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- CAPE Caribbean Studies Specimen P1 2014
- Sampling
- fp
- Research Reference Guide 2014
- JAN CS2008 Fundamentals of Research Ch1-14 Complete
- std11-stat-em.pdf
- Informacion Metodos Discretos
- Ph.d Course Work Syllabus-Research Methodology
- Research Final
- Project Final
- Loss & Profit
- GKU Syllabus Ph D Course Work RM
- 15 Work Flows
- PAHIRAP-NA-PRAC-RES..docx
- 2011EZ Quant Sampling Software 201118
- Acknowledgement for ndmu reseach
- Demonstrate Conformity to the Standard
- ds
- Lecture 9
- RM Final Report

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degree of precision in estimations of the population parameters. Thus,

probability samples reduce sampling error. The term probability sampling

methods refers to the fact that every member (element) of the population

has a probability higher than zero of being selected for the sample.

Inferential statistical analyses are based on the assumption that the

sample from which data were derived has been obtained randomly. Thus,

probability sampling method are often referred to as probability sampling

methods. These samples are more likely to represent the population than

are samples obtained with nonprobability sampling methods. ll subsets

of the population, which may di!er from one another but contribute to the

parameters of the population, have a chance to be represented in the

sample. Probability sampling methods are most commonly used in

"uantitative and outcomes research.

There of less opportunity for systematic bias if sub#ects all selected

randomly, although it is possible for a systematic bias to occur by chance.

$sing random sampling, the researcher cannot decide that person % will

be a batter sub#ect the study than person &. In addition, a researcher

cannot e'clude subset of people from selection as sub#ect because he or

she does not agree with them. (oes not like them, or )nds them hard to

deal with. Potential sub#ect cannot be e'cluded because they are too sick,

not sick enough, coping too well, or not coping ade"uately. The

researcher, who has a vested interest in the study, could ( consciously or

unconsciously ) select sub#ect whose conditions or behaviors are

consistent with the study hypothesis. It is tempting to e'clude

uncooperative or assertive individuals. *andom sampling leaves the

selection to chance and, thus, increases the validity of the study.

Theoretically, to obtain a probability sample, the research must

develop a sampling frame that includes every element in the population.

The sample must be randomly selected from the sampling frame.

Simple random sampling

+imple random sampling is the most basic of the probability

sampling methods. To achieve sample random sampling, element are

selected at random from the sampling frame. This goal can be

accomplished in a variety of ways, limited only by the imagination of the

researcher. If the sampling frame is small, the researcher can write names

on slips of paper, please the name in a container, mi' well, and then draw

out one at a time until desired sample size has been reached. nother

techni"ue is ti assign a number to each name in the sampling frame. In

large population sets, element may already have assigned to medical

records, organizational memberships, and licenses.

The can be some di!erences in the probability for the selection of

each element, depending on whether the selected element,s name or

number is replaced before the ne't name or number is selected. +election

with replacement, the most conservative random sampling approach,

provides e'actly e"ual opportunities for each element to be selected

(-erlinger . le, /000).

1lynn (/002,p./00) used sample random sampling in her study that

3e'plored association between organizational support for nursing practice

in home health care agencies and (a) the fre"uency of nurse4reported

adverse events, (b) nurse assessed "uality of care, (c) nurs #ob

satisfaction, and (d) nurses intension to leave their employing agency.

Stratifed random sampling

+trati)ed random sampling is used when the researcher knows

some of the variable in the population that are critical to achieving

representativeness. 5ariable commonly used for strati)cation are age,

gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, diagnosis, geographical region,

type of institution, type of care, care provider, and site of care.

$lrich et al. (/006) used a strati)ed random sampling method to

obtain their sample of nurse practitioners (7Ps) and physician assistant

(Ps) for the purpose of studying the ethnical con8ict of these health care

providers associated with managed care. The following e'cerpt from this

study describes the sampling method used to obtain the )nal sample of

9:;6 providers (<;; 7Ps and 6<= Ps.)

Cluster sampling

>luster sampling is a probability sampling method applied when the

population is heterogeneous? it is similar to strati)ed random sampling but

takes advantage of the natural clusters or groups of population unit that

have similar characteristic (fawcett . @arity, /00=). >luster sampling is

used in two situation is when a simple would be prohibitive in the term of

travel time and cost. Imaging trying to arrange personal meeting with900

people, each in a di!erent part of the united states.the second situation is

in case in wich the individual elements making up the population are

unknown, preventing the development of a sampling frame. 1or e'ample,

there is not list of all the heart surgery patient who complete rehabilitation

programs in the united states. In these cases, it is often possible to obtain

list of institutions or organization with which the element of interest are

associated.

