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ANTOLOGIA DE INGLS
COMPRENSIN DE TEXTOS







UNIVERSIDAD DE LAS NACIONES
MATERIA: INGLS II






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Introduccin

La antologa de ingls II comprensin de textos representa un enfoque accesible a la
comprensin de textos en ingls para propsitos especficos. Se trata de un mtodo
dinmico de induccin al lenguaje, diseado para usarse por el alumno y maestro, dentro
y fuera de clase, aumentando el dominio del idioma ingls a travs del estudio de
diferentes tipos de lecturas, teniendo una atencin especial a la identificacin de
cognados, conectores y la comprensin de vocabulario en contexto.
Se ha creado La antologa de ingls II comprensin de textos con el siguiente propsito:
hacer ms fcil el perfeccionamiento y la fluidez de su ingls, para as incrementar sus
oportunidades de xito en la comprensin de textos en ingls.
Nuestro sistema de aprendizaje ha sido diseado para hacer uso de sus conocimientos
previos del ingls y ampliarlos, presentando el vocabulario y las frases en contextos
relevantes y estimulantes, que adems ponen nfasis en las cuatro aptitudes del lenguaje:
la lectura, la escritura, el lenguaje hablado y la comprensin del idioma.








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INDICE
1. Buscar cognados y falsos cognados Pagina 1
1.1 Basic elements of organization structure Pagina 3
2. Recursos referenciales Pagina 4
2.1 how children learn Pagina 6
3. Conectores Pagina 8
4. Vocabulario en contexto Pagina 12
5. Reading exercise

5.1 the birth of our galaxy


Pagina 17
5.2 Cause and causes of executive alcoholism, drug abuse
and mental illness
Pagina 20













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1. Buscar cognados y falsos cognados

Para comprender un texto en ingls podemos valernos de varios recursos, pero uno de los ms
importantes consiste en aprovechar las palabras parecidas al espaol. Tales palabras tienen un
parecido tan cercano al idioma materno que fcilmente podemos relacionarlas con la definicin
ms cercana de la palabra en espaol.

Estos vocablos son clasificados en dos categoras:

(a) Los que tienen cierta semejanza:
DRUG DROGA
CLEAR CLARO

(b) B. Los vocablos que son muy similares o idnticos:
DIPHTHERIA - DIFTERIA
ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRACIN
IDEAL IDEAL

Los falsos cognados son las palabras que parecen tener un significado cercano a palabras
parecido al espaol pero realmente expresan algo diferente. Para identificarlas hay que
tomar muy en cuenta la relacin de dicha palabra con la que le rodean (contexto). Si no
tiene una coherencia lgica significa que, aunque lo parezca, no es un cognado.
Cierto nmero de palabras de ortografa similar o idntica tienen significados diferentes
en los dos idiomas:

WORD REAL TRANSLATION
Once Una vez
Actually En realidad
Largely En gran parte
Principal Director
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Observa el texto Basic elements of organization structure en forma global y realiza los
siguientes ejercicios.

1. Subraya todas las palabras que encuentres parecidas al espaol.

2. Estudia las palabras subrayadas dentro de su propio contexto y trata de clasificarlas en
cognados y falsos cognados sin la ayuda de un diccionario.

COGNADOS EQUIVALENTE EN ESPAOL
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

FALSOS COGNADOS EQUIVALENTE EN ESPAOL
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.


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1.1 BASIC ELEMENTS OF ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE

Organizing is the process of arranging work and resources so that planned goals can be
achieved. One important part of the organizing function is determining organization
structure. Organization structure consists of four main elements; job design,
departmentalization of positions and units, methods of vertical coordination, and
methods of horizontal coordination. Organization charts provide a graphic depiction of
the broad outlines of an organizations structure and help employees trace the chain
of command.

There are four main approaches to job design: job simplification, job rotation, job
enlargement, and job enrichment. The job characteristics model helps guide job efforts
by explaining the importance of core job characteristics, critical psychological states,
and high growth-need strength to job outcomes. A related aspect of designing jobs is
providing alternative work schedules. Major types of alternative work schedules
include flextime, the compressed workweek, and job sharing.

Among the most commonly used forms of departmentalization are functional,
divisional, hybrid, and matrix. There are five major means of achieving vertical
coordination, which is the linking of activities at the top of the organization with those
at the middle and lower levels: formalization, span of management, centralization
versus decentralization, delegation, and line and staff positions.

Three major means are particularly useful in facilitating horizontal coordination are
slack resources, information systems, and lateral relations. Slack resources provide a
cushion of resources that allows adaptation to change, while information systems
enhance information exchange. Lateral relations, which involve coordination to
change, while information systems enhance information exchange. Lateral relations,
which involves coordinating efforts with peers in other departments and units, has
several main forms: direct contact, liaisons roles, task forces, teams, and managerial
integrators. Methods of horizontal coordination are particularly useful in promoting
innovation because they facilitate the exchange of ideas across organizational units.
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2. Recursos Referenciales: Pronombres relativos, pronombres personales, adjetivos
posesivos, etc.

