corrections for mud weight
and bit size are already applied to the gamma ray presented on
the logs.

28

Description
Enter the chart with the mud weight on the x-axis and move
upward to intersect the appropriate openhole size. Interpolate
between lines as necessary. At the intersection point, move
horizontally left to the y-axis to read the correction factor that
the SlimPulse or E-Pulse gamma ray value was multiplied by to
obtain the corrected gamma ray value in gAPI units.

Back to Contents

Gamma RayLWD

ImPulse* Gamma Ray 4.75-in. Tool

GR-7

Borehole Correction for Open Hole

1.75

GR

1.50
8.5-in. bit

Correction
factor

1.25
7-in. bit

6-in. bit

1.00

0.75
8

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

Mud weight (lbm/gal)

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to provide a correction factor for gamma ray
values measured with the ImPulse integrated MWD platform. These
environmental corrections for mud weight and bit size are already
applied to the gamma ray presented on the logs.

Description
Enter the chart with the mud weight on the x-axis and move
upward to intersect the appropriate bit size. Interpolate between
lines as necessary. At the intersection point, move horizontally left
to the y-axis to read the correction factor that the ImPulse gamma
ray value was multiplied by to obtain the corrected gamma ray
value in gAPI units.

Back to Contents

29

Gamma RayLWD

PowerPulse* and TeleScope* Gamma Ray6.75-in. Tools

GR-9

Borehole Correction for Open Hole

PowerPulse and TeleScope Gamma Ray

GR

3.00

2.75

2.50

2.25
12.25-in. bit

Correction
factor

2.00
10.625-in. bit
9.875-in. bit

1.75

8.75-in. bit
8.5-in. bit

1.50

1.25

1.00
8

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

Mud weight (lbm/gal)


*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to provide a correction factor for gamma ray values
measured with the PowerPulse 6.75-in. MWD telemetry system and
TeleScope 6.75-in. high-speed telemetry-while-drilling service.
These environmental corrections for mud weight and bit size are
already applied to the gamma ray presented on the logs.

30

Description
Enter the chart with the mud weight on the x-axis and move upward
to intersect the appropriate bit size. Interpolate between lines as
necessary. At the intersection point, move horizontally left to the
y-axis to read the correction factor that the PowerPulse or
TeleScope gamma ray value was multiplied by to obtain the corrected gamma ray value in gAPI units.

Back to Contents

Gamma RayLWD

PowerPulse* Gamma Ray8.25-in. Normal-Flow Tool

GR-10

Borehole Correction for Open Hole

GR

5.00

4.75
17.5-in. bit

4.50

4.25

4.00
Correction
factor

14.75-in. bit

3.75

13.5-in. bit

3.50
12.25-in. bit

3.25
10.625-in. bit

3.00

9.875-in. bit

2.75

2.50
8

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

Mud weight (lbm/gal)


*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to provide a correction factor for gamma ray values
measured with the PowerPulse 8.25-in. normal-flow MWD telemetry
system. These environmental corrections for mud weight and bit
size are already applied to the gamma ray presented on the logs.

Description
Enter the chart with the mud weight on the x-axis and move upward
to intersect the appropriate bit size. Interpolate between lines as
necessary. At the intersection point, move horizontally left to the y-axis
to read the appropriate correction factor that the PowerPulse gamma
ray value was multiplied by to obtain the corrected GR value in gAPI
units.

Back to Contents

31

Gamma RayLWD

PowerPulse* Gamma Ray8.25-in. High-Flow Tool

GR-11

Borehole Correction for Open Hole

4.25

GR

4.00

3.75

17.5-in. bit
3.50

3.25
Correction
factor

14.75-in. bit

13.5-in. bit

3.00

12.25-in. bit

2.75

10.625-in. bit

2.50

9.875-in. bit
2.25

2.00

1.75
8

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

Mud weight (lbm/gal)

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to provide a correction factor for gamma ray values
measured with the PowerPulse 8.25-in. high-flow MWD telemetry
system. These environmental corrections for mud weight and bit
size are already applied to the gamma ray presented on the logs.

32

Description
Enter the chart with the mud weight on the x-axis and move upward
to intersect the appropriate bit size. Interpolate between lines as
necessary. At the intersection point, move horizontally left to the
y-axis to read the correction factor that the PowerPulse gamma ray
value was multiplied by to obtain the corrected gamma ray value in
gAPI units.

Back to Contents

Gamma RayLWD

PowerPulse* Gamma Ray9-in. Tool

GR-12

Borehole Correction for Open Hole

7.50

GR

7.00

6.50

6.00

22-in. bit
5.50
Correction
factor

5.00
17.5-in. bit

4.50

14.75-in. bit
4.00

13.5-in. bit
12.25-in. bit

3.50
10.625-in. bit

3.00

2.50
8

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

Mud weight (lbm/gal)

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to provide a correction factor for gamma ray values
measured with the PowerPulse 9-in. MWD telemetry system. These
environmental corrections for mud weight and bit size are already
applied to the gamma ray presented on the logs.

Description
Enter the chart with the mud weight on the x-axis and move upward
to intersect the appropriate bit size. Interpolate between lines as
necessary. At the intersection point, move horizontally left to the
y-axis to read the correction factor that the PowerPulse gamma ray
value was multiplied by to obtain the corrected gamma ray value in
gAPI units.

Back to Contents

33

Gamma RayLWD

PowerPulse* Gamma Ray9.5-in. Normal-Flow Tool

GR-13

Borehole Correction for Open Hole

8.00

GR

7.50

7.00

22-in. bit

6.50

6.00
17.5-in. bit

Correction
factor

5.50

5.00

14.75-in. bit

13.5-in. bit
4.50
12.25-in. bit

4.00
10.625-in. bit

3.50

3.00
8

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

Mud weight (lbm/gal)

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to provide a correction factor for gamma ray values
measured with the PowerPulse 9.5-in. normal-flow MWD telemetry
system. These environmental corrections for mud weight and bit
size are already applied to the gamma ray presented on the logs.

34

Description
Enter the chart with the mud weight on the x-axis and move upward
to intersect the appropriate bit size. Interpolate between lines as
necessary. At the intersection point, move horizontally left to the
y-axis to read the correction factor that the PowerPulse gammma ray
value was multiplied by to obtain the corrected gamma ray value in
gAPI units.

Back to Contents

Gamma RayLWD

PowerPulse* Gamma Ray9.5-in. High-Flow Tool

GR-14

Borehole Correction for Open Hole

8.00

GR
22-in. bit

7.50
7.00
6.50
6.00
5.50
Correction
factor

17.5-in. bit

5.00
4.50
14.75-in. bit

4.00
13.5-in. bit

3.50

12.25-in. bit

3.00
10.625-in. bit

2.50
2.00
8

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

Mud weight (lbm/gal)

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to provide a correction factor for gamma ray values
measured by the PowerPulse 9.5-in. high-flow MWD telemetry system. These environmental corrections for mud weight and bit size
are already applied to the gamma ray presented on the logs.

Description
Enter the chart with the mud weight on the x-axis and move upward
to intersect the appropriate bit size. Interpolate between lines as
necessary. At the intersection point, move horizontally left to the
y-axis to read the correction factor that the PowerPulse gamma ray
value was multiplied by to obtain the corrected gamma ray value in
gAPI units.

Back to Contents

35

Gamma RayLWD

geoVISION675* GVR* Gamma Ray6.75-in. Tool

GR-15

Borehole Correction for Open Hole

2.75

GR

2.50

2.25

2.00

Correction
factor

12.25-in. bit

1.75

1.50
10.625-in. bit

1.25
9.875-in. bit
8.75-in. bit

8.5-in. bit

1.00

0.75
8

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

Mud weight (lbm/gal)

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to provide a correction factor for gamma ray
values measured with the GVR resistivity sub of the geoVISION 634-in.
MWD/LWD imaging system. These environmental corrections for
mud weight and bit size are already applied to the gamma ray
presented on the logs.

36

Description
Enter the chart with the mud weight on the x-axis and move upward
to intersect the appropriate bit size. Interpolate between lines as
necessary. At the intersection point, move horizontally left to the
y-axis to read the correction factor that the GVR gamma ray value was
multiplied by to obtain the corrected gamma ray value in gAPI units.

Back to Contents

Gamma RayLWD

RAB* Gamma Ray8.25-in. Tool

GR-16

Borehole Correction for Open Hole

3.00

GR

2.75

2.50
17.5-in. bit

2.25

2.00
Correction
factor

1.75
14.75-in. bit

1.50

13.5-in. bit

1.25

12.25-in. bit

1.00

10.625-in. bit
9.875-in. bit

0.75

0.50
8

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

Mud weight (lbm/gal)

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to provide a correction factor for gamma ray values
measured with the RAB Resistivity-at-the-Bit 8.25-in. tool. These environmental corrections for mud weight and bit size are already
applied to the gamma ray presented on the logs.

Description
Enter the chart with the mud weight on the x-axis and move upward
to intersect the appropriate bit size. Interpolate between lines as
necessary. At the intersection point, move horizontally left to the
y-axis to read the correction factor that the RAB gamma ray value
was multiplied by to obtain the corrected gamma ray value in gAPI
units.

Back to Contents

37

Gamma RayLWD

arcVISION475* Gamma Ray4.75-in. Tool

GR-19

Borehole Correction for Open Hole

1.75

GR

1.50

8.5-in. bit

Correction
factor

1.25
7-in. bit

6-in. bit

1.00

0.75
8

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

Mud weight (lbm/gal)

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to provide a correction factor for gamma ray values
measured with the arcVISION475 434-in. drill collar resistivity tool.
These environmental corrections for mud weight and bit size are
already applied to the gamma ray presented on the logs.

38

Description
Enter the chart with the mud weight on the x-axis and move upward
to intersect the appropriate bit size. Interpolate between lines as
necessary. At the intersection point, move horizontally left to the
y-axis to read the correction factor that the arcVISION475 gamma
ray value was multiplied by to obtain the corrected gamma ray value
in gAPI units.

Back to Contents

Gamma RayLWD

arcVISION675* Gamma Ray6.75-in. Tool

GR-20

Borehole Correction for Open Hole

3.50

GR

3.25
3.00
2.75
2.50

12.25-in. bit

2.25
Correction
factor

2.00
10.625-in. bit

1.75
1.50

9.875-in. bit

1.25

8.75-in. bit
8.5-in. bit

1.00
0.75
0.50
8

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

Mud weight (lbm/gal)

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to provide a correction factor for gamma ray values
measured with the arcVISION675 634-in. drill collar resistivity tool.
These environmental corrections for mud weight and bit size are
already applied to the gamma ray presented on the logs.

Description
Enter the chart with the mud weight on the x-axis and move upward
to intersect the appropriate bit size. Interpolate between lines
as necessary. At the intersection point, move horizontally left to
the y-axis to read the appropriate correction factor that the
arcVISION675 gamma ray value was multiplied by to obtain
the corrected gamma ray value in gAPI units.

Back to Contents

39

Gamma RayLWD

arcVISION825* Gamma Ray8.25-in. Tool

GR-21

Borehole Correction for Open Hole

3.00

GR

2.75

2.50
17.5-in. bit

2.25

2.00
Correction
factor

1.75
14.75-in. bit

1.50
13.5-in. bit

1.25

12.25-in. bit
10.625-in. bit

1.00
9.875-in. bit

0.75

0.50
8

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

Mud weight (lbm/gal)

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to provide a correction factor for gamma ray values
measured with the arcVISION825 814-in. drill collar resistivity tool.
These environmental corrections for mud weight and bit size are
already applied to the gamma ray presented on the logs.

40

Description
Enter the chart with the mud weight on the x-axis and move upward
to intersect the appropriate bit size. Interpolate between lines as
necessary. At the intersection point, move horizontally left to
the y-axis and read the appropriate correction factor that the
arcVISION825 gamma ray value was multiplied by to obtain
the corrected gamma ray value in gAPI units.

Back to Contents

Gamma RayLWD

arcVISION900* Gamma Ray9-in. Tool

GR-22

Borehole Correction for Open Hole

5.5

GR

5.0

4.5
22-in. bit

4.0

3.5
Correction
factor

3.0

2.5
17.5-in. bit

2.0
14.75-in. bit

1.5

13.5-in. bit
12.25-in. bit
10.625-in. bit

1.0

0.5
8

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

Mud weight (lbm/gal)

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to provide a correction factor for gamma ray values
measured with the arcVISION900 9-in. drill collar resistivity tool.
These environmental corrections for mud weight and bit size are
already applied to the gamma ray presented on the logs.

Description
Enter the chart with the mud weight on the x-axis and move upward
to intersect the appropriate bit size. Interpolate between lines as
necessary. At the intersection point, move horizontally left to
the y-axis and read the appropriate correction factor that the
arcVISION900 gamma ray value was multiplied by to obtain the
corrected gamma ray value in gAPI units.

Back to Contents

41

Gamma RayLWD

arcVISION475* Gamma Ray4.75-in. Tool

GR-23

Potassium Correction for Open Hole

100

GR

90

80

70

20 ppg

60
Correction
subtracted
for 5-wt%
potassium
(gAPI)

18 ppg

16 ppg

50
12 ppg

14 ppg

40
9 ppg

10 ppg
8.3 ppg

30
20

10

0
6

10

12

14

16

18

Hole size (in.)

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to provide a correction that is subtracted from
the borehole-corrected gamma ray from the arcVISION475 434-in.
tool. Environmental corrections for mud weight and bit size are
already applied to the gamma ray presented on the logs.

42

Description
This chart is for illustrative purposes only. The indicated correction
is already applied to the gamma ray log.
To determine the correction that was applied to the log output,
enter the chart with the borehole size on the x-axis and move upward
to intersect the downhole mud weight. From the intersection point
move horizontally left to read the correction in gAPI units that was
subtracted from the borehole-corrected data.
Charts GR-24 through GR-26 are similar to Chart GR-23 for
different arcVISION tool sizes.

Back to Contents

Gamma RayLWD

arcVISION675* Gamma Ray6.75-in. Tool

GR-24

Potassium Correction for Open Hole

50

GR
20 ppg

45

18 ppg

40
16 ppg

35

14 ppg

30
Correction
subtracted
for 5-wt%
potassium
(gAPI)

12 ppg

25
10 ppg

20

9 ppg
8.3 ppg

15

10

0
8.5

9.0

9.5

10.0

10.5

11.0

11.5

12.0

12.5

13.0

Hole size (in.)

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to provide a correction that is subtracted from
the borehole-corrected gamma ray from the arcVISION675 634-in.
tool. Environmental corrections for mud weight and bit size are
already applied to the gamma ray presented on the logs.

Description
This chart is for illustrative purposes only. The indicated correction
is already applied on the gamma ray log.
To determine the correction that was applied to the log output,
enter the chart with the borehole size on the x-axis and move
upward to intersect the downhole mud weight. From the intersection
point move horizontally left to read the correction in gAPI units that
was subtracted from the borehole-corrected data.

Back to Contents

43

Gamma RayLWD

arcVISION825* Gamma Ray8.25-in. Tool

GR-25

Potassium Correction for Open Hole

100

GR

90

80
20 ppg

70

18 ppg
16 ppg

60
Correction
subtracted
for 5-wt%
potassium
(gAPI)

14 ppg

50

12 ppg

40

10 ppg
9 ppg

30

8.3 ppg

20

10

0
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

Hole size (in.)

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to provide a correction that is subtracted from
the borehole-corrected gamma ray from the arcVISION825 814-in.
tool. Environmental corrections for mud weight and bit size are
already applied to the gamma ray presented on the logs.

44

Description
This chart is for illustrative purposes only. The indicated correction
is already applied on the gamma ray log.
To determine the correction that was applied to the log output,
enter the chart with the borehole size on the x-axis and move upward
to intersect the downhole mud weight. From the intersection point
move horizontally left to read the correction in gAPI units that was
subtracted from the borehole-corrected data.

Back to Contents

Gamma RayLWD

arcVISION900* Gamma Ray9-in. tool

GR-26

Potassium Correction for Open Hole

120

GR

100
20 ppg
18 ppg

80
16 ppg

Correction
subtracted
for 5-wt%
potassium
(gAPI)

14 ppg

60
12 ppg

10 ppg

40

9 ppg
8.3 ppg

20

0
9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

Hole size (in.)

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to provide a correction that is subtracted from
the borehole-corrected gamma ray from the arcVISION900 9-in. tool.
Environmental corrections for mud weight and bit size are already
applied to the gamma ray presented on the logs.

Description
This chart is for illustrative purposes only. The indicated correction
is already applied on the gamma ray log.
To determine the correction that was applied to the log output,
enter the chart with the borehole size on the x-axis and move upward
to intersect the downhole mud weight. From the intersection point
move horizontally left to read the correction curve in gAPI units that
was subtracted from the borehole-corrected data.

Back to Contents

45

Gamma RayLWD

EcoScope* Integrated LWD Gamma Ray6.75-in. Tool

GR-27

Borehole Correction for Open Hole

3.00

GR

2.75

2.50

2.25

2.00
Correction
factor

1.75

12.25-in. bit

1.50
10.625-in. bit
9.875-in. bit

1.25

8.75-in. bit
8.5-in. bit

1.00

0.75

0.50
8

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

Mud weight (lbm/gal)

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to provide a correction factor for gamma ray
values measured with the EcoScope 6.75-in. Integrated LWD tool.
These environmental corrections for mud weight and bit size are
normally already applied to the gamma ray presented on the field
logs.

46

Description
Enter the chart with the mud weight on the x-axis and move upward
to intersect the appropriate bit size. Interpolate between lines as
necessary. At the intersection point, move horizontally left to the
y-axis to read the appropriate correction factor that the EcoScope
6.75-in. gamma ray value was multiplied by to obtain the corrected
gamma ray value in gAPI units.

Back to Contents

Gamma RayWireline
RayLWD

EcoScope* Integrated LWD Gamma Ray6.75-in. Tool

GR-28

Potassium Correction for Open Hole

50

GR

45

40

35
20 ppg

30
Correction
subtracted
for 5-wt%
potassium
(gAPI)

18 ppg
16 ppg

25

14 ppg

20

12 ppg
10 ppg

15

9 ppg
8.3 ppg

10

0
8.5

9.0

9.5

10.0

10.5

11.0

11.5

12.0

12.5

13.0

Hole size (in.)

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to illustrate the potassium correction that is subtracted from the borehole-corrected gamma ray from the EcoScope
6.75-in. Integrated LWD tool. Environmental corrections for mud
weight, bit size, and potassium are normally already applied to the
gamma ray presented on the field logs.

Description
This chart is for illustrative purposes only. The indicated correction
is already applied on the gamma ray log. The chart shows the correction for a typical 5-wt% potassium concentration.
To determine the correction that was applied to the log output,
enter the chart with the borehole size on the x-axis and move upward
to intersect the downhole mud weight. From the intersection point
move horizontally left to read the correction curve in gAPI units that
was subtracted from the borehole-corrected data.

Back to Contents

47

Spontaneous PotentialWireline

Rweq Determination from ESSP

Purpose
This chart and nomograph are used to calculate the equivalent formation water resistivity (Rweq) from the static spontaneous potential
(ESSP) measured in clean formations. The value of Rweq is used in
Chart SP-2 to determine the resistivity of the formation water (Rw).
Rw is used in Archies water saturation equation.
SP

Description
Enter the chart with ESSP in millivolts on the x-axis and move
upward to intersect the appropriate temperature line. From the
intersection point move horizontally to intersect the right y-axis for
Rmfeq/Rweq. From this point, draw a straight line through the equivalent mud filtrate resistivity (Rmfeq) point on the Rmfeq nomograph to
intersect the value of Rweq on the far-right nomograph.
The spontaneous potential (SP) reading corrected for the effect
of bed thickness (ESPcor) from Chart SP-4 can be substituted for ESSP.

48

Example
First determine the value of Rmfeq:
If Rmf at 75F is greater than 0.1 ohm-m, correct Rmf
to the formation temperature by using Chart Gen-6,
and use Rmfeq = 0.85Rmf.
If Rmf at 75F is less than 0.1 ohm-m, use Chart SP-2
to derive a value of Rmfeq at formation temperature.
Given:
ESSP = 100 mV at 250F and resistivity of the mud
filtrate (Rmf) = 0.7 ohm-m at 100F, converted to 0.33
at 250F.
Find:
Rweq at 250F.
Answer: Rmfeq = 0.85Rmf = 0.85 0.33 = 0.28 ohm-m.
Draw a straight line from the point on the Rmfeq /Rweq line
that corresponds to the intersection of ESSP = 100 mV
and the interpolated 250F temperature curve through
the value of 0.28 ohm-m on the Rmfeq line to the Rweq line
to determine that the value of Rweq is 0.025 ohm-m.
The value of Rmfeq /Rweq can also be determined from the
equation
ESSP = K c log (Rmfeq /Rweq),
where K c is the electrochemical spontaneous potential
coefficient:
K c = 61 + (0.133 TempF)
K c = 65 + (0.24 TempC).

Back to Contents

Spontaneous PotentialWireline

Rweq Determination from ESSP

SP-1
(former SP-1)

Rweq
(ohm-m)
0.001

SP

0.005

Rmfeq /Rweq
0.3

0.3

0.4

0.4

0.5
0.6

0.6

0.8

0.8

Rmfeq
(ohm-m)

0.01

0.01
1

0.02

0.02

0.04
0.06
2

3
Rmf /Rw

0.1

0.05

0.2

5
6

10

10

0.4
0.6

0.1

1
2

0.2

Formation
temperature

30
40
50
+50

50

0F
F
50
0
40
0F
C
0
3
0
25 00C
F
2
C
200
150
C
F
100
100
C
50
0C

20

100

150

6
20

10

0.5

20
40

200

Static spontaneous potential, ESSP (mV)

40
60

1.0

100
2.0

Schlumberger

Back to Contents

49

Spontaneous PotentialWireline

Rweq versus Rw and Formation Temperature

SP-2
(customary, former SP-2)

0.001
500F
400F
300F

0.002

200F

SP

150F
0.005
100F
75F
0.01
Saturation
0.02

Rweq or Rmfeq
(ohm-m)

0.05

0.1

0.2

500F
400
F
0.5

F
75
at
Cl
Na

1.0

2.0
0.005

300
F
200
F
150
F
100

75 F
F

0.01

0.02 0.03

0.05

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.5

1.0

4 5

Rw or Rmf (ohm-m)
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to convert equivalent water resistivity (Rweq ) from
Chart SP-1 to actual water resistivity (Rw). It can also be used to convert the mud filtrate resistivity (Rmf) to the equivalent mud filtrate
resistivity (Rmfeq ) in saline mud. The metric version of this chart is
Chart SP-3 on page 49.
Description
The solid lines are used for predominantly NaCl waters. The dashed
lines are approximations for average fresh formation waters (for
which the effects of salts other than NaCl become significant).
50

The dashed lines can also be used for gypsum-base mud filtrates.
Example
Given:
Find:
Answer:

From Chart SP-1, Rweq = 0.025 ohm-m at 250F in


predominantly NaCl water.
Rw at 250F.
Enter the chart at the Rweq value on the y-axis and move
horizontally right to intersect the solid 250F line. From
the intersection point, move down to find the Rw value
on the x-axis. Rw = 0.03 ohm-m at 250F.

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Spontaneous PotentialWireline

Rweq versus Rw and Formation Temperature

SP-3
(metric, former SP-2m)

0.001
250C
200C
0.002

150C
100C

SP

75C
0.005

50C
25C

0.01

Saturation
0.02

Rweq or Rmfeq
(ohm-m)

0.05

0.1

0.2

250C
200
C
150
C
100
C
75C
50
C
25
C

0.5

C
25
at
Cl
Na

1.0

2.0
0.005

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.05

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.5

1.0

4 5

Rw or Rmf (ohm-m)
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is the metric version of Chart SP-2 for converting equivalent water resistivity (Rweq) from Chart SP-1 to actual water resistivity (Rw). It can also be used to convert the mud filtrate resistivity (Rmf)
to the equivalent mud filtrate resistivity (Rmfeq) in saline mud.

(for which the effects of salts other than NaCl become significant).
The dashed lines can also be used for gypsum-base mud filtrates.

Description
The solid lines are used for predominantly NaCl waters. The dashed
lines are approximations for average fresh formation waters

Find:
Answer:

Example
Given:

From Chart SP-1, Rweq = 0.025 ohm-m at 121C in


predominantly NaCl water.
Rw at 121C.
Rw = 0.03 ohm-m at 121C.

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51

Spontaneous PotentialWireline

Bed Thickness CorrectionOpen Hole

Purpose
Chart SP-4 is used to correct the SP reading from the well log for
the effect of bed thickness. Generally, water sands greater than
20 ft in thickness require no or only a small correction.
Description
Chart SP-4 incorporates correction factors for a number of conditions that can affect the value of the SP in water sands.
SP

52

The appropriate chart is selected on the basis of resistivity, invasion, hole diameter, and bed thickness. First, select the row of charts
with the most appropriate value of the ratio of the resistivity of shale
(Rs) to the resistivity of mud (Rm). On that row, select a chart for no
invasion or for invasion for which the ratio of the diameter of invasion
to the diameter of the wellbore (di /dh) is 5. Enter the x-axis with
the value of the ratio of bed thickness to wellbore diameter (h/dh).
Move upward to intersect the appropriate curve of the ratio of the
true formation resistivity to the resistivity of the mud (Rt /Rm) for
no invasion or the ratio of the resistivity of the flushed zone to the
resistivity of the mud (Rxo /Rm) for invaded zones, interpolating
between the curves as necessary. Read the ratio of the SP read from
the log to the corrected SP (ESP /ESPcor) on the y-axis for the point of
intersection. Calculate ESPcor = ESP /(ESP /ESPcor). The value of ESPcor
can be used in Chart SP-1 for ESSP.

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Spontaneous PotentialWireline
Potential-Wireline

Bed Thickness CorrectionOpen Hole

SP-4
(former SP-3)

Invasion, di /dh = 5

No Invasion
Rxo = 0.2Rt
Rs
=1
Rm

1.0

1
5 2
10

0.8

Rxo = Rt

1.0

Rxo = 5Rt
1.0

1.0
0.1

0.8

0.5
1
2

0.8

0.2

20

0.5
21
5

0.8

SP

0.6

0.6
50

0.4

0.2

0.2
Rt /Rm

Rxo /Rm

40 30 20 15 10 7.5
h/dh

50

1.0

Rxo /Rm

0.8

0.8

Rxo /Rm

0.2
Rxo /Rm

20

0.4

50

0.2

100

40 30 20 15 10 7.5
h/dh

Rxo /Rm

0.8

20

0.6

50

40 30 20 15 10 7.5
h/dh

10

0.6

500

1.0
2
5

1
2

0.8

0.6

200

200
500

1.0

1.0

20

100

50
100
200

40 30 20 15 10 7.5
h/dh

5 2
10

5
2

0.8

5
10
20

0.6

50

0.4

100

10

0.4

0.4
200

50

0.2

500
1,000

Rxo /Rm

100

0.2

200

0.2

200

100
200
500

40 30 20 15 10 7.5
h/dh

50

0.4

20

100

40 30 20 15 10 7.5
h/dh

0.6

50

20

500

1.0

Rt /Rm

10

0.4

0.2

200

0.2

0.8

10

10

100

ESP /ESPcor

0.6

0.4

0.8

0.4

40 30 20 15 10 7.5
h/dh

20

50

Rt /Rm

40 30 20 15 10 7.5
h/dh
1.0

0.6

0.2

0.5
1
2

0.5

20

ESP /ESPcor

Rxo /Rm

1.0
0.2

0.6

200

200

40 30 20 15 10 7.5
h/dh

0.8

100

100

1.0
5
10

0.2

0.2

100

40 30 20 15 10 7.5
h/dh

0.4

50

10
20
50

200

20

20

0.4

100

Rs
= 20
Rm

10

0.4

Rs
=5
Rm

0.6

0.6

0.5

ESP /ESPcor

10

Rxo /Rm

500
1,000

40 30 20 15 10 7.5
h/dh

Rxo /Rm

500
1,000

40 30 20 15 10 7.5
h/dh

Schlumberger

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53

Spontaneous PotentialWireline

Bed Thickness CorrectionOpen Hole (Empirical)

SP-5
(customary, former SP-4)

8-in. Hole; 338 -in. Tool, Centered

100

1.0
di (in.)

20

90

30
30

SP

30

Ri
Rm

35

30

80

35

30

40

ESSP
(%)

40

70

1.5

60

Correction
factor

50

20

2.0

40

50

2.5
3.0

30

100

3.5
4.0

20

200
70

50

40

30

20

15

10 9 8 7 6

5.0

Bed thickness, h (ft)


Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to provide an empirical correction to the SP for
the effects of invasion and bed thickness. The correction was obtained
by averaging a series of thin-bed corrections in Reference 4. The
resulting value of static spontaneous potential (ESSP) can be used
in Chart SP-1.

To obtain the correction factor, enter the chart on the x-axis with
the value of h. Move upward to the appropriate di curve for the range
of Ri /Rm. The correction factor on the y-axis corresponding to the
intersection point is multiplied by the SP from the log to obtain the
corrected SP.

Description
This chart considers bed thickness (h) as a variable, and the ratio of
the resistivity of the invaded zone to the resistivity of the mud (Ri /Rm)
and the diameter of invasion (di ) as parameters of fixed value. The
borehole diameter is fixed at 8 in. and the tool size at 338 in.

54

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Spontaneous PotentialWireline

Bed Thickness CorrectionOpen Hole (Empirical)

SP-6
(metric, former SP-4m)

200-mm Hole; 86-mm Tool, Centered

100

1.0
di (m)
0.5

90
5
0.7

0.7
5

0.7

0.8

0.7

80
5

0.8

0.7

1.0

70

SP

Ri
Rm

1.0

1.5

60
Correction
factor

ESSP
(%)
50

20

40

50

2.0

2.5
3.0

30

100

3.5
4.0
5.0

20

200
20

15

10

Bed thickness, h (m)


Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is the metric version of Chart SP-5 for providing an empirical correction to the SP for the effects of invasion and bed thickness. The correction was obtained by averaging a series of thin-bed
corrections in Reference 4. The resulting value of ESSP can be used
in Chart SP-1.

Description
This chart considers bed thickness (h) as a variable, and R i /Rm and
di as parameters of fixed value. The borehole diameter is fixed at
203 mm and the tool size at 86 mm.

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55

General
DensityWireline,
LWD

Porosity Effect on Photoelectric Cross Section

Pe

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

Dens-1

Porosity Effect on Pe
Matrix
Quartz
Calcite

Dens

Dolomite
Specific
gravity

100% H2O

100% CH4

0.00
0.35
0.00
0.35
0.00
0.35

1.81
1.54
5.08
4.23
3.14
2.66
1.00

1.81
1.76
5.08
4.96
3.14
3.07
0.10

Water Gas
Quartz Dolomite

Calcite

Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart and accompanying table illustrate the effect that porosity,
matrix, formation water, and methane (CH4) have on the recorded
photoelectric cross section (Pe).
Description
The table lists the data from which the chart was made. As the
porosity increases the effect is greater for each mineral. Calcite has
the largest effect in the presence of gas or water as the porosity
increases.

56

Enter the chart with the total porosity ( t) from the log and move
downward to intersect the angled line. From this point move
to the left and intersect the line representing the appropriate matrix
material: quartz, dolomite, or calcite minerals. From this intersection
move upward to read the correct Pe.

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DensityWireline, LWD

Apparent Log Density to True Bulk Density

Dens-2

0.14

Add correction
from y-axis to log
to obtain true
bulk density, b

Salt (NaCI)
0.12

Sylvite (KCI)
0.10

Aluminum

Magnesium
0.08

b log
(g/cm3)

Dens

= 40%

Dolomite

0.06

Sandstone
Limestone

Low-pressure gas
or air in pores

0.04
An
th
ra
cit
e
Co
al

0.02

us
no
mi
tu
Bi

=0

Sandstone + water
Limestone + water
Dolomite + water

= 40%

0.02

Gypsum
0.04
2
log (g/cm3)

Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to determine the true bulk density (b) from the
apparent recorded log value (log).

sandstone, limestone, and dolomite with water in the pores. This


shows that there is a slight correction for water-filled formations
from the log density value.

Description
Enter the chart with the log density reading on the x-axis and move
upward to intersect the mineral line that best represents the formation. At this point, move horizontally left to read the value to be added
to the log density. The individual mineral points reflect the log-derived
density and the correction factor to be added or subtracted from the
log value to obtain the true density of that mineral.
The long diagonal lines representing zero porosity at the lower
right and 40% porosity at the upper left are for dry gas in the formation. The three points at the lower right of the diagonal lines represent zero dry gas in the formation and are the endpoints for

Example
Given:
Find:
Answer:

Log density = 2.40 g/cm3 in a sandstone formation


(dry gas).
Corrected bulk density.
Enter the x-axis at 2.4 g/cm3 and move upward to intersect the sandstone line. The correction from the y-axis is
0.02 g/cm3. The correction value is added to the log density to obtain the true value of the bulk density:
2.40 + 0.02 = 2.42 g/cm3.

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57

NeutronWireline

Dual-Spacing Compensated Neutron Tool Charts

Neu

This section contains interpretation charts to cover developments in


compensated neutron tool (CNT) porosity transforms, environmental
corrections, and porosity and lithology determination.
CSU* software (versions CP-30 and later) and MAXIS* software
compute three thermal porosities: NPHI, TNPH, and NPOR.
NPHI is the classic NPHI, computed from instantaneous near
and far count rates, using Mod-8 ratio-to-porosity transform with
a caliper correction.
TNPH is computed from deadtime-corrected, depth- and
resolution-matched count rates, using an improved ratio-to-porosity
transform and performing a complete set of environmental corrections
in real time. These corrections may be turned on or off by the field
engineer at the wellsite. For more information see Reference 32.
NPOR is computed from the near-detector count rate and TNPH
to give an enhanced resolution porosity. The accuracy of NPOR is
equivalent to the accuracy of TNPH if the environmental effects on
the near detector change less rapidly than the formation porosity.
For more information on enhanced resolution processing, see
Reference 35.
Cased hole CNT logs are recorded on NPHI, computed from
instantaneous near and far count rates, with a cased hole ratio-toporosity transform.

58

Using the Neutron Correction Charts


For logs labeled NPHI:
1. Enter Chart Neu-5 with NPHI and caliper reading to convert to
uncorrected neutron porosity.
2. Enter Charts Neu-1 and Neu-3 to obtain corrections for each
environmental effect. Corrections are summed with the uncorrected porosity to give a corrected value.
3. Use crossplot Charts Por-11 and Por-12 for porosity and lithology
determination.
For logs labeled TNPH or NPOR, the CSU wellsite surface instrumentation and MAXIS software have applied environmental corrections as indicated on the log heading. If the CSU and MAXIS
software has applied all corrections, TNPH or NPOR can be used
directly with the crossplot charts. In this case:
1. Use crossplot Charts Por-11 and Por-12 to determine porosity
and lithology.

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NeutronWireline

Compensated Neutron Tool


Environmental CorrectionOpen Hole

Example 2: Environmentally Corrected THPH


Given:
Neutron porosity of 32 p.u. (apparent limestone units),
without environmental correction, 12-in. borehole, 14-in.
thick mudcake, 100,000-ppm borehole salinity, 11-lbm/gal
natural mud weight (water-base mud [WBM]), 150F
borehole temperature, 5,000-psi pressure (WBM), and
100,000-ppm formation salinity.
Find:
Environmentally corrected TNPH porosity.
Answer: If there is standoff (which is not uncommon), use Chart
Neu-3. Then use Chart Neu-1 by drawing a vertical line
through the charts for the previously determined
backed-out (uncorrected) 34-p.u. neutron porosity
value.
On each environmental correction chart, enter the y-axis
at the given value and move horizontally left to intersect
the porosity value vertical line.
For example, on the mudcake thickness chart the line
extends from 14 in. on the y-axis.
At the intersection point, move parallel to the closest
blue trend line to intersect the standard conditions, as
indicated by the bullet.
The point of intersection with the standard conditions
for the chart is the value of porosity corrected for the
particular environment. The change in porosity value
(either positive or negative) is summed for the charts
and referred to as delta porosity ().
The net correction applied to the uncorrected log neutron
porosity is listed in the table for the two examples.

Purpose
Chart Neu-1 is used to correct the compensated neutron log porosity
index if the caliper correction was not applied. If the caliper correction is applied, it must be backed out to use this chart.
Description
This chart is used only if the caliper correction was not applied
to the logged data. The parameter section of the log heading lists
whether correction was applied.
Example 1: Backed-Out Correction of TNPH Porosity
Given:
Thermal neutron porosity (TNPH) from the log = 32 p.u.
(apparent limestone units) and borehole size = 12 in.
Find:
Uncorrected TNPH with the correction backed out.
Answer: Enter the top chart for actual borehole size at the intersection point of the standard conditions 8-in. horizontal
line and 32 p.u. on the scale above the chart.
From this point, follow the closest trend line to intersect
the 12-in. line for the borehole size.
The intersection is the uncorrected TNPH value of 34 p.u.
To use the uncorrected value on Chart Neu-1, draw a vertical line from this intersection through the remainder of
the charts, as shown by the red line.

CNT Neutron Porosity Correction Examples


Correction
Example 1
Log porosity
Borehole size
Mudcake thickness
Borehole salinity
Mud weight
Borehole temperature
Wellbore pressure
Formation salinity
Standoff (from Chart Neu-3)
Net environmental correction
Backed-out corrected porosity
Environmentally corrected porosity
Net correction
Backed-out, environmentally corrected porosity

32 p.u.
12 in.
1
4 in.
100,000 ppm
11 lbm/gal
150F
5,000 psi
100,000 ppm
1 in.

Example 2

2
0
+1
+2
+4
1
3
4
1
34 p.u.
33 p.u.
3
31 p.u.

continued on next page

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59

Neu

NeutronWireline

Compensated Neutron Tool

Neu-1

Environmental CorrectionOpen Hole

(customary, former Por-14c)

Neutron log porosity index (apparent limestone porosity in p.u.)


0

Actual borehole size


(in.)

10

20

30

40

50

24
20
16
12
8
4

1.0
Mudcake thickness
(in.)

0.5
0

250

Neu
Borehole salinity
(1,000 ppm)

Natural
Mud weight
(lbm/gal)
Barite

13
12
11
10
9
8

18
16
14
12
10
8

300
Borehole temperature
(F)

50
Pressure
(1,000 psi)
Water-base mud
Oil-base mud

25

250
Limestone
formation salinity
(1,000 ppm)

10

20

30

40

50

Standard conditions
Schlumberger

60

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NeutronWireline

Compensated Neutron Tool

Neu-2

Environmental CorrectionOpen Hole

(metric, former Por-14cm)

Neutron log porosity index (apparent limestone porosity)


0

Actual borehole size


(mm)

10

20

30

40

50

600
500
400
300
200
100

25
Mudcake thickness
(mm)

12.5
0

Neu

250
Borehole salinity
(g/kg)
0

Natural

1.5

1.0

Mud density
(g/cm3)
Barite

2.0

Borehole temperature
(C)

Pressure
(MPa)
Water-base mud
Oil-base mud

1.0

149
121
93
66
38
10

172
138
103
69
34
0

250
Limestone
formation salinity
(g/kg)

10

20

30

40

50

Standard conditions
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is the metric version of Chart Neu-1 for correcting the
compensated neutron tool porosity index.

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61

NeutronWireline

Compensated Neutron Tool


Standoff CorrectionOpen Hole

Purpose
Chart Neu-3 is used to determine the porosity change caused by
standoff to the uncorrected thermal neutron porosity TNPH from
Chart Neu-1.
Description
Enter the appropriate borehole size chart at the estimated neutron
tool standoff on the y-axis. Move horizontally to intersect the uncorrected porosity. At the intersection point, move along the closest
trend line to the standard conditions line defined by the bullet to
the right of the chart. This point is the porosity value corrected for
tool standoff. The difference between the standoff-corrected porosity
and the uncorrected porosity is the correction itself.

Example
Given:
Find:
Answer:

TNPH = 34 p.u., borehole size = 12 in., and


standoff = 0.5 in.
Porosity corrected for standoff.
Draw a vertical line from the uncorrected neutron log
porosity of 34 p.u. Enter the 12-in. borehole chart at
0.5-in. standoff and move horizontally right to intersect
the vertical porosity line. From the point of intersection
move parallel to the closest trend line to intersect the
standard conditions line (standoff = 0 in.). The standoffcorrected porosity is 32 p.u. The correction is 2 p.u.

Neu

62

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NeutronWireline

Compensated Neutron Tool

Neu-3

Standoff CorrectionOpen Hole

(customary, former Por-14d)

Neutron log porosity index (apparent limestone porosity in p.u.)