In cluster sampling, the researcher develops a sampling frame that

includes a list of all the states, cities, institution, or organizations with

wich element of the identi)ed population would be linked. states, cities,

institution, or organizations are selected randomly as units from which to

obtain elements for the sample. In some cases, this random selection

continues through several stages and is referred to as multistage cluster

sampling.

Systematic sampling

+ystematic sampling can be conducted when are ordered list of all

members of the population is available. The process involves selecting

every individual on the list, using a starting point selected randomly. If the

initial starting point is not random, the sample is not a probability sample.

Tu use this design in your research, you must know the number of element

in the population and the size of the sample desired. (ivide the population

size by the desired sample size, giving k, the size of the gap between

elements selected from the list.

k : population size / sample size

NONPROBABII!" (NONRAN#O$) SA$PIN%

$&!'O#S IN ()AN!I!A!I*& R&S&ARC'

In non probability sampling, not every element of the population has

an opportunity to be included in the sample. Thus, non probability

sampling methods increase the likelihood of obtaining samples that are

not representative of their target population. Aow ever, the ma#ority of

nursing studies use non probability probability sampling, especially

convenience sampling, to select study samples. n analysis of nursing

studies published in si' nursing #ournals from 9=22 to 9=<6 revealed that

=9 used random sampling, which is a trend that appears to continue to

day (moody et al.,9=<<)

There are several types of non probability (nonrandom) sampling

designs. Bach addresses a di!erent research need. The )ve non

probability sampling design described in this te'tbook are (9) convenience

sampling, (/) "uota sampling, (;) purposive sampling, (C) network

sampling, and (:) theoretical sampling.

Con+enience (accidental) sampling

In convenience sampling, sub#ects are included in the study because

they happened to be in the right place at the right time. *esearch simply

enter available sub#ect in to the study until they have reached the desired

simple size. >onvenience sampling, also called accidental sampling, is

considered a weak approach to sampling because it provides little

opportunity to control for biases. Dultiple biases may e'ist in convenience

sampling ? these biases range from minimal to serious.

*esearch must identify and describe know biases in their simples.

&ou can identify biases by carefully tinking trough the sample criteria used

to determine the target population and the taking stapes to improve the

representativeness of the sample.

Dany strategies are available for selecting a convenience sampling.

classroom of student might be used. Patients who attend a clinic on

speci)c day, sub#ects who attend a support group, patient currently

admitted to a hospital with a speci)c diagnosis, and every )fth person

who enter the emergency department are e'amples of types of commonly

selected convenience samples.

>onvenience sample are ine'pensive and accessible, in they usually

re"uire less time to ac"uire than other types of samples. >onvenience

sample provide means to conduct studies on topics that could not be

e'amined through the use of probability sampling. Thus, >onvenience

sample enables researchers to ac"uire information in une'plored areas.

ccording -erlinger and Eee (/000), a convenience sample is probably not

that bad when it is used with reasonable knowledge and care in

implementing a study.

(uota Sampling

Fuota sampling used a convenience sampling techni"ue with an

added feature, a strategy to ensure the inclusion of sub#ect types that are

likely to be underrepresented in the convenience sample, such us women,

minority groups, the elderly, the poor, the rich, and the undereducated.

This method may also be used to mimic the known characteristic of the

target population or to ensure ade"uate number of sub#ect in each

stratum for the planned statistical analyses. The techni"ue is similar to

that used in strati)ed random sampling. If necessary, mathematical

weighting can be used to ad#ust sample values so that they are consistent

with the proportion of subgroups found in the population.

Dc>ain et al. (/00;) used "uota sampling to study the e!ect of

stress management on the psychoneuroimmunology outcomes in person

with AI5 infection. They described their sample selection as follow.

Nonprobability sampling methods use in ,ualitati+e

research-

Fualitative research is conducted to gain insight and discover

meaning about particular e'perience, situation, culture element, or

historical event. The intent is an in4depth understanding of a purposefully

selected sample and not the generalization of the )ndings from a

randomly selected sample to a target population, as in "uantitative

research.

Three common sampling methods used in "ualitative research are

purposive sampling, snowball sampling, and theoretical sampling.