Cuando hablamos o escribimos hacemos uso de ciertos elementos que sirven para evitar
repetir algo que ya se mencion o que se mencionar enseguida. A estas partes del texto los
llamamos recursos referenciales o referentes.

1. PRONOMBRES PERSONALES (personal pronouns): Se usan alprincipio de la oracin,
sustituyendo a los nombres.







2. ADJETIVOS POSESIVOS (possessive adjectives): Se usan al principio en medio de la
oracin, antes del sustantivo.






3. PRONOMBRES POSESIVOS (possessive pronouns): Se usan al final de la oracin, despus
del sustantivo.

The new car is HERS.
verb Marias car.



4. PRONOMBRES OBJETO (Object pronouns): Se usan despus del verbo o de una
preposicin, sustituyen a los nombres.

The new car belongs to HER
Verb Prep Maria




SHE has a new Car.
Maria verb adjective noun.
HER car is new
Marias car verb
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PRONOUN TABLE


SUBJECT
PRONOUNS
OBJECT PRONOUN POSSESSIVE
ADJECTIVE
POSSESSIVE
PRONOUN
REFLEXIVE
PRONOUN
I ME MY

MINE

MYSELF

YOU

YOU

YOUR

YOURS

YOURSELF

HE

HIM HIS HIS HIMSELF

SHE

HER HER HERS HERSELF

IT

IT ITS ------- ITSELF

WE

US OUR OURS OURSELVES

YOU

YOU YOUR YOURS YOURSELVES

THEY

THEM THEIR THEIRS THEMSELVES






Demonstratives
Pronouns

Tambin funcionan como referentes los adverbios de lugar:
This There
That Here
These
Those
Who
Which





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2.1 HOW CHILDREN LEARN

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We discovered that education is not something which the teacher does, but that
it is a natural process which develops spontaneously in the human being. It is not
acquired by listening to words, but in virtue of experiences in which the child
acts on his environment. The teachers task is not to talk, but to prepare and
arrange a series of motives for cultural activity in a special environment made for
the child.
A central component of Piagets developmental theory of learning and thinking is
that both involve the participation of the learner. Knowledge is not merely
transmitted verbally but must be constructed and reconstructed by the learner.
Piaget asserted that for a child to know and construct knowledge of the world,
the child must act on objects; the mind organizes reality and acts upon it. The
learner must be active: he is not a vessel to be filled with facts. Piagets approach
to learning is a readiness approach. Readiness approaches in developmental
psychology emphasize that children cannot learn something until maturation
gives them certain prerequisites. The ability to learn any cognitive content is
always related to their stage of intellectual development. Children who are at a
certain stage cannot be taught the concepts of a higher stage.
Intellectual growth involves there fundamental processes: assimilation,
accommodation, and equilibration. Assimilation involves the incorporation of
new events into preexisting cognitive structures. Accommodation means existing
structures changer to accommodate to the new information. This dual process,
assimilation-accommodation, enables the child to form schema. Equilibration
involves the person striking a balance between himself and the environment,
between assimilation and accommodation. When a child experiences a new
event, disequilibrium sets in until he is able to assimilate and accommodate the
new information and thus attain equilibrium. There are many types of
equilibrium between assimilation and accommodation that vary with the levels
of development and the problems to be solved For Piaget, equilibration is the
major factor in explaining why some children advance more quickly in the
development of logical intelligence than do others.
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Consultando el texto titulado How children learn complete el siguiente ejercicio:

1. It en la lnea 2 se refiere a:____________________________

2. his en la lnea 4 se refiere a:____________________________

3. it en la lnea 9 se refiere a:____________________________

4. he en la lnea 10 se refiere a:____________________________

5. them en la lnea 13 se refiere a:____________________________

6. their en la lnea 14 se refiere a:____________________________

7. himself en la lnea 21 se refiere a:____________________________

8. he en la lnea 23 se refiere a:____________________________






















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3. Conectores

Los conectores son palabras o expresiones cuya funcin es relacionar ideas completas dentro de
un texto. De acuerdo al propsito que tengan las ideas que cada conector est relacionado,
podemos encontrar las diferentes clases de conectores que a continuacin se enumeran.