0

Actual
borehole size

10

20

30

40

50

6 in.

2
1

8 in.

3
2

10 in.

1
0

Neu

4
3
12 in.

2
1
0

7
Standoff
(in.)
18 in.

6
5
4
3
2
1
0

10
9
8
7
6
24 in.

5
4
3
2
1
0

10

20

30

40

50

Standard conditions

Schlumberger

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63

NeutronWireline

Compensated Neutron Tool

Neu-4

Standoff CorrectionOpen Hole

(metric, former Por-14dm)

Neutron log porosity index (apparent limestone porosity)


0

Actual
borehole size

10

20

30

40

50

25

150 mm

50
25

200 mm

75
50

250 mm

25

Neu

100
75
300 mm

50
25
0

175
Standoff
(mm)
450 mm

150
125
100
75
50
25
0

250
225
200
175
150
600 mm

125
100
75
50
25
0

10

20

40

50

Standard conditions

Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is the metric version of Chart Neu-3 for determining the
porosity change caused by standoff.
64

30

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NeutronWireline

Compensated Neutron Tool

Neu-5

Conversion of NPHI to TNPHOpen Hole

(former Por-14e)

NPHI porosity index (apparent limestone porosity in p.u.)


5

Borehole size
(in.)

10

20

30

40

50

24
20
16
12
8
4

10

20

30

40

50

TNPH porosity index (apparent limestone porosity in p.u.)

Neu

Standard conditions
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to determine the porosity change caused by the
borehole size to the neutron porosity NPHI and convert the porosity
to thermal neutron porosity (TNPH). This chart corrects NPHI only
for the borehole sizes that differ from the standard condition of 8 in.
Refer to Chart Neu-1 to complete the environmental corrections for
the TPNH value obtained.
Description
Enter the scale at the top of the chart with the NPHI porosity.
Example
Given:
Find:
Answer:

At the point of intersection of the vertical line and the


standard conditions line, move parallel to the closest
trend line to intersect the actual borehole size line.
At that intersection point move vertically down to the
bottom scale to determine the TNPH porosity corrected
only for borehole size. This value is also used to determine the change in porosity as a result of tool standoff.
TNPH = 12.5 + 5 = 17.5 p.u.

NPHI porosity = 12.5% and borehole size = 16 in.


Porosity correction for nonstandard borehole size.
Enter the chart with the uncorrected porosity value
of 12.5 at the scale at the top. Move down vertically
to intersect the standard conditions line indicated by
the bullet to the right. Enter the chart on the y-axis with
the actual borehole size at the zone of interest and move
horizontally right across the chart.

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65

NeutronWireline

Compensated Neutron Tool


Formation Correction for Environmentally Corrected TNPHOpen Hole

Neu

Purpose
This chart is used to further correct the environmentally corrected
TNPH porosity from Chart Neu-1 for the effect of the total formation capture cross section, or sigma (), of the formation of interest. This correction is applied after all environmental corrections
determined with Chart Neu-1 have been applied.

Example
Given:

Description
Enter the chart with for the appropriate formation along the y-axis
and the corrected TNPH porosity along the x-axis. Where the lines
drawn from these points intersect, move parallel to the closest trend
line to intersect the appropriate fresh- or saltwater line to read the
corrected porosity.
The chart at the bottom of the page is used to correct the corrected porosity for salt displacement if the formation is due to
salinity. However, this correction is not made if the borehole salinity
correction from Chart Neu-1 has been applied.

Answer:

66

Find:

Corrected TNPH from Chart Neu-1 = 38 p.u., of the


sandstone formation = 33 c.u., and formation salinity =
150,000 ppm (indicating a freshwater formation).
TNPH porosity corrected with Chart Neu-1 and for of
the formation.
Enter the appropriate chart with the value on the y-axis
and the corrected TNPH value on the x-axis. At the intersection of the sigma and porosity lines, parallel the closest trend line to intersect the freshwater line. (If the
water in the formation is salty, the 250,000-ppm line
should be used.)
Move straight down from the intersection point to the
formation salinity chart at the bottom.
From the point where the straight line intersects the top
of the salinity correction chart, parallel the closest trend
line to intersect the formation salinity line.
Draw a vertical line to the bottom scale to read the corrected formation sigma TNPH porosity, which is 35 p.u.

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NeutronWireline

Compensated Neutron Tool

Neu-6

Formation Correction for Environmentally Corrected TNPHOpen Hole

(former Por-16)

Neutron log porosity index


0

10

20

30

40

50

70
60
Sandstone formation
Formation (c.u.)

50
40
30

Fresh water
250,000-ppm water

20

Neu

10
0
70
60

Limestone formation
Formation (c.u.)

50
40
30

Fresh water
250,000-ppm water

20
10
0
70
60

Dolomite formation
Formation (c.u.)

50
40
30

Fresh water
250,000-ppm water

20
10
0
0

Formation salinity
(1,000 ppm)

100
250

10

20

30

40

50

Schlumberger

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67

NeutronWireline

Compensated Neutron Tool


Mineral Correction for Environmentally Corrected TNPHOpen Hole

Purpose
This chart is used to further correct the environmentally corrected
TNPH porosity from Chart Neu-1 for the effect of the mineral sigma
(). This correction is applied after all environmental corrections
determined with Chart Neu-1 have been applied.
Description
Enter the chart for the formation type with the mineral value along
the y-axis and the Chart Neu-1 corrected TNPH porosity along the
x-axis. Where lines drawn from these points intersect, move parallel to
the closest trend line to intersect the freshwater line to read the
corrected porosity on the scale at the bottom. The choice of chart
depends on the type of mineral in the formation.

Example
Given:

Find:
Answer:

Corrected TNPH from Chart Neu-1 = 38 p.u., sandstone


formation = 35 c.u., and formation salinity =
150,000 ppm (indicating a freshwater formation).
TNPH porosity corrected with Chart Neu-1 and for the
mineral .
At the intersection of the and porosity value lines
move parallel to the closest trend line to intersect the
freshwater line. Move straight down to intersect the bottom prosity scale to read the TNPH porosity corrected
for mineral , which is 33 p.u.

Neu

68

Back to Contents

NeutronWireline

Compensated Neutron Tool

Neu-7

Mineral Correction for Environmentally Corrected TNPHOpen Hole

(former Por-17)

Neutron log porosity index


0

10

20

30

40

50

70
60
50
Sandstone formation
Mineral (c.u.)

40
30

Neu
20
10

Fresh water

0
70
60
50
40
Limestone formation
Mineral (c.u.)

30
20
10

Fresh water

0
70
60
50
Dolomite formation
Mineral (c.u.)

40
30
20
10

Fresh water

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

Schlumberger

Back to Contents

69

NeutronWireline
General

Compensated Neutron Tool


Fluid Correction for Environmentally Corrected TNPHOpen Hole

Purpose
This chart is used to correct the environmentally corrected TNPH
porosity from Chart Neu-1 for the effect of the fluid sigma () in
the formation. This correction is applied after all environmental
corrections determined with Chart Neu-1 have been applied.

Neu

Description
Enter the appropriate formation chart with the formation fluid
value on the y-axis and the Chart Neu-1 corrected TNPH porosity on
the x-axis. Where the lines drawn from these points intersect, move
parallel to the closest trend line to intersect the appropriate freshor saltwater line. If the borehole salinity correction from Chart Neu-1
has not been applied, from this point extend a line down to intersect
the formation salinity chart at the bottom. Move parallel to the
closest trend line to intersect the formation salinity line. Move
straight down to read the corrected porosity on the scale below
the chart.

70

Example
Given:

Find:
Answer:

Corrected TNPH from Chart Neu-1 = 30 p.u. (without


borehole salinity correction), fluid = 80 c.u., fluid
salinity = 150,000 ppm, and sandstone formation.
TNPH corrected with Chart Neu-1 and for fluid .
At the intersection of the fluid and Chart Neu-1
corrected TNPH porosity (30-p.u.) line, move parallel
to the closest trend line to intersect the freshwater line.
From that point go straight down to the formation salinity
correction chart at the bottom.
Move parallel to the closest trend line to intersect the
formation salinity line (150,000 ppm), and then draw a
vertical line to the bottom scale to read the corrected
TNPH value (26 p.u.).

Back to Contents

NeutronWireline

Compensated Neutron Tool

Neu-8

Fluid Correction for Environmentally Corrected TNPHOpen Hole

(former Por-18)

Neutron log porosity index


0

10

20

30

40

50

160
140
Sandstone formation
Fluid (c.u.)

120
100
80

Fresh water

60

250,000-ppm water

40

Neu

20
160
140
Limestone formation
Fluid (c.u.)

120
100
80

Fresh water

60

250,000-ppm water

40
20
160
140

Dolomite formation
Fluid (c.u.)

120
100
80

Fresh water

60

250,000-ppm water

40
20
0

Formation salinity
(1,000 ppm)
250
0

10

20

30

40

50

Schlumberger

Back to Contents

71

NeutronWireline

Compensated Neutron Tool


Environmental CorrectionCased Hole

Purpose
This chart is used to obtain the correct porosity from the neutron
porosity index logged with the compensated neutron tool in casing,
where the effects of the borehole size, casing thickness, and cement
sheath thickness influence the true value of formation porosity.

Neu

Description
Enter the scale at the top of the chart with a whole-number (not
fractional) porosity value. Draw a straight line vertically through
the three charts representing borehole size, casing thickness, and
cement thickness. Draw a horizontal line on each chart from the
appropriate value on the y-axis. At the intersection point of the vertical line and the horizontal line on each chart proceed to the blue
dashed horizontal line by following the slope of the blue solid lines
on each chart. At that point read the change in porosity index. The
cumulative change in porosity is added to the logged porosity to obtain
the corrected value. As can be seen, the major influences to the casingderived porosity are the borehole size and the cement thickness. The
same procedure applies to the metric chart.
The blue dashed lines represent the standard conditions from
which the charts were developed: 8 34-in. open hole, 51 2-in. 17-lbm
casing, and 1.62-in. annular cement thickness.
The neutron porosity equivalence nomographs at the bottom are
used to convert from the log standard of limestone porosity to porosity for other matrix materials.
The porosity value corrected with Chart Neu-9 is entered into
Chart Neu-1 to provide environmental corrections necessary for
determining the correct cased hole porosity value.

72

Example
Given:

Find:
Answer:

Log porosity index = 27%, borehole diameter = 11 in.,


casing thickness = 0.304 in., and cement thickness =
1.62 in.
Cement thickness is defined as the annular space
between the outside wall of the casing and the borehole
wall. The value is determined by subtracting the casing
outside diameter from the borehole diameter and dividing by 2.
Porosity corrected for borehole size, casing thickness,
and cement thickness.
Draw a vertical line (shown in red) though the three
charts at 27 p.u.
Borehole-diameter correction chart: From the intersection of the vertical line and the 11-in. borehole-diameter
line (shown in red dashes) move upward along the
curved blue line as shown on the chart.
The porosity is reduced to 26% by 1 p.u.
Casing thickness chart: The porosity index is changed
by 0.3 p.u.
Cement thickness chart: The porosity index is changed
by 0.5 p.u.
The resulting corrected porosity for borehole, casing,
and cement is 27 1 + 0.3 + 0.5 = 26.8 p.u.

Back to Contents

NeutronWireline

Compensated Neutron Tool

Neu-9

Environmental CorrectionCased Hole

(former Por-14a)

Customary
0
Neutron log porosity index
(p.u.)
Diameter of borehole
before running casing
(in.)
Casing thickness (in.)
9.5
11.6
13.5
Casing
15.1
weight
(lbm/ft)

14
17
20
23

41 2

20
26
32

51 2 7
OD (in.)

20

4
6
8 3
10 8 4 in.
12
14
16
0.2

29

0.3

40

0.4

47

10

30

50

1.0

0.304 in.

0.5
+0.3

958

Cement thickness
(in.)

40

Neu

2 1.62 in.
3
+0.5
Borehole, casing, and cement correction = 1.0 + 0.3 + 0.5

Metric
0

10

20

30

40

50

Neutron log porosity index


(p.u.)
100
Diameter of borehole
before running casing
(mm)

200

222 mm

Casing thickness (mm)

400
5
7
7.7 mm
9
11
13

Casing
weight
(kg/m)

14
17
20
23

114

21.0
25.5
30.0
34.5

30
39
48

43
60
70

140 178 245


OD (mm)

Cement thickness
(mm)

300

0
25

50 41 mm
75
0

10

10

20

30

40

50

40

50

Neutron porosity equivalence


Calcite (limestone)
Quartz sandstone
Dolomite

10
0

20
20

30
30

10

40
20

50

30

Standard conditions

Schlumberger

Back to Contents

73

NeutronWireline

APS* Accelerator Porosity Sonde


Environmental CorrectionOpen Hole

Purpose
The Neu-10 charts pair is used to correct the APS Accelerator Porosity
Sonde apparent limestone porosity for mud weight and actual borehole size. The charts are for the near-to-array and near-to-far porosity measurements. The design of the APS sonde resulted in a
significant reduction in environmental correction. The answer determined with this chart is used in conjunction with the correction
from Chart Neu-11.

Neu

Description
Enter the appropriate chart pair (mud weight and actual borehole
size) for the APS near-to-array apparent limestone porosity (APLU)
or APS near-to-far apparent limestone porosity (FPLU) with the
uncorrected porosity from the APS log by drawing a straight vertical
line (shown in red) through both of the charts. At the intersection
with the mud weight value, move parallel to the closest trend line to
intersect the standard conditions line. This point represents a change
in porosity resulting from the correction for mud weight. Follow the
same procedure for the borehole size chart to determine that correction change. Because the borehole size correction has a dependency
on mud weight, even with natural muds, there are two sets of curves
on the borehole size chartsolid for light muds (8.345 lbm/gal) and
dashed for heavy muds (16 lbm/gal). Intermediate mud weights are
interpolated. The two differences are summed for the total correction to the APS log value.
This answer is used in Chart Neu-11 to complete the environmental corrections for corrected APLU or FPLU porosity.

74

Example
Given:
Find:
Answer:

APS neutron APLU uncorrected porosity = 34 p.u.,


mud weight = 10 lbm/gal, and borehole size = 12 in.
Corrected APLU porosity.
Draw a vertical line on the APLU mud weight chart from
34 p.u. on the scale above. At the intersection with the
10-lbm/gal mud weight line, move parallel to the trend
line to intersect the standard conditions line. This point
represents a change in porosity of 0.75 p.u.
On the actual borehole size chart, move parallel to the
closest trend line from the intersection of the 34-p.u.
line and the actual borehole size (12 in.) to intersect
the 8-in. standard conditions line. This point represents
a change in porosity of 1.0 p.u.
The total correction is 0.75 + 1.0 = 1.75 p.u.,
which results in a corrected APLU porosity of
34 1.75 = 32.25 p.u.

Back to Contents

NeutronWireline

APS* Accelerator Porosity Sonde

Neu-10

Environmental CorrectionOpen Hole

(former Por-23a)

APS near-to-array apparent limestone porosity uncorrected, APLU (p.u.)


0

Mud weight
(lbm/gal)

Actual
borehole size
(in.)

10

20

30

40

50

18
16
14
12
10
8
16
14
12
10
8
6

2.0
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
400
350
300
250
200

(g/cm3)

Neu
(mm)

APS near-to-far apparent limestone porosity uncorrected, FPLU (p.u.)

Mud weight
(lbm/gal)

Actual
borehole size
(in.)

18
16
14
12
10
8
16
14
12
10
8
6

2.0
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
400
350
300
250
200

10

20

30

40

(g/cm3)

(mm)

50

Standard conditions

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Back to Contents

75

NeutronWireline

APS* Accelerator Porosity Sonde Without Environmental Corrections

Neu-11

Environmental CorrectionOpen Hole

(former Por-23b)

12
Pressure
(psi)
0
2,500
5,000
7,500
10,000
12,500
15,000
17,500
20,000

11

(MPa)
0

10

34

69

8
7

103

138

5
4

Apparent
porosity
correction
(p.u.)

Neu

2
1
0
1
(F)
(C)

50
10

100
38

150 200 250 300


66
93
121 149
Formation temperature

350
177

50

150

250

Formation salinity
(ppt or g/kg)

50
30
10 0
Formation porosity
(p.u.)

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to complete the environmental correction for
APLU and FPLU porosities from the APS log.
Description
Enter the left-hand chart on the x-axis with the temperature of the
formation of interest. Move vertically to intersect the appropriate
formation pressure line. From that point, move horizontally right to
intersect the left edge of the formation salinity chart. Move parallel
to the trend lines to intersect the formation salinity value. From that
point move horizontally to intersect the left edge of the formation
porosity chart. Move parallel to the trend lines to intersect the
uncorrected APLU or FPLU porosity. At that intersection, move
horizontally right to read the apparent porosity correction.

76

Example
Given:

Find:
Answer:

APLU or FPLU porosity = 34 p.u., formation temperature = 150F, formation pressure = 5,000 psi, and formation salinity = 150,000 ppm.
Environmentally corrected APLU or FPLU porosity.
Enter the formation temperature chart at 150F to intersect the 5,000-psi curve. From that point move horizontally right to intersect the left edge of the formation
salinity chart. Move parallel to the trend lines to intersect the formation temperature of 150F. At this point,
again move horizontally to the left edge of the next
chart. Move parallel to the trend lines to intersect the
34-p.u. porosity line. At that point on the y-axis, the
change in porosity is +1.6 p.u.
The total correction for a corrected APLU or FPLU
from Charts Neu-10 and Neu-11 is
34 + (0.75 + 1) + 1.6 = 33.85 p.u.

Back to Contents

NeutronLWD

CDN* Compensated Density Neutron, adnVISION* Azimuthal Density


Neutron, and EcoScope* Integrated LWD Tools
Mud Hydrogen Index Determination
Purpose
This chart is used to determine one of several environmental
corrections for neutron porosity values recorded with the CDN
Compensated Density Neutron, adnVISION Azimuthal Density
Neutron, and EcoScope Integrated LWD tools. The value of hydrogen
index (Hm) is used in the following porosity correction charts.
Description
To determine the Hm of the drilling mud, the mud weight, temperature, and hydrostatic mud pressure at the zone of interest must
be known.

Example
Given:
Find:
Answer:

Barite mud weight = 14 lbm/gal, mud temperature = 150F,


and hydrostatic mud pressure = 5,000 psi.
Hydrogen index of the drilling mud.
Enter the bottom chart for mud weight at 14 lbm/gal on
the y-axis. Move horizontally to intersect the barite line.
Move vertically to the bottom of the mud temperature
chart and move upward parallel to the closest trend line
to intersect the formation temperature. From the intersection point move vertically to the bottom of the mud
pressure chart.
Move parallel to the closest trend line to intersect the
formation pressure. Draw a line vertically to intersect
the mud hydrogen index scale and read the result.
Mud hydrogen index = 0.78.

continued on next page

Back to Contents

77

Neu

NeutronLWD

CDN* Compensated Density Neutron, adnVISION* Azimuthal Density


Neutron, and EcoScope* Integrated LWD Tools

Neu-30
(former Por-19)

Mud Hydrogen Index Determination

Mud hydrogen index, Hm


0.70

0.75

0.80

0.85

0.90

0.95

0.95

25
20
Mud
pressure
(1,000 psi)

Neu

10

0
300

Mud
temperature
(F)

200

100
50
16
14
Mud
weight
(lbm/gal)

Barite

12
10

Bentonite
8

0.70

0.75

0.80

0.85

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

78

Back to Contents

0.90

NeutronLWD

adnVISION475* Azimuthal Density Neutron4.75-in. Tool and 6-in. Borehole


Environmental CorrectionOpen Hole

Purpose
This is one of a series of charts used to correct adnVISION475
4.75-in. Azimuthal Density Neutron tool porosity for several environmental effects by using the mud hydrogen index (Hm) determined
from Chart Neu-30 in conjunction with the parameters on the chart.

Example
Given:

Description
This chart incorporates the parameters of borehole size, mud temperature, mud hydrogen index (from Chart Neu-30), mud salinity,
and formation salinity for the correction of adnVISION475 porosity.
The following charts are used with the same interpretation
procedure as Chart Neu-31. The charts differ for tool size and
borehole size.

Find:
Answer:

adnVISION475 uncorrected porosity = 34 p.u., borehole


size = 10 in., mud temperature = 150F, hydrogen
index = 0.78, borehole salinity = 100,000 ppm, and formation salinity = 100,000 ppm.
Corrected adnVISION475 porosity.
From the adnVISION475 porosity of 34 p.u. on the top
scale, enter the borehole size chart to intersect the borehole size of 10 in. From the point of intersection move
parallel to the closest trend line to intersect the standard conditions line.
From this intersection point move straight down to
enter the mud temperature chart and intersect the mud
temperature of 150F. From the point of intersection
move parallel to the closest trend line to intersect the
standard conditions line.
Continue this pattern through the charts to read the
corrected porosity from the scale at the bottom of the
charts.
The corrected adnVISION475 porosity is 17 p.u.

continued on next page

Back to Contents

79

Neu

NeutronLWD

adnVISION475* Azimuthal Density Neutron4.75-in. Tool and 6-in. Borehole

Neu-31

Environmental CorrectionOpen Hole

adnVISION475 neutron porosity index (apparent limestone porosity) in 6-in. borehole


0

10

20

30

40

50

10
Borehole
size
(in.)

8
6

300
Mud
temperature
(F)

Neu

200
100

0.7
Mud
hydrogen
index, Hm

0.8
0.9
1.0

200
Mud
salinity
(1,000 ppm)

100
0

200
Formation
salinity
(1,000 ppm)

100

10

20

30

40

50

Standard conditions
*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

80

Back to Contents

NeutronLWD

adnVISION475* BIP Neutron4.75-in. Tool and 6-in. Borehole

Neu-32

Environmental CorrectionOpen Hole

adnVISION475 neutron porosity index (apparent limestone porosity) in 6-in. borehole


0

10

20

30

40

50

300
Mud
temperature
(F)

200
100

Neu

0.7
Mud
hydrogen
index, Hm

0.8
0.9
1.0

Mud
salinity
(1,000 ppm)

200
100
0

Formation
salinity
(1,000 ppm)

200
100
0

10

20

30

40

50

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Neu-31 to correct
adnVISION475 borehole-invariant porosity (BIP) measurements.

Description
Enter the top scale with the BIP neutron porosity (BNPH) to incorporate corrections for mud temperature, mud hydrogen index, and
mud and formation salinity.

Back to Contents

81

NeutronLWD

adnVISION475* Azimuthal Density Neutron4.75-in. Tool


and 8-in. Borehole

Neu-33

Environmental CorrectionOpen Hole

adnVISION475 neutron porosity index (apparent limestone porosity) in 8-in. borehole


0

10

20

30

40

50

10
Borehole
size
(in.)

8
6

300
Mud
temperature
(F)

Neu

200
100

0.7
Mud
hydrogen
index, Hm

0.8
0.9
1.0

200
Mud
salinity
(1,000 ppm)

100
0

200
Formation
salinity
(1,000 ppm)

100

10

20

30

40

50

Standard conditions
*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Neu-31 to correct
adnVISION475 porosity.

82

Back to Contents

NeutronLWD

adnVISION475* BIP Neutron4.75-in. Tool and 8-in. Borehole

Neu-34

Environmental CorrectionOpen Hole

adnVISION475 neutron porosity index (apparent limestone porosity) in 8-in. borehole


0

10

20

30

40

50

300
Mud
temperature
(F)

200
100
0.7

Mud
hydrogen
index, Hm

0.8

Neu

0.9
1.0

Mud
salinity
(1,000 ppm)

200
100
0

Formation
salinity
(1,000 ppm)

200
100
0

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

10

20

30

40

50

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Neu-32 to correct
adnVISION475 borehole-invariant porosity (BIP) measurements.

Back to Contents

83

NeutronLWD

adnVISION675* Azimuthal Density Neutron6.75-in. Tool and 8-in. Borehole

Neu-35

Environmental CorrectionOpen Hole

(former Por-26a)

adnVISION675 neutron porosity index (apparent limestone porosity in p.u.)


0

10

20

30

40

50

16
14
Borehole
size
(in.)

12
10
8

300

Neu

Mud
temperature
(F)

200
100
50

0.7
Mud
hydrogen
index, Hm

0.8
0.9
1.0

250
200
Mud
salinity
(1,000 ppm)

100
0

250
200
Formation
salinity
(1,000 ppm)

100
0

10

20

30

50

Standard conditions

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Neu-31 to correct adnVISION675
porosity.
84

40

Back to Contents

NeutronLWD

adnVISION675* BIP Neutron6.75-in. Tool and 8-in. Borehole

Neu-36

Environmental CorrectionOpen Hole

adnVISION475 neutron porosity index (apparent limestone porosity) in 8-in. borehole


0

10

20

30

40

50

300
Mud
temperature
(F)

200
100
0.7

Mud
hydrogen
index, Hm

0.8
0.9

Neu

1.0

Mud
salinity
(1,000 ppm)

200
100
0

Formation
salinity
(1,000 ppm)

200
100
0

10

20

30

40

50

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Neu-32 to correct
adnVISION675 borehole-invariant porosity (BIP) measurements.

Back to Contents

85

NeutronLWD

adnVISION675* Azimuthal Density Neutron6.75-in. Tool and 10-in. Borehole

Neu-37

Environmental CorrectionOpen Hole

(former Por-26b)

adnVISION675 neutron porosity index (apparent limestone porosity in p.u.)


0

10

20

30

40

50

16
14
Borehole
size
(in.)

12
10
8

300

Neu

Mud
temperature
(F)

200
100
50

0.7
Mud
hydrogen
index, Hm

0.8
0.9
1.0

250
200
Mud
salinity
(1,000 ppm)

100
0

250
200
Formation
salinity
(1,000 ppm)

100
0

10

20

30

50

Standard conditions

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Neu-31 to correct
adnVISION675 porosity.
86

40

Back to Contents

NeutronLWD

adnVISION675* BIP Neutron6.75-in. Tool and 10-in. Borehole

Neu-38

Environmental CorrectionOpen Hole

adnVISION675 neutron porosity index (apparent limestone porosity) in 10-in. borehole


0

10

20

30

40

50

300
Mud
temperature
(F)

200
100
0.7

Mud
hydrogen
index, Hm

0.8

Neu

0.9
1.0

Mud
salinity
(1,000 ppm)

200
100
0

Formation
salinity
(1,000 ppm)

200
100
0

10

20

30

40

50

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Neu-32 to correct
adnVISION675 borehole-invariant porosity (BIP) measurements.

Back to Contents

87

NeutronLWD

adnVISION825* Azimuthal Density Neutron8.25-in. Tool


and 12.25-in. Borehole

Neu-39

Environmental CorrectionOpen Hole


Standoff = 0.25 in.
adnVISION825 neutron porosity index (apparent limestone porosity) in 12.25-in. borehole
0

10

20

30

40

50

1.5
Standoff
(in.)

1.0
0.5

0
16
Borehole
size
(F)

Neu

14

12
10
300

Mud
temperature
(F)

200
100

0.7
Mud
hydrogen
index, Hm

0.8
0.9
1

20
Pressure
(1,000 psi)

10
0

200
Mud
salinity
(1,000 ppm)

100
0

200
Formation
salinity
(1,000 ppm)

100
0

10

20

30

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Neu-31 to correct
adnVISION825 porosity.
88

40

50

Standard conditions

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Back to Contents

NeutronLWD

CDN* Compensated Density Neutron and adnVISION825s*


Azimuthal Density Neutron8-in. Tool and 12-in. Borehole

Neu-40
(former Por-24c)

Environmental CorrectionOpen Hole

Neutron porosity index (apparent limestone porosity) in 12-in. borehole


0

10

20

30

40

50

18
Borehole
size
(in.)

16
14
12

350
300
Mud
temperature
(F)

Neu
200
100
50

0.7
Mud
hydrogen
index, Hm

0.8
0.9
1.0

250
200
Mud
salinity
(1,000 ppm)

100

0
250
200
Formation
salinity
(1,000 ppm)

100
0

10

20

30

40

50

Standard conditions

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Neu-31 to correct
CDN Compensated Density Neutron tool and adnVISION825s
Azimuthal Density Neutron porosity.

Back to Contents

89

NeutronLWD

CDN* Compensated Density Neutron and adnVISION825s*


Azimuthal Density Neutron8-in. Tool and 14-in. Borehole

Neu-41
(former Por-24d)

Environmental CorrectionOpen Hole

Neutron porosity index (apparent limestone porosity) in 14-in. borehole


0

10

20

30

40

18

Borehole
size
(in.)

50

16

14
12

C
350

Neu

300
Mud
temperature
(F)

200

D
100

50

E
0.7

F
Mud
hydrogen
index, Hm

0.8
0.9
1.0

250
200
Mud
salinity
(1,000 ppm)

100

250
200
Formation
salinity
(1,000 ppm)

100

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

Standard conditions

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

90

Back to Contents

NeutronLWD

CDN* Compensated Density Neutron and adnVISION825s*


Azimuthal Density Neutron8-in. Tool and 16-in. Borehole

Neu-42
(former Por-24e)

Environmental CorrectionOpen Hole

Neutron porosity index (apparent limestone porosity) in 16-in. borehole


0

10

20

30

40

50

18

Borehole
size
(in.)

16
14
12

350

Neu

300
Mud
temperature
(F)

200
100

50
0.7

Mud
hydrogen
index, Hm

0.8
0.9
1.0

250
200
Mud
salinity
(1,000 ppm)

100

250
200
Formation
salinity
(1,000 ppm)

100

10

20

30

40

50

Standard conditions

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Back to Contents

91

NeutronLWD

EcoScope* Integrated LWD Neutron Porosity6.75-in. Tool


Environmental CorrectionOpen Hole

Purpose
Charts Neu-43 through Neu-46 show the environmental corrections
that are applied to EcoScope 6.75-in. Integrated LWD Tool neutron
porosity measurements. These charts can be used to estimate the
correction that is normally already applied to the field logs.
Description
The charts incorporate the parameters of borehole size, mud temperature, mud hydrogen index (from Chart Neu-30), mud salinity,
and formation salinity for the correction of EcoScope 6.75-in.
neutron porosity.
Select the appropriate chart based on both the hole size and
the measurement type: thermal neutron porosity (TNPH) or best
thermal neutron porosity (BPHI).

Enter the charts with the uncorrected neutron porosity data.


Charts Neu-43 and Neu-44 are for use with BPHI_UNC, and Charts
Neu-45 and Neu-46 are for use with TNPH_UNC. Because the borehole size correction is applied to the field logs, including the _UNC
channels, do not include the borehole size correction, which is in the
charts for illustrative purposes only.
A correction for eccentricity effects is normally also applied to
the field BPHI measurement. Because this correction is not included
in these charts, there may be a small difference between the correction estimated from the charts and that actually applied to the field
data, depending on the tool position in the borehole.
The charts are used with a similar procedure to that described
for Chart Neu-31.

Neu

92

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NeutronLWD

EcoScope* Integrated LWD BPHI Porosity6.75-in. Tool and 8.5-in. Borehole


Environmental CorrectionOpen Hole

Neu-43

EcoScope uncorrected BPHI porosity (apparent limestone porosity in p.u.) in 8.5-in. borehole

10

20

30

40

50

14
13
Borehole
size
(in.)

12
11
10
9
8

260
210
Temperature
(F)

Neu

160
110
60

0.70
0.75
Mud
hydrogen
index, Hm

0.80
0.85
0.90
0.95
1.00

250
200
150
Mud
salinity
100
(1,000 ppm)
50
0

250
200
150
Formation
salinity
100
(1,000 ppm)
50
0

10

20

30

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

40

50

Standard conditions

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Neu-31 to estimate the correction applied to EcoScope 6.75-in. Integrated LWD Tool best thermal
neutron porosity (BPHI) measurements.

Use this chart only with EcoScope BPHI neutron porosity; use
Chart Neu-45 with EcoScope thermal neutron porosity (TNPH)
measurements.

Back to Contents

93

NeutronLWD

EcoScope* Integrated LWD BPHI Porosity6.75-in. Tool and 9.5-in. Borehole


Environmental CorrectionOpen Hole

Neu-44

EcoScope uncorrected BPHI porosity (apparent limestone porosity in p.u.) in 9.5-in. borehole

10

20

30

40

50

14
13
Borehole
size
(in.)

12
11
10
9
8

260
210

Neu

Temperature
(F)

160
110
60

0.70
0.75
Mud
hydrogen
index, Hm

0.80
0.85
0.90
0.95
1.00

250
200
150
Mud
salinity
100
(1,000 ppm)
50
0

250
200
150
Formation
salinity
100
(1,000 ppm)
50
0

10

20

30

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

50

Standard conditions

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Neu-31 to estimate the correction applied to EcoScope 6.75-in. Integrated LWD Tool best thermal
neutron porosity (BPHI) measurements.

94

40

Use this chart only with EcoScope BPHI neutron porosity; use
Chart Neu-46 with EcoScope thermal neutron porosity (TNPH)
measurements.

Back to Contents

NeutronLWD

EcoScope* Integrated LWD TNPH Porosity6.75-in. Tool and 8.5-in. Borehole


Environmental CorrectionOpen Hole

Neu-45

EcoScope uncorrected TNPH porosity (apparent limestone porosity in p.u.) in 8.5-in. borehole

10

20

30

40

50

14
13
Borehole
size
(in.)

12
11
10
9
8

260
210
Temperature
(F)

Neu

160
110
60

0.70
0.75
Mud
hydrogen
index, Hm

0.80
0.85
0.90
0.95
1.00

250
200
150
Mud
salinity
100
(1,000 ppm)
50
0

250
200
150
Formation
salinity
100
(1,000 ppm)
50
0

10

20

30

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

40

50

Standard conditions

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Neu-31 to estimate the correction applied to EcoScope 6.75-in. Integrated LWD Tool thermal neutron porosity (TNPH) measurements.

Use this chart only with EcoScope TNPH measurements. Use


Chart Neu-43 with EcoScope best thermal neutron porosity (BPHI)
measurements.

Back to Contents

95

NeutronLWD

EcoScope* Integrated LWD TNPH Porosity6.75-in. Tool and 9.5-in. Borehole


Environmental CorrectionOpen Hole

Neu-46

EcoScope uncorrected TNPH porosity (apparent limestone porosity in p.u.) in 9.5-in. borehole

10

20

30

40

50

14
13
Borehole
size
(in.)

12
11
10
9
8

260
210

Neu

Temperature
(F)

160
110
60

0.70
0.75
Mud
hydrogen
index, Hm

0.80
0.85
0.90
0.95
1.00

250
200
150
Mud
salinity
100
(1,000 ppm)
50
0

250
200
150
Formation
salinity
100
(1,000 ppm)
50
0

10

20

30

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

50

Standard conditions

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Neu-31 to estimate the correction applied to EcoScope 6.75-in. Integrated LWD Tool thermal neutron porosity (TNPH) measurements.

96

40

Use this chart only with EcoScope TNPH neutron porosity; use
Chart Neu-44 with EcoScope best thermal neutron porosity (BPHI)
measurements.

Back to Contents

NeutronLWD

EcoScope* Integrated LWD6.75-in. Tool


Formation Sigma Environmental CorrectionOpen Hole

Purpose
This chart is used to environmentally correct the raw sigma (RFSA)
measurement for porosity, borehole size, and mud salinity. The fully
corrected sigma (SIFA) measurement is normally presented on the
logs.
Description
Chart Neu-47 includes (from top to bottom) the moments sigma
transform, diffusion correction based on porosity, and borehole
correction.
Example
Given: Raw sigma (24 c.u.), porosity (30 p.u.), borehole size
(10 in.), and mud salinity (200,000 ppm).
Find:
Corrected sigma (SIFA).
Answer: Enter the chart from the scale at the top with the raw
sigma value of 24 c.u.

Moments Sigma Transform


Move parallel to the closest trend line to intersect the x-axis of the
moments sigma transform chart. The difference between the x-axis
value and the raw sigma value is the moments sigma transform
correction (19.8 24 = 4.2 c.u.).

Diffusion Correction
Move down vertically from the scale at the top to intersect the
30-p.u. line on the porosity chart. At the intersection point, move
parallel to the closest trend line to intersect the x-axis of the
porosity chart.
The difference between the x-axis value and the raw sigma value
is the diffusion correction (25.3 24 = +1.3 c.u.).
Borehole Correction
Move down vertically from the scale at the top to intersect the 10-in.
borehole size line. At the intersection point, move parallel to the
closest trend line corresponding to the mud salinity to intersect
the x-axis of the borehole correction chart.
The difference between the x-axis value and the raw sigma value
is the borehole correction (22.8 24 = 1.2 c.u.).
Net Correction
The net correction to apply to the raw sigma value is the sum the
three corrections (4.2 + 1.3 + 1.2 = 4.1 c.u.). The environmentally
corrected sigma is the sum of the net correction and the raw sigma
value (24 + 4.1 = 19.9 c.u.).

EcoScope Sigma Correction Example


Correction
Raw sigma
Porosity
Borehole size
Mud salinity
Moments sigma transform
Porosity correction
Borehole correction
Net correction
Environmentally corrected sigma

24 c.u.
30 p.u.
10 in.
200,000 ppm
4.2 c.u.
+1.3 c.u.
1.2 c.u.
4.1 c.u.
19.9 c.u.

continued on next page

Back to Contents

97

Neu

NeutronLWD

EcoScope* Integrated LWD6.75-in. Tool

Neu-47

Formation Sigma Environmental CorrectionOpen Hole

Raw sigma (c.u.)


0

10

20

30

40

50

60

10

20

30

40

50

60

Moments
sigma
transform
50

40

30
Porosity
(p.u.)

Neu

20

10

0
11

10
Borehole
size (in.)
9 Mud salinity

0 ppm
50,000 ppm
100,000 ppm
150,000 ppm
200,000 ppm

8
0
*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

98

Standard conditions

Back to Contents

General Magnetic ResonanceWireline


Nuclear

CMR* Tool

CMR-1

Hydrocarbon Effect on NMR/Density Porosity Ratio

1.0
h = 0.8
0.7

0.8
0.6

0.5

0.6
tCMR
D

0.4
0.4

0.3
0.2

0.2
0.1

NMR

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1 Sxo

1.4

Fresh Mud and Dry Gas at 700 psi

Fresh Mud and Dry Gas at 700 psi

ma = 2.65, f = 1, If = 1, gas = 0.25,


PT = 4, T1 gas = 4, IH = 0.5

ma = 2.71, f = 1, If = 1, gas = 0.25,


PT = 4, T1 gas = 4, Igas = 0.5

1.4

0%

0%
Porosity = 50 p.u.

20%

1.6

1.6

60%
40 p.u.
80%

1.8
Gas

2.0

b
(g/cm3) 2.2

30 p.u.

1.8
Sxo = 100%

b
(g/cm3)

Gas

2.0

30 p.u.
Sxo = 100%

2.2

20 p.u.

20 p.u.

Water
2.4
*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Porosity = 50 p.u.
40%
40 p.u. 60%
80%

20%

40%

Water

2.4

10 p.u.

10 p.u.

2.6

2.6
0

0
0
*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50

0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50

tCMR

tCMR

Purpose
This chart is used to determine the saturation of the flushed zone
(Sxo) and hydrocarbon density (h) by using density () and CMR
Combinable Magnetic Resonance data.
Description
The top chart has three components: ratio of total CMR porosity
to density porosity (tCMR/D) on the y-axis, (1 Sxo) values on the
x-axis, and h defined by the radiating lines from the value of unity
on the y-axis. Enter the chart with the values for (1 Sxo) and the
tCMR /D ratio. The intersection point indicates the hydrocarbon

density value. The bottom charts are used to determine the Sxo value
in sandstone (left) and limestone (right).
Example
Given:
Find:
Answer:

CMR porosity = 25 p.u., D = 30 p.u., and Sxo = 80%.


Hydrocarbon density of the fluid in the formation.
tCMR/D ratio = 25/30 = 0.83.
1 Sxo = 1 0.8 = 0.20 or 20%.
For these values, h = 0.40.

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99

This page intentionally left blank.

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Resistivity LaterologWireline

ARI* Azimuthal Resistivity Imager

RLl-1

Environmental CorrectionOpen Hole

(former Rcor-14)

358-in. Tool Centered, Active Mode, Thick Beds


1.5

Rt /Ra

6
8
10
12
Hole diameter (in.)

1.0

0.5
1

10

100

1,000

10,000

Ra /Rm

RLl

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to environmentally correct the ARI Azimuthal
Resistivity Imager high-resolution resistivity (LLhr) curve for the
effect of borehole size.