(Darshall and *ossman, /006)

Purposive sampling

In purposive sampling sometime referred to as judgmental or

selective sampling, the researcher consciously select certain

participants, elements, events, or incident to include in the study. In

purposive sampling, "ualitative researchers select information4rich

cases, or those cases that can teach them a great deal about the

central focus or purpose of the study. In purposive sampling,

"ualitative researchers select information4rich cases, or those cases

that can teach them a great deal about the central focus or purpose of

the study (@reen . Thorogood, /00C? Patton, /00/).

This sampling plan has been criticized because it is diGcult to

evaluate the precision of the research,s #udgment. Aow does one

determine that the patient or element was typical or atypical, good or

bad, e!ective or ine!ectiveH Thus, research need to indicate the

characteristics that they desire in participant and provide a rationale

for selecting these types of participant to obtain essential data for

there study.

7etwork sampling

7etwork sampling sometimes to as 3snow ballingI, hold promise

for location sample diGcult or impossible to obtain in other ways or

who had not been previously identi)ed for study. 7etwork sampling

takes advantage of social networks and the fact that friend tend to

have characteristic in common. Jhen you have found a few

participants with the necessary criteria, you can ask for their

assistance in getting in touch with other with similar characteristic.

The )rst few participants are often obtained through a convenience

sampling method, and the sample size is e'pended using network

sampling (Darshall . *ossman, /006? Dunhall, /009).

In "ualitative research, network sampling is an e!ective strategy

for identifying participants who know other potential participants who

can provide the greatest insight and essential information about an

e'perience or event that this identi)ed for study (Patton, /00/)

Theoretical sampling

Theoretical is usually used in grounded theory research to

advance the development of a selected theory throughout the

research process (Dunhall, /009). The research gathers data from any

individual or group that can provide relevant data for theory

generation. The data are considered relevant if they include

information that generates, delimits, and saturates the theoretical

codes in the study needed for theory generation. code is saturated if

it is complete and the research can see how it )ts in the theory. Thus,

the research continue to seek sources and gate data until the codes

are saturated and the theory evolves from the codes and the data.

(iversity in the sample is encouraged so the theory developed covers

a wide range of behavior in varied situation (Paton,/00/).

*ew (/00;) conducted a grounded theory study develop a theory

of taking care of oneself that was grounded in the e'periences of

homeless youth. The study incorporated theoretical sampling, and the

sampling method was described as follows.

Sample si.e in ,uantitati+e research

n increasing number of nurse research are using power analysis to

determine simple size, but it is essential that the results of the power

analyses be included in the published studies. 7ot conduction a power

analysis for study or omitting the power analysis result in a published

study are signi)cant di!erences or relationship, which might be due to an

inade"uate sample size.

Earge sample size are diGcult to obtain in nursing studies, re"uire

long data collection period, and are costly. Therefore, in developing the

methodology for a study, you must evaluate the element of the

methodology that a!ect the re"uired sample size. -raemer and thiemann

(9=<2) identi)ed the following factors that must be taken into

consideration in determining sample size K

9. The more stringent the signi)cance level (e.g., 0.009 versus 0.0:), the

greater the necessary sample size.

/. Two4tailed statistical test re"uire large sample size then one tailed

test.

;. The smaller the e!ect size, the larger the necessary sample size

C. The larger the power re"uired, the larger the necessary sample size

:. The smaller the sample size, the smaller the power of the study.

B!ect size

B!ect is the presence of a phenomenon. If a phenomenon e'ists, it

is not absent, and thus, the null hypothesis is in error. B!ect size (B+) is

the e'tent of the presence of a phenomenon in a population. B!ect, in this

case, is used in a broader sense than that of 3 cause in e!ectI.

B'ample, if the mean weight loss for the treatment or intervention

group is : pounds per month with a standard deviation (+() of C.: and the

mean weight loss of the control or comparison group is 9 pound per month

with a +( L 6.:, you can calculate the B+

B+ L : 4 9 K 6.: L C K 6.: L 0.69: L 0.6/

B+ L Dean of the treatment group 4 mean of the control

group K standard deviation

of control or comparison group

Type of study

(escriptive case studies tend to use small sample. @roup are not

copered, and problem related to sampling error and generalization have

little relevance for such study. small simple size may batter serve the

research who is interested in e'amining a situation in depth from various

perspectives. Mther descriptive studies, particularly those using survey

"uestionnaires, and correlational studies often re"uire large sample. In

these studies, multiple variable may be e'amined, and e'traneous

variables are likely to a!ect sub#ect responses to the variables under

study. +tatistical comparison are often made among multiple subgroups in

the sample, re"uiring that an ade"uate ample be available for each

subgroup being analyzed. In addition, sub#ect are likely to be

heterogeneous in term of demographic variables, and measurement tools

are sometime not ade"uately re)ned. lthough target population may

have been identi)ed, sampling frames may not be available, and

parameters have not usually been well de)ned by previous studies. ll of

these factors lower te power of the study and re"uire increases in sample

size (-raemer . Thiemann, 9=<2).