Use the following words to complete the paragraphs below.
CAUSE EFFECT CONTRAST INTENSIFIER TRANSITION
caused by as a result however so the main cause
cause consequently but so ... that (result) another cause
results from as a consequence on the contrary such ... that (result) a third cause
therefore even for all these reasons
REASON ADDITION COMPARISON PURPOSE CONDITION
because (of) moreover on the one hand in order to otherwise / if not
since furthermore on the other hand so that if / unless


Two 12-year-old girls, standing outside a mini-mart are wearing matching tube tops and short skirts like
Britney Spears *clones. One holds a cigarette, like an adult, where everyone can see her. She looks
around to make sure other girls are noticing her. When asked why she dresses the way she does, she
says that she likes it. ___________________________, it seems to me that the reasons for her
behavior are more complex. More specifically, they have more to do with her ambiguous role as a pre-
teen in society. A young girl's "wannabe" look, her mimicking of a teen idol,
is_______________________ personal insecurity, a desire to be popular and by peer pressure.
* mimic (v.) - copy or imitate, mimicry (n.) ; clone (n.) - identical genetic copy;






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Part 2

Use the following words to complete the paragraphs below.
CAUSE EFFECT CONTRAST INTENSIFIER TRANSITION
caused by as a result however so the main cause
cause consequently but so ... that (result) another cause
results from as a consequence on the contrary such ... that (result) a third cause
therefore even for all these reasons
REASON ADDITION COMPARISON PURPOSE CONDITION
because (of) moreover on the one hand in order to otherwise / if not
since furthermore on the other hand so that if / unless


for mimicking teen-idols is personal insecurity. Pre-teens are in between child and
adult stages. They are no longer children, the ways they behaved in the past are no
longer appropriate. they are not yet adults; they do not know the ways
of the adult world. This conflict can feelings of insecurity. when they
were younger, they could whine and cry to get attention from their parents and other children.
, that kind of behavior would be "uncool" around their teenage peers. Often
, the teenager does not know how to act his or her age. pre-teens do no
know what to do, they often turn to copy-cat behavior as a way to fit in and be more secure.






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Part 3

Use the following words to complete the paragraphs below.
CAUSE EFFECT CONTRAST INTENSIFIER TRANSITION
caused by as a result however so the main cause
cause consequently but so ... that (result) another cause
results from as a consequence on the contrary such ... that (result) a third cause
therefore even for all these reasons
REASON ADDITION COMPARISON PURPOSE CONDITION
because (of) moreover on the one hand in order to otherwise / if not
since furthermore on the other hand so that if / unless


A second cause is that pre-teens feel they need to be popular be more secure within
their own age group. , they turn toward models of popularity - teen idols - and start
dressing like them. Unfortunately, many of their idols dress and behave in ways that are not age-
appropriate. Teenies need better role models than Hollywood currently has to offer.
they interpret "dressing up" as wearing provocative, sexy clothing, rather than clothing that makes them
look good and feel comfortable and secure. of their need to be popular, young girls start
dressing and acting as if they were much older than they really are.







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Part 4

Use the following words to complete the paragraphs below.
CAUSE EFFECT CONTRAST INTENSIFIER TRANSITION
caused by as a result however so the main cause
cause consequently but so ... that (result) another cause
results from as a consequence on the contrary such ... that (result) a third cause
therefore even for all these reasons
REASON ADDITION COMPARISON PURPOSE CONDITION
because (of) moreover on the one hand in order to otherwise / if not
since furthermore on the other hand so that if / unless


for young girls mimicking teen idols is peer pressure. They often see the adults
closest to them, their parents and teachers, as "uncool", as enemies.
they turn to peers who pressure each other to look, act, and dress exactly alike. This peer group can
exert pressure often pre-teens do things as a group that they would not
normally do. One of these things is spending ridiculous amounts of money on idol clothing-lines. That's
right! Young hollywood celebrities are making money off their twelve-year old "peers" who give-in to
peer pressure. The peer pressure here is great most normal girls will
succumb. we can see that personal insecurity, desire to be popular and peer pressure
can






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4. Deducir el significado de palabras no familiares por medio del contexto.

Hacer predicciones a partir del contexto es una estrategia muy importante para la
comprensin de un texto. Contexto es una combinacin de vocabulario y gramtica que
rodea una palabra. El contexto puede ser la oracin o el prrafo en donde se encuentra la
palabra en un texto. Al saber el significado general de una oracin obtendrs tambin el
significado de un texto sin detenerte a buscar cada palabra en el diccionario.

Guessing Meaning of Vocabulary from Context


Exercise 1
Deduce el significado de la palabra subrayada en cada oracin.
1. She had often come into conflict with her mother-in-law.
a) announcement b) attainment c) argument
2. The old womans blunt questions embarrassed her, making her momentarily
tongue-tied.
a) emit b) ashamed c) loathe
3. We just need a couple more chairs so everyone can sit down.
a) one b) two c) three
4. Please, Uncle Jack, give me a piggyback!
a) a ride on someone back or shoulder
b) a small bag
c) people who arrived to settle in Bangkok 2000
5. Ladda does not like to eat papaya or carrots, which is high in vitamin A, so she
lacks it. Her mother keeps telling her that an inadequate supply of vitamin A can
lead to blindness.
a) too big b) not enough c) full


How many did you get right from Exercise 1? _________
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Language Focus
Now you will learn how to guess the meaning of unfamiliar words or new words by
looking around the words to find clues. These clues will help you to find their
meanings; then you will better understand what you are reading. There are many
ways to help you guess the meaning of unfamiliar words from the context. Read the
explanation below and study the examples.