Example
Given:

Description
For a known value of resistivity of the borehole mud (Rm) at the zone
of interest, a correction for the recorded log azimuthal resistivity (Ra)
is determined by using this chart. The resistivity measured by the
ARI tool is equal to or higher than the corrected resistivity (Rt) for
borehole sizes of 8 to 12 in. However, the measured ARI resistivity
is lower than Rt in 6-in. boreholes and for values of Ra / Rm between
6 and 600.

Find:
Answer:

ARI LLhr resistivity (Ra) = 20 ohm-m, mud resistivity


(Rm) = 0.02 ohm-m, and borehole size at the zone of
interest = 10 in.
True resistivity (Rt).
Enter the chart at the x-axis with the ratio Ra /Rm =
20/0.02 = 1,000.
Move vertically upward to intersect the 10-in. line. Move
horizontally left to read the Rt /Ra value on the y-axis
of 0.86.
Multiply the ratio by Ra to obtain the corrected LLhr
resistivity:
Rt = 0.86 20 = 17.2 ohm-m.

Back to Contents

101

Resistivity LaterologWireline

High-Resolution Azimuthal Laterolog Sonde (HALS)

RLl-2

HLLD Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

HLLD Tool Centered (Rm = 0.1 ohm-m)


1.2

dh
5 in.
6 in.
8 in.
10 in.
12 in.
14 in.
16 in.

1.1

1.0

R t /HLLD

0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
101

100

101

102

103

104

105

HLLD/Rm

RLl
Borehole Effect, HLLD Tool Centered (Rm = 0.1 ohm-m)
1.5
dh
6 in.
8 in.
10 in.
12 in.
14 in.
16 in.
18 in.
20 in.

1.3

1.1

R t /HLLD

0.9

0.7

0.5
100

101

102

103

104

105

HLLD/Rm
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to correct the HALS laterolog deep resistivity
(HLLD) for borehole and drilling mud effects.
Description
Enter the chart on the x-axis with the value of HLLD divided by
the mud resistivity (Rm) at formation temperature. Move upward
to intersect the curve representing the borehole diameter (dh), and
then move horizontally left to read the value of the ratio Rt /HLLD on
the y-axis. Multiply this value by the HLLD value to obtain Rt. Charts
102

RLl-3 through RLl-14 are similar to Chart RLl-2 for different resistivity
measurements and values of tool standoff.
Example
Given:
HLLD = 100 ohm-m, Rm = 0.02 ohm-m at formation
temperature, and borehole size = 10 in.
Find:
Rt.
Answer: Ratio of HLLD/Rm = 100/0.02 = 5,000.
Rt = 0.80 100 = 80 ohm-m.

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Resistivity LaterologWireline

High-Resolution Azimuthal Laterolog Sonde (HALS)

RLl-3

HLLS Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

HLLS Tool Centered (Rm = 0.1 ohm-m)


3.0

dh
5 in.
6 in.
8 in.
10 in.
12 in.
14 in.
16 in.

2.5

2.0
R t /HLLS

1.5
1.0
0.5
0

101

100

101

102

103

104

105

HLLS/Rm

RLl
Borehole Effect, HLLS Tool Centered (Rm = 0.1 ohm-m)
3.0

dh
6 in.
8 in.
10 in.
12 in.
14 in.
16 in.
18 in.
20 in.

2.5
2.0

R t /HLLS

1.5
1.0
0.5
0

10 0

101

102

103

104

105

HLLS/Rm
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart RLl-2 to correct HALS laterolog
shallow resistivity (HLLS) for borehole and drilling mud effects.

Back to Contents

103

Resistivity LaterologWireline

High-Resolution Azimuthal Laterolog Sonde (HALS)

RLl-4

HRLD Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

HRLD Tool Centered (R m = 0.1 ohm-m)


1.1
1.0
0.9

0.8
R t /HRLD

dh
5 in.
6 in.
8 in.
10 in.
12 in.
14 in.
16 in.

0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
101

100

101

102

103

104

105

HRLD/Rm

RLl
Borehole Effect, HRLD Tool Centered (Rm = 0.1 ohm-m)
1.4

dh
6 in.
8 in.
10 in.
12 in.
14 in.
16 in.
18 in.
20 in.

1.2

1.0

Rt /HRLD
0.8

0.6

0.4
10 0

101

102

103
HRLD/Rm

Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to similarly to Chart RLl-2 to correct the HALS
high-resolution deep resistivity (HRLD) for borehole and drilling
mud effects.

104

Back to Contents

104

105

Resistivity LaterologWireline

High-Resolution Azimuthal Laterolog Sonde (HALS)

RLl-5

HRLS Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

HRLS Tool Centered (Rm = 0.1 ohm-m)


3.0
2.5
2.0
R t /HRLS 1.5

dh
5 in.
6 in.
8 in.
10 in.
12 in.
14 in.
16 in.

1.0
0.5
0
101

100

101

102

103

104

105

HRLS/Rm

RLl
Borehole Effect, HRLS Tool Centered (Rm = 0.1 ohm-m)
3.0
2.5
2.0
Rt /HRLS

1.5

dh
6 in.
8 in.
10 in.
12 in.
14 in.
16 in.
18 in.
20 in.

1.0
0.5
0
10 0

101

102

103

104

105

HRLS/Rm
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to similarly to Chart RLl-2 to correct the HALS
high-resolution shallow resistivity (HRLS) for borehole and drilling
mud effects.

Back to Contents

105

Resistivity LaterologWireline

High-Resolution Azimuthal Laterolog Sonde (HALS)

RLl-6

HLLD Borehole CorrectionEccentered in Open Hole

HLLD Tool Eccentered at Standoff = 0.5 in. (Rm = 0.1 ohm-m)


1.2

dh
5 in.
6 in.
8 in.
10 in.
12 in.
14 in.
16 in.

1.1

1.0

Rt /HLLD

0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
101

100

101

102

103

104

105

HLLD/Rm

RLl
HLLD Tool Eccentered at Standoff = 1.5 in. (Rm = 0.1 ohm-m)
1.2

dh
8 in.
10 in.
12 in.
14 in.
16 in.

1.1
1.0

Rt /HLLD

0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
101

100

101

102

103

HLLD/Rm
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to similarly to Chart RLl-2 to correct the HALS
laterolog deep resistivity (HLLD) for borehole and drilling mud effects
at 0.5- and 1.5-in. standoffs.

106

Back to Contents

104

105

Resistivity LaterologWireline

High-Resolution Azimuthal Laterolog Sonde (HALS)

RLl-7

HLLS Borehole CorrectionEccentered in Open Hole

HLLS Tool Eccentered at Standoff = 0.5 in. (Rm = 0.1 ohm-m)


3.0

dh
5 in.
6 in.
8 in.
10 in.
12 in.
14 in.
16 in.

2.5

2.0

Rt /HLLS

1.5
1.0
0.5
0

101

100

101

102

103

104

105

HLLS/Rm

RLl
HLLS Tool Eccentered at Standoff = 1.5 in. (Rm = 0.1 ohm-m)
3.0

dh
8 in.
10 in.
12 in.
14 in.
16 in.

2.5
2.0

Rt /HLLS

1.5

1.0
0.5
0

101

100

101

102

103

104

105

HLLS/Rm
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to similarly to Chart RLl-2 to correct the HALS
laterolog shallow resistivity (HLLS) for borehole and drilling
mud effects at 0.5- and 1.5-in. standoffs.

Back to Contents

107

Resistivity LaterologWireline

High-Resolution Azimuthal Laterolog Sonde (HALS)

RLl-8

HRLD Borehole CorrectionEccentered in Open Hole

HRLD Tool Eccentered at Standoff = 0.5 in. (Rm = 0.1 ohm-m)


1.1
1.0

0.9
0.8
Rt /HRLD

dh
5 in.
6 in.
8 in.
10 in.
12 in.
14 in.
16 in.

0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4

101

100

101

102

103

104

105

HRLD/Rm

RLl
HRLD Tool Eccentered at Standoff = 1.5 in. (Rm = 0.1 ohm-m)
1.1
1.0
0.9

Rt /HRLD

dh
8 in.
10 in.
12 in.
14 in.
16 in.

0.8

0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
101

100

101

102

103

HRLD/Rm
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to similarly to Chart RLl-2 to correct the HALS
high-resolution deep resistivity (HRLD) for borehole and drilling
mud effects at 0.5- and 1.5-in. standoffs.

108

Back to Contents

104

105

Resistivity LaterologWireline

High-Resolution Azimuthal Laterolog Sonde (HALS)

RLl-9

HRLS Borehole CorrectionEccentered in Open Hole

HRLS Tool Eccentered Standoff = 0.5 in. (Rm = 0.1 ohm-m)


3.0
2.5

2.0

Rt /HRLS

1.5

dh
5 in.
6 in.
8 in.
10 in.
12 in.
14 in.
16 in.

1.0
0.5
0
101

100

10 1

102

103

104

105

HRLS/Rm

RLl
HRLS Tool Eccentered Standoff = 1.5 in. (Rm = 0.1 ohm-m)
3.0
2.5
2.0

Rt /HRLS

dh
8 in.
10 in.
12 in.
14 in.
16 in.

1.5
1.0
0.5
0
101

100

101

102

103

104

105

HRLS/Rm
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to similarly to Chart RLl-2 to correct the HALS
high-resolution shallow resistivity (HRLS) for borehole and drilling
mud effects at 0.5- and 1.5-in. standoffs.

Back to Contents

109

Resistivity LaterologWireline

HRLA* High-Resolution Laterolog Array

RLl-10

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

Tool Centered

3.0
2.5
2.0
Rt /RLA1

1.5
1.0
0.5
0
10 1

10 0

101

103

10 2

10 4

10 5

10 6

10 4

10 5

10 6

RLA1/Rm
Standoff = 0.5 in.

3.0
2.5

RLl

2.0
Rt /RLA1

1.5
1.0
0.5
0
10 1

100

101

10 3

10 2
RLA1/Rm

Standoff = 1.5 in.

3.0

dh
5 in.
6 in.
8 in.
9 in.
10 in.
12 in.
14 in.
16 in.
18 in.
20 in.
22 in.

2.5
2.0
Rt /RLA1

1.5
1.0
0.5
0
10 1

100

101

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

10 4

10 5

10 6

RLA1/Rm

Purpose
This chart is used to similarly to Chart RLl-2 to correct HRLA HighResolution Laterolog Array resistivity for borehole and drilling mud
110

10 3

10 2

effects. RLA1 is the apparent resistivity from computed focusing


mode 1.

Back to Contents

Resistivity LaterologWireline
General

HRLA* High-Resolution Laterolog Array

RLl-11

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

Tool Centered

3.0
2.5
2.0
Rt /RLA2

1.5
1.0
0.5
0
10 1

100

101

102

103

104

105

106

RLA2/Rm
Standoff = 0.5 in.

3.0

dh
5 in.
6 in.
8 in.
9 in.
10 in.
12 in.
14 in.
16 in.
18 in.
20 in.
22 in.

2.5
2.0
Rt /RLA2

1.5
1.0
0.5
0
10 1

100

101

102

103

104

105

106

104

105

106

RLl

RLA2/Rm
Standoff = 1.5 in.

3.0
2.5
2.0
Rt /RLA2

1.5
1.0
0.5
0
10 1

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

100

101

102

103
RLA2/Rm

Purpose
This chart is used to similarly to Chart RLl-2 to correct HRLA HighResolution Laterolog Array resistivity for borehole and drilling mud

effects. RLA2 is the apparent resistivity from computed focusing


mode 2.

Back to Contents

111

Resistivity LaterologWireline

HRLA* High-Resolution Laterolog Array

RLl-12

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

Tool Centered

3.0
2.5
2.0
Rt /RLA3

1.5
1.0
0.5
0
10 1

100

101

102

103

104

105

106

RLA3/Rm
Standoff = 0.5 in.

3.0

dh
5 in.
6 in.
8 in.
9 in.
10 in.
12 in.
14 in.
16 in.
18 in.
20 in.
22 in.

2.5

RLl

2.0
Rt /RLA3

1.5
1.0
0.5
0
10 1

100

101

102

103

104

105

106

104

105

106

RLA3/Rm
Standoff = 1.5 in.

3.0
2.5
2.0
Rt /RLA3

1.5
1.0
0.5
0
10 1

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

100

101

102

103
RLA3/Rm

Purpose
This chart is used to similarly to Chart RLl-2 to correct HRLA HighResolution Laterolog Array resistivity for borehole and drilling mud
112

effects. RLA3 is the apparent resistivity from computed focusing


mode 3.

Back to Contents

Resistivity LaterologWireline

HRLA* High-Resolution Laterolog Array

RLl-13

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

Tool Centered

3.0
2.5
2.0
Rt /RLA4

1.5
1.0
0.5
0
10 1

100

101

102

103

104

105

106

RLA4/Rm
Standoff = 0.5 in.

3.0

dh
5 in.
6 in.
8 in.
9 in.
10 in.
12 in.
14 in.
16 in.
18 in.
20 in.
22 in.

2.5
2.0
Rt /RLA4

1.5
1.0
0.5
0
10 1

100

101

102

103

104

105

106

104

105

106

RLl

RLA4/Rm
Standoff = 1.5 in.

3.0
2.5
2.0
Rt /RLA4

1.5
1.0
0.5
0
10 1

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

100

101

102

103
RLA4/Rm

Purpose
This chart is used to similarly to Chart RLl-2 to correct HRLA HighResolution Laterolog Array resistivity for borehole and drilling mud

effects. RLA4 is the apparent resistivity from computed focusing


mode 4.

Back to Contents

113

Resistivity LaterologWireline

HRLA* High-Resolution Laterolog Array

RLl-14

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

Tool Centered

3.0
2.5
2.0
Rt /RLA5

1.5
1.0
0.5
0
10 1

100

101

102

103

104

105

106

RLA5/Rm
Standoff = 0.5 in.

3.0

dh
5 in.
6 in.
8 in.
9 in.
10 in.
12 in.
14 in.
16 in.
18 in.
20 in.
22 in.

2.5

RLl

2.0
Rt /RLA5

1.5
1.0
0.5
0
10 1

100

101

102

103

104

105

106

104

105

106

RLA5/Rm
Standoff = 1.5 in.

3.0
2.5
2.0
Rt /RLA5

1.5
1.0
0.5
0
10 1

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

100

101

102

103
RLA5/Rm

Purpose
This chart is used to similarly to Chart RLl-2 to correct HRLA HighResolution Laterolog Array resistivity for borehole and drilling mud
114

effects. RLA5 is the apparent resistivity from computed focusing


mode 5.

Back to Contents

Resistivity LaterologLWD

GeoSteering* Bit Resistivity6.75-in. Tool

RLl-20

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
Rt/Ra
0.8
0.7
24-in. bit
18-in. bit
12-in. bit

0.5
0
102

101

100

102

101

103

104

105

Ra/Rm

RLl
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
Rt/Ra
0.8
0.7
24-in. bit
18-in. bit
12-in. bit

0.6
0.5
102

101

100

101

102

103

104

105

Ra/Rm
*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to derive the borehole correction for the GeoSteering
bit-measured resistivity. The bit resistivity corrected to the true
resistivity (Rt) is then used in the calculation of water saturation.
Description
Enter the chart on the x-axis with the ratio of the bit resistivity and
mud resistivity (Ra /Rm) at formation temperature. Move upward to

intersect the appropriate bit size. Move horizontally left to intersect


the correction factor on the y-axis. Multiply the correction factor by
the Ra value to obtain Rt. Charts RLl-21, RLl-23, and RLl-24 are similar to Chart RLl-20 for different tools and bit sizes.
Chart RLl-22 differs in that it is for reaming-down mode as
opposed to drilling mode.

Back to Contents

115

Resistivity GalvanicDrillpipe
LaterologLWD

GeoSteering* arcVISION675* Resistivity6.75-in. Tool

RLl-21

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
Rt /Ra
0.8
0.7
0.5

24-in. bit
18-in. bit
12-in. bit

0
102

101

100

102

101

103

104

105

Ra /Rm

RLl
1.2

1.1
1.0
0.9
Rt /Ra
0.8
0.7
24-in. bit
18-in. bit
12-in. bit

0.6
0.5

102

101

100

101

102

103

Ra /R m
*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart RLl-20 to derive the borehole
correction for the GeoSteering bit-measured arcVISION675
resistivity.

116

Back to Contents

104

105

Resistivity LaterologLWD

GeoSteering* Bit Resistivity in Reaming Mode6.75-in. Tool

RLl-22

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

1.5
1.4

Bit
1.3
1.2
1.1
Rt /Ra

1.0

arcVISION* tool
0.9
0.8
0.7

RLl
0.6
0.5
102

101

100

101

102

103

104

105

Ra /Rm

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart RLl-20 to derive the borehole
correction for the GeoSteering bit-measured resistivity while reaming down.

Back to Contents

117

Resistivity LaterologLWD

geoVISION* Resistivity Sub6.75-in. Tool

RLl-23

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

Ring Resistivity (with 812-in. bit)

Deep Button Resistivity (with 812-in. bit)

Borehole diameter (in.)

Borehole diameter (in.)

18

15
14

16
15

13

Rt/Ra

Rt /Ra

14

12
13
12

100

101

103

102

11
10

8.5

104

105

101

100

102

Ra /Rm

Borehole diameter (in.)

12

10
11

9.5

Rt /Ra

Rt /Ra
10.5

9.25
9.5

100

101

103

102

104

8.5

8.5

100

105

101

102

Ra /Rm

103

105

104

Ra /Rm

Bit Resistivity (with 812-in. bit)


ROP to Bit Face = 4 ft

105

104

Shallow Button Resistivity (with 812-in. bit)

Borehole diameter (in.)


13

RLl

8.5

Ra /Rm

Medium Button Resistivity (with 812-in. bit)

103

10

Bit Resistivity (with 812-in. bit)


ROP to Bit Face = 35 ft

Borehole diameter (in.)

Borehole diameter (in.)

22
20

22
18

Rt /Ra

20

Rt/Ra
16

18

14

16

12
10

100
*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

8.5

101

103

102

104

105

Ra /Rm

101

102

103

12

104

10

8.5

105

Ra /Rm

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart RLl-20 to derive the borehole
correction for the bit-measured resistivity from the GVR* resistivity
118

100

14

sub of the geoVISION 6.75-in. tool. The bottom row of charts


specifies the bit readout point (ROP) to the bit face.

Back to Contents

Resistivity LaterologLWD

geoVISION* Resistivity Sub8.25-in. Tool

RLl-24

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

Ring Resistivity (with 1214-in. bit)

Deep Button Resistivity (with 1214-in. bit)

Borehole diameter (in.)

Borehole diameter (in.)


22

20

20
Rt/Ra

19

Rt /Ra

19

18
17

18

16

17
1

100

102

101

103

15

16

12.25

100

105

104

101

102

Ra /Rm

RLl

14
13.5

16
Rt/Ra

Rt/Ra

15

13
14

105

Borehole diameter (in.)

17

101

104

Shallow Button Resistivity (with 1214-in. bit)

Borehole diameter (in.)

100

12.25

Ra /Rm

Medium Button Resistivity (with 1214-in. bit)

103

14

103

102

12.75
13.5

12.25

104

12.25

100

105

101

103

102

104

Ra /Rm

Ra /Rm

Bit Resistivity (with 1214-in. bit)


ROP to Bit Face = 4 ft

Bit Resistivity (with 1214-in. bit)


ROP to Bit Face = 35 ft

Borehole diameter (in.)

105

Borehole diameter (in.)

26
24

Rt/Ra

22

26

Rt/Ra

24

20

22

18
16
1

100
*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

101

103

102

14

18
1

12.25

104

105

100

Ra /Rm

101

102

103

20
16 14
12.25
104

105

Ra /Rm

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart RLl-20 to derive the borehole
correction for the bit-measured resistivity from the GVR* resistivity

sub of the geoVISION 8.25-in. tool. The bottom row of charts


specifies the bit readout point (ROP) to the bit face.

Back to Contents

119

Resistivity LaterlogLWD

GeoSteering* Bit Resistivity6.75-in. Tool

RLl-25

Distance Out of FormationOpen Hole

600
10 ohm-m/4 BUR
100 ohm-m/4 BUR
10 ohm-m/5 BUR

500

100 ohm-m/5 BUR


10 ohm-m/10 BUR

400

Distance (ft)

300

200

100

RLl

0
0

10

12

Dip angle ()

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to calculate the distance the GeoSteering bit must
travel to return to the target formation.

Example
Given:

Description
When drilling is at very high angles from vertical, the bit may wander
out of formation. If this occurs, how far the bit must travel to get
back into the formation must be determined.
Enter the chart with the known dip angle of the formation on
the x-axis. Move upward to intersect the appropriate buildup rate
(BUR) curve. Move horizontally left from the intersection point to
the y-axis and read the distance back into the formation.

Find:
Answer:

120

Formation dip angle = 6, formation resistivity during


drilling = 10 ohm-m, and buildup rate = 4.
Distance to return to the target formation.
Enter the chart at 6 on the x-axis. Move upward to the
10 ohm-m/4 BUR curve. Move horizontally left to the
y-axis to read approximately 290 ft.

Back to Contents

Resistivity LaterologWireline
General

CHFR* Cased Hole Formation Resistivity Tool

RLl-50

Cement CorrectionCased Hole

CHFR Cement Correction Chart (4.5-in.-OD casing)

1.6
No cement
0.5 in.

1.4

0.75 in.
1.5 in.
3 in.

1.2

5 in.

1.0

Rt /Rchfr

0.8

0.6

RLl

0.4

0.2

0
10 2

10 1

100

101

10 2

Rchfr /Rcem
*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to correct the raw cased hole resistivity measurement of the CHFR Cased Hole Formation Resistivity tool (Rchfr) for
the thickness of the cement sheath. The resulting value of true resistivity (Rt) is used to calculate the water saturation.

Description
Enter the chart on the x-axis with the ratio of Rchfr and the resistivity
of the cement sheath (Rcem). The value of Rcem is obtained with laboratory measurements. Move upward to the appropriate cement
sheath thickness curve, which represents the annular space between
the outside of the casing and the borehole wall. Move horizontally
left to the y-axis and read the Rt/Rchfr value. Multiply this value by
Rchfr to obtain Rt.
Charts RLl-51 and RLl-52 are for making the correction in larger
casing sizes.

Back to Contents

121

General LaterologWireline
Resistivity

CHFR* Cased Hole Formation Resistivity Tool

RLl-51

Cement CorrectionCased Hole

CHFR Cement Correction Chart (7-in.-OD casing)

1.6
No cement
0.5 in.

1.4

0.75 in.
1.5 in.
3 in.

1.2

5 in.

1.0

Rt /Rchfr

0.8

0.6

RLl

0.4

0.2

0
10 2

10 1

100
Rchfr /Rcem

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart RLl-50 to obtain the cased hole
resistivity of the CHFR Cased Hole Formation Resistivity tool corrected for the thickness of the cement sheath in 7-in.-OD casing.

122

Back to Contents

101

10 2

Resistivity LaterologWireline

CHFR* Cased Hole Formation Resistivity Tool

RLl-52

Cement CorrectionCased Hole

CHFR Cement Correction Chart (9.625-in.-OD casing)

1.6
No cement
0.5 in.

1.4

0.75 in.
1.5 in.
3 in.

1.2

5 in.

1.0

Rt /Rchfr

0.8

0.6

RLl

0.4

0.2

0
10 2

10 1

100

101

10 2

Rchfr /Rcem
*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart RLl-50 to obtain the cased hole
resistivity of the CHFR Cased Hole Formation Resistivity tool corrected for the thickness of the cement sheath in 9.625-in.-OD casing.

Back to Contents

123

Resistivity GalvanicWireline
InductionWireline

AIT* Array Induction Imager Tool


Operating RangeOpen Hole

Purpose
This chart is used to determine the limit of application for the AIT
Array Induction Imager Tool measurement in a salt-saturated borehole.
Description
When the AIT tool logs a large salt-saturated borehole, the 10- and
20-in. induction curves may well be unusable because of the large
conductive borehole. In a borehole with a diameter (dh) of 8 in.,
the 10- and 20-in. curve data are usable if Rt < 300Rm. The ratio
of the true resistivity to the mud resistivity (Rt /Rm) is proportional
to (dh /8)2.
A general rule is that a 12-in. borehole must have a ratio of Rt /Rm
133 to have usable shallow log data. Additional requirements are
that the borehole must be round and the AIT tool standoff is 2.5 in.
The value of Rt /Rm is further reduced if the borehole is irregular or
the standoff requirement is not met.
Chart RInd-1 summarizes these requirements. The expected
values of Rt, Rm, borehole size, and standoff size are entered to
accurately determine the usable resolution in a smooth hole. The
lower chart summarizes which AIT resistivity tools typically provide
the most accurate deep resistivity data.
RInd

Example: Salt-Saturated Borehole


Given:
Borehole size = 10 in., Rt = 5 ohm-m, Rm =
0.0135 ohm-m, and standoff (so) = 2.5 in.
Find:
Which, if any, of the AIT curves are valid.
Answer: From the x-axis equation:

Enter the chart on the x-axis at 346 and move upward


to intersect Rt = 5 ohm-m on the y-axis. The intersection
point is in an error zone for which the shallow induction
curves are not valid even in a round borehole. The
deeper induction curves are valid only with a 2-ft or
larger vertical resolution.
The limits for the 1-, 2-, and 4-ft curves are integral to the chart.
As illustrated, a 1-ft 90-in. curve is not usable in a large salt-saturated
borehole. Also, under these conditions, the 1-, 2-, and 4-ft curves cannot have the same resistivity response.
Example: Freshwater Mud Borehole
Given:
Borehole size = 10 in., Rt = 5 ohm-m, Rm = 0.135 ohm-m,
and standoff (so) = 1.5 in.
Find:
Which, if any, of the AIT curves are valid.
Answer: Rt /Rm = 37.0, (dh /8)2 = (10/8)2 = 1.5625, and (1.5/so) =
1.5/1.5 = 1. The resulting value from the x-axis equation
is 37.0 1.5625 1 = 57.9.
Enter the chart at 57.9 on the x-axis and intersect
Rt = 5 ohm-m on the y-axis. The intersection point is
within the limit of the 1-ft vertical resolution boundary.
All the AIT induction curves are usable.

R t d h 1.5
R 8 so =
m
2

5 10 1.5
0.0135 8 2.5 =

(370 )(1.5625 )( 0.6 ) = 346.

124

Back to Contents

Resistivity InductionWireline

AIT* Array Induction Imager Tool

RInd-1

Operating RangeOpen Hole

Limit of 4-ft logs

1,000

Possible large errors on shallow logs and 2-ft limit


Limit of 1-ft logs

100
Rt
(ohm-m)

10

Recommended AIT operating


range (compute standoff
method for smooth holes)

Saltsaturated
borehole
example

Freshwater
mud example
1

Possible large errors


on all logs
0.01

0.1

10

100

1,000

10,000

100,000

Rt dh 1.5

Rm 8 so
2

RInd

10,000
1,000 AIT 4-ft limit
AIT 2-ft limit
100 AIT 1-ft limit
Rt
(ohm-m)

0.01

AIT and
HRLA*
tools

AIT
tools

0.1

HRLA
tools

10

100

1,000

10,000

100,000

Rt/Rm

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Back to Contents

125

Resistivity InductionWireline

AIT* Array Induction Imager Tool


Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

Introduction
The AIT tools (AIT-B, AIT-C, AIT-H, AIT-M, Slim Array Induction
Imager Tool [SAIT], Hostile Environment Induction Imager Tool
[HIT], and SlimXtreme* Array Induction Imager Tool [QAIT]) do not
have chartbook corrections for environmental effects. The normal
effects that required correction charts in the past (borehole correction, shoulder effect, and invasion interpretation) are now all made
using real-time algorithms for the AIT tools. In reality, the charts for
the older dual induction tools were inadequate for the complexity of
environmental effects on induction tools. The very large volume of
investigation required to obtain an adequate radial depth of investigation to overcome invasion makes the resulting set of charts too extensive for a book of this size. The volume that affects the logs can be tens
of feet above and below the tool. To make useful logs, the effects of the
volume above and below the layer of interest must be carefully removed.
This can be done only by either signal processing or inversion-based
processing. This section briefly describes the wellsite processing and
advanced processing available at computing centers.

RInd

Wellsite Processing
Borehole Correction
The first step of AIT log processing is to correct the raw data from
all eight arrays for borehole effects. Borehole corrections for the AIT
tools are based on inversion through an iterative forward model to
find the borehole parameters that best reproduce the logs from the
four shortest arraysthe 6-, 9-, 12-, and 15-in. arrays (Grove and
Minerbo, 1991). The borehole forward model is based on a solution
to Maxwells equations in a cylindrical borehole of radius r with the
mud resistivity (Rm) surrounded by a homogeneous formation of
resistivity R f. The tool can be located anywhere in the borehole, but
is parallel to the borehole axis at a certain tool standoff (so). The
borehole is characterized by its radius (r). In this model, the signal
in a given AIT array is a function of only these four parameters.
The four short arrays overlap considerably in their investigation
depth, so only two of the borehole parameters can be uniquely determined in an inversion. The others must be supplied by outside measurements or estimates. Because the greatest sensitivity to the
formation resistivity is in the contrast between Rm and Rf, no external
measurement is satisfactory for fitting to R f. Therefore, R f is always
solved for. This leaves one other parameter that can be determined.
The three modes of the borehole correction operation depend on
which parameter is being determined:
compute mud resistivity: requires hole diameter and standoff
compute hole diameter: requires a mud resistivity measurement
and standoff
compute standoff: requires hole diameter and mud resistivity
measurement.

126

Because the AIT borehole model is a circular hole, either axis


from a multiaxis caliper can be used. If the tool standoff is adequate,
the process finds the circular borehole parameters that best match
the input logs. Control of adequate standoff is important because
the changes in the tool reading are very large for small changes in
tool position when the tool is very close to the borehole wall. Near
the center of the hole the changes are very small. A table of recommended standoff sizes is as follows.
AIT Tool Recommended Standoff
Hole Size (in.)

Recommended Standoff (in.)


AIT-B, AIT-C, AIT-H, AIT-M, HIT
SAIT, QAIT

0.5

1.0
0.5
1.5
1.0
2.0
1.5
2.5
2.0 + bowspring
2.5
2.5 + bowspring
2.5

<5.0
5.0 to 5.5
5.5 to 6.5
6.5 to 7.75
7.75 to 9.5
9.5 to 11.5
>11.5

Note: Do not run AIT tools slick.


Only for AIT-H tool

Each type of AIT tool requires a slightly different approach to


the borehole correction method. For example, the AIT-B tool requires
the use of an auxiliary Rm measurement (Environmental
Measurement Sonde [EMS]) to compute Rm or to compute hole
size by using a recalibration of the mud resistivity method internal
to the borehole correction algorithm. The Platform Express*,
SlimAccess*, and Xtreme* AIT tools have integral Rm sensors that
meet the accuracy requirements for the compute standoff mode.

Log Formation
AIT tools are designed to produce a high-resolution log response
with reduced cave effect in comparison with the induction log deep
(ILD) in most formations. The log processing (Barber and Rosthal,
1991) is a weighted sum of the raw array data:

()

log z =

z = z max


n =1 z = z

min

n
wn z (a ) z z ,

( )

where log (z) is the output log conductivity in mS/m, a(n) is the
skin-effect-corrected conductivity from the nth array, and the
weights (w) represent a deconvolution filter applied to each of the
raw array measurements. The log depth is z, and z refers to the
distance above or below the log depth to where the weights are
applied. The skin effect correction consists of fitting the X-signal
to the skin-effect-error signal (Moran, 1964; Barber, 1984) at high
conductivities and the R-signal to the error signal at low conductivi-

Back to Contents

Resistivity InductionWireline

AIT* Array Induction Imager Tool


Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

ties, with the crossover occurring between 100 and 200 mS/m. The
use of the R-signal at low conductivities overcomes the errors in
the X-signal associated with the normal magnetic susceptibilities
of sedimentary rock layers (Barber et al., 1995).
The weights w in the equation can profit from further refinement. The method used to compute the weights introduces a small
amount of noise in the matrix inversion, so the fit is about 1% to
2% to the defined target response. A second refinement filter is
used to correct for this error. The AIT wellsite processing sequence,
from raw, calibrated data to corrected logs, is shown in Fig. 1.

(Freedman and Minerbo, 1991, 1993; Zhang et al., 1994). MaximumEntropy Resistivity Log Inversion (MERLIN) processing (Barber et
al., 1999) follows Freedman and Minerbo (1991) closely, and that
paper is the basic reference for the mathematical formulation. The
problem is set up as the simplest parametric model that can fit the
data: a thinly layered formation with each layer the same thickness
(Fig. 2). The inversion problem is to solve for the conductivity of
each layer so that the computed logs from the layered formation
are the closest match to the measured logs.

R-signals only
14
or
8

A(H)IFC
28 channels
(AIT-B, -C, and -D)
16 channels
(all others)

Borehole
correction

28
or
16

Five depths
(10 to 90 in.)

10 in.
Exception
handling and
environmentally
compensated
log processing

Caliper
Rm
Standoff

Multichannel
signal
processing
and 2D
processing

28
or
16

Skin
effect
correction

R-signals
X-signals

Five depths
(10 to 90 in.)

20 in.
30 in.
60 in.
90 in.

Rm

RInd

Caliper
Raw BHC signals
Figure 1. Block diagram of the real-time log processing chain from raw, calibrated array data to finished logs.

There are only two versions of this processingone for AIT-B,


AIT-C, and AIT-D tools and one for all other AIT tools (AIT-H, AIT-M,
SAIT, HIT, and QAIT) (Anderson and Barber, 1995). Only two versions are required because the tools were carefully designed with
the same coil spacings to produce the same two-dimensional (2D)
response to the formation.
Advanced Processing
Logs in Deviated Wells or Dipping Formations
The interpretation of induction logs is complicated by the large volume of investigation of these tools. The AIT series of induction tools
is carefully focused to limit the contributions from outside a relatively thin layer of response (Barber and Rosthal, 1991). In beds
at high relative dip, the focused response cuts across several beds,
and the focusing developed for vertical wells no longer isolates the
response to a single layer. The effect of the high relative dip angle is
to blur the response and to introduce horns at the bed boundaries.

Maximum Entropy Inversion: MERLIN Processing


The maximum entropy inversion method was first applied by Dyos
(1987) to induction log data. For beds at zero dip angle, it has been
shown to give well-controlled results when applied to deep induction
(ID) and medium induction (IM) from the dual induction tool

Well path
z

z
R1

Rn

Figure 2. The parametric model used in MERLIN inversion. All layers are the
same thickness, and the inversion solves for the conductivity of each layer
with maximum-entropy constraints.

Back to Contents

127

Resistivity InductionWireline

AIT* Array Induction Imager Tool


Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

The flow of MERLIN processing is shown in Fig. 3. The boreholecorrected raw resistive and reactive (R- and X-) signals are used as
a starting point. The conductivity of a set of layers is estimated from
the log values, and the iterative modeling is continued until the logs
converge. The set of formation layer conductivity values is then converted to resistivity and output as logs.
28 or 16 channels
Borehole-corrected
R- and X-signals

Invasion Processing
The wellsite interpretation for invasion is a one-dimensional (1D)
inversion of the processed logs into a four-parameter invasion model
(Rxo, Rt, r1, and r2, shown in Fig. 4). The forward model is based on
the Born model of the radial response of the tools and is accurate for
most radial contrasts in which induction logs should be used. The
inversion can be run in real time. The model is also available in the
Invasion Correction module of the GeoFrame* Invasion 2 application,
which also includes the step-invasion model and annulus model (Fig. 4).

Initial guess
Step Profile
Model parameters
Rxo

Forward model
Rt
Compute
Lagrangian

Computed log

ri

Sensitivity
matrix

Distance from wellbore


Slope Profile

RInd
Computed
log within 1%
of measured
log?

No

Rxo

Update model
parameters
Formation
resistivity
profile

Yes

r1

Rt
Exit
Write model
parameters
as log

r2
Distance from wellbore

Figure 3. Data flow in the MERLIN inversion algorithm. The output is the
final set of model parameters after the iterations converge.
Annulus Profile

Rann
Rxo
r1
r2

Rt

Figure 4. Parametric models used in AIT invasion processing. The slope


profile model is used for real-time processing; the others are available
at the computing centers. Rxo = resistivity of the flushed zone, Rt = true
resistivity, ri = radius of invasion, Rann = resistivity of the annulus.
128

Back to Contents

Resistivity InductionWireline

AIT* Array Induction Imager Tool


Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

Another approach is also used in the Invasion 2 application module. If the invaded zone is more conductive than the noninvaded
zone, some 2D effects on the induction response can complicate
the 1D inversion. Invasion 2 conducts a full 2D inversion using a
2D forward model (Fig. 5) to produce a more accurate answer for
situations of conductive invasion and in thin beds.

References
Anderson, B., and Barber, T.: Induction Logging, Sugar Land, TX,
USA, Schlumberger SMP-7056 (1995).
Barber, T.D.: Phasor Processing of Induction Logs Including
Shoulder and Skin Effect Correction, US Patent No. 4,513,376
(September 11, 1984).
Barber, T., et al.: Interpretation of Multiarray Induction Logs in
Invaded Formations at High Relative Dip Angles, The Log Analyst,
(MayJune 1999) 40, No. 3, 202217.

Rm

Rt0

Rxo1
Rt1
Rxo2
Rt2
Rm

Barber, T., Anderson, B., and Mowat, G.: Using Induction Tools to
Identify Magnetic Formations and to Determine Relative Magnetic
Susceptibility and Dielectric Constant, The Log Analyst
(JulyAugust 1995) 36, No. 4, 1626.
Barber, T., and Rosthal, R.: Using a Multiarray Induction Tool to
Achieve Logs with Minimum Environmental Effects, paper SPE 22725
presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition,
Dallas, Texas, USA (October 69, 1991).
Dyos, C.J.: Inversion of the Induction Log by the Method of Maximum
Entropy, Transactions of the SPWLA 28th Annual Logging
Symposium, London, UK (June 29July 2, 1987), paper T.
Freedman, R., and Minerbo, G.: Maximum Entropy Inversion of the
Induction Log, SPE Formation Evaluation (1991), 259267; also
paper SPE 19608 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference
and Exhibition, San Antonio, TX, USA (October 811, 1989).

Figure 5. The parametric 2D formation model used in Invasion 2.

Freedman, R., and Minerbo, G.: Method and Apparatus for


Producing a More Accurate Resistivity Log from Data Recorded by an
Induction Sonde in a Borehole, US Patent 5,210,691 (January 1993).
Grove, G.P., and Minerbo, G.N.: An Adaptive Borehole Correction
Scheme for Array Induction Tools, Transactions of the SPWLA 32nd
Annual Logging Symposium, Midland, Texas, USA (June 1619,
1991), paper P.
Moran, J.H.: Induction Method and Apparatus for Investigating
Earth Formations Utilizing Two Quadrature Phase Components of
a Detected Signal, US Patent No. 3,147,429 (September 1, 1964).
Zhang, Y-C., Shen, L., and Liu, C.: Inversion of Induction Logs Based
on Maximum Flatness, Maximum Oil, and Minimum Oil Algorithms,
Geophysics (September 1994), 59, No. 9, 13201326.

Back to Contents

129

RInd

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION475* and ImPulse* 434-in. Array


Resistivity Compensated Tools2 MHz
Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole
Purpose
This chart is used to determine the borehole correction applied
by the surface acquisition system to arcVISION475 and ImPulse
phase-shift (Rps) and attenuation resistivity (Rad) curves on the
log. The value of Rt is used in the calculation of water saturation.

Example
Given:

Description
Enter the appropriate chart for the borehole environmental conditions and tool used to measure the various formation resistivities
with the either the uncorrected phase-shift or attenuation resistivity
value (not the resistivity shown on the log) on the x-axis. Move upward
to intersect the appropriate resistivity spacing line, and then move
horizontally left to read the ratio value on the y-axis. Multiply the
ratio value by the resistivity value entered on the x-axis to obtain Rt.
Charts REm-12 through REm-38 are used similarly to Chart
REm-11 for different borehole conditions and arcVISION* and
ImPulse tool combinations.

Find:
Answer:

Rps = 400 ohm-m (uncorrected) from arcVISION475


(2-MHz) phase-shift 10-in. resistivity, borehole size =
6 in., and mud resistivity (Rm) = 0.02 ohm-m at formation temperature.
Formation resistivity (Rt).
Enter the top left chart at 400 ohm-m on the x-axis
and move upward to intersect the 10-in. resistivity
curve (green).
Move left and read approximately 1.075 on the y-axis.
Rt = 1.075 400 = 430 ohm-m.