7umber of variables

s the number of variables under study grows, the needed sample

size may also increase.adding variables such as age, gender, ethnicity,

and education to the analysis plan (#ust to be on the safe side) can

increase the sample size by a factor of : to 90 is the selected variables

are uncorrelated with the dependent variable. In this case, instead of a

sample of :0, you may need a sample of /:0 to :00 if you plan to use the

variables in the statistical analyses.

Deasurement sensitivity

Jell4developed instruments measure phenomena with precision.

thermometer, for e'ample, measures body temperature precisely. Tools

measuring psychosocial variables tend to be less precise. Aowever, a tool

with strong reliability and validity tends to measure more precisely than a

tool that is less well developed. 5ariance tends to be higher in a less well4

developed tool than in one that is well4developed. n instrument with a

smaller variance is preferred because the power of a test always

decreases when within4group variance increases (-raemer . Thiemann,

9=<2).

(ata analysis techni"ues

(ata analysis techni"ues very in their ability to detect di!erences in

the data. +tatisticians refer to this as the power of the statistical analysis.

1or your data analysis, choose the most powerful statistical tes

appropriate to the data. Mverall, parametric statistical analyses are more

powerful than non parametric techni"ues in detecting di!erences and

should be used if the data meet criteria for parametric analysis. In many

cases, however, nonparametric techni"ues are more powerful if your data

do not meet the assumptions of parametric techni"ues. Parametric

techni"ues very widely in their capacity to distinguish )ne di!erences and

relationship in the data.

Sample si.e in ,ualitati+e research

Fualitative research, the focus is on the "uality of information

obtained from the person, situation, event, or documents sample versus

the size of the sample (Patton, /000? +andelowsky, 9==:). The sample

size and sample plan are determined by the purpose of the study. Thus,

the sample size re"uired is determined by the depth of information that is

needed to gain insight into a phenomenon, describe cultural element,

develope a theory, or describe a historical event. the sample size can be

too small when the data collected lacks ade"uate depth or richness. Thus,

an ade"uate sample size can reduce the "uality and credibility of the

research )nding (+andelowsky, /000)

The number of participants in a "ualitative study is ade"uate in

saturation of information is achieved in the study area. Important factors

that must be considered in determining sample size to achieve saturation

of data are (9) scope of the study, (/) nature of the topic, (;) "uality of the

data, (C) study design (Darshal . *ossman, /006? Dorse, /000? Dunhall,

/009? Patton, /00/)

+cope of the study

If the scope of your study is board, you will need e'tensive data to

address the study purpose, and it will take longer to reach data saturation.

Thus, a study with a purpose that has a board scope will re"uire more

sampling of participant, event , or document than would a study with a

narrow scope (Dose, /000)

7ature of the topic

If the topic of your study is clear and the participant can easily

discuss, fewer individuals are needed to obtain the essential data. If the

topic diGcult to de)ne and awkward for people to discus, however, you

will probably need a larger number of participant to saturate the data

(Dorse, /000? Patton, /00/).

Fuality of the data

The "uality of information obtained from a interview, observation ,

or document review in8uences the sample size. The higher the "uality and

richness of the data, the fewer participant you will need to saturate data

in the area of study. Fuality data are best obtained from articulate, well4

informed, and communicative participant (+andelowsky, 9==:).

+tudy design

+ome studies are designed to increase the number of interviews

with participant. The more interviews conducted wit a participant, the

greater the "uality of the data collected. 1or e'ample, a study design that

includes an interview both before an event and after the event would

produce more data than a single interview. (esigns that involve

interviewing a family or a group of individual produce more data than an

interview with a single study participant. In critically appraising a

"ualitative study, determine if the sample size in ade"uate for the design

of the study.

Research setting

The setting is the location where a study is conducted. There are three

common setting for conducting nursing research K natural, partial

controlled, and highly controlled.

