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# Integration By Parts

udv = uv - vdu
Trigonometric Integrals (Recursions)
sin

+
1

sin
2

sec

1
+
2
1

2

tan

1
-
2

cos

+
1

2

sin

cos

sec

Integrals of Powers of sine, cosine
Products of sine, cosine
1) One or both of sine, cosine is to an odd power.
a. Whichever is odd, pull out the power to be du.
b. Leftovers from odd power get converted to the other using sin
2
+
cos
2
x = 1
c. Now u-sub
2) Both sine, cosine are to an even power.
a. Use sin
2
+ cos
2
x = 1 to convert
Quotients of sine, cosine
1) Numerator to odd power
a. Pull out one power of numerator to be du.
b. Change remaining power in numerator using sin
2
+ cos
2
x = 1
2) Numerator to even power
a. Use sin
2
+ cos
2
x = 1 to convert
b. Simplify. No u-sub.
Integrals of Powers of sec, tan
Products of sec, tan
1) sec is to an even power
a. Pull out one
2
to be du.
b. Convert left over
2
to
2
using
2
x = 1 +
2

2) sec & tan are both to odd power
a. Pull out one power each of sec, tan to be du.
b. Convert left over
2
to
2
using
2
=
2
x - 1
3) sec is to an odd power, tan is to an even power
a. Since tan is even, put it in terms of sec using
2
=
2
x - 1
Quotients of sec, tan
Put everything in terms of sine & cosine. Then use u-substitution.
Trig Substitution
a
2
x
2
x = a sin
dx = a cosd
a
2
x
2
=
a
2
cos
2

a
2
+ x
2
x = a tan
dx = a sec
2
d
a
2
+ x
2
=
a
2
sec
2

x
2
- a
2

x = a sec

dx = a
sectand
x
2
- a
2
= a
2
tan
2

Inverse Trig

sin
-1
x is the function with:
a. Domain [-1,1]
b. Range [-

2
,

2
]
c. sin (sin
-1
x) = x
cos
-1
x is the function with:
a. Domain [-1,1]
b. Range [0, ]
c. cos (cos
-1
x) = x

tan
-1
x is the function with:
a. Domain [-,]
b. Range (-

2
,

2
)
c. tan (tan
-1
x) = x

sec
-1
x is the function with:
a. Domain [-,]
b. Range (-

2
,

2
)
c. tan (tan
-1
x) = x

Integrals

p(x)
q(x)
dx

Partial Fractions
1) Is it in the form

?
2) Can I long divide?
3) Does denominator factor?
a. If q doesnt factor, then q is a quadratic with
complex roots. Put it into completed square
form. Then try u-substitution.
i. Uncompleted square Completed
square
1. x
2
+ 2xf + (f
2
+
g) (x + f)
2
+ g
4) What do I have? LF, RLF, IQ?
5) What does PF say to do?
Case I: All factors LF, no RLF
x
3
+x
2
+1
x(x1)(x+1)(x2)
=

1
+

+1
+

2

with A, B, C, and D some constants.
1. Bring right side over common denominator.
2. Since denominator are equal, set numerators equal to
each other.
3. Set coefficients of A, B, equal to zero. Solve for A,B,
C, D.
4. Plug back into integral.
Case 2: LF, RLF
x
6
+x+1
(x1)(x+1)x
2
(x+2)
3
=

1
+

+1
+

2

+

(x+2)
+

(x+2)
2
+

(x+2)
3

Case 3: LF, RLF, IQ
x
6
+x+1
(x1)(x
2
)(x
2
+1)(x
2
+1)
=

1
+

2
+
+
(x
2
+1)
+
+
(x
2
+1)

Note: a
3
+ b
3
= (a+b)(a
2
- ab+b
2
).
Volumes
Volume of an ellipsoid:

2
+

2
+

2
= 1

Integrals

2
= -
2

2
+ C a>0 and a is constant

2
=
1
(

## ) + C a>0 and a is constant

2
+
2
=
1
2
ln(
2
+
2
) + C a>0 and a is constant

2
+
2
=
1

1
(

## ) + C a>0 and a is constant

+
= ln|x+a| + C a is constant
cos(sin
1
x) = 1
2

dx = 2 +C
=
2
3

3
2
+C