REm

130

Back to Contents

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION475* and ImPulse* 434-in. Array


Resistivity Compensated Tools2 MHz

REm11

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

arcVISION475 and ImPulse Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 6 in., Rm = 0.02 ohm-m
2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt/Rad

Rt/Rps

1.0

0.5
101

1.0

100

101

102

0.5
101

103

100

101

102

103

102

103

102

103

Rad (ohm-m)

Rps (ohm-m)

arcVISION475 and ImPulse Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 6 in., Rm = 0.1 ohm-m
2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt/Rps

Rt/Rad

1.0

0.5
101

1.0

100

101

102

0.5
101

103

100

101

REm

Rad (ohm-m)

Rps (ohm-m)

arcVISION475 and ImPulse Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 6 in., Rm = 1.0 ohm-m
2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt/Rps

Rt/Rad

1.0

0.5
101

1.0

100

101

102

103

0.5
101

100

101

Rps (ohm-m)

Rad (ohm-m)

Resistivity spacing (in.)

10

16

22

28

34

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Back to Contents

131

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION475* and ImPulse* 434-in. Array


Resistivity Compensated Tools2 MHz

REm-12

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

arcVISION475 and ImPulse Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 7 in., Rm = 0.02 ohm-m
2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rad

Rt /Rps

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.5
10 1

100

101

102

103

10 1

100

101

102

103

10 2

10 3

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

Rps (ohm-m)

arcVISION475 and ImPulse Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 7 in., Rm = 0.1 ohm-m
2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5

Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.5
10 1

10 0

REm

10 1

10 2

10 3

10 1

10 0

10 1

Rps (ohm-m)

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION475 and ImPulse Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 7 in., Rm = 1.0 ohm-m
2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.5
10 1

10 0

10 1

10 2

10 3

10 1

10 0

10 1
Rad (ohm-m)

Rps (ohm-m)
Resistivity spacing (in.)

10

16

22

28

34

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart REm-11 to determine the
borehole correction applied by the surface acquisition system
132

to arcVISION475 and ImPulse resistivity measurements. Uncorrected


resistivity is entered on the x-axis, not the resistivity shown on the log.

Back to Contents

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION475* and ImPulse* 434-in. Array


Resistivity Compensated Tools2 MHz

REm-13

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

arcVISION475 and ImPulse Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 8 in., Rm = 0.02 ohm-m
2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.5
10 1

100

101

102

10 1

103

100

101

102

103

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

Rps (ohm-m)

arcVISION475 and ImPulse Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 8 in., Rm = 0.1 ohm-m
2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.5
10 1

10 0

10 1

10 2

10 3

10 1

10 0

10 1

Rps (ohm-m)

REm

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION475 and ImPulse Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 8 in., Rm = 1.0 ohm-m
2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5

Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad

1.0

0.5
10 1

1.0

10 0

10 1

10 2

10 3

0.5
10 1

10 0

10 1

Rps (ohm-m)

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

Resistivity spacing (in.)

10

16

22

28

34

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart REm-11 to determine the
borehole correction applied by the surface acquisition system

to arcVISION475 and ImPulse resistivity measurements. Uncorrected


resistivity is entered on the x-axis, not the resistivity shown on the log.

Back to Contents

133

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION475* and ImPulse* 434-in. Array


Resistivity Compensated Tools2 MHz

REm-14

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

arcVISION475 and ImPulse Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 10 in., Rm = 0.02 ohm-m
2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rad

Rt /Rps

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.5
10 1

100

101

102

103

100

10 1

Rps (ohm-m)

101

102

103

10 2

10 3

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION475 and ImPulse Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 10 in., Rm = 0.1 ohm-m
2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5

Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.5
10 1

10 0

REm

10 1

10 2

10 1

10 3

10 0

10 1
Rad (ohm-m)

Rps (ohm-m)

arcVISION475 and ImPulse Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 10 in., Rm = 1.0 ohm-m
2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad

1.0

0.5
10 1

1.0

10 0

10 1

10 2

10 3

0.5
10 1

10 0

10 1

Rps (ohm-m)

Rad (ohm-m)

Resistivity spacing (in.)

10

16

22

28

34

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart REm-11 to determine the
borehole correction applied by the surface acquisition system
134

to arcVISION475 and ImPulse resistivity measurements. Uncorrected


resistivity is entered on the x-axis, not the resistivity shown on the log.

Back to Contents

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION675* 634-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz

REm-15

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

arcVISION675 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 8 in., Rm = 0.02 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5

Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.5
10 1

100

101

102

10 1

103

100

101

Rps (ohm-m)

102

103

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION675 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 8 in., Rm = 0.1 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.5
10 1

10 0

10 1

10 2

10 3

10 0

10 1

10 1

Rps (ohm-m)

REm

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION675 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 8 in., Rm = 1.0 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5

Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.5
10 1

10 0

10 1

10 2

10 3

10 1

10 0

10 1

Rps (ohm-m)

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

Resistivity spacing (in.)

16

22

28

34

40

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart REm-11 to determine the
borehole correction applied by the surface acquisition system

to arcVISION675 resistivity measurements. Uncorrected resistivity


is entered on the x-axis, not the resistivity shown on the log.

Back to Contents

135

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION675* 634-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz

REm-16

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

arcVISION675 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 10 in., Rm = 0.02 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad

1.0

1.0

0.5
10 1

0.5
100

101

102

103

10 1

100

101

102

103

10 2

10 3

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

Rps (ohm-m)

arcVISION675 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 10 in., Rm = 0.1 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5

Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.5
10 1

10 0

REm

10 1

10 2

10 3

10 1

10 0

10 1

Rps (ohm-m)

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION675 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 10 in., Rm = 1.0 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5

Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.5
10 1

10 0

10 1

10 2

10 3

10 1

10 0

10 1

Rps (ohm-m)

Rad (ohm-m)

Resistivity spacing (in.)

16

22

28

34

40

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart REm-11 to determine the
borehole correction applied by the surface acquisition system
136

to arcVISION675 resistivity measurements. Uncorrected resistivity


is entered on the x-axis, not the resistivity shown on the log.

Back to Contents

General ElectromagneticLWD
Resistivity

arcVISION675* 634-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz

REm-17

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

arcVISION675 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 12 in., Rm = 0.02 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5

Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.5
10 1

100

101

102

103

10 1

100

101

102

103

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

Rps (ohm-m)

arcVISION675 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 12 in., Rm = 0.1 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5

Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad

1.0

0.5
10 1

1.0

0.5
10 0

10 1

10 2

10 3

10 1

10 0

10 1

Rps (ohm-m)

REm

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION675 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 12 in., Rm = 1.0 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5

Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad

1.0

0.5
10 1

1.0

10 0

10 1

10 2

10 3

0.5
10 1

10 0

10 1

Rps (ohm-m)

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

Resistivity spacing (in.)

16

22

28

34

40

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart REm-11 to determine the
borehole correction applied by the surface acquisition system

to arcVISION675 resistivity measurements. Uncorrected resistivity


is entered on the x-axis, not the resistivity shown on the log.

Back to Contents

137

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION675* 6 34-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz

REm-18

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

arcVISION675 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 14 in., Rm = 0.02 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad

1.0

1.0

0.5
10 1

100

101

102

0.5
10 1

103

100

101

102

103

10 2

10 3

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

Rps (ohm-m)

arcVISION675 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 14 in., Rm = 0.1 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5

Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.5
10 1

10 0

REm

10 1

10 2

10 3

10 1

10 0

10 1

Rps (ohm-m)

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION675 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 14 in., Rm = 1.0 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad

1.0

1.0

0.5
10 1

10 0

10 1

10 2

10 3

0.5
10 1

10 0

10 1

Rps (ohm-m)

Rad (ohm-m)

Resistivity spacing (in.)

16

22

28

34

40

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart REm-11 to determine the
borehole correction applied by the surface acquisition system
138

to arcVISION675 resistivity measurements. Uncorrected resistivity


is entered on the x-axis, not the resistivity shown on the log.

Back to Contents

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION675* 634-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool2 MHz

REm-19

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

arcVISION675 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 8 in., Rm = 0.02 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5

Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad

1.0

1.0

0.5
10 1

100

101

102

0.5
10 1

103

100

101

Rps (ohm-m)

102

103

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION675 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 8 in., Rm = 0.1 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5

Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad

1.0

0.5
10 1

1.0

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
10 1

10 3

10 0

10 1

Rps (ohm-m)

REm

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION675 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 8 in., Rm = 1.0 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5

Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad

1.0

0.5
10 1

1.0

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
10 1

10 3

10 0

10 1

Rps (ohm-m)

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

Resistivity spacing (in.)

16

22

28

34

40

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart REm-11 to determine the
borehole correction applied by the surface acquisition system

to arcVISION675 resistivity measurements. Uncorrected resistivity


is entered on the x-axis, not the resistivity shown on the log.

Back to Contents

139

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION675* 634-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool2 MHz

REm-20

Bed Thickness CorrectionOpen Hole

arcVISION675 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 10 in., Rm = 0.02 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5

Rt/Rps

Rt/Rad

1.0

0.5
101

1.0

100

101

102

0.5
101

103

100

101

102

103

102

103

102

103

Rad (ohm-m)

Rps (ohm-m)

arcVISION675 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 10 in., Rm = 0.1 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5

Rt/Rps

Rt/Rad

1.0

0.5
101

1.0

0.5
100

REm

101

102

103

101

100

Rps (ohm-m)

101
Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION675 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 10 in., Rm = 1.0 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5

Rt/Rps

Rt/Rad

1.0

0.5
101

1.0

100

101

102

0.5
101

103

100

Rps (ohm-m)

101
Rad (ohm-m)

Resistivity spacing (in.)

16

22

28

34

40

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart REm-11 to determine the
borehole correction applied by the surface acquisition system
140

to arcVISION675 resistivity measurements. Uncorrected resistivity


is entered on the x-axis, not the resistivity shown on the log.

Back to Contents

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION675* 634-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool2 MHz

REm-21

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

arcVISION675 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 12 in., Rm = 0.05 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.5
10 1

100

101

102

103

10 1

100

101

Rps (ohm-m)

102

103

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION675 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 12 in., Rm = 0.1 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad

1.0

1.0

0.5
10 1

0.5
10 0

10 1

10 2

10 3

10 0

10 1

10 1

Rps (ohm-m)

REm

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION675 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 12 in., Rm = 1.0 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5

Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.5
10 1

10 0

10 1

10 2

10 3

10 1

10 0

10 1

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

Rps (ohm-m)
Resistivity spacing (in.)

16

22

28

34

40

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart REm-11 to determine the
borehole correction applied by the surface acquisition system

to arcVISION675 resistivity measurements. Uncorrected resistivity


is entered on the x-axis, not the resistivity shown on the log.

Back to Contents

141

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION675* 634-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool2 MHz

REm-22

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

arcVISION675 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 14 in., Rm = 0.02 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad

1.0

0.5
10 1

1.0

100

101

102

0.5
10 1

103

100

101

102

103

10 2

10 3

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

Rps (ohm-m)

arcVISION675 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 14 in., Rm = 0.1 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5

Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad

1.0

0.5
10 1

1.0

0.5
10 0

REm

10 1

10 2

10 3

10 1

10 0

10 1

Rps (ohm-m)

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION675 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 14 in., Rm = 1.0 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5

Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad

1.0

0.5
10 1

1.0

10 0

10 1

10 2

10 3

0.5
10 1

10 0

10 1

Rps (ohm-m)

Rad (ohm-m)

Resistivity spacing (in.)

16

22

28

34

40

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart REm-11 to determine the
borehole correction applied by the surface acquisition system
142

to arcVISION675 resistivity measurements. Uncorrected resistivity


is entered on the x-axis, not the resistivity shown on the log.

Back to Contents

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION825* 814-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz

REm-23

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

arcVISION825 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 10 in., Rm = 0.02 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

Rps (ohm-m)

101

10 2

10 3

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION825 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 10 in., Rm = 0.1 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

Rps (ohm-m)

10 1

REm

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION825 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 10 in., Rm = 1.0 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

Rps (ohm-m)

10 1

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

Resistivity spacing (in.)

16

22

28

34

40

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart REm-11 to determine the
borehole correction applied by the surface acquisition system

to arcVISION825 resistivity measurements. Uncorrected resistivity


is entered on the x-axis, not the resistivity shown on the log.

Back to Contents

143

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION825* 814-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz

REm-24

Bed Thickness CorrectionOpen Hole

arcVISION825 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 12 in., Rm = 0.02 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rad

Rt /Rps

1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

Rps (ohm-m)

101

10 2

10 3

10 2

10 3

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION825 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 12 in., Rm = 0.1 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

REm

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

Rps (ohm-m)

10 1
Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION825 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 12 in., Rm = 1.0 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

Rps (ohm-m)

10 1
Rad (ohm-m)

Resistivity spacing (in.)

16

22

28

34

40

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart REm-11 to determine the
borehole correction applied by the surface acquisition system
144

to arcVISION825 resistivity measurements. Uncorrected resistivity


is entered on the x-axis, not the resistivity shown on the log.

Back to Contents

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION825* 814-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz

REm-25

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

arcVISION825 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 14 in., Rm = 0.02 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

Rps (ohm-m)

101

10 2

10 3

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION825 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 14 in., Rm = 0.1 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

Rps (ohm-m)

10 1

REm

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION825 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 14 in., Rm = 1.0 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

Rps (ohm-m)

10 1

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

Resistivity spacing (in.)

16

22

28

34

40

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart REm-11 to determine the
borehole correction applied by the surface acquisition system

to arcVISION825 resistivity measurements. Uncorrected resistivity


is entered on the x-axis, not the resistivity shown on the log.

Back to Contents

145

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION825* 814-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz

REm-26

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

arcVISION825 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 18 in., Rm = 0.02 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

Rps (ohm-m)

101

10 2

10 3

10 2

10 3

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION825 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 18 in., Rm = 0.1 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

REm

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

Rps (ohm-m)

10 1
Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION825 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 18 in., Rm = 1.0 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

Rps (ohm-m)

10 1
Rad (ohm-m)

Resistivity spacing (in.)

16

22

28

34

40

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart REm-11 to determine the
borehole correction applied by the surface acquisition system
146

to arcVISION825 resistivity measurements. Uncorrected resistivity


is entered on the x-axis, not the resistivity shown on the log.

Back to Contents

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION825* 814-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool2 MHz

REm-27

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

arcVISION825 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 10 in., Rm = 0.02 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

Rps (ohm-m)

101

10 2

10 3

10 2

10 3

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION825 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 10 in., Rm = 0.1 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

Rps (ohm-m)

10 1

REm

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION825 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 10 in., Rm = 1.0 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

Rps (ohm-m)

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

10 1
Rad (ohm-m)

Resistivity spacing (in.)

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart REm-11 to determine the
borehole correction applied by the surface acquisition system

16

22

28

34

40

to arcVISION825 resistivity measurements. Uncorrected resistivity


is entered on the x-axis, not the resistivity shown on the log.

Back to Contents

147

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION825* 814-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool2 MHz

REm-28

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

arcVISION825 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 12 in., Rm = 0.02 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rad

Rt /Rps

1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

Rps (ohm-m)

101

10 2

10 3

10 2

10 3

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION825 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 12 in., Rm = 0.1 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

REm

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

Rps (ohm-m)

10 1
Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION825 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 12 in., Rm = 1.0 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

Rps (ohm-m)

10 1
Rad (ohm-m)

Resistivity spacing (in.)

16

22

28

34

40

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart REm-11 to determine the
borehole correction applied by the surface acquisition system
148

to arcVISION825 resistivity measurements. Uncorrected resistivity


is entered on the x-axis, not the resistivity shown on the log.

Back to Contents

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION825* 814-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool2 MHz

REm-29

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

arcVISION825 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 14 in., Rm = 0.02 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

Rps (ohm-m)

101

10 2

10 3

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION825 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 14 in., Rm = 0.1 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

Rps (ohm-m)

10 1

REm

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION825 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 14 in., Rm = 1.0 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

Rps (ohm-m)

10 1

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

Resistivity spacing (in.)

16

22

28

34

40

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart REm-11 to determine the
borehole correction applied by the surface acquisition system

to arcVISION825 resistivity measurements. Uncorrected resistivity


is entered on the x-axis, not the resistivity shown on the log.

Back to Contents

149

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION825* 814-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool2 MHz

REm-30

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

arcVISION825 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 18 in., Rm = 0.02 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rps
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

Rps (ohm-m)

101

10 2

10 3

10 2

10 3

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION825 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 18 in., Rm = 0.1 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rps
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

REm

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

Rps (ohm-m)

10 1
Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION825 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 18 in., Rm = 1.0 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rps
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

Rps (ohm-m)

10 1
Rad (ohm-m)

Resistivity spacing (in.)

16

22

28

34

40

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart REm-11 to determine the
borehole correction applied by the surface acquisition system
150

to arcVISION825 resistivity measurements. Uncorrected resistivity


is entered on the x-axis, not the resistivity shown on the log.

Back to Contents

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION900* 9-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz

REm-31

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

arcVISION900 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 12 in., Rm = 0.02 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

Rps (ohm-m)

101

10 2

10 3

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION900 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 12 in., Rm = 0.1 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

Rps (ohm-m)

10 1

REm

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION900 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 12 in., Rm = 1.0 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

Rps (ohm-m)

10 1

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

Resistivity spacing (in.)

16

22

28

34

40

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart REm-11 to determine the
borehole correction applied by the surface acquisition system

to arcVISION900 resistivity measurements. Uncorrected resistivity


is entered on the x-axis, not the resistivity shown on the log.

Back to Contents

151

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION900* 9-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz

REm-32

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

arcVISION900 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 15 in., Rm = 0.02 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

101

Rps (ohm-m)

10 2

10 3

10 2

10 3

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION900 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 15 in., Rm = 0.1 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

REm

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

10 1

Rps (ohm-m)

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION900 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 15 in., Rm = 1.0 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

10 1

Rps (ohm-m)

Rad (ohm-m)

Resistivity spacing (in.)

16

22

28

34

40

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart REm-11 to determine the
borehole correction applied by the surface acquisition system
152

to arcVISION900 resistivity measurements. Uncorrected resistivity


is entered on the x-axis, not the resistivity shown on the log.

Back to Contents

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION900* 9-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz

REm-33

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

arcVISION900 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 18 in., Rm = 0.02 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

101

Rps (ohm-m)

10 2

10 3

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION900 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 18 in., Rm = 0.1 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

10 1

Rps (ohm-m)

REm

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION900 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 18 in., Rm = 1.0 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

10 1

Rps (ohm-m)

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

Resistivity spacing (in.)

16

22

28

34

40

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart REm-11 to determine the
borehole correction applied by the surface acquisition system

to arcVISION900 resistivity measurements. Uncorrected resistivity


is entered on the x-axis, not the resistivity shown on the log.

Back to Contents

153

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION900* 9-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz

REm-34

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

arcVISION900 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 22 in., Rm = 0.02 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

Rps (ohm-m)

101

10 2

10 3

10 2

10 3

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION900 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 22 in., Rm = 0.1 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

REm

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

Rps (ohm-m)

10 1
Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION900 Borehole Correction for 400 kHz, dh = 22 in., Rm = 1.0 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

Rps (ohm-m)

10 1
Rad (ohm-m)

Resistivity spacing (in.)

16

22

28

34

40

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart REm-11 to determine the
borehole correction applied by the surface acquisition system
154

to arcVISION900 resistivity measurements. Uncorrected resistivity


is entered on the x-axis, not the resistivity shown on the log.

Back to Contents

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION900* 9-in.Array Resistivity Compensated Tool2 MHz

REm-35

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

arcVISION900 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 12 in., Rm = 0.02 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

101

Rps (ohm-m)

10 2

10 3

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION900 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 12 in., Rm = 0.1 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

10 1

Rps (ohm-m)

REm

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION900 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 12 in., Rm = 1.0 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

10 1

Rps (ohm-m)

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

Resistivity spacing (in.)

16

22

28

34

40

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart REm-11 to determine the
borehole correction applied by the surface acquisition system

to arcVISION900 resistivity measurements. Uncorrected resistivity


is entered on the x-axis, not the resistivity shown on the log.

Back to Contents

155

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION900* 9-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool2 MHz

REm-36

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

arcVISION900 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 15 in., Rm = 0.02 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

Rps (ohm-m)

101

10 2

10 3

10 2

10 3

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION900 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 15 in., Rm = 0.1 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

REm

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

Rps (ohm-m)

10 1
Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION900 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 15 in., Rm = 1.0 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

Rps (ohm-m)

10 1
Rad (ohm-m)

Resistivity spacing (in.)

16

22

28

34

40

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart REm-11 to determine the
borehole correction applied by the surface acquisition system
156

to arcVISION900 resistivity measurements. Uncorrected resistivity


is entered on the x-axis, not the resistivity shown on the log.

Back to Contents

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION900* 9-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool2 MHz

REm-37

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

arcVISION900 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 18 in., Rm = 0.02 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

101

Rps (ohm-m)

10 2

10 3

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION900 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 18 in., Rm = 0.1 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

10 1

Rps (ohm-m)

REm

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION900 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 18 in., Rm = 1.0 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

10 1

Rps (ohm-m)

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

Resistivity spacing (in.)

16

22

28

34

40

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart REm-11 to determine the
borehole correction applied by the surface acquisition system

to arcVISION900 resistivity measurements. Uncorrected resistivity


is entered on the x-axis, not the resistivity shown on the log.

Back to Contents

157

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION900* 9-in. Array Resistivity Compensated Tool2 MHz

REm-38

Borehole CorrectionOpen Hole

arcVISION900 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 22 in., Rm = 0.02 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

101

Rps (ohm-m)

10 2

10 3

10 2

10 3

10 2

10 3

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION900 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 22 in., Rm = 0.1 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

REm

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

10 1

Rps (ohm-m)

Rad (ohm-m)

arcVISION900 Borehole Correction for 2 MHz, dh = 22 in., Rm = 1.0 ohm-m


2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad
1.0

1.0

0.5
101

10 0

10 1

10 2

0.5
101

10 3

10 0

10 1

Rps (ohm-m)

Rad (ohm-m)

Resistivity spacing (in.)

16

22

28

34

40

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart REm-11 to determine the
borehole correction applied by the surface acquisition system
158

to arcVISION900 resistivity measurements. Uncorrected resistivity


is entered on the x-axis, not the resistivity shown on the log.

Back to Contents

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION675*, arcVISION825*, and arcVISION900*


Array Resistivity Compensated Tools400 kHz
Bed Thickness CorrectionOpen Hole
Purpose
This chart is used to determine the correction factor applied by the
surface acquisition system for bed thickness to the phase-shift and
attenuation resistivity on the logs of arcVISION675, arcVISION825,
and arcVISION900 tools.
Description
The six bed thickness correction charts on this page are paired for
phase-shift and attenuation resistivity at different values of true (Rt)
and shoulder bed (Rs) resistivity. Only uncorrected resistivity values
are entered on the chart, not the resistivity shown on the log.
Chart REm-56 is also used to find the bed thickness correction
applied by the surface acquisition system for 2-MHz arcVISION* and
ImPulse* logs.

Example
Given:
Find:
Answer:

Rt/Rs = 10/1, Rps uncorrected = 20 ohm-m (34 in.), and


bed thickness = 6 ft.
Rt.
The appropriate chart to use is the phase-shift resistivity
chart in the first row, for Rt = 10 ohm-m and Rs = 1 ohm-m.
Enter the chart on the x-axis at 6 ft and move upward
to intersect the 34-in. spacing line. The corresponding
value of R t/R ps is 1.6; Rt = 20 1.6 = 32 ohm-m.

REm

continued on next page

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159

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION675*, arcVISION825*, and arcVISION900*


Array Resistivity Compensated Tools400 kHz

REm-55

Bed Thickness CorrectionOpen Hole

arcVISION675, arcVISION825, and arcVISION900 400-kHz


Bed Thickness Correction for Rt = 10 ohm-m and Rs = 1 ohm-m at Center of Bed
Phase-Shift Resistivity

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Attenuation Resistivity

2.0

Rt /Rad

1.0

1.0
0.5

0.5

0
0

10

12

14

16

Bed thickness (ft)

10

12

14

16

12

14

16

Bed thickness (ft)

arcVISION675, arcVISION825, and arcVISION900 400-kHz


Bed Thickness Correction for Rt = 1 ohm-m and Rs =10 ohm-m at Center of Bed
Phase-Shift Resistivity

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Rt /Rad

1.0

1.0
0.5

0.5

REm

Attenuation Resistivity

2.0

0
0

10

12

14

16

Bed thickness (ft)

10

Bed thickness (ft)

arcVISION675, arcVISION825, and arcVISION900 400-kHz


Bed Thickness Correction for Rt = 100 ohm-m and Rs =10 ohm-m at Center of Bed
Phase-Shift Resistivity

2.0
1.5
Rt /Rps

1.0
0.5
0
0

10

12

14

16

Bed thickness (ft)

Resistivity spacing (in.)

16

22

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

160

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28

34

40

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION* and ImPulse* Array Resistivity Compensated Tools2 MHz

REm-56

Bed Thickness CorrectionOpen Hole

arcVISION and ImPulse 2-MHz Bed Thickness Correction for


Rt = 10 ohm-m and Rs =1 ohm-m at Center of Bed
Phase-Shift Resistivity

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Attenuation Resistivity

2.0

Rt /Rad

1.0

1.0
0.5

0.5

0
0

10

12

14

16

Bed thickness (ft)

10

12

14

16

Bed thickness (ft)

arcVISION and ImPulse 2-MHz Bed Thickness Correction for


Rt = 1 ohm-m and Rs =10 ohm-m at Center of Bed
Phase-Shift Resistivity

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Attenuation Resistivity

2.0

Rt /Rad

1.0

1.0
0.5

0.5

REm

0
0

10

12

14

16

Bed thickness (ft)

10

12

14

16

12

14

16

Bed thickness (ft)

arcVISION and ImPulse 2-MHz Bed Thickness Correction for


Rt = 100 ohm-m and Rs =10 ohm-m at Center of Bed
Phase-Shift Resistivity

2.0

1.5

1.5
Rt /Rps

Attenuation Resistivity

2.0

Rt /Rad

1.0

1.0
0.5

0.5

0
0

10

12

14

16

Bed thickness (ft)

10

Bed thickness (ft)

Resistivity spacing (in.)

16

22

28

34

40

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

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161

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION675* and ImPulse* Array Resistivity


Compensated Tools2 MHz and 16-in. Spacing

REm-58

Dielectric CorrectionOpen Hole

15

8.60

Rt

20

8.55

10,000
1,000

8.45

1
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

8.40

Attenuation
(dB)

100
70

50

30

8.50

8.35

125

8.30
150

175

8.25
200

REm
225

8.20

250
275

8.15

300

8.10
1

Phase shift ()

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to estimate the true resistivity (Rt) and dielectric
correction (r). Rt is used in water saturation calculation.
Description
Enter the chart with the uncorrected (not those shown on the log)
phase-shift and attenuation values from the arcVISION675 or
ImPulse resistivity tool. The intersection point of the two values is
used to determine Rt and the dielectric correction. Rt is interpolated
from the subvertical lines described by the dots originating at the
162

listed Rt values. The r is interpolated from the radial lines originating


from the r values listed on the left-hand side of the chart. Charts
REm-59 through REm-62 are used to determine Rt and r at larger
spacings.
Example
Given:
Find:
Answer:

Phase shift = 2 and attenuation = 8.45 dB for 16-in.


spacing.
Rt and r.
Rt = 26 ohm-m and r = 70 dB.

Back to Contents

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION675* and ImPulse* Array Resistivity


Compensated Tools2 MHz and 22-in. Spacing

REm-59

Dielectric CorrectionOpen Hole

20

15

6.9

10,000
1,000

100

70

50

Rt

30

6.8

6.7

1
10
20
30
40
50
60

Attenuation
(dB)

6.6

70
80
90
100

125

REm
150

6.5
175

200

225

250

6.4

275

300

6.3
1

Phase shift ()

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
Charts REm-59 through REm-62 are identical to Chart REm-58
for determining Rt and r at larger spacings of the arcVISION675
and ImPulse 2-MHz tools.

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163

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION675* and ImPulse* Array Resistivity


Compensated Tools2 MHz and 28-in. Spacing

REm-60

Dielectric CorrectionOpen Hole

20

5.5

30

5.4

5.3

10,000
1,000

100

70

50

Rt

1
10
20
30
40
50

5.2

60
70
80

90

Attenuation
(dB)

100

125

5.1

150

REm

175

200

5.0

225
250
275

4.9

4.8
1

300

4
Phase shift ()

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
Charts REm-59 through REm-62 are identical to Chart REm-58
for determining Rt and r at larger spacings of the arcVISION675
and ImPulse 2-MHz tools.
164

Back to Contents

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION675* and ImPulse* Array Resistivity


Compensated Tools2 MHz and 34-in. Spacing

REm-61

Dielectric CorrectionOpen Hole

15

4.7

30

20

4.6

Rt

10,000
1,000

100

70

50

4.5

4.4
1

10
20
30

Attenuation
(dB)

4.3

40
50
60

70
80
90
100

4.2

REm

125

150

4.1

175

200
225
250

4.0

275
300

3.9
1

Phase shift ()

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
Charts REm-59 through REm-62 are identical to Chart REm-58
for determining Rt and r at larger spacings of the arcVISION675
and ImPulse 2-MHz tools.

Back to Contents

165

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION675* and ImPulse* Array Resistivity


Compensated Tools2 MHz and 40-in. Spacing

REm-62

Dielectric CorrectionOpen Hole

15

4.0

30

20

3.9

Rt

100

70

50

3.8

10,000
1,000

3.7
1
10

3.6

20
30
40

Attenuation
(dB)

50
60
70

3.5

80
90
100

REm
125

3.4

150
175
200

3.3

225
250
275

3.2

3.1
1

300

4
Phase shift ()

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
Charts REm-59 through REm-62 are identical to Chart REm-58 for
determining Rt and r at larger spacings of the arcVISION675 and
ImPulse 2-MHz tools.
166

Back to Contents

Resistivity ElectromagneticLWD

arcVISION675* and ImPulse* Array Resistivity


Compensated Tools2 MHz with Dielectric Assumption

REm-63

Dielectric CorrectionOpen Hole


Dielectric Effects of Standard Processed arcVISION675 or ImPulse Log
at 2 MHz with Dielectric Assumption
3.5

3.0

2.5

Resistivity
spacing
16 in.
22 in.
28 in.
34 in.
40 in.
1 = 2r

Rt /Rps

2.0

Dielectric assumption
r = 5 + 108.5R 0.35

1.5

1.0
2 = 0.5r
0.5
101

10 0

10 2

10 1

10 3

10 4

Rps (ohm-m)

REm

3.5

3.0

2.5

Resistivity
spacing
16 in.
22 in.
28 in.
34 in.
40 in.
2 = 0.5r

Rt /Rad

2.0

Dielectric assumption
r = 5 + 108.5R 0.35

1.5

1.0
1 = 2r
0.5
101

10 0

10 2

10 1

10 3

10 4

Rad (ohm-m)
*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

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167

General ResistivityWireline
Formation

Resistivity Galvanic

Rt-1

Invasion CorrectionOpen Hole

(former Rint-1)

If SwA and SwR are equal, the assumption of a step-contact invasion profile is indicated to be correct, and all values determined
(Sw, Rt, Rxo, and di) are considered good.
If SwA > SwR, either invasion is very shallow or a transition-type
invasion profile is indicated, and SwA is considered a good value for Sw.
If SwA < SwR, an annulus-type invasion profile may be indicated,
and a more accurate value of water saturation may be estimated
by using

Purpose
The charts in this chapter are used to determine the correction for
invasion effects on the following parameters:

diameter of invasion (di)


ratio of flushed zone to true resistivity (Rxo /Rt)
Rt from laterolog resistivity tools.

The Rxo/Rt and Rt values are used in the calculation of water


saturation.

Description
The invasion correction charts, also referred to as tornado or butterfly charts, assume a step-contact profile of invasion and that all
resistivity measurements have already been corrected as necessary
for borehole effect and bed thickness by using the appropriate chart
from the Resistivity Laterolog chapter.
To use any of these charts, enter the y-axis and x-axis with the
required resistivity ratios. The point of intersection defines di,
Rxo /Rt, and Rt as a function of one resistivity measurement.

S wcor

S 4
= S wA wA
S wR

The correction factor of (SwA /SwR)1 4 is readily determined from


the scale.
For more information, see Reference 9.

Saturation Determination in Clean Formations


Either of the chart-derived values of Rt and Rxo /Rt are used to find
values for the water saturation of the formation (Sw). The first of two
approaches is the S w -Archie (SwA), which is found using the Archie
saturation formula (or Chart SatOH-3) with the derived Rt value and
known values of the formation resistivity factor (FR) and the resistivity of the water (Rw). The Sw-ratio (SwR) is found by using Rxo /Rt and
Rmf /Rw as in Chart SatOH-4.

SwA/SwR
0.45

Rt
0.80

0.50

0.55
0.85

0.60

0.65

0.70

0.75

0.90

0.95
14

(SwA/SwR)
Schlumberger

168

0.80

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0.85

0.90

0.95

1.0
1.0

Formation ResistivityWireline

High-Resolution Azimuthal Laterolog Sonde (HALS)

Rt-2

Formation Resistivity and Diameter of InvasionOpen Hole

Thick Beds, 8-in. Hole, Rxo /Rm = 10

103

15

18

20

22

24

28

32

36
40

1,000

45
500

Rt /Rxo

50
60

200
102

80

100
100
50

120
di (in.)

20

HLLD/Rxo
101

10
5

100
0.5

0.2

Rt

101
100

101

102
HLLD/HLLS

Schlumberger

Purpose
The resistivity values of HALS laterolog deep resistivity (HLLD),
HALS laterolog shallow resistivity (HLLS), and resistivity of the
flushed zone (Rxo) measured by the High-Resolution Azimuthal
Laterolog Sonde (HALS) are used with this chart to determine
values for diameter of invasion (di) and true resistivity (Rt).
Description
The conditions for which this chart is used are listed at the top. The
chart is entered with the ratios of HLLD/HLLS on the x-axis and
HLLD/Rxo on the y-axis. The intersection point defines di on the
dashed curves and the ratio of Rt /Rxo on the solid curves.

Example
Given:
Find:
Answer:

HLLD = 50 ohm-m, HLLS = 15 ohm-m, Rxo = 2.0 ohm-m,


and Rm = 0.2 ohm-m.
Rt and diameter of invasion.
Enter the chart with the values of HLLD/HLLS = 50/15 =
3.33 and HLLD/Rxo = 50/2 = 25.
The resulting point of intersection on the chart indicates
that Rt /Rxo = 35 and di = 34 in.
Rt = 35 2.0 = 70 ohm-m.

Back to Contents

169

Formation ResistivityWireline

High-Resolution Azimuthal Laterolog Sonde (HALS)

Rt-3

Formation Resistivity and Diameter of InvasionOpen Hole

Thick Beds, 8-in. Hole, Rxo /Rm = 10

103

15

18

20

22

24

28

32

1,000

36
40
45

Rt /Rxo

500

50
60

200
102

80
100

100
120

50

di (in.)
HRLD/Rxo

20
101

10
5
2

100
0.5
0.2

Rt

101
100

101

102
HRLD/HRLS

Schlumberger

Purpose
The resistivity values of high-resolution deep resistivity (HRLD), highresolution shallow resistivity (HRLS), and Rxo measured by the HALS
are used similarly to Chart Rt-2 to determine values for di and Rt.

170

Description
The conditions for which this chart is used are listed at the top. The
chart is entered with the ratios of HRLD/HRLS on the x-axis and
HRLD/Rxo on the y-axis. The intersection point defines di on the
dashed curves and the ratio of Rt /Rxo on the solid curves.

Back to Contents

Formation ResistivityLWD

geoVISION675* Resistivity

Rt-10

Formation Resistivity and Diameter of InvasionOpen Hole

Ring, Deep, and Medium Button Resistivity (6.75-in. tool)


Rxo /Rm = 50
dh = 8.5 in.
10
9
8

17 1.6

1.5

Rt /Rring

1.8 18

16

1.4

22
1.3

24

di

100
70

14

50
30

2.4
20
3.0

15

Rring /Rbm

2.0

Rt /Rxo

20
15

13
1.2

10
7
5

12
3
2

Rt

Rring /Rbd
*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to determine the correction applied to the log
presentation of Rt and di determined from geoVISION675 ring (Rring)
and deep (R bd) and medium button (Rbm) resistivity values.
Description
Enter the chart with the ratios of R ring /Rbd on the x-axis and
Rring /Rbm on the y-axis. The intersection point defines di on the blue
dashed curves, Rt /Rring on the red curves, and Rt /Rxo on the black
curves. Charts Rt-11 through Rt-17 are similar to Chart Rt-10 for
different tool sizes, configurations, and resistivity terms.

Example
Given:
Find:
Answer:

Rring = 30 ohm-m, Rxo /Rm = 50, Rbd = 15 ohm-m, and


Rbm = 6 ohm-m.
Rt, di, and Rxo.
Enter the chart with values of Rring /Rbd = 30/15 = 2 on
the x-axis and Rring /Rbm = 30/6 = 5 on the y-axis to find
di = 22.5 in., Rt /Rring = 3.1, and Rt /Rxo = 50. From these
ratios, Rt = 3.1 30 = 93 ohm-m and Rxo = 93/50 =
1.86 ohm-m.

Back to Contents

171

Formation ResistivityLWD

geoVISION675* Resistivity

Rt-11

Formation Resistivity and Diameter of InvasionOpen Hole

Deep, Medium, and Shallow Button Resistivity (6.75-in. tool)

30

Rxo /Rm = 50
dh = 8.5 in.
di
Rt /Rbd

13

14

1.2

1.4

1.3

1.5

15
1.6
16

20
1.1

17

12
18

Rbd /Rbs

10
9
8
7

100
70
50
11

30

6
5

20
15

4
10

Rt /Rxo

7
2

5
3
2

1
1

Rt

3
Rbd /Rbm

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Rt-10 to determine the
correction applied to the log presentation of Rt and di determined
from geoVISION675 deep (Rbd), medium (Rbm), and shallow
button (Rbs) resistivity values.

172

Back to Contents

Formation ResistivityLWD

geoVISION675* Resistivity

Rt-12

Formation Resistivity and Diameter of InvasionOpen Hole

Bit, Ring, and Deep Button Resistivity (6.75-in. tool) with ROP to Bit Face = 4 ft
Rxo /Rm = 50
dh = 8.5 in.

10
9
8

Rt /Rbit

24

28 3.0

4.0
34

1.8

40

22
50

di

5
Rbit/Rbd

2.0

2.5

1.6

70

20

100

50
30

4
20
15

18

10
Rt /Rxo

1.4

2
5

16

3
2
1

1
1

Rt

Rbit /Rring
*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Rt-10 to determine the correction applied to the log presentation of Rt and di determined from
geoVISION675 Rring, bit (Rbit), and Rbd resistivity values.

Back to Contents

173

Formation ResistivityLWD

geoVISION675* Resistivity

Rt-13

Formation Resistivity and Diameter of InvasionOpen Hole

Bit, Ring, and Deep Button Resistivity (6.75-in. tool) with ROP to Bit Face = 35 ft

20

Rxo /Rm = 50
dh = 8.5 in.

34 2.0

2.4
50

1.6
28

Rt /Rbit

70
100

1.4
70

24
50

10
9
8
7

22
1.3

6
Rbit /Rbd

30
20

20

di

15
Rt /Rxo

4
10

18
3

1.2
5

16

3
2
1
1

Rt

Rbit /Rring
*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Rt-10 to determine the correction applied to the log presentation of Rt and di determined from
geoVISION675 Rring, Rbit, and Rbd resistivity values.

174

Back to Contents

9 10

20

Formation ResistivityLWD

geoVISION825* 814-in. Resistivity-at-the-Bit Tool

Rt-14

Formation Resistivity and Diameter of InvasionOpen Hole

Ring, Deep, and Medium Button Resistivity (814-in. tool)

10
9

Rxo /Rm = 50
dh = 12.25 in.
22

8
di

7
Rt /Rring

1.4

1.6

1.8

23

24

2.4

21

3.0
26

20
1.3

5
30
19

100
70

Rring /Rbm

50
3

30

18
20

1.2

15

Rt /Rxo

10

17
7
5
16
3
2

1
1
1

Rt

2
Rring /Rbd

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Rt-10 to determine the correction applied to the log presentation of Rt and di determined from
geoVISION825 Rring, Rbd, and Rbm resistivity values.