7atural setting

natural setting, or )eld setting, is an uncontrolled, real life

situation or environment (Peat et al, /00/)

Partial controlled

partial controlled setting is an environment that the researcher

manipulates or modi)es in some way. n increasing number of nursing

studies, usually correlational, "uasi4e'perimental, and e'perimental

studies, are being conducted in partially controlled setting. *ivers et

al. (/00;), in a study that was introduced earlier in the discussion of

sampling frame, conducted a predictive correlational study to

determine predictor of nurses acceptance of an intravenous catheter

safety device.

Aighly controlled

highly controlled setting is an arti)cially constructed

environment developed for the sole purpose of conducting research.

Eaboratories, research of e'perimental centers, and test units in

hospitals or other health care agencies are highly controlled setting

where e'perimental studies are often conducted.

Recruiting and retaining sub/ect

*ecruiting sub#ect

The e!ective recruitment of sub#ect is crucial to the success of a

study. 1ew study have e'amined the e!ectiveness of various strategies of

sub#ect recruitment. Dost information available to guid researchers comes

from the personal e'perience of skilled researchers.some of the factor

that in8uence a sub#ect,s decision to participate in the study are the

attitudes and ethics of the researchers. The sub#ect,s need for a

treatment, the sub#ect,s interest in the study topic, fear of the unknown,

time and travel constraints, )nancial compensation, and the nature of the

informed consent (Dadsen et al., /00/? Papadopoulus . lees, /00/?

+ullivan4Nolyai et al.,/002)

The researchers initial approach to a potential sub#ect usually

strongly a!ects his or her decision about participating in the study.

Therefore, your approach must be pleasant, positive, informative, and

nonaggressive.

If a potential sub#ect refuses to participate in a study, you must

accept the refusal gracefully4in terms of body language as well as word.

&ou actions can in8uence the decision of other potential sub#ect who

observe or hear about the encounter. +ub#ect in which a high proportion of

individuals refuse to participate have a serious validity problem. The

sample is likely to be biased, because often only a certain type of

individual has agreed to participate. Therefore, keep records of the

numbers of person who refuse and, if possible, their reasons for refusal.

Jith this information, you can include the refusal rate in the published

research report with the reason for refusal. It would also be helpful if you

could determine if the potential sub#ect who refused participate di!er from

those who agreed to participate in the study. This information will help you

to determine the representativeness of your sample.

*etraining sub#ect

Mne of the serious problem in many study is sub#ect retention.

Mften, sub#ect attrition cannot be avoided. +ub#ect move, die, or withdraw

from a treatment. If you must collected data at several points over time,

sub#ect mortality can become a problem. +ub#ect who move fre"uently

and those without phones pose a particular problem. number of

strategies have been found to be e!ective in maintaining the sample. 1or

instance, it is a good idea to obtain the names,addresses, and phone

numbers (cell and home number is possible) of at least two family

members or friends when you enroll the sub#ect in the study. sk if the

sub#ect would agree to give you access to unlisted phone numbers in the

event that the sub#ect changes his or her number.

ProbabilitasOkemungkinanP (random) metode pengambilan sampel

Detode probability sampling telah dikembangkan untuk memastikan

beberapa tingkat presisi dalam estimasiQperkiraanR parameter populasi.

(engan demikian, sampel probabilitas mengurangi kesalahan sampling.

Detode probability sampling meru#uk pada fakta bahwa setiap anggota

(elemen) dari populasi memiliki probabilitas lebih tinggi dari nol untuk

terpilih sebagai sampel. nalisis statistik inferensial Qdapat disimpulkanR

didasarkan pada asumsi bahwa sampel dari data yang berasal telah

diperoleh secara acak. (engan demikian, metode probability sampling

sering disebut sebagai metode probability sampling. +ampel ini lebih

mungkin untuk mewakili populasi daripada sampel yang diperoleh dengan

metode pengambilan sampel non probabilitas. +emua subset dari

populasi, yang mungkin berbeda satu sama lain tetapi kontribusi terhadap

parameter populasi, memiliki kesempatan untuk terwakili dalam sampel.

Detode pengambilan sampel probabilitas yang paling sering digunakan

dalam penelitian kuantitatif dan hasil.

da kurang kesempatan untuk bias sistematis #ika subyek semua dipilih

secara acak, meskipun ada kemungkinan untuk bias sistematis ter#adi

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