Back to Contents

175

Formation ResistivityLWD

geoVISION825* 814-in. Resistivity-at-the-Bit Tool

Rt-15

Formation Resistivity and Diameter of InvasionOpen Hole

Deep, Medium, and Shallow Button Resistivity (814-in. tool)


Rxo /Rm = 50
20 dh = 12.25 in.
Rt /Rbd

18

1.3

1.4

19

1.6

20

1.2 17

22

di

10
9
8
7

24
16

100
70
50

6
Rbd /Rbs

2.0
2.4

30

20
1.1

15

Rt /Rxo

3
10
7

2
5
3

14
2
1
1

Rt

2
Rbd /Rbm

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Rt-10 to determine the correction applied to the log presentation of Rt and di determined from
geoVISION825 Rbd, Rbm, and Rbs resistivity values.

176

Back to Contents

Formation ResistivityLWD

geoVISION825* 814-in. Resistivity-at-the-Bit Tool

Rt-16

Formation Resistivity and Diameter of InvasionOpen Hole

Bit, Ring, and Deep Button Resistivity (814-in. tool) with ROP to Bit Face = 4 ft

10
9

Rxo /Rm = 50
dh = 12.25 in.

Rt /Rbit
2.0

8
28

40
5.0

1.8

50

1.6
26
50

70

100

30

1.5
4

35

60

di

3.0

2.4

30

20

24

Rbit /Rbd

15
1.4

10

22

5
1.3
Rt /Rxo

20

3
2

Rt

Rbit /Rring
*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Rt-10 to determine the correction applied to the log presentation of Rt and di determined from
geoVISION825 Rring, Rbit, and Rbd resistivity values.

Back to Contents

177

Formation ResistivityLWD

geoVISION825* 814-in. Resistivity-at-the-Bit Tool

Rt-17

Formation Resistivity and Diameter of InvasionOpen Hole

Bit, Ring, and Deep Button Resistivity (814-in. tool) with ROP to Bit Face = 35 ft

20

Rt /Rxo = 50
dh = 12.25 in.

40 2.0
35

1.6

Rt /Rbit
1.4
50

28
1.3

30

di
26

20

6
Rbit /Rbd

3.0
70
100

70

30
10
9
8
7

50

Rt /Rxo

15

5
24
4

10

1.2
7

3
22

2
20

3
2

Rt

1
1

Rbit /Rring
*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Rt-10 to determine the correction applied to the log presentation of Rt and di determined from
geoVISION825 Rring, Rbit, and Rbd resistivity values.

178

Back to Contents

9 10

20

Formation ResistivityLWD

arcVISION* Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz

Rt-31

Resistivity Anisotropy Versus Shale VolumeOpen Hole

Response Through Sand and Shale Layers at 90 Relative Dip


for Rsh = 1 ohm-m and Rsand = 5 ohm-m

Response Through Sand and Shale Layers at 90 Relative Dip


for Rsh = 1 ohm-m and Rsand = 20 ohm-m

Phase-Shift Resistivity

101

Phase-Shift Resistivity

102

Rps
101
(ohm-m)

Rps
(ohm-m)

100

100
0

0.2

0.4

0.8

0.6

1.0

0.2

0.8

1.0

0.8

1.0

Vsh

Attenuation Resistivity

101

0.6

0.4

Vsh

Attenuation Resistivity

102

Rad
101
(ohm-m)

Rad
(ohm-m)

100

100
0

0.2

0.4

0.8

0.6

1.0

0.2

Vsh

Vsh
Resistivity spacing

0.6

0.4

16 in.

22 in.

Rh

Rv

28 in.

34 in.

Rt
40 in.

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart illustrates the resistivity response, as affected by sand
and shale layers, of the arcVISION tool in horizontal wellbores.
The chart is used to determine the values of Rh and Rv. These
corrections are already applied to the log presentation.
Description
The chart is constructed for shale layers at 90 relative dip to the
axis of the arcVISION tool. That is, both the layers of shale and the
tool are horizontal to the vertical. Other requirements for use of this
chart are that the shale resistivity (Rsh) is 1 ohm-m and the sand
resistivity is 5 or 20 ohm-m.

Select the appropriate chart for the attenuation (Rad) or phaseshift (Rps) resistivity and values of resistivity of the shale (Rsh) and
sand (Rsand). Enter the chart with the volume of shale (Vsh) on the
x-axis and the resistivity on the y-axis. At the intersection point of
these two values move straight downward to the dashed blue curve
to read the value of Rh. Move upward to the solid green curve to read
the value of Rv.
Chart Rt-32 is used to determine Rh and Rv values for the 2-MHz
resistivity.

Back to Contents

179

Formation ResistivityLWD

arcVISION* and ImPulse* Array Resistivity Compensated Tools2 MHz

Rt-32

Resistivity Anisotropy Versus Shale VolumeOpen Hole

Response Through Sand and Shale Layers at 90 Relative Dip


for Rsh = 1 ohm-m and Rsand = 5 ohm-m
Phase-Shift Resistivity

102

Rps
(ohm-m)

Response Through Sand and Shale Layers at 90 Relative Dip


for Rsh = 1 ohm-m and Rsand = 20 ohm-m
Phase-Shift Resistivity

102

Rps
(ohm-m)

101

100

101

100
0

0.2

0.6

0.4

0.8

1.0

0.2

0.4

Vsh

Attenuation Resistivity

102

Rad
(ohm-m)

0.8

1.0

0.8

1.0

Attenuation Resistivity

102

101

Rad
(ohm-m)

100

101

100
0

0.2

0.6

0.4

Rt

0.8

1.0

0.2

0.4

Vsh
Resistivity spacing

0.6
Vsh

16 in.

22 in.

Rh

Rv

28 in.

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Rt-31 for arcVISION and
ImPulse 2-MHz resistivity. These corrections are already applied
to the log presentation.

180

0.6
Vsh

Back to Contents

34 in.

40 in.

Formation ResistivityLWD

arcVISION* Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz

Rt-33

Resistivity Anisotropy Versus DipOpen Hole

Aniostropy Response for Rh = 1 ohm-m and (Rv /Rh) = 2

Aniostropy Response for Rh = 1 ohm-m and (Rv /Rh) = 5


Phase-Shift Resistivity

103

Phase-Shift Resistivity

101

102
Rps
(ohm-m)

Rps
(ohm-m)
101

100

100
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

10

20

Relative dip angle ()

40

50

60

70

80

90

70

80

90

Relative dip angle ()

Attenuation Resistivity

103

30

Attenuation Resistivity

101

102
Rad
(ohm-m)

Rad
(ohm-m)
101

100

100
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

10

Relative dip angle ()


Resistivity spacing

20

30

40

50

60

Relative dip angle ()


16 in.

22 in.

28 in.

34 in.

40 in.

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to determine arcVISION Rps and Rad for relative
dip angles from 0 to 90. These corrections are already applied to
the log presentation.

Description
Enter the appropriate chart with the value of relative dip angle and
move to intersect the known resistivity spacing. Move horizontally
left to read Rps or Rad for the conditions of the horizontal resistivity
(Rh) = 1 ohm-m and the square root of the Rv/Rh ratio.

Back to Contents

181

Rt

Formation ResistivityLWD

arcVISION* and ImPulse* Array Resistivity Compensated Tools2 MHz

Rt-34

Resistivity Anisotropy Versus DipOpen Hole

Aniostropy Response for Rh = 1 ohm-m and (Rv /Rh) = 2

Aniostropy Response for Rh = 1 ohm-m and (Rv /Rh) = 5


Phase-Shift Resistivity

103

Phase-Shift Resistivity

101

102
Rps
(ohm-m)

Rps
(ohm-m)
101

100

100
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

10

20

Relative dip angle ()

40

50

60

70

80

90

70

80

90

Relative dip angle ()

Attenuation Resistivity

103

30

Attenuation Resistivity

101

102
Rad
(ohm-m)

Rad
(ohm-m)
101

100

100
0

Rt

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

10

Relative dip angle ()


Resistivity spacing

30

40

50

60

Relative dip angle ()


16 in.

22 in.

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Rt-33 for arcVISION and
ImPulse 2-MHz resistivity. These corrections are already applied
to the log presentation.

182

20

Back to Contents

28 in.

34 in.

40 in.

Formation ResistivityLWD

arcVISION* Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz

Rt-35

Resistivity Anisotropy Versus Square Root of Rv/RhOpen Hole

Aniostropy Response at 65 dip for Rh = 1 ohm-m

Aniostropy Response at 85 dip for Rh = 1 ohm-m


Phase-Shift Resistivity

103

Phase-Shift Resistivity

101

102
Rps
(ohm-m)

Rps
(ohm-m)
101

100
1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

100
1.0

5.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

(Rv /Rh)

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

4.0

4.5

5.0

(Rv /Rh)

Attenuation Resistivity

103

3.0

Attenuation Resistivity

101

102
Rad
(ohm-m)

Rad
(ohm-m)
101

100
1.0

1.5

2.0

3.0

2.5

3.5

4.0

4.5

100
1.0

5.0

1.5

(Rv /Rh)

Resistivity spacing

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

(Rv /Rh)
16 in.

22 in.

28 in.

34 in.

40 in.

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart and Chart Rt-36 reflect the effect of anisotropy on the
arcVISION resistivity response. These corrections are already
applied to the log presentation. As the square root of the R v /Rh
ratio increases, the effect on the resistivity significantly increases.

Description
Enter the appropriate chart with the value of the phase-shift or
attenuation resistivity on the y-axis. Move horizontally to intersect
the resistivity spacing curve. At the intersection point read the value
of the square root of the R v /Rh ratio on the x-axis.

Back to Contents

183

Rt

Formation ResistivityLWD

arcVISION* and ImPulse* Array Resistivity Compensated Tools2 MHz

Rt-36

Resistivity Anisotropy Versus Square Root of Rv/RhOpen Hole

Aniostropy Response at 85 dip for Rh = 1 ohm-m

Aniostropy Response at 65 dip for Rh = 1 ohm-m

Phase-Shift Resistivity

103

Phase-Shift Resistivity

101

102
Rps
(ohm-m)

Rps
(ohm-m)
101

100
1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

100
1.0

5.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

Attenuation Resistivity

103

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

4.0

4.5

5.0

(Rv/Rh)

(Rv/Rh)

Attenuation Resistivity

101

102
Rad
(ohm-m)

Rad
(ohm-m)
101

100
1.0

Rt

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

100
1.0

5.0

1.5

16 in.

22 in.

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Rt-35 for arcVISION and
ImPulse for 2-MHz resistivity. These corrections are already
applied to the log presentation.

184

2.5

3.0

3.5

(Rv/Rh)

(Rv/Rh)
Resistivity spacing

2.0

Back to Contents

28 in.

34 in.

40 in.

Formation ResistivityLWD

arcVISION675* Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz

Rt-37

Conductive InvasionOpen Hole

Rxo and di for Rt ~ 10 ohm-m


1.0
7
5

64

3
40-in. Rad/Rt = 1

60

1.5
56

16-in. Rps /40-in. Rad

1
0.7

0.9
0.85
0.8
0.5 0.75
0.7
0.65
0.3 0.6
0.2 0.55

52

0.1

44

0.95

40

36

16

0.15

48
20

32
di (in.)

Rxo = 0.1 ohmm


28
24

Rt
0.01
0.01

1.0

0.1
28-in. Rps /40-in. Rad

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This log-log chart is used to determine the correction applied to
the log presentation of the 40-in. arcVISION675 resistivity measurements, diameter of invasion (di), and resistivity of the flushed zone
(Rxo). These data are used to evaluate a formation for hydrocarbons.
Description
Enter the chart with the ratio of the 16-in. Rps /40-in. Rad on the y-axis
and 28-in. Rps /40-in. Rad on the x-axis. The intersection point defines
the following:

di
Rxo
correction factor for 40-in. attenuation resistivity.

Chart Rt-38 is used for 2-MHz resistivity values. The corresponding


charts for resistive invasion are Charts Rt-39 and Rt-40.
Example
Given:
Find:
Answer:

16-in. Rps/40-in. Rad = 0.2 and 28-in. Rps/40-in. Rad = 0.4.


Rxo, di, and correction factor for 40-in. Rad .
At the intersection point of 0.2 on the y-axis and 0.4 on
the x-axis, di = 31.9 in., Rxo = 1.1 ohm-m, and correction
factor = 0.955.
The value of the 40-in. Rad is reduced by the correction
factor: 40-in. Rad 0.955.

Back to Contents

185

Formation ResistivityLWD

arcVISION675* and ImPulse* Array Resistivity Compensated Tools2 MHz

Rt-38

Conductive InvasionOpen Hole

Rxo and di for Rt ~ 10 ohm-m


1.0
52

48

7
56

3
44

2
1.5
1
0.7
16

0.5

0.1
0.3

16-in. Rps /
40-in. Rad

40-in. Rad/Rt = 1
0.9
0.8

0.7

40

0.2
0.2

Rt

0.6

di (in.)

0.5

0.3

20

0.4

0.15
Rxo = 0.1 ohm-m

0.01
0.01

36

32

24

28
0.1

28-in. Rps /40-in. Rad

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Rt-37 for arcVISION675 and
ImPulse 2-MHz resistivity. The corrections are already applied to
the log presentation.
186

Back to Contents

1.0

Formation ResistivityLWD

arcVISION* Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz

Rt-39

Resistive InvasionOpen Hole

Rxo and di for Rt ~ 10 ohm-m


10

125
100
90

Rxo = 300 ohm-m

80
75

200

70

0.55
150

65
0.6
60
0.65
55
16-in. Rps /
40-in. Rad

100

0.7
0.75

50
70

0.8
45

0.85

50

di (in.)
0.9

40
0.95
Rt /40-in. Rad = 1

Rt

30

35

30

20

15

1
1

10
28-in. Rps /40-in. Rad

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Rt-37 to determine the correction applied to the arcVISION log presentation of di, Rxo, and 40-in.
Rad for resistive invasion.

Back to Contents

187

Formation ResistivityLWD

arcVISION* and ImPulse* Array Resistivity Compensated Tools2 MHz

Rt-40

Resistive InvasionOpen Hole

Rxo and di for Rt ~ 10 ohm-m

2.4

2.2

65
60
55

2.0

0.55

Rxo = 300 ohm-m


200

50
150

0.6
45
0.65
1.8
16-in. Rps /
40-in. Rad

0.7

40
di (in.)

70

0.75
1.6

100

35

50
0.8

Rt

30

1.4

30

0.85
0.9
0.95

20

1.2
15
Rt /40-in. Rad = 1

1.0
1

1.05

1.1

1.15

1.2
28-in. Rps /40-in. Rad

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Rt-39 to determine the correction applied to the arcVISION and ImPulse log presentation for
2-MHz resistivity.
188

Back to Contents

1.25

1.3

1.35

1.4

Formation ResistivityLWD

arcVISION* Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz in Horizontal Well


Bed Proximity EffectOpen Hole

Purpose
Charts Rt-41 and Rt-42 are used to calculate the correction applied
to the log presentation of Rt from the arcVISION tool at the
approach to a bed boundary. The value of Rt is used to calculate
water saturation.
Description
There are two sets of charts for differing conditions:

shoulder bed resistivity (Rshoulder) = 10 ohm-m and Rt = 1 ohm-m


Rshoulder = 10 ohm-m and Rt =100 ohm-m.

Example
Given:
Find:
Answer:

Rshoulder = 10 ohm-m, Rt = 1 ohm-m, and


16-in. Rps = 1.5 ohm-m.
Bed proximity effect.
The top set of charts is appropriate for these resistivity
values. The ratio Rps /Rt = 1.5/1 = 1.5.
Enter the y-axis of the left-hand chart at 1.5 and move
horizontally to intersect the 16-in. curve. The corresponding value on the x-axis is 1 ft, which is the distance
of the surrounding bed from the tool. At 2 ft from the
bed boundary, the value of 16-in. R ps = 1 ohm-m.

Rt

continued on next page

Back to Contents

189

Formation ResistivityDrill
ResistivityLWD
Pipe

arcVISION* Array Resistivity Compensated Tool400 kHz in Horizontal Well

Rt-41

Bed Proximity EffectOpen Hole

Bed Proximity Effect for Horizontal Well: Rshoulder = 10 ohm-m and Rt = 1 ohm-m
3

2
Rad /Rt

Rps /Rt
1

0
0

10

10

10

Bed Proximity Effect for Horizontal Well: Rshoulder = 10 ohm-m and Rt = 100 ohm-m
3

Rps /Rt

Rad /Rt
1

0
0

10

Resistivity spacing

16 in.

Distance to bed boundary (ft)

Distance to bed boundary (ft)

Rt

22 in.

28 in.

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

190

Distance to bed boundary (ft)

Distance to bed boundary (ft)

Back to Contents

34 in.

40 in.

Formation ResistivityLWD

arcVISION* and ImPulse* Array Resistivity Compensated Tools2 MHz


in Horizontal Well

Rt-42

Bed Proximity EffectOpen Hole

Bed Proximity Effect for Horizontal Well: Rshoulder = 10 ohm-m, Rt = 1 ohm-m


3

2
Rad /Rt

Rps /Rt
1

0
0

10

10

10

Distance to bed boundary (ft)

Distance to bed boundary (ft)

Bed Proximity Effect for Horizontal Well: Rshoulder = 10 ohm-m, Rt = 100 ohm-m
3

2
Rad /Rt

Rps /Rt

0
0

10

16 in.

Distance to bed boundary (ft)

Distance to bed boundary (ft)


Resistivity spacing

22 in.

28 in.

34 in.

Rt
40 in.

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Rt-41 for arcVISION and
ImPulse 2-MHz resistivity. The correction is already applied
to the log presentation.

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191

LithologyWireline
General

Density and NGS* Natural Gamma Ray Spectrometry Tool


Mineral IdentificationOpen Hole

Purpose
This chart is a method for identifying the type of clay in the wellbore.
The values of the photoelectric factor (Pe) from the Litho-Density*
log and the concentration of potassium (K) from the NGS Natural
Gamma Ray Spectrometry tool are entered on the chart.
Description
Enter the upper chart with the values of Pe and K to determine the
point of intersection. On the lower chart, plotting Pe and the ratio
of thorium and potassium (Th/K) provides a similar mineral evaluation. The intersection points are not unique but are in general areas
defined by a range of values.

Example
Given:

Find:
Answer:

Environmentally corrected thorium concentration


(ThNGScorr) = 10.6 ppm, environmentally corrected
potassium concentration (KNGScorr) = 3.9%, and Pe = 3.2.
Mineral concentration of the logged clay.
The intersection points from plotting values of Pe and K
on the upper chart and Pe and Th/K ratio = 10.6/3.9 = 2.7
on the lower chart suggest that the clay mineral is illite.

Lith

192

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LithologyWireline

Density and NGS* Natural Gamma Ray Spectrometry Tool

Lith-1

Mineral IdentificationOpen Hole

(former CP-18)

10

8
Glauconite
Chlorite

Biotite

6
Photoelectric
factor, Pe
4

Illite
Muscovite

Montmorillonite
2
Kaolinite

0
0

10

Potassium concentration, K (%)

10

8
Glauconite
Biotite

Lith

Chlorite

6
Photoelectric
factor, Pe
Mixed layer

Illite
Muscovite

2
Montmorillonite

0
0.1

0.2

0.3

0.6

Kaolinite

10

20

30

60

100

Thorium/potassium ratio, Th/K


*Mark of Schlumberger
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193

LithologyWireline

NGS* Natural Gamma Ray Spectrometry Tool

Lith-2

Mineral IdentificationOpen Hole

(former CP-19)

Heav
y tho
rium
-bea
ring
mine
rals

20

15
Thorium
(ppm)

12

Th/K
= 25

25
Th
/K
=

Possible 100% kaolinite,


montmorillonite,
illite clay line

100% illite point

Kaolinite
K=
Th/

~70% illite
lay
er c
-lay
d
e
Mix

M
on
tm
or
illo
nit
e

10

= 2.0
Th/K
~40%
mica

Illite

Micas

Glauconite

e
orit
Chl
0
0

3.5

~30% glauconite

Th/K = 0.6

Feldspar

Th/K = 0.3

Potassium evaporites, ~30% feldspar


4

Potassium (%)

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Lith

Purpose
This chart is used to determine the type of minerals in a shale
formation from concentrations measured by the NGS Natural
Gamma Ray Spectrometry tool.
Description
Entering the chart with the values of thorium and potassium locates
the intersection point used to determine the type of radioactive minerals that compose the majority of the clay in the formation.

194

A sandstone reservoir with varying amounts of shaliness and


illite as the principal clay mineral usually plots in the illite segment
of the chart with Th/K between 2.0 and 3.5. Less shaly parts of the
reservoir plot closer to the origin, and shaly parts plot closer to the
70% illite area.

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LithologyWireline

Platform Express* Three-Detector Lithology Density Tool


Porosity and LithologyOpen Hole

Purpose
This chart is used to determine the lithology and porosity of a formation. The porosity is used for the water saturation determination and
the lithology helps to determine the makeup of the logged formation.
Description
Note that this chart is designed for fresh water (fluid density
[f] = 1.0 g/cm3) in the borehole. Chart Lith-4 is used for saltwater
(f = 1.1 g/cm3) formations.
Values of photoelectric factor (Pe) and bulk density (b) from the
Platform Express Three-Detector Lithology Density (TLD) tool are
entered into the chart. At the point of intersection, porosity and
lithology values can be determined.

Example
Given:

Find:
Answer:

Freshwater drilling mud, Pe = 3.0, and bulk density =


2.73 g/cm3.
Freshwater drilling mud, Pe = 1.6, and bulk density =
2.24 g/cm3.
Porosity and lithology.
For the first set of conditions, the formation is a
dolomite with 8% porosity.
The second set is for a quartz sandstone formation
with 30% porosity.

Lith

continued on next page

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195

LithologyWireline

Platform Express* Three-Detector Lithology Density Tool

Lith-3

Porosity and LithologyOpen Hole

(former CP-16)

Fresh Water (f = 1.0 g/cm3), Liquid-Filled Borehole

40

2.0

Salt

40

1.9

30

40

2.1

10

2.5

20

10

Bulk density, b
(g/cm3)

Dolomite

2.4

20

ne)
(limesto
Calcite

30

2.3

20

Quartz sandstone

30

2.2

2.6

10

Lith

2.7

2.8

Anhydrite

2.9

3.0
0

3
Photoelectric factor, Pe

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

196

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LithologyWireline

Platform Express* Three-Detector Lithology Density Tool

Lith-4

Porosity and LithologyOpen Hole

(former CP-17)

Salt Water (f = 1.1 g/cm3), Liquid-Filled Borehole


1.9

40

40

Salt

2.0

10

Bulk density, b
(g/cm3)

10

20

2.5

Dolomite

2.4

20

ne)
(limesto
Calcite

30

2.3

20

Quartz sandstone

2.2

30

30

40

2.1

10

2.6

Lith

2.7

2.8

Anhydrite

2.9

3.0
0

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Photoelectric factor, Pe

This chart is used similarly to Chart Lith-3 for lithology and porosity determination with values of photoelectric factor (Pe) and

bulk density (b) from the Platform Express TLD tool in saltwater
borehole fluid.

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197

General
LithologyWireline,
Drillpipe
LWD

Density Tool

Lith-5

Apparent Matrix Volumetric Photoelectric FactorOpen Hole

(former CP-20)

Fresh water (0 ppm), f = 1.0 g/cm3, U f = 0.398


Salt water (200,000 ppm), f = 1.11 g/cm3, U f = 1.36

3.0

2.5

10
20

2.0

30
Bulk density, b
(g/cm3)

40

Photoelectric factor, Pe

10

12

Apparent total
porosity, ta (%)

14

Apparent matrix
volumetric photoelectric factor, Umaa

Schlumberger

Lith

Purpose
This chart is used to determine the apparent matrix volumetric
photoelectric factor (Umaa) for the Chart Lith-6 percent lithology
determination.
Description
This chart is entered with the values of bulk density (b) and Pe from
a density log. The value of the apparent total porosity (ta) must also
be known. The appropriate solid lines on the right-hand side of the
chart that indicate a freshwater borehole fluid or dotted lines that
represent saltwater borehole fluid are used depending on the salinity
of the borehole fluid. Uf is the fluid photoelectric factor.

198

Example
Given:
Find:
Answer:

Pe = 4.0, b = 2.5 g/cm3, ta = 25%, and freshwater


borehole fluid.
Apparent matrix volumetric photoelectric factor (Umaa).
Enter the chart with the Pe value (4.0) on the left-hand
x-axis, and move upward to intersect the curve for
b = 2.5 g/cm3.
From that intersection point, move horizontally right to
intersect the ta value of 25%, using the blue freshwater
curve.
Move vertically downward to determine the Umaa value
on the right-hand x-axis scale: Umaa = 13.

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LithologyWireline, LWD
General

Density Tool
Lithology IdentificationOpen Hole

Purpose
This chart is used to identify the rock mineralogy through comparison
of the apparent matrix grain density (maa) and apparent matrix volumetric photoelectric factor (Umaa).
Description
The values of maa and Umaa are entered on the y- and x-axis, respectively. The rock mineralogy is identified by the proximity of the point
of intersection of the two values to the labeled points on the plot.
The effect of gas, salt, etc., is to shift data points in the directions
shown by the arrows.

Example
Given:
Find:
Answer:

maa = 2.74 g/cm3 (from Chart Lith-9 or Lith-10) and


Umaa = 13 (from Chart Lith-5).
Matrix composition of the formation.
Enter the chart with maa = 2.74 g/cm3 on the y-axis and
Umaa = 13 on the x-axis. The intersection point indicates
a matrix mixture of 20% dolomite and 80% calcite.

Lith

continued on next page

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199

LithologyWireline, LWD
General

Density Tool

Lith-6

Lithology IdentificationOpen Hole

(former CP-21)

2.2

2.3
Salt

on
Gas directi

2.4

2.5

K-feldspar

2.6
Apparent matrix
grain density,
maa (g/cm3)
2.7

% calcit
e

20

Quartz

40

60

80

80

Calcite
60

%
tz
ar
qu

2.8

20
40

40
60

20

Dolomite

2.9

Lith

80

Barite

ite
lom
o
d

Heavy minerals

Anhydrite

3.0
Kaolinite
Illite
3.1
2

10

12

Apparent matrix volumetric photoelectric factor, Umaa

Schlumberger

200

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14

16

LithologyWireline, LWD

Environmentally Corrected Neutron Curves


MN Plot for Mineral IdentificationOpen Hole

Purpose
This chart is used to help identify mineral mixtures from sonic,
density, and neutron logs.
Description
Because M and N slope values are practically independent of porosity
except in gas zones, the porosity values they indicate can be correlated with the mineralogy. (See Appendix E for the formulas to calculate M and N from sonic, density, and neutron logs.)
Enter the chart with M on the y-axis and N on the x-axis. The
intersection point indicates the makeup of the formation. Points for
binary mixtures plot along a line connecting the two mineral points.
Ternary mixtures plot within the triangle defined by the three constituent minerals. The effect of gas, shaliness, secondary porosity,
etc., is to shift data points in the directions shown by the arrows.

The lines on the chart are divided into numbered groups by porosity range as follows:
1. = 0 (tight formation)
2. = 0 to 12 p.u.
3. = 12 to 27 p.u.
4. = 27 to 40 p.u.
Example
Given:
Find:
Answer:

M = 0.79 and N = 0.51.


Mineral composition of the formation.
The intersection of the M and N values indicates dolomite
in group 2, which has a porosity between 0 to 12 p.u.

Lith

continued on next page

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201

LithologyWireline, LWD

Environmentally Corrected Neutron Curves

Lith-7

MN Plot for Mineral IdentificationOpen Hole

(former CP-8)

1.1
Freshwater mud
f = 1.0 Mg/m3, t f = 620 s/m
f = 1.0 g/cm3, t f = 189 s/ft
Gypsum

Saltwater mud
f = 1.1 Mg/m3, t f = 607 s/m
f = 1.1 g/cm3, t f = 185 s/ft

1.0

s
Ga r
o lt
sa

Secondary
porosity
0.9

vma = 5943 m/s


= 19,500 ft/s

Quartz sandstone

Calcite (limestone)
0.8

1 2 34

vma = 5486 m/s


= 18,000 ft/s

Dolomite
M

324

Anhydrite

0.7

Sulfur
Approximate
shale
region

0.6

Lith

0.5

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6
N

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202

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0.7

0.8

LithologyWireline
General

Environmentally Corrected APS* Curves


MN Plot for Mineral IdentificationOpen Hole

Purpose
This chart is used to help identify mineral mixtures from APS
Accelerator Porosity Sonde neutron logs.
Description
Because M and N values are practically independent of porosity
except in gas zones, the porosity values they indicate can be correlated with the mineralogy. (See Appendix E for the formulas to calculate M and N from sonic, density, and neutron logs.)
Enter the chart with M on the y-axis and N on the x-axis. The
intersection point indicates the makeup of the formation. Points for
binary mixtures plot along a line connecting the two mineral points.
Ternary mixtures plot within the triangle defined by the three constituent minerals. The effect of gas, shaliness, secondary porosity,
etc., is to shift data points in the directions shown by the arrows.

The lines on the chart are divided into numbered groups by porosity range as follows:
1. = 0 (tight formation)
2. = 0 to 12 p.u.
3. = 12 to 27 p.u.
4. = 27 to 40 p.u.
Because the dolomite spread is negligible, a single dolomite point
is plotted for each mud.
Example
Given:
Find:
Answer:

M = 0.80 and N = 0.55.


Mineral composition of the formation.
Dolomite.

Lith

continued on next page

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203

LithologyWireline
General

Environmentally Corrected APS* Curves

Lith-8

MN Plot for Mineral IdentificationOpen Hole

(former CP-8a)

1.1
Freshwater mud
f = 1.0 Mg/m3, t f = 620 s/m
f = 1.0 g/cm3, t f = 189 s/ft
Saltwater mud
f = 1.1 Mg/m3, t f = 607 s/m
f = 1.1 g/cm3, t f = 185 s/ft

Gypsum
1.0

s
Ga r
o lt
sa

Secondary
porosity
0.9

vma = 5943 m/s


= 19,500 ft/s

Quartz sandstone

Calcite (limestone)
0.8

12 3,4

Dolomite

vma = 5486 m/s


= 18,000 ft/s

Anhydrite

0.7

Sulfur
Approximate
shale
region

0.6

Lith

0.5

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6
N

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Schlumberger

204

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0.7

0.8

LithologyWireline, LWD

Bulk Density or Interval Transit Time and Apparent Total Porosity


Apparent Matrix ParametersOpen Hole

Purpose
Charts Lith-9 (customary units) and Lith-10 (metric units) provide
values of the apparent matrix internal transit time (t maa) and apparent matrix grain density (maa) for the matrix identification (MID)
Charts Lith-11 and Lith-12. With these parameters the identification
of rock mineralogy or lithology through a comparison of neutron,
density, and sonic measurements is possible.

Example
Given:

Find:
Answer:

Apparent crossplot porosity from density-neutron = 20%,


b = 2.4 g/cm3, apparent crossplot porosity from
neutron-sonic = 30%, and t = 82 s/ft.
maa and t maa.
maa = 2.75 g/cm3 and t maa = 46 s/ft.

Description
Determining the values of t maa and maa to use in the MID Charts
Lith-11 and Lith-12 requires three steps.
First, apparent crossplot porosity is determined using the appropriate neutron-density and neutron-sonic crossplot charts in the
Porosity section of this book. For data that plot above the sandstone curve on the charts, the apparent crossplot porosity is defined
by a vertical projection to the sandstone curve.
Second, enter Chart Lith-9 or Lith-10 with the interval transit
time (t) to intersect the previously determined apparent crossplot
porosity. This point defines t maa.
Third, enter Chart Lith-9 or Lith-10 with the bulk density (b)
to again intersect the apparent crossplot porosity and define maa.
The values determined from Charts Lith-9 and Lith-10 for tmaa and
maa are cross plotted on the appropriate MID plot (Charts Lith-11
and Lith-12) to identify the rock mineralogy by its proximity to the
labeled points on the plot.

Lith

continued on next page

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205

LithologyWireline, LWD

Bulk Density or Interval Transit Time and Apparent Total Porosity

Lith-9

Apparent Matrix ParametersOpen Hole

(customary, former CP-14)

Fluid Density = 1.0 g/cm3


Apparent matrix transit time, t maa (s/ft)
130
3.0

120

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30
130

2.9

120

2.8

110
40

2.7

100
Apparent
crossplot
porosity

30

90

20

10

2.5

80

De
ns
ity
-n
eu
tro
n

Bulk density,
b (g/cm3)

Ne
ut
ro
nso
ni
c

2.6

2.4

70

10

2.3

60

20

2.2

50

30

2.1

40

40

2.0

Lith

30
3.0

2.9

2.8

2.7

2.6

2.5

2.4

Apparent matrix density, maa (g/cm3)


Schlumberger

206

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2.3

2.2

2.1

2.0

Interval
transit
time,
t (s/ft)

General
LithologyWireline,
LWD

Bulk Density or Interval Transit Time and Apparent Total Porosity

Lith-10

Apparent Matrix ParametersOpen Hole

(metric, former CP-14m)

Fluid Density = 1.0 g/cm3


Apparent matrix transit time, t maa (s/m)
3.0

350

325

300

275

250

225

200

175

150

125

100

2.9

325
40

2.8

2.7

30

Ne
ut
ro
nso
ni
c

2.6

300

Apparent
crossplot
porosity

275

250

20

10

2.5

225

De
ns
ity
-n
eu
tro
n

Bulk density,
b (g/cm3)

350

2.4

200

10

2.3

175

20

2.2

150

30

2.1

Interval
transit
time,
t (s/m)

125

40

2.0

Lith

100
3.0

2.9

2.8

2.7

2.6

2.5

2.4

2.3

2.2

2.1

2.0

Apparent matrix density, maa (g/cm3)


Schlumberger

Purpose
Charts Lith-9 (customary units) and Lith-10 (metric units) provide
values of the apparent matrix internal transit time (t maa) and apparent matrix grain density (maa) for the matrix identification (MID)
Charts Lith-11 and Lith-12. With these parameters the identification
of rock mineralogy or lithology through a comparison of neutron,
density, and sonic measurements is possible.

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207

LithologyWireline, LWD
General

Density Tool
Matrix Identification (MID)Open Hole

Purpose
Charts Lith-11 and Lith-12 are used to establish the type of mineral
predominant in the formation.
Description
Enter the appropriate (customary or metric units) chart with
the values established from Charts Lith-9 or Lith-10 to identify the
predominant mineral in the formation. Salt points are defined for
two tools, the sidewall neutron porosity (SNP) and the CNL*
Compensated Neutron Log. The presence of secondary porosity
in the form of vugs or fractures displaces the data points parallel
to the apparent matrix internal transit time (tmaa) axis. The presence
of gas displaces points to the right on the chart. Plotting some shale
points to establish the shale trend lines helps in the identification
of shaliness. For fluid density (f) other than 1.0 g/cm3 use the table
to determine the multiplier to correct the apparent total density
porosity before entering Chart Lith-11 or Lith-12.

Example
Given:
Find:
Answer:

Multiplier

1.00
1.05
1.10
1.15

1.00
0.98
0.95
0.93

maa = 2.75 g/cm3, t maa = 56 s/ft (from Chart Lith-9),


and f = 1.0 g/cm3.
The predominant mineral.
The formation consists of both dolomite and calcite,
which indicates a dolomitized limestone. The formation
used in this example is from northwest Florida in the
Jay field. The vugs (secondary porosity) created by the
dolomitization process displace the data point parallel
to the dolomite and calcite points.

Lith

208

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General
LithologyWireline,
LWD

Density Tool

Lith-11

Matrix Identification (MID)Open Hole

(customary, former CP-15)

2.0
Salt
(CNL* log)
Salt
(SNP)

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

on
cti
ire
d
s
Ga

2.5
maa
(g/cm3)

2.6
Quartz
2.7

Calcite

2.8
Dolomite
2.9
Anhydrite

3.0

Lith
3.1
30

40

50

60

70

tmaa (s/ft)

*Mark of Schlumberger
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209

LithologyWireline, LWD

Density Tool

Lith-12

Matrix Identification (MID)Open Hole

(metric, former CP-15m)

2.0
Salt
(CNL* log)
Salt
(SNP)

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

on
cti
ire
d
s
Ga

2.5
maa
(g/cm3)

2.6
Quartz
2.7

Calcite

2.8
Dolomite
2.9

Anhydrite

3.0

Lith
3.1
100

120

140

160

180

t maa (s/m)

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
Chart Lith-12 is used similarly to Chart Lith-11 to establish the mineral
type of the formation.

210

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200

220

240

PorosityWireline, LWD
General

Sonic Tool
Porosity EvaluationOpen Hole

Purpose
This chart is used to convert sonic log slowness time (t) values
into those for porosity ().
Description
There are two sets of curves on the chart. The blue set for matrix
velocity (vma) employs a weighted-average transform. The red set
is based on the empirical observation of lithology (see Reference
20). For both, the saturating fluid is assumed to be water with
a velocity (vf) of 5,300 ft/s (1,615 m/s).
Enter the chart with the slowness time from the sonic log on the
x-axis. Move vertically to intersect the appropriate matrix velocity
or lithology curve and read the porosity value on the y-axis. For rock
mixtures such as limy sandstones or cherty dolomites, intermediate
matrix lines may be interpolated.
To use the weighted-average transform for an unconsolidated sand,
a lack-of-compaction correction (Bcp) must be made. Enter the chart
with the slowness time and intersect the appropriate compaction
correction line to read the porosity on the y-axis. If the compaction
correction is not known, it can be determined by working backward
from a nearby clean water sand for which the porosity is known.

Example: Consolidated Formation


Given:
t = 76 s/ft in a consolidated formation with
vma = 18,000 ft/s.
Find:
Porosity and the formation lithology (sandstone,
dolomite, or limestone).
Answer:
15% porosity and consolidated sandstone.
Example: Unconsolidated Formation
Given:
Unconsolidated formation with t = 100 s/ft in
a nearby water sand with a porosity of 28%.
Find:
Porosity of the formation for t = 110 s/ft.
Answer:
Enter the chart with 100 s/ft on the x-axis and move
vertically upward to intersect 28-p.u. porosity. This
intersection point indicates the correction factor curve
of 1.2. Use the 1.2 correction value to find the porosity for
the other slowness time. The porosity of an unconsolidated formation with t = 110 s/ft is 34 p.u.

Lithology

vma (ft/s)

tma (s/ft)

vma (m/s)

tma (s/m)

Sandstone
Limestone
Dolomite

18,00019,500
21,00023,000
23,00026,000

55.551.3
47.643.5
43.538.5

5,4865,944
6,4007,010
7,0107,925

182168
156143
143126

Por

continued on next page

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211

PorosityWireline, LWD

Sonic Tool

Por-1

Porosity EvaluationOpen Hole

(customary, former Por-3)

vf = 5,300 ft/s
50

50
Time average
Field observation

1.1

40

40

1.2
1.3

Ca
lci
t

Do
lom
i

te

30

1.4

)
ne
to
s
e
(lim

ne
sto
d
n
sa
tz
r
ua

30

1.5
1.6
Bcp

Porosity,
(p.u.)

Porosity,
(p.u.)
20

20

26
,
23 000
21 ,000
19 ,000
18 ,500
,00
0

vma (ft/s)

10

Por

10

0
30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Interval transit time, t (s/ft)

Schlumberger

212

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100

110

120

0
130

PorosityWireline, LWD

Sonic Tool

Por-2

Porosity EvaluationOpen Hole

(metric, former Por-3m)

vf = 1,615 m/s
50

50
Time average
Field observation

1.1

40

40

1.2
1.3
Do
l

ite
om

30

te
lci
a
C

1.4

e
ton
ds
n
sa
rtz
a
Qu

1.6
Bcp

vma (m/s)

10

0
100

8
7,0 ,000
6
0
5, ,40 0
5,5 950 0
D
00
Ce
C ol
Qu men alci omit
te
e
a rt
t
z s ed q
an
u
ds artz
ton
e sand
sto
ne

Porosity,
(p.u.)

20

30

1.5

Porosity,
(p.u.)

20

10

Por

0
150

200

250

300

350

400

Interval transit time, t (s/m)

Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Por-1 with metric units.

Back to Contents

213

PorosityWireline, LWD

Density Tool

Por-3

Porosity DeterminationOpen Hole

f (g/cm3)

(former Por-5)

1.0 0.9 0.8

ma

ma

ma

=2
= 2 .87
(d
.83
olo

1.2
40

=2
mi
te
= 2 .7 1
)
(
ca
.68
lci
=2
te
.6 5
)
(q
ua
rtz
sa
nd
sto
ne
)

1.1

ma

ma

30

Porosity,
(p.u.)

20

ma b
ma f

10

0
2.8

2.6

2.4
Bulk density, b (g/cm )
3

2.31

2.2

2.0

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Por

Purpose
This chart is used to convert grain density (g/cm3) to density porosity.
Description
Values of log-derived bulk density (b) corrected for borehole size,
matrix density of the formation (ma), and fluid density (f) are used
to determine the density porosity (D) of the logged formation. The
f is the density of the fluid saturating the rock immediately surrounding the boreholeusually mud filtrate.
Enter the borehole-corrected value of b on the x-axis and move
vertically to intersect the appropriate matrix density curve. From the
intersection point move horizontally to the fluid density line. Follow
the porosity trend line to the porosity scale to read the formation

214

porosity as determined by the density tool. This porosity in combination with CNL* Compensated Neutron Log, sonic, or both values of
porosity can help determine the rock type of the formation.
Example
Given:

Find:
Answer:

b = 2.31 g/cm3 (log reading corrected for borehole


effect), ma = 2.71 g/cm3 (calcite mineral), and
f = 1.1 g/cm3 (salt mud).
Density porosity.
D = 25 p.u.

Back to Contents

PorosityWireline

APS* Near-to-Array (APLC) and Near-to-Far (FPLC) Logs


Epithermal Neutron Porosity EquivalenceOpen Hole

Purpose
This chart is used for the apparent limestone porosity recorded by the
APS Accelerator Porosity Sonde or sidewall neutron porosity (SNP)
tool to provide the equivalent porosity in sandstone or dolomite formations. It can also be used to obtain the apparent limestone porosity (used for the various crossplot porosity charts) for a log recorded
in sandstone or dolomite porosity units.
Description
Enter the x-axis with the corrected near-to-array apparent limestone
porosity (APLC) or near-to-far apparent limestone porosity (FPLC)
and move vertically to the appropriate lithology curve. Then read the
equivalent porosity on the y-axis. For APS porosity recorded in sandstone or dolomite porosity units enter that value on the y-axis and
move horizontally to the recorded lithology curve. Then read the
apparent limestone neutron porosity for that point on the x-axis.
The APLC is the epithermal short-spacing apparent limestone
neutron porosity from the near-to-array detectors. The log is automatically corrected for standoff during acquisition. Because it is
epithermal this measurement does not need environmental corrections for temperature or chlorine effect. However, corrections for
mud weight and actual borehole size should be applied (see Chart
Neu-10). The short spacing means that the effect of density and
therefore the lithology on this curve is minimal.
The FPLC is the epithermal long-spacing apparent limestone neutron porosity acquired from the near-to-far detectors. Because it is
epithermal this measurement does not need environmental corrections for temperature or chlorine effect. However, corrections for
mud weight and actual borehole size should be applied (see Chart
Neu-10). The long spacing means that the density and therefore
lithology effect on this curve is pronounced, as seen on Charts Por-13
and Por-14.

The HPLC curve is the high-resolution version of the APLC curve.


The same corrections apply.
Resolution

Short Spacing

Normal

APLC
Epithermal neutron porosity (ENPI)
HPLC
HNPI

Enhanced
Not

Long Spacing
FPLC
HFLC

formation-salinity corrected.

Example: Equivalent Porosity


Given:
APLC = 25 p.u. and FPLC = 25 p.u.
Find:
Porosity for sandstone and for dolomite.
Answer:

Sandstone porosity from APLC = 28.5 p.u. and sandstone


porosity from FPLC = 30 p.u.
Dolomite porosity = 24 and 20 p.u., respectively.

Example: Apparent Porosity


Given:
Clean sandstone porosity = 20 p.u.
Find:
Apparent limestone neutron porosity.
Answer:
Enter the y-axis at 20 p.u. and move horizontally to
the quartz sandstone matrix curves. Move vertically
from the points of intersection to the x-axis and read
the apparent limestone neutron porosity values.
APLC = 16.8 p.u. and FPLC = 14.5 p.u.

Por

continued on next page

Back to Contents

215

PorosityWireline

APS* Near-to-Array (APLC) and Near-to-Far (FPLC) Logs

Por-4

Epithermal Neutron Porosity EquivalenceOpen Hole

(former Por-13a)

40
APLC
FPLC
SNP

20

Qu
ar
tz

True porosity
for indicated
matrix material,
(p.u.)

sa
nd
sto
ne

30

ite
lc
Ca

)
ne
o
t
es
(lim
ite
lom
o
D

10

0
0

10

20

Apparent limestone neutron porosity, SNPcor (p.u.)


Apparent limestone neutron porosity, APScor (p.u.)
*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Por

216

Back to Contents

30

40

PorosityWireline
General

Thermal Neutron Tool

Por-5

Porosity EquivalenceOpen Hole

(former Por-13b)

40
Formation salinity
0 ppm
250,000 ppm

TNPH
NPHI

True porosity
for indicated
matrix material,
(p.u.)

Qu
ar
tz
sa
nd
C
sto
ne

30

20

c
al

ite

n
to
es
m
(li

e)
ite
lom
o
D

10

0
0

10

20

30

40

Apparent limestone neutron porosity, CNLcor (p.u.)

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to convert CNL* Compensated Neutron Log porosity
curves (TNPH or NPHI) from one lithology to another. It can also be
used to obtain the apparent limestone porosity (used for the various
crossplot porosity charts) from a log recorded in sandstone or dolomite
porosity units.
Description
To determine the porosity of either quartz sandstone or dolomite
enter the chart with the either the TNPH or NPHI corrected
apparent limestone neutron porosity (CNLcor) on the x-axis. Move
vertically to intersect the appropriate curve and read the porosity
for quartz sandstone or dolomite on the y-axis. The chart has a
built-in salinity correction for TNPH values.

NPHI
NPOR
TNPH

Example
Given:

Find:
Answer:

Thermal neutron porosity (ratio method)


Neutron porosity (environmentally corrected and
enhanced vertical resolution processed)
Thermal neutron porosity (environmentally corrected)

Por

Quartz sandstone formation, TNPH = 18 p.u. (apparent


limestone neutron porosity), and formation salinity =
250,000 ppm.
Porosity in sandstone.
From the TNPH porosity reading of 18 p.u. on the x-axis,
project a vertical line to intersect the quartz sandstone
dashed red curve. From the y-axis, the porosity of the
sandstone is 24 p.u.

Back to Contents

217

PorosityWireline

Thermal Neutron ToolCNT-D and CNT-S 212-in. Tools

Por-6

Porosity EquivalenceOpen Hole

40

20

Lim
es
to
ne

True porosity
for indicated
matrix material,
(p.u.)

Sa
nd
sto
ne

30

ite
om
l
Do

10

0
10

10

20

Apparent limestone neutron porosity (p.u.)

Por

Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Por-5 to convert 212-in. compensated neutron tool (CNT) porosity values (TNPH) from one lithology
to another. Fresh formation water is assumed.

218

Back to Contents

30

40

PorosityLWD
General

adnVISION475* 4.75-in. Azimuthal Density Neutron Tool

Por-7

Porosity EquivalenceOpen Hole

40

35

30
ne
sto
d
n
e)
sa
ton
s
tr z
e
a
(lim
Qu
te
e
t
mi
lci Dolo
a
C

25
True porosity
for indicated
matrix material,
(p.u.)

20

15

10

0
5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Corrected apparent limestone neutron porosity, ADNcor (p.u.)

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to determine the porosity of sandstone, limestone,
or dolomite from the corrected apparent limestone porosity measured
with the adnVISION475 4.75-in. tool.

Description
Enter the chart on the x-axis with the corrected apparent limestone
porosity from Chart Neu-31 to intersect the curve for the appropriate
formation material. Read the porosity on the y-axis.

Back to Contents

219

Por

PorosityLWD

adnVISION675* 6.75-in. Azimuthal Density Neutron Tool

Por-8

Porosity EquivalenceOpen Hole

40

35

30
ne
sto
d
n
e)
sa
ton
s
tr z
e
a
(lim
Qu
e
t
ite
lci
Ca
lom
o
D

25
True porosity
for indicated
matrix material,
(p.u.)

20

15

10

0
5

10

15

20

25

Corrected apparent limestone neutron porosity, ADNcor (p.u.)

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Por

Purpose
Chart Por-8 is used similarly to Chart Por-7 for determining
porosity from the corrected apparent limestone porosity from
the adnVISION675 6.75-in. tool.

220

Back to Contents

30

35

40

PorosityLWD

adnVISION825* 8.25-in. Azimuthal Density Neutron Tool

Por-9

Porosity EquivalenceOpen Hole

40

35

30

ne
sto
d
n
ne
Sa
sto
e
te
Lim
mi
o
l
Do

25
True porosity
(p.u.)

20

15

10

0
5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Corrected apparent limestone neutron porosity, ADNcor (p.u.)

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
Chart Por-9 is used similarly to Chart Por-7 for determining
porosity from the corrected apparent limestone porosity from
the adnVISION825 8.25-in. tool.

Back to Contents

Por

221

PorosityLWD

EcoScope* 6.75-in. Integrated LWD Tool, BPHI Porosity

Por-10

Porosity EquivalenceOpen Hole

40

35

30

e
ton
s
ne
nd
Sa
sto
e
ite
Lim lom
o
D

25
True porosity
for indicated
matrix material,
(p.u.)

20

15

10

0
5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Corrected apparent limestone BPHI porosity (p.u.)

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Por

Purpose
This chart is used to determine the porosity of sandstone, limestone,
or dolomite from the corrected apparent limestone BPHI porosity
measured with the EcoScope 6.75-in. LWD tool.
Use this chart only with EcoScope best thermal neutron porosity
(BPHI) measurements; use Chart Por-10a with EcoScope thermal
neutron porosity (TNPH) measurements.

222

Description
Enter the chart on the x-axis with the corrected apparent limestone
BPHI porosity from Chart Neu-43 or Neu-44 to intersect the curve for
the appropriate formation material. Read the porosity on the y-axis.

Back to Contents

PorosityLWD

EcoScope* 6.75-in. Integrated LWD Tool, TNPH Porosity

Por-10a

Porosity EquivalenceOpen Hole

40

35

30
ne
to
s
nd
Sa

25
True porosity
for indicated
matrix material,
(p.u.)

ne
sto
e
te
Lim
mi
o
l
Do

20

15

10

0
5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Corrected apparent limestone TNPH porosity (p.u.)

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to determine the porosity of sandstone, limestone,
or dolomite from the corrected apparent limestone TNPH porosity
measured with the EcoScope 6.75-in. LWD tool.
Use this chart only with EcoScope thermal neutron porosity
(TNPH) measurements; use Chart Por-10 with EcoScope best
thermal neutron porosity, average (BPHI) measurements.

Description
Enter the chart on the x-axis with the corrected apparent limestone
TNPH porosity from Chart Neu-45 or Neu-46 to intersect the curve for
the appropriate formation material. Read the porosity on the y-axis.

Back to Contents

223

Por

PorosityWireline

CNL* Compensated Neutron Log and Litho-Density* Tool


(fresh water in invaded zone)
Porosity and LithologyOpen Hole
Purpose
This chart is used with the bulk density and apparent limestone
porosity from the CNL Compensated Neutron Log and Litho-Density
tools, respectively, to approximate the lithology and determine the
crossplot porosity.
Description
Enter the chart with the environmentally corrected apparent neutron limestone porosity on the x-axis and bulk density on the y-axis.
The intersection of the two values describes the crossplot porosity
and lithology.
If the point is on a lithology curve, that indicates that the formation is primarily that lithology. If the point is between the lithology
curves, then the formation is a mixture of those lithologies. The position of the point in relation to the two lithology curves as composition endpoints indicates the mineral percentages of the formation.
The porosity for a point between lithology curves is determined
by scaling the crossplot porosity by connecting similar numbers on
the two lithology curves (e.g., 20 on the quartz sandstone curve to
20 on the limestone curve). The scale line closest to the point represents the crossplot porosity.
Chart Por-12 is used for the same purpose as this chart for saltwater-invaded zones.

Example
Given:
Find:
Answer:

Corrected apparent neutron limestone porosity =


16.5 p.u. and bulk density = 2.38 g/cm3.
Crossplot porosity and lithology.
Crossplot porosity = 18 p.u. The lithology is approximately 40% quartz and 60% limestone.

Por

224

Back to Contents

PorosityWireline
General

CNL* Compensated Neutron Log and Litho-Density* Tool


(fresh water in invaded zone)

Por-11
(former CP-1e)

Porosity and LithologyOpen Hole

Liquid-Filled Borehole (f = 1.000 g/cm3 and Cf = 0 ppm)


1.9
45

2.0

40

Sulfur
Salt
Ap
pro
xim
cor gas ate
rec
tion

2.2

35

15

2.4

30

e
25
ton
s
nd
25
sa
tz
r
e)
a
Qu
ton
s
e
(lim
20
e
t
25
lci
Ca

20

15

10
10

2.6

35

30

30

25

20

15

te
20
mi
o
l
Do

2.5
5

35

30

y
sit
ro
o
P

2.3

10

15
5

Density
porosity,
D (p.u.)
(ma = 2.71 g/cm3,
f = 1.0 g/cm3)

2.7

40

35

2.1

Bulk
density,
b (g/cm3)

45

40

10

0
5

2.8
0

10

2.9

3.0

15

Anhydrite
0

10

20

30

Por

40

Corrected apparent limestone neutron porosity, CNLcor (p.u.)

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Back to Contents

225

PorosityWireline
General

CNL* Compensated Neutron Log and Litho-Density* Tool


(salt water in invaded zone)

Por-12
(former CP-11)

Porosity and LithologyOpen Hole

Liquid-filled borehole (f = 1.190 g/cm3 and Cf = 250,000 ppm)


1.9
45

2.0

45 45

Sulfur
Salt

40
Ap
pro
xim
cor gas ate
rec
tion

2.1

2.2

40

Bulk
density,
b (g/cm3)

10
10

5
2.6

30

35

30
25

30

20

25

15

Density
porosity,
D (p.u.)
(ma = 2.71 g/cm3,
f = 1.19 g/cm3)

10

2.7

35

30

ne
sto
d
n
25
sa
rtz
20
e)
a
Qu
ton
s
0
e
2
(lim
te
i
c
l
Ca
15
20
ite
lom
o
D
15

15

2.5

35

y
sit
ro
o
P
25

2.3

2.4

40

35

5
10

5
5

2.8

10

2.9
15
3.0

Anhydrite
0

10

20

30

40

Corrected apparent limestone neutron porosity, CNLcor (p.u.)


*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Por
Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Por-11 with CNL Compensated
Neutron Log and Litho-Density values to approximate the lithology
and determine the crossplot porosity in the saltwater-invaded zone.

226

Example
Given:
Find:
Answer:

Corrected apparent neutron limestone porosity =


16.5 p.u. and bulk density = 2.38 g/cm3.
Crossplot porosity and lithology.
Crossplot porosity = 20 p.u. The lithology is approximately 55% quartz and 45% limestone.

Back to Contents

PorosityWireline
General

APS* and Litho-Density* Tools

Por-13

Porosity and LithologyOpen Hole

(former CP-1g)

Liquid-Filled Borehole (f = 1.000 g/cm3 and Cf = 0 ppm)


1.9
45

APLC
FPLC

40

2.0

40
35 35

Ap
pro
xim
cor gas ate
rec
tion

2.1

2.2

Bulk density,
b (g/cm3)

ity
os
r
Po
20 20

15 15

2.6

30
e
n
o
t
ds
an 5
e)
s
2
ton 30
rtz
s
a
e
Qu
(lim
e
t
i
20
lc
Ca 25
25
ite
m
lo
Do
0
0
2
2

25

35

35

25

30

10

55

15

15

00

2.7

15

10 10

2.5

40

30 30

2.3

2.4

40

35

10

10

0
5

2.8
00

2.9

e
rit
yd
h
An

3.0
0

10

20

30

40

Corrected APS apparent limestone neutron porosity, APScor (p.u.)


*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Por
Purpose
This chart is used to determine the lithology and porosity from the
Litho-Density bulk density and APS Accelerator Porosity Sonde porosity
log curves (APLC or FPLC). This chart applies to boreholes filled
with freshwater drilling fluid; Chart Por-14 is used for saltwater fluids.
Description
Enter either the APLC or FPLC porosity on the x-axis and the bulk
density on the y-axis. Use the blue matrix curves for APLC porosity
values and the red curves for FPLC porosity values. Anhydrite plots
on separate curves. The gas correction direction is indicated for formations containing gas. Move parallel to the blue correction line if
the APLC porosity is used or to the red correction line if the FPLC
porosity is used.

Example
Given:
Find:
Answer:

APLC porosity = 8 p.u. and bulk density = 2.2 g/cm3.


Approximate quartz sandstone porosity.
Enter at 8 p.u. on the x-axis and 2.2 g/cm3 on the y-axis
to find the intersection point is in the gas-in-formation
correction region. Because the APLC porosity value was
used, move parallel to the blue gas correction line until
the blue quartz sandstone curve is intersected at approximately 19 p.u.

Back to Contents

227

PorosityWireline
General

APS* and Litho-Density* Tools (saltwater formation)

Por-14

Porosity and LithologyOpen Hole

(former CP-1h)

Liquid-Filled Borehole (f = 1.190 g/cm3 and Cf = 250,000 ppm)


1.9
APLC
FPLC

45 45

2.0
40 40

Ap
pro
xim
cor gas ate
rec
tion

2.1

Bulk density,
b (g/cm3)

15 15

10 10

2.5

15
5

00

2.7

30
e
n
sto
nd 25
a
)
zs
30
20 20
ne
art
sto
Qu 0
e
2
(lim 5
ite
2
25
c
l
a
te
i
C
15
lom
Do
0
20
2

35

25

40

40

35

30

10

55

2.6

35

30 30

ity
ros
o
P
25

2.4

40

35 35

2.2

2.3

45

10

15

10

2.8
00

2.9

e
rit
yd
h
An

3.0
0

10

20

30

40

Corrected APS apparent limestone neutron porosity, APScor (p.u.)


*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Por
Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Por-13 to determine the lithology
and porosity from Litho-Density* bulk density and APS* porosity log
curves (APLC or FPLC) in saltwater boreholes.

228

Example
Given:
APLC porosity = 8 p.u. and bulk density = 2.2 g/cm3.
Find:
Approximate quartz sandstone porosity.
Answer: Enter 8 p.u. on the x-axis and 2.2 g/cm3 on the y-axis to
find the intersection point is in the gas-in-formation correction region. Because the APLC porosity value was
used, move parallel to the blue gas correction line until
the blue quartz sandstone curve is intersected at approximately 20 p.u.

Back to Contents

PorosityLWD
General

adnVISION475* 4.75-in. Azimuthal Density Neutron Tool

Por-15

Porosity and LithologyOpen Hole

Fresh Water, Liquid-Filled Borehole (f = 1.0 g/cm3)


1.9

Salt

40

2.0

40

35

ity
os
r
Po

2.1

40

35

30
30
e
ton
s
nd
sa
25
tr z
)
a
ne
Qu
sto
e
lim
20
e(
t
i
25
lc
Ca
ite
om
l
o
20
D

2.2

2.3
Bulk density,
b (g/cm3)

20

15

2.4

15

10

2.5

30

10
5

2.6

15

5
0

2.7

35

25

10
0
5

2.8
0

2.9

Anhydrite
3.0
5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Corrected apparent limestone neutron porosity, ADNcor (p.u.)


*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Por
Purpose
This chart is used to determine the crossplot porosity and lithology
from the adnVISION475 4.75-in. density and neutron porosity.
Description
Enter the chart with the adnVISION475 corrected apparent limestone neutron porosity (from Chart Neu-31) and bulk density. The
intersection of the two values is the crossplot porosity. The position
of the point of intersection between the matrix curves represents the
relative percentage of each matrix material.

Example
Given:
Find:
Answer:

ADNcor = 20 p.u. and b = 2.24 g/cm3.


Crossplot porosity and matrix material.
25 p.u. in sandstone.

Back to Contents

229

PorosityLWD
General

adnVISION675* 6.75-in. Azimuthal Density Neutron Tool

Por-16

Porosity and LithologyOpen Hole

Fresh Water, Liquid-Filled Borehole (f = 1.0 g/cm3)


1.9

40
2.0

40

35
2.1

y
30
sit
ro
o
P
30
25
e
n
sto
nd 25
a
s
e)
tz
20
ton
ar
s
u
e
Q
lim
20
e(
t
25
i
lc
Ca

2.2

2.3
Bulk density,
b (g/cm3)

15

2.4

15

10
2.5

10

35
30

te
mi
o
l
Do

15

2.6

0
2.7

20

35

10
0
5

2.8
0

2.9

3.0
5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Corrected apparent limestone neutron porosity, ADNcor (p.u.)

Por

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart uses the bulk density and apparent limestone porosity from
the adnVISION 6.75-in. Azimuthal Density Neutron tool to determine
the lithology of the logged formation and the crossplot porosity.
Description
This chart is applicable for logs obtained in freshwater drilling
fluid. Enter the corrected apparent limestone porosity and the bulk
density on the x- and y-axis, respectively. Their intersection point
determines the lithology and crossplot porosity.

230

Example
Given:
Find:
Answer:

Corrected adnVISION675 apparent limestone porosity =


20 p.u. and bulk density = 2.3 g /cm3.
Porosity and lithology type.
Entering the chart at 20 p.u. on the x-axis and 2.3 g /cm3
on the y-axis corresponds to a crossplot porosity of
21.5 p.u. and formation comprising approximately
60% quartz sandstone and 40% limestone.

Back to Contents

PorosityLWD
General

adnVISION825* 8.25-in. Azimuthal Density Neutron Tool

Por-17

Porosity and LithologyOpen Hole

Fresh Water, Liquid-Filled Borehole (f = 1.0 g/cm3)


1.9

40
2.0

40

35

2.2

30

30
e
n
sto
nd 25
a
s
e)
tz
ton
ar
s
u
e
Q
lim
20
e(
t
i
lc
ite
Ca
lom
o
D

20

15

20

10
2.5

25

15

2.4

30

25

2.3
Bulk density,
b (g/cm3)

35

40

ity
ros
o
P

35

2.1

10

15
5

2.6

10

0
2.7

0
5

2.8

2.9

3.0
5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Corrected apparent limestone neutron porosity, ADNcor (p.u.)

Por

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Por-15 to determine the lithology
and crossplot porosity from adnVISION825 8.25-in. Azimuthal Density
Neutron values.

Back to Contents

231

PorosityLWD

EcoScope* 6.75-in. Integrated LWD Tool

Por-18

Porosity and LithologyOpen Hole

Fresh Water, Liquid-Filled Borehole (f = 1.0 g/cm3)


1.9

45
40
40

2.0
35

Salt
30

ne
sto 25
d
n
Sa

2.2

20

2.3

Bulk density,
b (g/cm3)

15

10

2.5

35

25

30

te
mi
o
l
Do

20

10

30

ne
sto
e
25
Lim

20

15

2.4

15

2.6
0

2.7

40

35

2.1

10
0
5

2.8
0

2.9

3.0
5

Anhydrite
0

10

15

20

25

30

Corrected apparent limestone BPHI porosity (p.u.)


*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Por

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Por-15 to determine the lithology and crossplot porosity from EcoScope 6.75-in. density and best
thermal neutron porosity (BPHI) values.
Use this chart only with EcoScope BPHI neutron porosity; use
Chart Por-19 with EcoScope thermal neutron porosity (TNPH)
measurements.

232

Back to Contents

35

40

45

PorosityLWD

EcoScope* 6.75-in. Integrated LWD Tool

Por-19

Porosity and LithologyOpen Hole

Fresh Water, Liquid-Filled Borehole (f = 1.0 g/cm3)


1.9

45
40
40

2.0

35

Salt

35

2.1

40

30
30

2.2

20

2.3
Bulk density,
b (g/cm3)

15

2.4

15

10
2.5

2.7

ne
sto
d
n
Sa 20

e
ton
s
e
Lim

25

30
25

20

ite
lom
o
D

10
5

2.6

35

25

15
5

10
0
5

2.8

0
2.9

3.0
5

Anhydrite
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Corrected apparent limestone TNPH porosity (p.u.)


*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Por-15 to determine the lithology and crossplot porosity from EcoScope 6.75-in. density and thermal neutron porosity (TNPH) values.
Use this chart only with EcoScope TNPH neutron porosity; use
Chart Por-18 with EcoScope best thermal neutron porosity (BPHI)
measurements.

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Por

233

PorosityWireline
General

Sonic and Thermal Neutron Crossplot


Porosity and LithologyOpen Hole, Freshwater Invaded

Purpose
This chart is used to determine crossplot porosity and an approximation of lithology for sonic and thermal neutron logs in freshwater
drilling fluid.

Example
Given:

Description
Enter the corrected neutron porosity (apparent limestone porosity)
on the x-axis and the sonic slowness time (t) on the y-axis to find
their intersection point, which describes the crossplot porosity and
lithology composition of the formation. Two sets of curves are drawn
on the chart. The blue set of curves represents the crossplot porosity
values using the sonic time-average algorithm. The red set of curves
represents the field observation algorithm.

Find:
Answer:

Thermal neutron apparent limestone porosity = 20 p.u.


and sonic slowness time = 89 s/ft in freshwater
drilling fluid.
Crossplot porosity and lithology.
Enter the neutron porosity on the x-axis and the sonic
slowness time on the y-axis. The intersection point is at
about 25 p.u. on the field observation line and 24.5 p.u.
on the time-average line. The matrix is quartz sandstone.

Por

234

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PorosityWireline
General

Sonic and Thermal Neutron Crossplot

Por-20

Porosity and LithologyOpen Hole, Freshwater Invaded

(customary, former CP-2c)

tf = 190 s/ft and Cf = 0 ppm


110

35

40

40

Time average
Field observation

35 35
30

35

30

35

Qu
30 30
ar
tz
sa
nd
sto
ne
25

20

25

30

90

25 25

Po
ros
ity

100

15

Sonic transit time,


t (s/ft)

20

30

15
15

10

10

Sa
lt

20

15

10

70

25

15

20

20
Ca
lci
t
20 e (lim
es
t
25 one
Do
)
lom
ite

80

60
10

10

15

Por

50

An
hy
dr
ite
0

5
5

10

40
0

10

20

30

40

Corrected CNL* apparent limestone neutron porosity, CNLcor (p.u.)


*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

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235

PorosityWireline
General

Sonic and Thermal Neutron Crossplot

Por-21

Porosity and LithologyOpen Hole, Freshwater Invaded

(metric, former CP-2cm)

t f = 620 s/m and Cf = 0 ppm


360

40

40

Time average
Field observation

15

25

10

20

200

15

10

10

15

Sa
lt

20

15

10

15

20

240

30

20

20

260
Sonic transit time,
t (s/m)

Ca
lci
te
(
Do
25
25 lime
lom
sto
ne
ite
)
25

20

280

220

35

30

30

25
25

Po
ros
ity

35

Qu
30 30
ar
tz
sa
nd
sto
ne
30

320

300

35 35

35

340

10

15

0
5

180

An
hy
dri
te

Por

10

0
5

160

140

0
*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

10

20

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Por-20 for metric units.
236

30

Corrected CNL* apparent limestone neutron porosity, CNLcor (p.u.)

Back to Contents

40

PorosityWireline, LWD
General

Density and Sonic Crossplot


Porosity and LithologyOpen Hole, Freshwater Invaded

Purpose
This chart is used to determine porosity and lithology for sonic and
density logs in freshwater-invaded zones.

Example
Given:

Description
Enter the chart with the bulk density on the y-axis and sonic slowness time on the x-axis. The point of intersection indicates the type
of formation and its porosity.

Find:
Answer:

Bulk density = 2.3 g /cm3 and sonic slowness


time = 82 s/ft.
Crossplot porosity and lithology.
Limestone with a crossplot porosity = 24 p.u.

Por

continued on next page

Back to Contents

237

PorosityWireline, LWD
General

Density and Sonic Crossplot

Por-22

Porosity and LithologyOpen Hole, Freshwater Invaded

(customary, former CP-7)

t f = 189 s/ft and f = 1.0 g/cm3


1.8
Time average
Field observation
Sylvite
1.9

40

40

2.0
Salt

40
Sulfur

Trona

30

40

2.1

30

30

2.2

40

30

ity
os
r
Po
2.3

20

Gypsum

30

2.4

2.6

2.7

Por

20
10
10
Polyhalite

00
Do
lom
ite

2.8

2.9

10

0 Ca
Qu
ar
0 lcit
tz
e(
sa
lim
nd
es
sto
ton
ne
e)
10
0
0
10

10

2.5

20

Bulk density,
b (g/cm3)

20

20
20

30

Anhydrite
3.0
40

50

60

70

80

90

Sonic transit time, t (s/ft)


Schlumberger

238

Back to Contents

100

110

120

PorosityWireline, LWD
General

Density and Sonic Crossplot

Por-23

Porosity and LithologyOpen Hole, Freshwater Invaded

(metric, former CP-7m)

t f = 620 s/m and f = 1.0 g/cm3


1.8
Time average
Field observation
Sylvite
1.9

40

40

2.0

40

Salt
Sulfur
2.1

30

40

Trona

30

30

30

2.2

40

y
sit
ro
o
P

2.3
20

Gypsum

30

2.4

2.7

2.8

2.9

10

Por

Polyhalite

0
0 Do
lom
ite

2.6

Qu
0 Ca
ar
0 lc
tz
ite
sa
(lim
nd
sto
es
ton
ne
e)
10
0
0
10

10

20
10
10

2.5

20

Bulk density,
b (g/cm3)

20

20
20

30

Anhydrite
3.0
150

200

250

300

350

400

Sonic transit time, t (s/m)

Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used similarly to Chart Por-22 for metric units.

Back to Contents

239

PorosityWireline, LWD
General

Density and Neutron Tool


Porosity IdentificationGas-Bearing Formation

Purpose
This chart is used to determine the porosity and average water saturation in the flushed zone (Sxo) for freshwater invasion and gas composition of C1.1H4.2 (natural gas).
Description
Enter the chart with the neutron- and density-derived porosity values
(N and D, respectively). On the basis of the table, use the blue curves
for shallow reservoirs and the red curves for deep reservoirs.

Example
Given:
Find:
Answer:

D = 25 p.u. and N = 10 p.u. in a low-pressure, shallow


(4,000-ft) reservoir.
Porosity and Sxo.
Enter the chart at 25 p.u. on the y-axis and 10 p.u. on the
x-axis. The point of intersection identifies (on the blue
curves for a shallow reservoir) = 20 p.u. and Sxo = 62%.

Depth

Pressure

Temperature

w (g/cm3)

IHw

g (g/cm3)

IHg

Shallow reservoir
Deep reservoir

~2,000 psi [~14,000 kPa]


~7,000 psi [~48,000 kPa]

~120F [~50C]
~240F [~120C]

1.00
1.00

1.00
1.00

0
0.25

0
0.54

w = density of water, g = density of gas, IHw = hydrogen index of water, and IHg = hydrogen index of gas

Por

240

Back to Contents

PorosityWireline, LWD
General

Density and Neutron Tool

Por-24

Porosity IdentificationGas-Bearing Formation

(former CP-5)

50
40
0
35

20

35

40

Porosity

40

30
30
60
0

25
25

20

30

80

40
100
Sxo

60

Density-derived porosity,
D (p.u.)

20
20

80
100
Sxo

20
15

10

15

10

10

For shallow reservoirs, use blue curves.


For deep reservoirs, use red curves.

0
0

10

20

30

Por

40

Neutron-derived porosity, N (p.u.)

Schlumberger

Back to Contents

241

General
PorosityWireline

Density and APS* Epithermal Neutron Tool


Porosity IdentificationGas-Bearing Formation

Purpose
This chart is used to determine the porosity and average water saturation in the flushed zone (Sxo) for freshwater invasion and gas composition of CH4 (methane).
Description
Enter the chart with the APS Accelerator Porosity Sonde neutron- and
density-derived porosity values (N and D, respectively). On the basis
of the table, use the blue curves for shallow reservoirs and the red
curves for deep reservoirs.

Example
Given:
Find:
Answer:

D = 15 p.u. and APS N = 8 p.u. in a normally pressured


deep (14,000-ft) reservoir.
Porosity and S xo.
= 11 p.u. and S xo = 39%.

Depth

Pressure

Temperature

IHw

IHg

Shallow reservoir
Deep reservoir

~2,000 psi [~14,000 kPa]


~7,000 psi [~48,000 kPa]

~120F [~50C]
~240F [~120C]

1.00
1.00

1.00
1.00

0.10
0.25

0.23
0.54

w = density of water, g = density of gas, IHw = hydrogen index of water, and IHg = hydrogen index of gas

Por

242

Back to Contents

PorosityWireline
General

Density and APS* Epithermal Neutron Tool

Por-25

Porosity IdentificationGas-Bearing Formation

(former CP-5a)

50
40
40
0

35
20

40

Porosity
40

35

30
30
60
80

25
25

30

20

100

40
60
Density-derived porosity,
D (p.u.)

20
20

Sxo

80
100

Sxo

20
15 15

10
10
10
For shallow reservoirs, use blue curves.
For deep reservoirs, use red curves.

55

Por

0
0

10

20

30

40

APS epithermal neutron-derived porosity, N (p.u.)

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

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243

PorosityWireline
General

Density, Neutron, and Rxo Logs


Porosity Identification in Hydrocarbon-Bearing FormationOpen Hole

Purpose
This nomograph is used to estimate porosity in hydrocarbon-bearing
formations by using density, neutron, and resistivity in the flushed
zone (Rxo) logs. The density and neutron logs must be corrected for
environmental effects and lithology before entry to the nomograph.
The chart includes an approximate correction for excavation effect,
but if hydrocarbon density (h) is <0.25 g /cm3 (gas), the chart may
not be accurate in some extreme cases:

very high values of porosity (>35 p.u.) coupled with medium


to high values of hydrocarbon saturation (Shr)
Shr = 100% for medium to high values of porosity.

Example
Given:

Find:
Answer:

Corrected CNL apparent neutron porosity = 12 p.u.,


corrected apparent density porosity = 38 p.u., and
Shr = 50%.
Hydrocarbon-corrected porosity.
Enter the 12-p.u. cor value on the CNL scale. A line from
this value to 38 p.u. on the Dcor scale intersects the 1
scale at 32.2 p.u. The intersection of a line from this
value to the graph origin and Shr = 50% is = 1.6 p.u.
Hydrocarbon-corrected porosity: 32.2 1.6 = 30.6 p.u.

Description
Connect the apparent neutron porosity value on the appropriate
neutron porosity scale (CNL* Compensated Neutron Log or sidewall
neutron porosity [SNP] log) with the corrected apparent density
porosity on the density scale with a straight line. The intersection
point on the 1 scale indicates the value of 1.
Draw a line from the 1 value to the origin (lower right corner)
of the chart for versus Shr.
Enter the chart with Shr from (Shr = 1 Sxo) and move vertically
upward to determine the porosity correction factor () at the intersection with the line from the 1 scale.
This correction factor algebraically added to the porosity 1 gives
the corrected porosity.

Por

244

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PorosityWireline
General

Density, Neutron, and Rxo Logs

Por-26

Porosity Identification in Hydrocarbon-Bearing FormationOpen Hole

cor
(CNL*)
50

cor
(SNP)

50

(former CP-9)

Dcor
50

50

(p.u.)

40

40

40

40

30

30

30

30

20

20

20

20

(p.u.)
10

10

10

10

Por

0
100

80

60

40

20

Shr (%)
*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

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245

PorosityWireline
General

Hydrocarbon Density Estimation

Por-27
(former CP-10)

1.0

h
0.8

0.8
0.7
0.6

0.6

SNPcor
Dcor

0.5
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.2
0

0.2
0.1

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

Shr (%)
1.0

h
0.8

0.8
0.7
CNLcor
Dcor

0.6
0.6
0.4

0.5
0.4
0.3

0.2
0

0.1

0.2

Por

20

60

80

100

Shr (%)

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to estimate the hydrocarbon density (h) within
a formation from corrected neutron and density porosity values.
Description
Enter the ratio of the sidewall neutron porosity (SNP) or
CNL* Compensated Neutron Log neutron porosity and density
porosity corrected for lithology and environmental effects
(SNPcor or CNLcor /Dcor, respectively) on the y-axis and the
246

40

hydrocarbon saturation on the x-axis. The intersection point of the


two values defines the density of the hydrocarbon.
Example
Given:
Find:
Answer:

Corrected CNL porosity = 15 p.u., corrected density


porosity = 25 p.u., and Shr = 30% (residual hydrocarbon).
Hydrocarbon density.
Porosity ratio = 15/25 = 0.6. h = 0.29 g /cm3.

Back to Contents

SaturationWireline, LWD
General

Porosity Versus Formation Resistivity Factor

SatOH-1

Open Hole

50

2.5

(former Por-1)

10

20

50

100

200

500

1,000

2,000

5,000

10,000

40
30
25
20
15
FR =

Porosity,
(p.u.)

10
9
8
7

1
2
m
Vugs or
spherical pores

6
5

FR =

0.62
2.15

FR =

1
m

2.8
2.5

Fractures
2.2

3
1.8

2.0

2
FR =

0.81
2

1.6
1.4

1
2.5

10

20

50

100

200

500

1,000

2,000

5,000

10,000

Formation resistivity factor, FR


Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used for a variety of conversions of the formation
resistivity factor (FR) to porosity.

Example
Given:

Description
The most appropriate conversion is best determined by laboratory
measurement or experience in the area. In the absence of this
knowledge, recommended relationships are the following:

Find:
Answer:

Soft formation with


= 25 p.u.
FR.
FR = 13 (from chart).
FR = 12.96 (calculated).

Hard formation (m = 2) with


= 8 p.u.
FR.
SatOH
FR = 160 (from chart).
FR = 156 (calculated).

Soft formations (Humble formula): FR = 0.62/2.51 or Fr = 0.81/2


Hard formations: FR = 1/m with the appropriate cementation
factor (m).

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247

SaturationWireline, LWD

Spherical and Fracture Porosity

SatOH-2

Open Hole

(former Por-1a)

3.0
12.5
7.5

5.0

2.5

2.0

2.5

10.0

Isolated
pores

1.5
1.0
iso = 0.5

Cementation
exponent, m

2.0
fr =

0.1

0.2

0.5

1.5

Fractures

1.0
1.5

2.0
2.5

5.0

1.0
0.5

0.8

4
6
Porosity, (p.u.)

.0
10

10

20

30

40

50

Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to identify how much of the measured porosity
is isolated (vugs or moldic) or fractured porosity.
SatOH Description
This chart is based on a simplified model that assumes no contribution to formation conductivity from vugs and moldic porosity and the
cementation exponent (m) of fractures is 1.0.
When the pores of a porous formation have an aspect ratio close
to 1 (vugs or moldic porosity), the value of m of the formation is usually greater than 2. Fractured formations typically have a cementation exponent less than 2.

248

Enter the chart with the porosity () on the x-axis and m on the
y-axis. The intersection point gives an estimate of either the amount
of isolated porosity (iso) or the amount of porosity resulting from
fractures (fr).
Example
Given:
Find:
Answer:

= 10 p.u. and cementation exponent = 2.5.


Intergranular (matrix) porosity.
Entering the chart with 10 p.u. and 2.5 gives an intersection point of iso = approximately 4.5 p.u.
Intergranular porosity = 10 4.5 = 5.5 p.u.

Back to Contents

SaturationWireline, LWD

Saturation Determination
Open Hole

Purpose
This nomograph is used to solve the Archie water saturation
equation:

Sw =

Ro
FR
= R w,
Rt
Rt

Description
If Ro is known, a straight line from the known Ro value through the
measured Rt value indicates the value of Sw. If Ro is unknown, it may
be determined by connecting Rw with FR or porosity ().
Example
Given:

where
Sw = water saturation
Ro = resistivity of clean-water formation
Rt = true resistivity of the formation
FR = formation resistivity factor
Rw = formation water resistivity.

Find:
Answer:

It should be used in clean (nonshaly) formations only.

Rw = 0.05 ohm-m at formation temperature, = 20 p.u.


(FR = 25), and Rt = 10 ohm-m.
Water saturation.
Enter the nomograph on the Rw scale at Rw = 0.05 ohm-m.
Draw a straight line from 0.05 through the porosity scale
at 20 p.u. to intersect the Ro scale.
From the intersection point of Ro = 1, draw a straight line
through Rt = 10 ohm-m to intersect the Sw scale.
Sw = 31.5%.

SatOH

continued on next page

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249

SaturationWireline, LWD

Saturation Determination

SatOH-3

Open Hole

(former Sw-1)

Clean Formations, m = 2
Sw
(%)
Ro
(ohm-m)
Rw
(ohm-m)
0.01

0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.1

0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.5
2

(%)

FR

2.5
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

2,000
1,000
800
600
400
300
200
100
80
60
50
40
30
20

15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
FR =

10
8
6
5
4
1
2.0

30
20
18
16
14
12
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5

m = 2.0

0.3
0.2
0.18
0.16
0.14
0.12
0.10

SatOH

Schlumberger

Back to Contents

5
6
7
8
9

1,000
800
600
500
400
300
200

10
11
12
13
14
15
16

100
80
60
50
40
30
20

18
20

10
8
6
5
4
3
2

0.4

Ro = FRRw

250

Rt
(ohm-m)
10,000
8,000
6,000
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000

1.0
0.8
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1

25
30

40
50
60
70
80
90
100

Sw = Ro
Rt

SaturationWireline, LWD

Saturation Determination
Open Hole

Purpose
This chart is used to determine water saturation (Sw) in shaly or
clean formations when knowledge of the porosity is unavailable. It
may also be used to verify the water saturation determination from
another interpretation method. The large chart assumes that the
mud filtrate saturation is

Example
Given:
Find:
Answer:

S XO = 5 S W .
The small chart provides an Sxo correction when Sxo is known.
However, water activity correction is not provided for the SP portion
of the chart (see Chart SP-2).
Description
Clean Sands
Enter the large chart with the ratio of the resistivity of the flushed
zone to the true formation resistivity (Rxo /Rt) on the y-axis and the
ratio of the resistivity of the mud filtrate to the resistivity of the formation water (Rmf /Rw) on the x-axis to find the water saturation at
average residual oil saturation (Swa). If Rmf /Rw is unknown, the chart
may be entered with the spontaneous potential (SP) value and the
formation temperature. If Sxo is known, move diagonally upward,
parallel to the constant-Swa curves, to the right edge of the chart.
Then, move horizontally to the known Sxo (or residual oil saturation
[ROS], Sor) value to obtain the corrected value of Sw.

Rxo = 12 ohm-m, Rt = 2 ohm-m, Rmf /Rw = 20, and


Sor = 20%.
Sw (after correction for ROS).
Enter the large chart at Rxo /Rt = 12/2 = 6 on the
y-axis and Rmf /Rw = 20 on the x-axis. From the point of
intersection (labeled A), move diagonally to the right to
intersect the chart edge and directly across to enter the
small chart and intersect Sor = 20%.
Sw = 43%.

Description
Shaly Sands
Enter the chart with Rxo /Rt and the SP in the shaly sand (EPSP). The
point of intersection gives the Swa value. Draw a line from the charts
origin (the small circle located at Rxo /Rt = Rmf /Rm = 1) through this
point to intersect with the value of static spontaneous potential (ESSP)
to obtain a value of Rxo /Rt corrected for shaliness. This value of Rxo /Rt
versus Rmf /Rw is plotted to find Sw if Rmf /Rw is unknown because the
point defined by Rxo /Rt and ESSP is a reasonable approximation of Sw.
The small chart to the right can be used to further refine Sw if Sor is
known.
Example
Given:

Rxo /Rt = 2.8, Rmf /Rw = 25, EPSP = 75 mV, ESSP = 120 mV,
and electrochemical SP coefficient (Kc) = 80 (formation
temperature = 150F).
Find:
Sw and corrected value for Sor = 10%.
Answer: Enter the large chart at Rxo/Rt = 2.8 and the intersection
of EPSP = 75 mV at Kc = 80 from the chart below. A line
from the origin through the intersection point (labeled B)
intersects the 120-mV value of ESSP at Point C. Move
horizontally to the left to intersect Rmf /Rw = 25 at Point D.
Then move diagonally to the right to intersect the right
y-axis of the chart. Move horizontally to the small chart to
determine Sxo = 0.9%, Sw = 38%, and corrected Sw = 40%.
For more information, see Reference 12.

SatOH

continued on next page

Back to Contents

251

SaturationWireline, LWD

Saturation Determination

SatOH-4

Open Hole

(former Sw-2)

Sor (%)
Rmf /Rw
0.6

0.8 1.0

1.5

2 2.5 3

5 6

0
8 10

15

20 25 30

10

20

50

70

50

30
20

40

60

80

40

EPSP = Kc log

30

40 50 60

60

Rxo
Sxo
2Kc log
Rt
Sw

40

50

Sxo = S w

Sw

(%)
30

40

25

10
8
0%
10
=
a

6
5

15

20
B
15

40
%

25

3
25
% 0%

Rxo
Rt

D
50 60% 70%
%

Sw

1
0.8

Sxo = 5 S w
10
1.0

0.9

0.8

Sxo
Sw = Sxo (Swa)0.8

15
%

0.4
0.3

10
%

0.2

0.1
0.08

SatOH

0.6

0.8 1.0

1.5

2 2.5 3

Kc
70

75
100
Temperature 150
(F)
200

5 6
8 10
Rmf /Rw

15

20 25 30

20 10

90
100

40 50 60
25
50
75
100
150

80

300

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

EPSP or ESSP (mV)


Schlumberger

252

0.7

20
%

0.6
0.5

20

30

Back to Contents

Temperature
(C)

0.6

SaturationWireline, LWD

Graphical Determination of Sw from Swt and Swb

SatOH-5

Open Hole

(former Sw-14)

100

Swb

90

70%
80

60%
50%

70

40%
30%

60

20%
10%

Swt (%)

50

40

30

20

10

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Sw (%)

Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to drive a value of water saturation (Sw) corrected
for the bound-water volume in shale.
Description
This is a graphical determination of Sw from the total water saturation (Swt) and the saturation of bound water (Swb):

Sw =

SatOH

Enter the y-axis with Swt and move horizontally to intersect


the appropriate Swb curve. Read the value of Sw on the x-axis.
Example
Given:
Find:
Answer:

Swt = 45% and Swb = 10%.


Sw.
Sw = 39.5%.

S wt S wb
.
1 S wb

Back to Contents

253

SaturationWireline, LWD

Porosity and Gas Saturation in Empty Hole

SatOH-6

Open Hole

(former Sw-11)

Density and Hydrogen Index of Gas Assumed Zero

Use if no
shale present
0

Use if no
oil present

Porosity, (p.u.)
2

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

28 30
100

90

4
6

80

8
70

10
12

100
70
60
50

60

(%)

14
50

16
18

40

Gas
sat
ura
tion
, Sg

Neutron
porosity
index
(corrected
for lithology)

30

22
24

20

20
15
14
13
12
11

26
10

28
30

2.65

0
2.6

2.5

2.4

2.3

2.2

2.1

2.0

1.9

1.8

2.70
Matrix density,
ma (g/cm3)

Rt
Rw

30

40

20

10,000
4,000
2,000
1,000
400
300
200
150

Sandstone
Limy sandstone
Limestone

2.75
2.80
2.85

Dolomite

2.90
2.8
Schlumberger

2.7

2.6

2.5

Purpose
This chart is used to determine porosity () and gas saturation (Sg)
from the combination of density and neutron or from density and
SatOH resistivity measurements.
Description
Enter from the point of intersection of the matrix density (ma) and
apparent bulk density (b). Move vertically upward to intersect
either neutron porosity (N, corrected for lithology) or the ratio of
true resistivity to connate water resistivity (Rt /Rw). This point defines
the actual porosity and Sg on the curves.
Oil saturation (So) can also be determined if all three measurements (density, neutron, and resistivity) are available. Find the values
of and Sg as before, and then find the intersection of R t /R w with
to read the value of the total hydrocarbon saturation (Sh) on the
saturation scale for use in the following equations:
254

2.4

2.3

2.2

2.1

2.0

1.9

Apparent bulk density from density log, b (g/cm3)

So = Sh Sg
Sw = 100 Sh.
Example
Given:
Limy sandstone (ma = 2.68 g/cm3), b = 2.44 g/cm3,
N = 9 p.u., R t = 74 ohm-m, and R w = 0.1 ohm-m.
Find:
, Sg, Sh, So, and Sw.
Answer: First, find R t /R w = 74/0.1 = 740.
= 12 p.u. and Sg = 25%.
Sh = 70% (total hydrocarbon saturation).
So = 70 25 = 45%.
Sw = 100 70 = 30%.

Back to Contents

SaturationWireline

EPT* Propagation Time

SatOH-7

Open Hole

(former Sxo-1)

tpma (ns/m)
8
9
10

tpma (ns/m)
8
9
10
Sxo
(%)

21

100

20
19

90
18
17

80
Gas il
O

16
15

50
4
40 5
35
30
25

70
60

50
60
70
80
90

20

10

15

10
5

53%
50

35
40

Fo
rm
ati
on
(% poro
)
sit
y

11

/m)
(ns

30

13
12

10.9

t pw
25

14
tpl (ns/m)

21

40
30
20

7
10

6
5
Sandstone

0
Limestone

Sandstone

Limestone

Dolomite

Dolomite
*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Purpose
This nomograph is used to define flushed zone saturation (Sxo) in
the rock immediately adjacent to the borehole by using the EPT
Electromagnetic Propagation Tool time measurement (tpl).
Description
Use of this chart requires knowledge of the reservoir lithology or
matrix propagation time (tpma), saturating water propagation time
(tpw), porosity (), and expected hydrocarbon type. Enter the far-left
scale with tpl and move parallel to the diagonal lines to intersect the
appropriate tpma value. From this point move horizontally to the right

edge of the scale grid. From this point, extend a straight line through
the porosity scale to the center scale grid; again, move parallel to the
diagonal lines to the appropriate tpma value and then horizontally to
the right edge of the grid scale. From this point, extend a straight
line through the intersection of tpw and the hydrocarbon type point
SatOH
to intersect the Sxo scale. For more information, see Reference 25.

Back to Contents

255

SaturationWireline

EPT* Attenuation

SatOH-8

Open Hole

(former Sxo-2)

Sxo
(%)
5
6

Aw
(dB/m)

6,000

8
9
10

AEPTcor
(dB/m)

5,000
4,000

3,000

2,000

(p.u.)

6
8

2
1,000
900
800
700
600
500

20

3
4

30
10

3
4
5

40
20
30
40

10

400

15
20

300

30
40

50
60
70

60
80
100

200

80
90
100

200
300
400

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

600
800
1,000

100
90
80

Purpose
This nomograph is used to determine the flushed zone saturation
(Sxo) in the rock immediately adjacent to the borehole by using the
EPT Electromagnetic Propagation Tool attenuation measurement. It
requires knowledge of the saturating fluid (usually mud filtrate)
SatOH
attenuation (Aw), porosity (), and the EPT EATT attenuation
(AEPTcor) corrected for spreading loss.
Description
The value of Aw must first be determined. Chart Gen-16 is used to
estimate Aw by using the equivalent water salinity and formation
temperature. EPT-D spreading loss is determined from the inset on
Chart Gen-16 based on the uncorrected EPT propagation time (tpl)
measurement. The spreading loss correction algebraically added to
the EPT-D EATT attenuation measurement gives the corrected EPT
attenuation (AEPTcor). These values are used with porosity on the
nomograph to determine Sxo.
256

Example
Given:
Find:
Answer:

EATT = 250 dB/m, tpl = 10.9 ns/m, = 28 p.u., water salinity = 20,000 ppm, and bottomhole temperature = 150F.
Spreading loss (from Chart Gen-16 inset) and Sxo.
The spreading loss determined from the inset on
Chart Gen-16 is 82 dB/m.
AEPTcor = 250 82 = 168 dB/m.
Aw (from Chart Gen-16) = 1,100 dB/m.
Enter the far-left scale at Aw = 1,100 dB/m and draw
a straight line through = 28 p.u. on the next scale to
intersect the median line. From this intersection point,
draw a straight line through AEPTcor = 168 dB/m on the
next scale to intersect the Sxo value on the far-right
scale. Sxo = 56 p.u.

Back to Contents

SaturationWireline

Capture Cross Section Tool


Cased Hole

Purpose
This chart is used to determine water saturation (Sw) from capture
cross section, or sigma (), measurements from the TDT* Thermal
Decay Time pulsed neutron log.
Description
This chart uses sigma water (w), matrix capture cross section (ma),
and porosity () to determine water saturation in clean formations.
The chart may be used in shaly formations if sigma shale (sh), the
volume fraction of shale in the formation (Vsh), and the porosity corrected for shale are known.
Thermal decay time (t and tsh in shale) is also shown on some
of the chart scales because it is related to .
Procedure
Clean Formation
The Sw determination for a clean formation requires values known
for ma (based on lithology), , w from the NaCl salinity (see Chart
Gen-12 or Gen-13), and sigma hydrocarbon (h) (see Chart Gen-14).
Enter the value of ma on Scale B and draw a line to Pivot Point B.
Enter log on Scale B and draw Line b through the intersection of
Line a and the value of to intersect the sigma of the formation
fluid (f) on Scale C. Draw Line 5 from f through the intersection
of h and w to determine the value of Sw on Scale D.
Example: Clean Formation
Given:
log = 20 c.u., ma = 8 c.u. (sandstone) from TDT tool,
h = 18 c.u., w = 80 c.u. (150,000 ppm or mg/kg), and
= 30 p.u.
Find:
Sw.
Answer: Following the procedure for a clean formation, Sw = 43%.

Procedure
Shaly Formation
The Sw determination in a shaly formation requires additional information: sigma shale (sh) read from the TDT log in adjacent shale,
Vsh from porosity-log crossplot or gamma ray, shale porosity (sh) read
from a porosity log in adjacent shale, and the porosity corrected for
shaliness (shcor) with the relation for neutron and density logs
in liquid-filled formations of shcor = log Vshsh.
Enter the value of ma on Scale B and draw Line 1 to intersect
with Pivot Point A. From the value of sh on Scale A, draw Line 2
through the intersection of Line 1 and Vsh to determine the shalecorrected cor on Scale B. Draw Line 3 from cor to the value of ma
on the scale to the left of Scale C. Enter log on Scale B and draw
Line 4 through the intersection of Line 3 and the value of to determine f on Scale C. From f on Scale C, draw Line 5 through the
intersection of h and w to determine Sw on Scale D.
Example
Given:

Find:
Answer:

log = 25 c.u.
ma = 8 c.u.
h = 18 c.u.
w = 80 c.u.
sh = 45 c.u.
log = 33 p.u.
sh = 45 p.u.
Vsh = 0.2.
shcor and Sw.
First find the porosity corrected for shaliness,
shcor = 33 p.u. (0.2 45 p.u.) = 24 p.u. This value
is used for the point between Scales B and C.
Sw = 43%.

SatCH

continued on next page

Back to Contents

257

SaturationWireline

Capture Cross Section Tool

SatCH-1

Cased Hole

(former Sw-12)

sh

20

30

(c.u.)
sh

40

50

60

A
200

150

120

100

90

80

t sh ( s)
2

Pivot point A
1
0.5

0.4
0.3
0.2

(c.u.)
B

cor

50

40

30

100

120

140

160

200

300

400

t ( s)
10
15
20

45
a

ma

5 10 15 20

p.u.

Pivot point B

(c.u.)

25
30
35
40

30
30

40

50

60

(c.u.)

70

80

90

100

110

120

40
20
40
60

50

60

70

80

Formation water
salinity (ppm 1,000)

0
20

0
25

120

0
10
15
21

10
0

90

(c.u.)

SatCH

Sw (%)
100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

Sw =

) (

)
h)

sh

sh

Schlumberger

258

Back to Contents

ma

0.1
10 0

20

10

SaturationWireline

Capture Cross Section Tool


Cased Hole

Purpose
This chart is used to graphically interpret the TDT* Thermal Decay
Time log. In one technique, applicable in shaly as well as clean
sands, the apparent water capture cross section (wa) is plotted
versus bound-water saturation (Swb) on a specially constructed grid to
determine the total water saturation (Swt).

85
Bound-water
point
wb = 76

80
75

100% water line

70
65
60

wa =

+ ma .

(1)

Example
Given:

Find:
Answer:

S wt S vb
.
1 S wb

70
60

55

50

4
40

50
45

wa

(c.u.)

30
20

10

35

30

The hydrocarbon point is also located on the left y-axis of the grid.
It can be determined from Chart Gen-14 based on the known or
expected hydrocarbon type.
The bound-water point (Swb) can be obtained from the TDT log
in shale intervals also by using the wa equation. It is located on the
right y-axis of the grid.
The distance between the free-water and hydrocarbon points is
linearly divided into lines of constant water saturation drawn parallel
to a straight line connecting the free-water and bound-water points.
The Swt = 0% line originates from the hydrocarbon point, and the
Swt = 100% line originates from the free-water point.
The value of wa from the equation is plotted versus Swb to give
Swt. The value of Swb can be estimated from the gamma ray or other
bound-water saturation estimator.
Once Swt and Swb are known, the water saturation of the reservoir
rock exclusive of shale can be determined using

Sw =

80

7
5

40

log ma

90%

Free-water
point
wf = 61

Description
To construct the grid, refer to the example chart on this page. Three
fluid points must be located: free-water point (wf), hydrocarbon
point (h), and a bound-water point (wb). The free- (or connate formation) water point is located on the left y-axis and can be obtained
from measurement of a formation water sample, from Charts Gen-12
and Gen-13 if the water salinity is known, or from the TDT log in
a clean water-bearing sand by using the following equation:

90

(2)

wf = 61 c.u. and h = 21 c.u. (medium-gravity oil with


modest GOR from Chart Gen-14), and wb = 76 c.u.
(from TDT log in a shale interval and the preceding Eq. 1).
Swt and Sw for Point 4.
wa = 54 c.u. (from Eq. 1) and Swb = 25% (from
gamma ray).
Swt = 72% and Sw = 63% (from the preceding Sw
equation).

25
20

Hydrocarbon
point
h = 21

15
10
5
0

20

40

44 48 52

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

40

60
Swb (%)

80

56 60 64 68 72 76
Gamma Ray
(gAPI)

100

80

The grid can also be used to graphically determine water


saturation (Sw) in clean formations by crossplotting log on the
y-axis and porosity () on the x-axis. The values of ma and Sw need
not be known but must be constant over the interval studied. There
must be some points from 100% water zones and a good variation in
porosity. These water points define the Sw = 100% line; when extrapolated, this line intersects the zero-porosity axis at ma. The Sw = 0%
line is drawn from ma at = 0 p.u. to = h at = 100 p.u. (or
= 12(ma + h) at = 50 p.u.). The vertical distance from Sw = 0%
to Sw = 100% is divided linearly to define lines of constant water
saturation. The water saturation of any plotted point can thereby
be determined.
SatCH

continued on next page

Back to Contents

259

SaturationWireline

Capture Cross Section Tool

SatCH-2

Cased Hole

(former Sw-17)

log

or
wa

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

or Swb

SatCH
Schlumberger

260

Back to Contents

SaturationWireline

RST* Reservoir Saturation Tool1.6875 in. and 2.5 in.


Carbon/Oxygen RatioOpen Hole

Purpose
Charts SatCH-3 through SatCH-8 are presented for illustrative
purposes only. They are used to ensure that the measured near- and
far-detector carbon/oxygen (C/O) ratio data are consistent with the
interpretation model. These example charts are drawn for specific
cased and open holes and tool sizes to provide trapezoids for the
to determination of oil saturation (So) and oil holdup (yo).
Description
Known formation and borehole data define the expected C/O ratio
values, which are determined in water saturation and borehole
holdup values ranging from 0 to 1. All log data for formations with
porosity () greater than 10 p.u. should be within the trapezoidal
area bounded by the limits of the So and yo values. If data plot

consistently outside the trapezoid, the interpretation model may


require revision.
The rectangle within each chart is constructed from four distinct
points determined by the intersection of the near- and far-detector
C/O ratios:
WW = water/water point
WO = water/oil point
OW = oil/water point
OO = oil/oil point.
RST Reservoir Saturation Tool processing then determines the water
saturation (Sw) of the formation.

SatCH

continued on next page

Back to Contents

261

SaturationWireline

RST* Reservoir Saturation Tool1.6875 in. and 2.5 in.


in 6.125-in. Borehole

SatCH-3
(former RST-3)

Carbon/Oxygen RatioOpen Hole

= 30%, 6.125-in. Open Hole

0.8

RST-A and RST-C, limestone


RST-A, quartz sandstone
RST-B and RST-D, limestone
RST-B, quartz sandstone

OO

0.6
OO
Far-detector
carbon/oxygen
ratio

OO
WO

0.4

OO

OW
WO

WO
0.2

WW
0

OW

OW

WO
WW

OW

WW
WW
0.5
Near-detector carbon/oxygen ratio

1.0

= 20%, 6.125-in. Open Hole

0.8

RST-A and RST-C, limestone


RST-A, quartz sandstone
RST-B and RST-D, limestone
RST-B, quartz sandstone
OO

0.6

Far-detector
carbon/oxygen
ratio

0.4
OO
WO

OO
WO

WO
WO
0

OW

OW

WW

0.2

SatCH

OO

OW

OW

WW

WW
WW
0

0.5
Near-detector carbon/oxygen ratio

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

262

Back to Contents

1.0

SaturationWireline

RST* Reservoir Saturation Tool1.6875 in. and 2.5 in.


in 9.875-in. Borehole

SatCH-4

Carbon/Oxygen RatioOpen Hole

= 30%, 9.875-in. Open Hole


1.5
RST-A and RST-C, limestone
RST-A, quartz sandstone
RST-B and RST-D, limestone
RST-B, quartz sandstone
OO
1.0

OO

Far-detector
carbon/oxygen
ratio

OW
0.5
OW

WO

OW

WO
WO
WW

OW
WW

0
WW WW
0

0.5

1.5

1.0

Near-detector carbon/oxygen ratio


= 20%, 9.875-in. Open Hole
1.5
RST-A and RST-C, limestone
RST-A, quartz sandstone
RST-Band RST-D, limestone
RST-B, quartz sandstone
1.0
OO
Far-detector
carbon/oxygen
ratio

OW
OO
0.5

OW
OW
WO

WW
WO
WW

WO

OW

SatCH

WW

WW
0

0.5

1.0

1.5

Near-detector carbon/oxygen ratio


*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

Back to Contents

263

SaturationWireline

RST* Reservoir Saturation Tool1.6875 in. and 2.5 in.


in 8.125-in. Borehole with 4.5-in. Casing at 11.6 lbm/ft

SatCH-5
(former RST-5)

Carbon/Oxygen RatioCased Hole

= 30%, 6.125-in. Borehole, 4.5-in. Casing at 11.6 lbm/ft

0.8

RST-A and RST-C, limestone


RST-A, quartz sandstone
RST-B and RST-D, limestone
RST-B, quartz sandstone

0.6

Far-detector
carbon/oxygen
ratio

OO

OO

0.4

WO
WO

OO

OW

WO

0.2

WW
WO

OW

OO

OW

OW

WW WW
0.5

1.0

Near-detector carbon/oxygen ratio


= 20%, 6.125-in. Borehole, 4.5-in. Casing at 11.6 lbm/ft

0.8

RST-A and RST-C, limestone


RST-A, quartz sandstone
RST-B and RST-D, limestone
RST-B, quartz sandstone

0.6

Far-detector
carbon/oxygen
ratio

OO
0.4

OO
WO
WO
0.2

WO
WO

SatCH
0

OW
OO

OW
OO

WW
WW

OW

OW

WW
WW
0

0.5
Near-detector carbon/oxygen ratio

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

264

Back to Contents

1.0

SaturationWireline

RST* Reservoir Saturation Tool1.6875 in. and 2.5 in.


in 7.875-in. Borehole with 5.5-in. Casing at 17 lbm/ft

SatCH-6

Carbon/Oxygen RatioCased Hole

= 30%, 7.875-in. Borehole, 5.5-in. Casing at 17 lbm/ft

0.8

RST-A and RST-C, limestone


RST-A, quartz sandstone
RST-B and RST-D, limestone
RST-B, quartz sandstone
OO

0.6

Far-detector
carbon/oxygen
ratio

OO

OW

0.4

OO

WO
WO
0.2

OO
OW

WO
WO
WW

OW

WW

OW

WW
WW
0.5

1.0

Near-detector carbon/oxygen ratio


= 20%, 7.875-in. Borehole, 5.5-in. Casing at 17 lbm/ft

0.8

RST-A and RST-C, limestone


RST-A, quartz sandstone
RST-B and RST-D, limestone
RST-B, quartz sandstone

0.6
OO
Far-detector
carbon/oxygen
ratio

OW

0.4

OO
OO

0.2

WO
WO
WW
WW
WO
WO
WW
WW
0

OW
OO

OW

OW

0.5
Near-detector carbon/oxygen ratio

SatCH

1.0

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

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265

SaturationWireline

RST* Reservoir Saturation Tool1.6875 in. and 2.5 in.


in 8.5-in. Borehole with 7-in. Casing at 29 lbm/ft

SatCH-7
(former RST-1)

Carbon/Oxygen RatioCased Hole

= 30%, 8.5-in. Borehole, 7-in. Casing at 29 lbm/ft


RST-A and RST-C, limestone
RST-A, quartz sandstone
RST-B and RST-D, limestone
RST-B, quartz sandstone

0.8

OO

OO

0.6

Far-detector
carbon/oxygen
ratio

OW

OO
OO

0.4

OW
WO

OW

WO

0.2
WO

OW

WW
WW
WW
0.5

1.0

Near-detector carbon/oxygen ratio


= 20%, 8.5-in. Borehole, 7-in. Casing at 29 lbm/ft
RST-A and RST-C, limestone
RST-A, quartz sandstone
RST-B and RST-D, limestone
RST-B, quartz sandstone

0.8

OO

0.6
OW
Far-detector
carbon/oxygen
ratio

OO

OO
OW

0.4

OW

OO

WO
0.2
WW
WO

SatCH

WO
OW

WW
0
WW

WW
0

0.5
Near-detector carbon/oxygen ratio

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

266

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1.0

SaturationWireline

RST* Reservoir Saturation Tool1.6875 in. and 2.5 in.


in 9.875-in. Borehole with 7-in. Casing at 29 lbm/ft

SatCH-8
(former RST-2)

Carbon/Oxygen RatioCased Hole

= 30%, 9.875-in. Borehole, 7-in. Casing at 29 lbm/ft

0.8

RST-A and RST-C, limestone


RST-A, quartz sandstone
RST-B and RST-D, limestone
RST-B, quartz sandstone

OO

0.6
OO
OW
Far-detector
carbon/oxygen
ratio

OO

0.4
OW

OO

WO
0.2

OW
WO

WO
WO
WW
WW
WW

OW

WW
0.5

1.0

Near-detector carbon/oxygen ratio


= 20%, 9.875-in. Borehole, 7-in. Casing at 29 lbm/ft

0.8

RST-A and RST-C, limestone


RST-A, quartz sandstone
RST-B and RST-D, limestone
RST-B, quartz sandstone

OO

0.6
OW
OO
Far-detector
carbon/oxygen
ratio

OW

0.4

OO

OW
0.2

OO

WO
WO
WW WO
WO
WW
WW

OW

SatCH

WW
0

0.5
Near-detector carbon/oxygen ratio

1.0

*Mark of Schlumberger
Schlumberger

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267

General
Permeability

Permeability from Porosity and Water Saturation


Open Hole

Purpose
Charts Perm-1 and Perm-2 are used to estimate the permeability of
shales, shaly sands, or other hydrocarbon-saturated intergranular
rocks at irreducible water saturation (Swi).
Description
The charts are based on empirical observations and are similar in
form to a general expression proposed by Wyllie and Rose (1950)
(see Reference 49):

1/ 2

C
=
+ C .
S wi

Example
Given:

= 23 p.u., Swi = 30%, gas saturation with h = 0.3 g/cm3


and w = 1.1 g/cm3, and h = 120 ft.
Correction factor and k.
First, nd pc to determine the correction factor if the
zone of interest is not at irreducible water saturation:

Find:
Answer:

pc =

100 2.25
k 1/ 2 =
.
S wi

(2)

Chart Perm-1: Swi = 0.072% and k = 130 mD.


Chart Perm-2: Swi = 0.072% and k = 65 mD.

(3)
2.0

The charts are valid only for zones at irreducible water saturation.
Enter porosity () and Swi on a chart. Their intersection denes
the intrinsic (absolute) rock permeability (k). Medium-gravity oil is
assumed. If the saturating hydrocarbon is other than medium-gravity
oil, a correction factor (C) based on the uid densities of water and
hydrocarbons (w and h, respectively) and elevation above the freewater level (h) should be applied to the Swi value before it is entered
on the chart. The chart on this page provides the correction factor
based on the capillary pressure:

h w h

).

pc = 200
1.8

1.6
pc =
Correction
factor, C

h(w o)
2.3

1.4

(4)

1.2

Charts Perm-1 and Perm-2 can be used to recognize zones at irreducible water saturation, for which the product Swi from levels within
the zone is generally constant and plots parallel to the Swi lines.

1.0

2.3

2.3

Enter the correction factor chart with Swi = 30% to intersect the curve for pc = 40 (nearest to 42), for which the
correction factor is 1.08. The corrected Swi value is Swi =
1.08 30% = 32.4%.

Chart Perm-2 presents the results of another study:

pc =

2.3

) = 120(1.1 0.3) = 42.

(1)

Chart Perm-1 presents the results of one study for which the
observed relation was

1 S wi
k 1/ 2 70 e2 =
.
S wi

h w h

pc = 100

pc = 40
pc = 10
pc = 0

0.8
0

20

40

60

80

Irreducible water saturation, Swi (%)


Schlumberger

Perm

268

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100

Permeability
General

Permeability from Porosity and Water Saturation

Perm-1

Open Hole

(former K-3)

60
0.5
0.2
50

1.0

0.1

0.01

40
Irreducible
water
saturation
above
transition
zone,
Swi (%)

Swi
5

0.12
10
20

30

0.10

Pe
rm
ea
bil
ity
,
50

k(
mD
)
100

200
20
0.04

0.08
0.06
500
1,000
2,000
5,000

0.02

10
0.01

0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Porosity, (p.u.)

Schlumberger

Perm

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269

General
Permeability

Permeability from Porosity and Water Saturation

Perm-2

Open Hole

(former K-4)

40

35
5,000
30
2,000

Porosity,
(p.u.)

1,000
500

20
200

)
mD
,k(
lity
abi
me
Per

25

Swi
0.12
0.10

100
15

0.08

50
20
10

0.06
0.04

10

0.02

0.10

0.01

0.01

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Irreducible water saturation above transition zone, Swi (%)

Schlumberger

This chart is used similarly to Chart Perm-1 for the relation

1 S wi
k 1/ 2 70 e2
.
S wi

Perm

270

Back to Contents

80

90

100

Permeability
General

Fluid Mobility Effect on Stoneley Slowness

Perm-3

Open Hole

Fresh Mud at 600 Hz

10,000

Membrane impedance

1,000

Mobility
(mD/cp)

10

50

0 GPa/cm
(no mudcake)

100

10

0.1
0.1

10

100

Mobility-added slowness, S Se (s/ft)

Schlumberger

Purpose
This chart is used to estimate ease of movement through a formation
by a uid.
Description
The mobility-added slowness, which is the difference between the
Stoneley slowness and the calculated elastic Stoneley slowness, is
plotted on the x-axis and the mobility of the uid is on the y-axis. The
membrane impedance curves represent the effect that the mudcake
has on the determination of the mobility of the uid in the formation.
The membrane impedance is scaled in gigapascal per centimeter.
Perm

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271

Cement
General EvaluationWireline

Cement Bond LogCasing Strength


InterpretationCased Hole

Purpose
This chart is used to determine the decibel attenuation of casing
from the measured cement bond log (CBL) amplitude and convert
it to the compressive strength of bonded cement (either standard
or foamed).
Description
The amplitude of the first casing arrival is recorded by an acoustic
signal-measuring device such as a sonic or cement bond tool. This
amplitude value is a measure of decibel attenuation that can be
translated into a bond index (an indication of the percent of casing
cement bonding) and the compressive strength (psi) of the cement
at the time of logging.
Enter the chart on the y-axis with the log value of CBL amplitude
and move upward parallel to the 45 lines to intersect the appropriate casing size. At that point, move horizontally right to the attenuation scale on the right-hand y-axis. From this point, draw a line
through the appropriate casing thickness value to intersect the compressive strength scale. The casing wall thickness is calculated by
subtracting the nominal inside diameter (ID) from the outside
diameter (OD) listed on the table for threaded nonupset casing
and dividing the difference by 2.

Example
Given:
Log amplitude reading = 3.5 mV in zone of interest
and 1.0 mV in a well-bonded section (usually the lowest
millivolt value on the log), casing size = 7 in. at
29 lbm/ft, casing thickness = 0.41 in., and neat cement
(not foamed).
Find:
Compressive strength and bond index of the cement at
the time of logging.
Answer: Enter the 3.5-mV reading on the left y-axis of Chart
Cem-1 and proceed to the 7-in. casing line.
Move horizontally to intersect the right-hand y-axis at
8.9 dB/ft.
Determine the casing thickness as (7 6.184)/2 = 0.816/2
= 0.41 in. Draw a line from 8.9 dB/ft through the 0.41-in.
casing thickness point to the compressive strength scale.
Cement compressive strength = 2,100 psi.
To find the bond index, determine the decibel attenuation of the
lowest recorded log value by entering 1.0 mV on the left-hand y-axis
and proceeding to the 7-in. casing line. Move horizontally to intersect
the right-hand y-axis at 12.3 dB/ft.
Divide the precisely determined decibel attenuation for the CBL
amplitude in the zone of interest by this value for the lowest millivolt
value: 8.9/12.3 = 72% bond index.
A 72% bond index means that 72% of the casing is bonded. This
is not a well-bonded zone because a value of 80% bonding over a 10-ft
interval is historically considered well bonded. Although the logging
scale is a linear millivolts scale, the decibel attenuation scale is logarithmic. The millivolts log scale for the CBL value cannot rescaled
in percent of bonding. If it were, the apparent percent bonding
would be 65% because most bond log scales are from 0 to 100 mV
reading from left to right, over 10 divisions of track 1, or conversely
100% to 0% cement bonding for 0 mV = 100% bonding and
100 mV = 0% bonding.

Cem
272

Back to Contents

Cement EvaluationWireline

Cement Bond LogCasing Strength


InterpretationCased Hole

Threaded Nonupset Casing


OD
(in.)

Weight
per ft
(lbm)

Nominal
ID
(in.)

Drift
Diameter
(in.)

OD
(in.)

Weight
per ft
(lbm)

Nominal
ID
(in.)

Drift
Diameter
(in.)

OD
(in.)

11.60

3.428

3.303

412

9.50
11.60
13.50

4.090
4.000
3.920

3.965
3.875
3.795

434

16.00

4.082

3.957

11.50
13.00
15.00
17.70
18.00
21.00

4.560
4.494
4.408
4.300
4.276
4.154

4.435
4.369
4.283
4.175
4.151
4.029

17.00
20.00
22.00
23.00
24.00
26.00
28.00
29.00
30.00
32.00
35.00
38.00
40.00

6.538
6.456
6.398
6.366
6.336
6.276
6.214
6.184
6.154
6.094
6.004
5.920
5.836

6.413
6.331
6.273
6.241
6.211
6.151
6.089
6.059
6.029
5.969
5.879
5.795
5.711

13.00
14.00
15.00
15.50
17.00
20.00
23.00

5.044
5.012
4.974
4.950
4.892
4.778
4.670

4.919
4.887
4.849
4.825
4.767
4.653
4.545

20.00
24.00
26.40
29.70
33.70
39.00

7.125
7.025
6.969
6.875
6.765
6.625

7.000
6.900
6.844
6.750
6.640
6.500

14.00
17.00
19.50
22.50

5.290
5.190
5.090
4.990

5.165
5.065
4.965
4.865

15.00
16.00
18.00
20.00
23.00

5.524
5.500
5.424
5.352
5.240

5.399
5.375
5.299
5.227
5.115

24.00
28.00
32.00
36.00
38.00
40.00
43.00
44.00
49.00

8.097
8.017
7.921
7.825
7.775
7.725
7.651
7.625
7.511

7.972
7.892
7.796
7.700
7.650
7.600
7.526
7.500
7.386

17.00
20.00
22.00
24.00
26.00
26.80
28.00
29.00
32.00

6.135
6.049
5.989
5.921
5.855
5.837
5.791
5.761
5.675

6.010
5.924
5.864
5.796
5.730
5.712
5.666
5.636
5.550

34.00
38.00
40.00
45.00
55.00

8.290
8.196
8.150
8.032
7.812

8.165
8.071
8.025
7.907
7.687

29.30
32.30
36.00
40.00
43.50
47.00
53.50

9.063
9.001
8.921
8.835
8.755
8.681
8.535

8.907
8.845
8.765
8.679
8.599
8.525
8.379

512

534

758

858

9
658

958

Weight
per ft
(lbm)

Nominal
ID
(in.)

Drift
Diameter
(in.)

10

33.00

9.384

9.228

1034

32.75
40.00
40.50
45.00
45.50
48.00
51.00
54.00
55.50

10.192
10.054
10.050
9.960
9.950
9.902
9.850
9.784
9.760

10.036
9.898
9.894
9.804
9.794
9.746
9.694
9.628
9.604

1134

38.00
42.00
47.00
54.00
60.00

11.150
11.084
11.000
10.880
10.772

10.994
10.928
10.844
10.724
10.616

12

40.00

11.384

11.228

13

40.00

12.438

12.282

1338

48.00

12.715

12.559

16

55.00

15.375

15.187

1858

78.00

17.855

17.667

20

90.00

19.190

19.002

2112

92.50
103.00
114.00

20.710
20.610
20.510

20.522
20.422
20.322

2412

100.50
113.00

23.750
23.650

23.562
23.462

Weight per foot in pounds is given for plain pipe (no threads
or coupling).
Drift diameter is the guaranteed minimum inside diameter of
any part of the casing. Use drift diameter to determine the
largest-diameter equipment that can be safely run inside the
casing. Use inside diameter for volume capacity calculations.

continued on next page

Back to Contents

273

Cem

General EvaluationWireline
Cement

Cement Bond LogCasing Strength

Cem-1

InterpretationCased Hole

(former M-1)

Casing size (mm)

Centered tool only, 3-ft [0.914-m] spacing

194
140
176

115

273
340
Attenuation
(dB/m)
1

70

Compressive strength
(psi)
(mPa)

2
50

40

30

12

30
4,000

20

15

6 20

10
9
8
7
6

25
3,000
20

Casing thickness
(mm)
(in.)
0.6
15

24

0.5

28

10

0.4

10
32

15
2,000

9 lbm
7 in. at 2

4
CBL amplitude
(mV)

16

10
8
0.3
7

1,000

1,000

11 36
6

12

800

40
0.2

5
13

44

1
14
15
16

500
3

4
48

0.5

500

250

Foamed cement
3

52

1
100

17 56

0.5

300
2

13 3/8
3
10 /4

7
51/2

Cem

50

18

0.2
41/2

(dB/ft)

75/8

Casing size (in.)


100

Schlumberger

274

0.3

200

Back to Contents

Standard
cement

Linear Grid

Appendix A

Back to Contents

275

Log-Linear Grid

Appendix AA
Appendix
9
8
7
6
5

1
9
8
7
6
5

1
276

Back to Contents

Water Saturation Grid for Resistivity Versus Porosity

Appendix AA
Appendix

For FR =
5,000

0.62
2.15

0.20

Resistivity scale may be


multiplied by 10 for use
in a higher range
4,000

0.25

0.30
3,000
0.35
0.40

2,500

0.45
2,000

0.50

0.60
1,500

0.70
0.80

Conductivity
(mmho/m)

0.90
1.0

1,000

Resistivity
(ohm-m)

1.2

500

1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0

400

2.5
3.0

300
4.0
5.0
6.0

200
150

8.0
10

100

15
20
30
40
50
100
200

50
25
10

FR

Back to Contents

277

Water Saturation Grid for Resistivity Versus Porosity

Appendix AA
Appendix

For FR =
500

1
2

Resistivity scale may be


multiplied by 10 for use
in a higher range
2.5

400

3
300
3.5
4

250

4.5
5

200

6
150

Conductivity
(mmho/m)

8
9
10

100

12
14
16
50

20

40

25
30

30

40
20

50

10

100

200
500
1,000
2,000

FR

278

Back to Contents

Resistivity
(ohm-m)

Logging Tool Response in Sedimentary Minerals

Appendix B
Name

Formula

log
(g/cm3)

SNP
(p.u.)

CNL
(p.u.)

APS
(p.u.)

t c
(s/ft)

56.0

t s
(s/ft)

Pe

(farad/m)

tp
(ns/m)

Gamma Ray
(gAPI Units)

(c.u.)

Silicates
Quartz

SiO2

2.64

88.0

-cristobalite

SiO2

2.15

Opal (3.5% H2O)

SiO2 (H2O)0.1209

2.13

Garnet

Fe3Al2(SiO4)3

4.31

Hornblende

Ca2NaMg2Fe2
AlSi8O22(O,OH)2

3.20

Tourmaline

NaMg3Al6B3Si6O2(OH)4

3.02

16

22

Zircon

ZrSiO4

4.50

Calcite

CaCO3

2.71

49.0

88.4

5.1

13.8

7.5

9.1

7.1

Dolomite

CaCO3MgCO3

2.85

44.0

72

3.1

9.0

6.8

8.7

4.7

Ankerite

Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2

2.86

Siderite

FeCO3

3.89

12

Hematite

Fe2O3

5.18

11

Magnetite

Fe3O4

5.08

Goethite

FeO(OH)

4.34

50+

60+

Limonite

FeO(OH)(H2O)2.05

3.59

50+

60+

Gibbsite

Al(OH)3

2.49

50+

60+

Hydroxyapatite

Ca5(PO4)3OH

3.17

42

5.8

18

Chlorapatite

Ca5(PO4)3Cl

3.18

42

6.1

19

Fluorapatite

Ca5(PO4)3F

3.21

42

5.8

19

8.5

Carbonapatite

(Ca5(PO4)3)2CO3H2O

3.13

5.6

17

9.1

Orthoclase

KAlSi3O8

2.52

Anorthoclase

KAlSi3O8

2.59

Microcline

KAlSi3O8

2.53

58

1.8

4.8

1.8

3.9

3.5

1.8

3.7

5.0

11
43.8

81.5

6.0
2.1
69

4.65

7.2

4.3

48

45

19

18

6.5

7450

311

6.9

Carbonates

9.3
3

47

27

22

15

57

6.87.5

8.89.1

52

21

111

101

22

113

103

19

83

85

13

47

Oxidates
42.9

79.3

73

56.9

102.6

9.910.9

10.511.0

71

1.1

23

Phosphates
9.6
130

FeldsparsAlkali
69

2.9

7.2

4.46.0

7.08.2

~220

16

2.9

7.4

4.46.0

7.08.2

~220

16

2.9

7.2

4.46.0

7.08.2

~220

16

1.7

4.4

4.46.0

7.08.2

7.5

3.1

8.6

4.46.0

7.08.2

7.2

2.4

6.7

6.27.9

8.39.4

FeldsparsPlagioclase
Albite

NaAlSi3O8

2.59

Anorthite

CaAl2Si2O8

2.74

Muscovite

KAl2(Si3AlO10)(OH)2

2.82

12

~20

~13

Glauconite

K0.7(Mg,Fe2,Al)
(Si4,Al10)O2(OH)

2.86

~38

~15

Biotite

K(Mg,Fe)3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2

~21

~11

Phlogopite

KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2

49

85

45

Micas

APS*
Mean

~2.99

~11

49

149

50.8

224

50

207

4.8

14

6.3

19

~270

17
21

4.86.0

7.28.1

~275

30
33

Accelerator Porosity Sonde porosity derived from near-to-array ratio (APLC)


value, which may vary for individual samples

For more information, see Reference 41.

Back to Contents

279

Logging Tool Response in Sedimentary Minerals

Appendix B
Name

Formula

log
(g/cm3)

SNP
(p.u.)

CNL
(p.u.)

APS
(p.u.)

t c
(s/ft)

t s
(s/ft)

Pe

Gamma Ray
(gAPI Units)

(c.u.)

~8.0

80130

14

~5.8

~8.0

180250

25

(farad/m)

tp
(ns/m)

~5.8

Clays
Kaolinite

Al4Si4O10(OH)8

2.41

34

~37

~34

1.8

4.4

Chlorite

(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)4
O10(OH)8

2.76

37

~52

~35

6.3

Illite

K11.5Al4(Si76.5,Al11.5)
O20(OH)4

2.52

20

~30

~17

3.5

8.7

~5.8

~8.0

250300

18

Montmorillonite

(Ca,Na)7(Al,Mg,Fe)4
(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4(H2O)n

2.12

~60

~60

2.0

4.0

~5.8

~8.0

150200

14

Halite

NaCl

2.04

21

4.7

9.5

Anhydrite

CaSO4

2.98

50

5.1

Gypsum

CaSO4(H2O)2

2.35

50+

60+

60

52

4.0

9.4

Trona

Na2CO3NaHCO3H2O

2.08

24

35

65

0.71

1.5

16

Tachhydrite

CaCl2(MgCl2)2(H2O)12

1.66

50+

60+

92

3.8

6.4

406

Sylvite

KCl

1.86

8.5

Carnalite

KClMgCl2(H2O)6

1.57

41

60+

4.1

Langbeinite

K2SO4(MgSO4)2

2.82

3.6

Polyhalite

K2SO4Mg
SO4(CaSO4)2(H2O)2

2.79

14

25

4.3

Kainite

MgSO4KCl(H2O)3

2.12

40

60+

3.5

7.4

Kieserite

MgSO4(H2O)

2.59

38

43

1.8

4.7

14

Epsomite

MgSO4(H2O)7

1.71

50+

60+

1.2

2.0

21

Bischofite

MgCl2(H2O)6

1.54

50+

60+

2.6

4.0

323

Barite

BaSO4

4.09

267

1090

6.8

Celestite

SrSO4

3.79

55

209

7.9

Pyrite

FeS2

4.99

17

85

90

Marcasite

FeS2

4.87

17

83

88

Pyrrhotite

Fe7S8

4.53

21

93

94

Sphalerite

ZnS

3.85

36

138

Chalcopyrite

CuFeS2

4.07

27

109

102

Galena

PbS

6.39

1,630

10,400

13

Sulfur

2.02

122

5.4

11

20

Anthracite

CH0.358N0.009O0.022

1.47

37

38

105

0.16

0.23

Bituminous

CH0.793N0.015O0.078

1.24

50+

60+

120

0.17

0.21

14

Lignite

CH0.849N0.015O0.211

1.19

47

52

160

0.20

0.24

13

17

Evaporites
67.0

120

100

15

16

5.66.3

7.98.4

6.3

8.4

12

4.1

6.8

19

4.64.8

7.27.3

6.4

754

500+

565

~220

369

10

~290

24

12

~200

24

~245

195

Sulfides
39.2

62.1

7.88.1

9.39.5

25

Coals

APS*
Mean

Accelerator Porosity Sonde porosity derived from near-to-array ratio (APLC)


value, which may vary for individual samples

For more information, see Reference 41.

280

Back to Contents

8.7

Acoustic Characteristics of Common Formations and Fluids

Appendix C
Nonporous Solids
t
(s/ft)

(ft/s)

(m/s)

Acoustic Impedance
(MRayl)

Casing

57.0

17,500

5,334

41.60

Dolomite

43.5

23,000

7,010

20.19

Anhydrite

50.0

20,000

6,096

18.17

Limestone

47.6

21,000

6,400

17.34

Calcite

49.7

20,100

6,126

16.60

Quartz

52.9

18,900

5,760

15.21

Gypsum

52.6

19,000

5,791

13.61

Halite

66.6

15,000

4,572

9.33

t
(s/ft)

(ft/s)

(m/s)

Acoustic Impedance
(MRayl)

Material

Sound Velocity

Water-Saturated Porous Rock


Material

Porosity
(%)

Sound Velocity

Dolomite

520

50.066.6

20,00015,000

6,0964,572

16.9511.52

Limestone

520

54.076.9

18,50013,000

5,6393,962

14.839.43

Sandstone

520

62.586.9

16,00011,500

4,8773,505

12.588.20

2035

86.9111.1

11,5009,000

3,5052,743

8.206.0

58.8143.0

17,0007,000

5,1812,133

12.04.3

(m/s)

Acoustic Impedance
(MRayl)

Sand
Shale

Nonporous Solids
Material

t
(s/ft)

Sound Velocity
(ft/s)

Water

208

4,800

1,463

1.46

Water + 10% NaCl

192.3

5,200

1,585

1.66

Water + 20% NaCl

181.8

5,500

1,676

1.84

Seawater

199

5,020

1,531

1.57

Kerosene

230

4,340

1,324

1.07

Air at 15 psi, 32F [0C]

920

1,088

331

0.0004

Air at 3,000 psi, 212F [100C]

780

1,280

390

0.1

Back to Contents

281

Conversions

Appendix D
Length
Multiply
Number
of
to
Obtain

Centimeters

Feet

Inches

Kilometers

Nautical
Miles

Meters

Mils

Miles

Millimeters

Yards

30.48

2.540

105

1.853 10 5

100

2.540 10 3

1.609 105

0.1

91.44

3.281 10 2

8.333 10 2

3281

6080.27

3.281

8.333 10 5

5280

3.281 10 3

0.3937

12

3.937 10 4

7.296 10 4

39.37

0.001

6.336 10 4

3.937 10 2

36

by

Centimeters
Feet
Inches
Kilometers

10

3.048 10

2.540 10

1.645 10 4

Nautical miles

1.853

0.001

0.5396

5.396 10 4

0.8684

1853

1609

Meters

0.01

0.3048

2.540 10 2

1000

Mils

393.7

1.2 10 4

1000

3.937 10 7

Miles

6.214 10 6

1.894 10 4

1.578 10 5

0.6214

10

304.8

25.40

105

1.094 10 2

0.3333

2.778 10 2

1094

Acres

Circular
Mils

Square
Centimeters

Square
Feet

Millimeters
Yards

2.540 10

3.937 10 4
1.1516

1.609

10

4.934 10 4

6.214 10 4

9.144 10 4

0.001

0.9144

39.37

3.6 10 4

6.214 10 7

5.682 10 4

914.4

1000

2.540 10 2

2027

1.094

2.778 10 5

1760

1.094 10 3

Square
Inches

Square
Kilometers

Square
Meters

Square
Miles

Square
Millimeters

Square
Yards

247.1

2.471 10 4

640

Area
Multiply
Number
of
to
Obtain

by

Acres

2.296 10 5

2.066 10 4

Circular mils

1.973 10 5

1.833 108

1.273 10 6

Square
centimeters

5.067 10 6

929.0

6.452

10 10

10 4

2.590 10 10

0.01

1.076 10 3

6.944 10 3

1.076 10 7

10.76

2.788 10 7

1.076 10 5

1550

4.015 10

1.550 10

Square feet
Square inches
Square
kilometers
Square meters
Square miles

4.356 10 4

144

1.550 10

4.047 10 3

10 10

9.290 10 8

6.452 10 10

10 6

2.590

10 12

4047

0.0001

9.290 10 2

6.452 10 4

10 6

2.590 10 6

10 6

1.562 10

Square
millimeters
Square yards

282

1973

0.1550

6,272,640

7.854 10

1.973 10 9

3.861 10

5.067 10 4
4840

11

3.587 10

0.3861

3.861 10

100

9.290 10 4

645.2

10 12

10 6

1.196 10 4

0.1111

7.716 10 4

1.196 10 6

1.196

Back to Contents

3.098 10 6

3.861 10

8361

9
1296
8.361 10 7
0.8361

13

3.228 10 7

8.361 10 5

1.196 10 6

Conversions

Appendix D
Volume
Multiply
Number
of
to
Obtain

Bushels
(Dry)

Cubic
Centimeters

Cubic
Feet

Cubic
Inches

Cubic
Meters

0.8036

4.651 10 4

28.38

Cubic
Yards

Gallons
(Liquid)

Liters

Pints
(Liquid)

Quarts
(Liquid)

by
2.838 10 2

Bushels (dry)

Cubic
centimeters

3.524 10 4

2.832 10 4

16.39

10 6

7.646 10 5

3785

1000

473.2

946.4

Cubic feet

1.2445

3.531 10 5

5.787 10 4

35.31

27

0.1337

3.531 10 2

1.671 10 2

3.342 10 2

Cubic inches

2150.4

6.102 10 2

1728

6.102 10 4

46,656

231

61.02

28.87

57.75

Cubic meters

3.524 10 2

10 6

2.832 10 2

1.639 10 5

0.7646

3.785 10 3

0.001

4.732 10 4

9.464 10 4

Cubic yards

1.308 10 6

3.704 10 2

2.143 10 5

1.308

4.951 10 3

1.308 10 3

6.189 10 4

1.238 10 3

Gallons
(liquid)

2.642 10 4

7.481

4.329 10 3

264.2

202.0

0.2642

0.125

0.25

0.001

28.32

1.639 10 2

1000

764.6

3.785

0.4732

0.9464

Pints (liquid)

2.113 10 3

59.84

3.463 10 2

2113

1616

2.113

Quarts (liquid)

1.057 10

29.92

1.732 10

1057

807.9

1.057

0.5

Liters

35.24

Mass and Weight


Grains

Grams

Kilograms

Milligrams

Ounces

Pounds

Grains

15.43

1.543 10 4

1.543 10 2

437.5

7000

Grams

6.481 10 2

1000

0.001

28.35

453.6

Kilograms

6.481 10 5

0.001

10 6

2.835 10 2

0.4536

2.835 10

4.536 10

Multiply
Number
of
to
Obtain

Milligrams

Tons
(Long)

Tons
(Metric)

Tons
(Short)

1.016 10 6

10 6

9.072 10 5

1016

1000

907.2

by

64.81

1000

10

Ounces

2.286 10 3

3.527 10 2

35.27

3.527 10 5

Pounds

1.429 10 4

2.205 10 3

2.205

2.205 10 6

6.250 10 2

9.842 10

Tons (long)
Tons (metric)
Tons (short)

9.842 10
10

1.102 10 6

9.842 10

0.001
1.102 10 3

10

10

1.102 10 9

16

2.790 10

2.835 10

1.016 10

10

9.072 10 8

3.584 10 4

3.527 10 4

3.2 10 4

2240

2205

2000

4.464 10

0.9842

0.8929

4.536 10

1.016

0.9072

1.120

1.102

3.125 10 5

0.0005

Avoirdupois pounds and ounces

Back to Contents

283

Conversions

Appendix D
Pressure or Force per Unit Area
Multiply Atmospheres Bayres or Centimeters
Inches
Number
Dynes per of Mercury of Mercury
at 0C
of
Square
at 0C
to
Centimeter
Obtain
by

Inches
of Water
at 4C

Kilograms
per
Square
Meter

Pounds
per
Square Foot

Pounds
per
Square
Inch

Tons (short)
per
Square Foot

Pascals

9.869 10 7

1.316 10 2

3.342 10 2

2.458 10 3

9.678 10 5

4.725 10 4

6.804 10 2

0.9450

9.869 10 6

1.013 10 6

1.333 10 4

3.386 10 4

2.491 10 3

98.07

478.8

6.895 10 4

9.576 10 5

10

Centimeters
of mercury
at 0C

76.00

7.501 10 5

2.540

0.1868

7.356 10 3

3.591 10 2

5.171

71.83

7.501 10 4

Inches
of mercury
at 0C

29.92

2.953 10 5

0.3937

7.355 10 2

2.896 10 3

1.414 10 2

2.036

28.28

2.953 10 4

Inches of
water at 4C

406.8

4.015 10 4

5.354

13.60

3.937 10 2

0.1922

27.68

384.5

4.015 10 3

Kilograms
per square
meter

1.033 10 4

1.020 10 2

136.0

345.3

25.40

4.882

703.1

9765

0.1020

Pounds
per square
foot

2117

2.089 10 3

27.85

70.73

5.204

0.2048

144

2000

2.089 10 2

Pounds per
square inch

14.70

1.450 10 5

0.1934

0.4912

3.613 10 2

1.422 10 3

6.944 10 3

13.89

1.450 10 4

Tons (short) per


square foot

1.058

1.044 10 5

1.392 10 2

3.536 10 2

2.601 10 3

1.024 10 4

0.0005

0.072

1.044 10 5

1.013 10 5

10 1

1.333 10 3

3.386 10 3

2.491 10 4

9.807

47.88

6.895 10 3

9.576 10 4

Atmospheres
Bayres or dynes
per square
centimeter

Pascals

One atmosphere (standard) = 76 cm of mercury at 0C


Bar
To convert height h of a column of mercury at t C to the equivalent height h0 at 0C, use h0 = h {1 [(m l ) t / 1 + mt]}, where m = 0.0001818 and l = 18.4 10 6 if the
scale is engraved on brass; l = 8.5 10 6 if on glass. This assumes the scale is correct at 0C; for other cases (any liquid) see International Critical Tables, Vol. 1, 68.
1 gram per square centimeter = 10 kilograms per square meter
psi = MPa 145.038
psi/ft = 0.433 g/cm3 = lbf/ft3/144 = lbf/gal/19.27

Density or Mass per Unit Volume


Multiply
Number
of
to
Obtain

Grams per
Kilograms Pounds per
Cubic
per
Cubic Foot
Centimeter Cubic Meter

Pounds per
Cubic Inch

Pounds per
Gallon

by
1

0.001

1.602 102

27.68

0.1198

Kilograms per cubic meter

1000

16.02

2.768 104

119.8

Pounds per cubic foot

62.43

6.243 102

1728

7.479

Pounds per cubic inch

3.613 10

3.613 10

5.787 10

4.329 10 3

8.347

8.3 10 3

13.37 10 2

231.0

Grams per cubic centimeter

Pounds per gallon

284

Temperature

Back to Contents

1.8C + 32

F + 459.69

C + 273.16

9 (F 32)

Symbols

Appendix E
Traditional
Symbol

Standard
SPE
and
SPWLA

Standard
Computer
Symbol

Description

Customary Unit or Relation

Standard
Reserve
Symbol

ACT

electrochemical activity

equivalents/liter, moles/liter

KR

COER

coefficient in FR relation

FR = KR/m

AWT

atomic weight

amu

ECN

conductivity (electrical logging)

millimho per meter (mmho/m)

Cp

Bcp

CORCP

sonic compaction correction factor

SVcor = BcpSV

Ccp

DPH

depth

ft, m

y, H

DIA

diameter

in.

EMF

electromotive force

mV

FR = KR/m

MR, a, C

FR

FACHR

formation resistivity factor

GMF

geometrical factor (multiplier)

fG

IH

HYX

hydrogen index

iH

THK

bed thickness, individual

index

FFI

IFf

FFX

free fluid index

iFf

SI

Isl

SLX

silt index

Islt, isl, islt

PRX

porosity index

I2

PRXSE

secondary porosity index

i2

Gp

GMFP

pseudogeometrical factor

fGp

Kc

COEC

electrochemical SP coefficient

Ec = Kclog(aw/amf)

Mc, Kec

PRM

permeability, absolute (fluid flow)

mD

LTH

length, path length

ft, m, in.

s, l

SAD

slope, sonic interval transit time versus


density 0.01, in MN plot

M = [(f LOG)/(b f)] 0.01

mD

MXP

porosity (cementation) exponent

FR = KR/m

SND

slope, neutron porosity versus


density, in M-N Plot

N = (Nf N)/(b f)

SXP

saturation exponent

Swn = FRRw /Rt

CNC

salinity

g/g, ppm

SPI

p
Pc
Pe

p
Pc

PRS
PRSCP

pressure
capillary pressure

ft, m, in.

d, e

mND

c, n
2

Pc, pc

psi, kg/cm , atm


psi, kg/cm , atm

photoelectric cross section

SPE Letter and Computer Symbols Standard (1986).


Used only if conflict arises between standard symbols used in the same paper
The unit of kilograms per square centimeter to be replaced in use by the SI metric unit of the pascal
DEL in the operator field and RAD in the main-quantity field
Suggested computer symbol

Back to Contents

285

Symbols

Appendix E
Traditional
Symbol

Standard
SPE
and
SPWLA

Standard
Computer
Symbol

Qv

Description

Customary Unit or Relation

shaliness (CEC per mL water)

meq/mL

Standard
Reserve
Symbol

imfshd, q

f shd

FIMSHD

dispersed-shale volume fraction of


intermatrix porosity

RES

resistivity (electrical)

ohm-m

, r

RAD

radial distance from hole axis

in.

SAT

saturation

fraction or percent
of pore volume

, s

TEM

temperature

F, C, K

BHT, Tbh

Tbh

TEMBH

bottomhole temperature

F, C, K

BH

FT, Tfm

Tf

TEMF

formation temperature

F, C, K

TIM

time

s, s, min

TAC

interval transit time

t
t

volumetric cross section

barns/cm3

VAC

velocity (acoustic)

ft/s, m/s

V, u

VOL

volume

cm3, ft3, etc.

VLF

volume fraction

ANM

atomic number

SP

REDSP

SP reduction factor

SPG

specific gravity (/w or g /air)

POR

porosity

fraction or percentage
of bulk volume, p.u.

f,

PORPR

primary porosity

fraction or percentage
of bulk volume, p.u.

f1, e1

PORSE

secondary porosity

fraction or percentage
of bulk volume, p.u.

f2, e2

ig

PORIG

intergranular porosity

ig = (Vb Vgr)/Vb

fig, ig

im

PORIM

intermatrix porosity

im = (Vb Vma )/Vb

fim, im

radial distance (increment)

in.

sonic interval transit time

s/ft

DELPORNX

excavation effect

p.u.

COEANI

coefficient of anisotropy

z, im
r

DELRAD

TAC

Nex

Kani

dN

286

fv, Fv

s, Fs

Mani

density

g/cm3

XST
XSTMAC

neutron capture cross section


macroscopic

c.u., cm1

TIMDN

thermal neutron decay time

tdn

DEN

SPE Letter and Computer Symbols Standard (1986).


Used only if conflict arises between standard symbols used in the same paper
The unit of kilograms per square centimeter is to be replaced in use by the SI metric unit of the pascal.
DEL in the operator field and RAD in the main-quantity field
Suggested computer symbol

Back to Contents

Subscripts

Appendix FE
Traditional
Subscript

Standard
SPE
and
SPWLA

Standard
Computer
Subscript

Explanation

Example

Standard
Reserve
Subscript

LOG

apparent from log reading


(or use tool description subscript)

RLOG, RLL

log

apparent (general)

Ra

ap

abs

cap

absorption, capture

cap

anh

anh

AH

anhydrite

bulk

B, t

bh

bh

BH

bottomhole

Tbh

w, BH

clay

cl

CL

clay

Vcl

cla

cor, c

cor

COR

corrected

tcor

electrochemical

Ec

cp

cp

CP

compaction

Bcp

density log

dis

shd

SHD

dispersed shale

Vshd

dol

dol

DL

dolomite

t dol

e, eq

eq

EV

equivalent

Rweq, Rmfeq

EV

f, fluid

fluid

fl

fm

formation (rock)

Tf

fm

g, gas

gas

Sg

gr

GR

grain

gr

gxo

gxo

GXO

gas in flushed zone

Sgxo

gyp

gyp

GY

gypsum

gyp

hole

dh

hydrocarbon

hr

hr

HR

residual hydrocarbon

S hr

invaded zone (inner boundary)

di

ig

ig

IG

intergranular (incl. disp. and str. shale)

ig

im, z

im

IM

intermatrix (incl. disp. shale)

im

int

int

intrinsic (as opposed to log value)

int

irr

IR

irreducible

Swi

ir, i

liquid junction

Ej

electrokinetic

Ek

ek

log

t pl

log
L

lam

LAM

lamination, laminated

Vsh l

lim

lim

LM

limiting value

lim

liq

liquid

ec

GXO

SPE Letter and Computer Symbols Standard (1986).


Used only if conflict arises between standard symbols used in the same paper

Back to Contents

287

Subscripts

Appendix FE
Traditional
Subscript

Standard
SPE
and
SPWLA

Standard
Computer
Subscript

Explanation

Example

Standard
Reserve
Subscript

log

LOG

log values

t LOG

log

ls

ls

LS

limestone

t ls

lst

mud

Rm

max

max

MX

maximum

max

ma

ma

MA

matrix

t ma

mc

mc

MC

mudcake

Rmc

mf

mf

MF

mud filtrate

Rmf

mfa

mfa

MFA

mud filtrate, apparent

Rmfa

min

min

MN

minimum value

ni

noninvaded zone

Rni

oil (except with resistivity)

So

or

or

OR

residual oil

Sor

o, 0 (zero)

0 (zero)

ZR

100-percent water saturated

F0

propagation

tpw

zr

PSP

pSP

PSP

pseudostatic SP

EpSP

pri

1 (one)

PR

primary

p, pri

relative

k r o, k rw

residual

Sor , Shr

adjacent (surrounding) formation

Rs

sd

sd

SD

sand

sa

ss

ss

SS

sandstone

sst

sec

SE

secondary

s, sec

sh

sh

SH

shale

Vsh

sha

silt

sl

SL

silt

I sl

slt

SP

SP

SP

spontaneous potential

ESP

sp

SSP

SSP

SSP

static spontaneous potential

ESSP

str

sh st

SH ST

structural shale

Vshst

t, ni

true (as opposed to apparent)

Rt

tr

total

Ct

water, formation water

Sw

wa

wa

WA

formation water, apparent

Rwa

Wap

wf

wf

WF

well flowing conditions

pwf

ws

ws

WS

well static conditions

pws

xo

xo

XO

flushed zone

Rxo

z, im

im

IM

intermatrix

im

288

SPE Letter and Computer Symbols Standard (1986).


Used only if conflict arises between standard symbols used in the same paper

Back to Contents

Subscripts

Appendix FE
Traditional
Subscript

Standard
SPE
and
SPWLA

Standard
Computer
Subscript

Explanation

Example

Standard
Reserve
Subscript

0 (zero)

0 (zero)

ZR

100 percent water saturated

R0

zr

RAD

from CDR attenuation deep

RAD

from density log

GG

GG

from gamma-gamma log

GG

gg

IL

from induction log

RI

ILD

ID

ID

from deep induction log

RID

id

ILM

IM

IM

from medium induction log

RIM

im

LL

LL (also LL3,
LL8, etc.)

LL

from laterolog
(also LL3, LL7, LL8, LLD, LLS)

RLL

ll

from normal resistivity log

RN

from neutron log

RPS

from CDR phase-shift shallow

RPS

16", 16"N

from 16-in. normal Log

R16"

1" 1"

from 1-in. by 1-in. microinverse (MI)

R1" 1"

2"

from 2-in. micronormal (MN)

R2"

AD
D

PS

SPE Letter and Computer Symbols Standard (1986).


Used only if conflict arises between standard symbols used in the same paper

Back to Contents

289

Unit Abbreviations

Appendix G
F
These unit abbreviations, which are based on those adopted by the
Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), are appropriate for most publications. However, an accepted industry standard may be used instead.
For instance, in the drilling field, ppg may be more common than
lbm/gal when referring to pounds per gallon.
In some instances, two abbreviations are given: customary and
metric. When using the International System of Units (SI), or metric,
abbreviations, use the one designated for metric (e.g., m3/h instead of
m3/hr). The use of SI prefix symbols and prefix names with customary
unit abbreviations and names, although common, is not preferred
(e.g., 1,000 lbf instead of klbf).
Unit abbreviations are followed by a period only when the abbreviation forms a word (for example, in. for inch).

curie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ci
dalton. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Da
darcy, darcies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D
day (customary) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D
day (metric). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . d
dead-weight ton. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DWT
decibel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dB
degree (American Petroleum Institute). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . API
degree Celsius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C
degree Fahrenheit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F
degree Kelvin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . See kelvin
degree Rankine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R

acre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spell out

dots per inch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dpi

acre-foot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . acre-ft

electromotive force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . emf

ampere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A

electron volt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eV

ampere-hour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-hr

farad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F

angstrom unit (108 cm). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A

feet per minute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ft/min

atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . atm

feet per second. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ft/s

atomic mass unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . amu

foot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ft

barrel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bbl

foot-pound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ft-lbf

barrels of fluid per day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BFPD

gallon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gal

barrels of liquid per day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BLPD

gallons per day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gal/D

barrels of oil per day. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOPD

gallons per minute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gal/min

barrels of water per day. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BWPD

gigabyte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gbyte

barrels per day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B/D

gigahertz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GHz

barrels per minute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bbl/min

gigapascal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GPa

billion cubic feet (billion = 109) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bcf

gigawatt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GW

billion cubic feet per day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bcf/D

gram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . g

billion standard cubic feet per day . . . . . . . . . . . Use Bcf/D instead of Bscf/D
(see standard cubic foot)

hertz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hz

bits per inch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bpi

horsepower-hour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hp-hr

bits per second . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bps

hour (customary). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hr

brake horsepower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bhp

hour (metric). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h

British thermal unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Btu

hydraulic horsepower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hhp

capture unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c.u.

inch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in.

centimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cm

inches per second . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in./s

centipoise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cp

joule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J

centistoke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cSt

kelvin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K

coulomb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C

kilobyte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kB

counts per second . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cps

kilogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kg

cubic centimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cm3

kilogram-meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kg-m

cubic foot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ft3

kilohertz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kHz

cubic feet per barrel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ft3/bbl

kilojoule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kJ

cubic feet per day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ft3/D

kilometer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . km

cubic feet per minute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ft3/min

kilopascal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kPa

cubic feet per pound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ft3/lbm

kilopound (force) (1,000 lbf) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klbf

cubic feet per second . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ft3/s

kilovolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kV

cubic inch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in.3

kilowatt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kW

cubic meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . m3

kilowatt-hour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kW-hr

cubic millimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mm3

kips per square inch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksi

horsepower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hp

cubic yard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yd3


290

Back to Contents

Unit Abbreviations

Appendix G
lines per inch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lpi

pounds of proppant added . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ppa

lines per minute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lpm

pounds per square inch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . psi

lines per second . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lps

pounds per square inch absolute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . psia

liter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L

pounds per square inch gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . psig

megabyte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MB

pounds per thousand barrels (salt content). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ptb

megagram (metric ton) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mg

quart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . qt

megahertz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MHz

reservoir barrel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . res bbl

megajoule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MJ

reservoir barrel per day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RB/D

meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . m

revolutions per minute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rpm

metric ton (tonne) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t or Mg

saturation unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . s.u.

mho per meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . /m

second . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . s

microsecond. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . s

shots per foot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . spf

mile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spell out

specific gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sg

miles per hour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mph

square . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sq

milliamperes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mA

square centimeter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cm2

millicurie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mCi

square foot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ft2

millidarcy, millidarcies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mD

square inch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in.2

milliequivalent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . meq

square meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . m2

milligram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mg

square mile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sq mile

milliliter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mL

square millimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mm2

millimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mm

standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . std

millimho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mmho

standard cubic feet per day. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Use ft3/D instead of scf/D


(see standard cubic foot)

million cubic feet (million = 10 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MMcf

milliPascal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mPa

standard cubic foot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Use ft3 or cf as specified on this list.


Do not use scf unless the standard
conditions at which the measurement
was made are specified.
The straight volumetric conversion factor
is 1 ft3 = 0.02831685 m3

millisecond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ms

stock-tank barrel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STB

millisiemens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mS

stock-tank barrels per day. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STB/D

millivolt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mV

stoke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . St

mils per year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mil/yr

teragram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tg

minute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . min

thousand cubic feet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mcf

mole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mol

thousand cubic feet per day. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mcf/D

nanosecond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ns

thousand pounds per square inch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kpsi

newton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N
ohm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ohm

thousand standard cubic feet per day . . . . . . . . Use Mcf/D instead of Mscf/D
(see standard cubic foot)

ohm-centimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ohm-cm

tonne (metric ton). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t

ohm-meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ohm-m

trillion cubic feet (trillion = 1012) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tcf

ounce. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . oz

trillion cubic feet per day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tcf/D

parts per million . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ppm

volt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V

pascal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pa

volume percent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vol%

picofarad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pF

volume per volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vol/vol

pint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pt

watt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . W

porosity unit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p.u.

weight percent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wt%

pound (force) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lbf

yard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yd

pound (mass) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lbm

year (customary) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yr

pound per cubic foot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lbm/ft3

year (metric) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a

million cubic feet per day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MMcf/D


million electron volts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MeV
million standard cubic feet per day . . . . . . . Use MMcf/D instead of MMscf/D
(see standard cubic foot)

pound per gallon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lbm/gal

Back to Contents

291

References

Appendix H
G
1. Overton HL and Lipson LB: A Correlation of the Electrical
Properties of Drilling Fluids with Solids Content, Transactions,
AIME (1958) 213.
2. Desai KP and Moore EJ: Equivalent NaCl Concentrations from
Ionic Concentrations, The Log Analyst (MayJune 1969).
3. Gondouin M, Tixier MP, and Simard GL: An Experimental Study
on the Influence of the Chemical Composition of Electrolytes on
the SP Curve, JPT (February 1957).
4. Segesman FF: New SP Correction Charts, Geophysics
(December 1962) 27, No. 6, PI.
5. Alger RP, Locke S, Nagel WA, and Sherman H: The Dual Spacing
Neutron LogCNL, paper SPE 3565, presented at the 46th SPE
Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA (1971).
6. Segesman FF and Liu OYH: The Excavation Effect,
Transactions of the SPWLA 12th Annual Logging Symposium
(1971).
7. Burke JA, Campbell RL Jr, and Schmidt AW: The Litho-Porosity
Crossplot, Transactions of the SPWLA 10th Annual Logging
Symposium (1969), paper Y.
8. Clavier C and Rust DH: MID-PLOT: A New Lithology
Technique, The Log Analyst (NovemberDecember 1976).
9. Tixier MP, Alger RP, Biggs WP, and Carpenter BN: Dual
Induction-Laterolog: A New Tool for Resistivity Analysis, paper
713, presented at the 38th SPE Annual Meeting, New Orleans,
Louisiana, USA (1963).
10. Wahl JS, Nelligan WB, Frentrop AH, Johnstone CW, and
Schwartz RJ: The Thermal Neutron Decay Time Log, SPEJ
(December 1970).
11. Clavier C, Hoyle WR, and Meunier D: Quantitative
Interpretation of Thermal Neutron Decay Time Logs, Part I and
II, JPT (June 1971).
12. Poupon A, Loy ME, and Tixier MP: A Contribution to Electrical
Log Interpretation in Shaly Sands, JPT (June 1954).
13. Tixier MP, Alger RP, and Tanguy DR: New Developments in
Induction and Sonic Logging, paper 1300G, presented at the
34th SPE Annual Meeting, Dallas, Texas, USA (1959).
14. Rodermund CG, Alger RP, and Tittman J: Logging Empty
Holes, OGJ (June 1961).
15. Tixier MP: Evaluation of Permeability from Electric Log
Resistivity Gradients, OGJ (June 1949).
16. Morris RL and Biggs WP: Using Log-Derived Values of Water
Saturation and Porosity, Transactions of the SPWLA 8th
Annual Logging Symposium (1967).
17. Timur A: An Investigation of Permeability, Porosity, and
Residual Water Saturation Relationships for Sandstone
Reservoirs, The Log Analyst (JulyAugust 1968).

292

18. Wyllie MRJ, Gregory AR, and Gardner GHF: Elastic Wave
Velocities in Heterogeneous and Porous Media, Geophysics
(January 1956) 21, No. 1.
19. Tixier MP, Alger RP, and Doh CA: Sonic Logging, JPT (May
1959) 11, No. 5.
20. Raymer LL, Hunt ER, and Gardner JS: An Improved Sonic
Transit Time-to-Porosity Transform, Transactions of the
SPWLA 21st Annual Logging Symposium (1980).
21. Coates GR and Dumanoir JR: A New Approach to Improved
Log-Derived Permeability, The Log Analyst (JanuaryFebruary
1974).
22. Raymer LL: Elevation and Hydrocarbon Density Correction for
Log-Derived Permeability Relationships, The Log Analyst
(MayJune 1981).
23. Westaway P, Hertzog R, and Plasic RE: The Gamma
Spectrometer Tool, Inelastic and Capture Gamma Ray
Spectroscopy for Reservoir Analysis, paper SPE 9461,
presented at the 55th SPE Annual Technical Conference
and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas, USA (1980).
24. Quirein JA, Gardner JS, and Watson JT: Combined Natural
Gamma Ray Spectral/Litho-Density Measurements Applied to
Complex Lithologies, paper SPE 11143, presented at the 57th
SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans,
Louisiana, USA (1982).
25. Harton RP, Hazen GA, Rau RN, and Best DL: Electromagnetic
Propagation Logging: Advances in Technique and
Interpretation, paper SPE 9267, presented at the 55th SPE
Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas,
USA (1980).
26. Serra O, Baldwin JL, and Quirein JA: Theory and Practical
Application of Natural Gamma Ray Spectrometry, Transactions
of the SPWLA 21st Annual Logging Symposium (1980).
27. Gardner JS and Dumanoir JL: Litho-Density Log
Interpretation, Transactions of the SPWLA 21st Annual
Logging Symposium (1980).
28. Edmondson H and Raymer LL: Radioactivity Logging
Parameters for Common Minerals, Transactions of the SPWLA
20th Annual Logging Symposium (1979).
29. Barber TD: Real-Time Environmental Corrections for the
Phasor Dual Induction Tool, Transactions of the SPWLA 26th
Annual Logging Symposium (1985).
30. Roscoe BA and Grau J: Response of the Carbon-Oxygen
Measurement for an Inelastic Gamma Ray Spectroscopy Tool,
paper SPE 14460, presented at the 60th SPE Annual Technical
Conference and Exhibition, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA (1985).

Back to Contents

References

Appendix H
31. Freedman R and Grove G: Interpretation of EPT-G Logs in the
Presence of Mudcakes, paper presented at the 63rd SPE
Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, Texas,
USA (1988).
32. Gilchrist WA Jr, Galford JE, Flaum C, Soran PD, and Gardner JS:
Improved Environmental Corrections for Compensated
Neutron Logs, paper SPE 15540, presented at the 61st SPE
Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans,
Louisiana, USA (1986).
33. Tabanou JR, Glowinski R, and Rouault GF: SP Deconvolution
and Quantitative Interpretation in Shaly Sands, Transactions
of the SPWLA 28th Annual Logging Symposium (1987).
34. Kienitz C, Flaum C, Olesen J-R, and Barber T: Accurate Logging
in Large Boreholes, Transactions of the SPWLA 27th Annual
Logging Symposium (1986).
35. Galford JE, Flaum C, Gilchrist WA Jr, and Duckett SW:
Enhanced Resolution Processing of Compensated Neutron
Logs, paper SPE 15541, presented at the 61st SPE Annual
Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana,
USA (1986).
36. Lowe TA and Dunlap HF: Estimation of Mud Filtrate Resistivity
in Fresh Water Drilling Muds, The Log Analyst (MarchApril
1986).
37. Clark B, Luling MG, Jundt J, Ross M, and Best D: A Dual Depth
Resistivity for FEWD, Transactions of the SPWLA 29th Annual
Logging Symposium (1988).
38. Ellis DV, Flaum C, Galford JE, and Scott HD: The Effect of
Formation Absorption on the Thermal Neutron Porosity
Measurement, paper presented at the 62nd SPE Annual
Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas, USA (1987).
39. Watfa M and Nurmi R: Calculation of Saturation, Secondary
Porosity and Producibility in Complex Middle East Carbonate
Reservoirs, Transactions of the SPWLA 28th Annual Logging
Symposium (1987).

40. Brie A, Johnson DL, and Nurmi RD: Effect of Spherical Pores
on Sonic and Resistivity Measurements, Transactions of the
SPWLA 26th Annual Logging Symposium (1985).
41. Serra O: Element Mineral Rock Catalog, Schlumberger (1990).
42. Grove GP and Minerbo GN: An Adaptive Borehole Correction
Scheme for Array Induction Tools, Transactions of the SPWLA
32nd Annual Logging Symposium, Midland, Texas, USA, June
1619, 1991, paper F.
43. Barber T and Rosthal R: Using a Multiarray Induction Tool to
Achieve Logs with Minimum Environmental Effects, paper SPE
22725, presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and
Exhibition, Dallas, Texas, USA, October 69, 1991.
44. Moran JH: Induction Method and Apparatus for Investigating
Earth Formations Utilizing Two Quadrature Phase Components of
a Detected Signal, US Patent No. 3,147,429 (September 1, 1964).
45. Barber TD: Phasor Processing of Induction Logs Including
Shoulder and Skin Effect Correction, US Patent No. 4,513,376
(September 11, 1984).
46. Barber T et al.: Interpretation of Multiarray Induction Logs
in Invaded Formations at High Relative Dip Angles, The Log
Analyst 40, no. 3 (MayJune 1990): 202217.
47. Anderson BI and Barber TD: Induction Logging, Sugar Land,
Texas, USA: Schlumberger Wireline & Testing, 1995 (SMP-7056).
48. Gerritsma CJ, Oosting PH, and Trappeniers NJ: Proton SpinLattice Relaxation and Self Diffusion in Methanes, II, Physica
51 (1971), 381394.
49. Wyllie MRJ and Rose WD: Some Theoretical Considerations
Related to the Quantitative Evaluation of the Physical
Characteristics of Reservoir Rock from Electrical Log Data,
JPT 2 (1950), 189.

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293

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