1. Definition
A definition gives the meaning of words. The writer may use words, phrases, or
statements to define something. The writer will use key words, or signal words to
identify a definition so you need to look for them. See examples of key words
below.

Key words
is/are means/mean
is/are called what this means is
is/are known as consist of
is/are defined as refer to
is/are described as may be seen as
e.g.
1. Inflation is a rise in the general level of prices you pay for things you buy.
an unfamiliar word = inflation
signal word = is
the definition = a rise in the general level of prices you pay for everything you buy.
2. Someone who explores and studies caves is known as a spelunker.
an unfamiliar word = spelunker
signal words = is known as
definition = someone who explores and studies caves

Exercise 2
Use signal words as your clues to find the meaning of the underlined words. Circle
signal words and write their meaning in the space provided.
1. The encyclopedia defines astrology as the ancient art or science of divining
the fate and future of human beings from indications given by the positions
of stars and other heavenly bodies.

2. astrology means______________________________________

3. Sales literature means printed matters that contain information on the
goods.

Sales literature means_________________________________
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4. The part at the back of the car used for holding luggage is called the car
boot in United Kingdom, whereas Americans would refer to this as the cars
trunk.

car boot means______________________________________


2. Restatement

The writer may use other words, phrases, or sentences to provide the meaning of
difficult words. We call this restatement; the writer describes it again or in a
different way. Signal words for restatement are in the Key words box below.

Key words
or
that is to say
in other words
i.e. or that is
e.g.
The surface of Africa consists mainly of plateaus, or large flat areas, although these
occur at different levels.
an unfamiliar word = plateaus
signal word = or
meaning = large flat areas

Exercise 3
Use signal words as your clues to find the meaning of the underlined words. Circle
signal words and write the meaning in the space provided.
1. According to Indian custom, a great dowry of money and objects is given to the
bridegroom, in other words, it is a dot.
dot = ______________________________________
2. There are several types of aerosol cans. Simple ones contain a liquefied gas,
called the propellant, in which material is dissolved, i.e., melt.
dissolved =__________________________________
3. Our youth nowadays should not engage in intoxicating things such as alcohol,
cigarettes, and tranquilizers, that is to say, they should not ingest them.
engage =___________________________________




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3. Punctuation marks

Punctuation is used to describe the meaning of unfamiliar words. The writer will
write unfamiliar words and then use punctuation, words, phrases, or sentences to
explain the meaning of the new words. Such punctuation is in the Key words box
below.

Key words
, commas
, , appositive
( ) parentheses
? ? dashes
; semicolon
: colon
e.g.
Full-color pictures are printed using only black and three colors: yellow, cyan (a light
blue) and magenta (a light purple).
an unfamiliar word = cyan and magenta
signal punctuation = ( )
meaning : cyan = a light blue and magenta = a light purple
The use of computers to handle text, or word processing, was foreseen in the
1950s.
an unfamiliar word = handle text
signal punctuation = , ,
meaning : handle text = word processing

Exercise 4
Use signal words as your clues to find the meaning of the underlined words. Circle
signal words and write the meaning in the space provided.
1. Both facsimile (known as fax) and electronic mail (email) are ways of sending
documents.
Facsimile =______________________________________
Electronic mail =__________________________________
2. An FM radio DJ (disk jockey) broadcasts over the airwaves.
DJ =___________________________________________
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3. Infection ? becoming ill through contact with bacteria ? of the respiratory system
such as the nose, the throat, and the chest is among the most common of all
diseases.
Infection =______________________________________

4. Examples

Examples help us to understand the meaning of new words. See key words or signal
words used for showing examples in the Key words box.

Key workd
such as
like
for example,
for instance
is / are
e.g. Use navigation buttons, such as, the Next button, the Previous button, the
Menu button, and the Exit button, to go back and forth or jump to other topics
while you are using your English software.
unfamiliar words = navigation buttons
signal word = such as
meaning = buttons on computer program that are used for turn on pages

Exercise 5 Use signal words as your clues to find the meaning of the underlined
words by choosing the best answer for each question. Circle signal words.
1. Some people in the North of Thailand do wickerwork, for example, they make
elephants, turtles, plates, beds, and chairs, from teak trees for earning money.
a) silver handicraft b) bronze handicraft
c) niello handicraft d) wood handicraft
2. The Savanna grasslands are the home of grazing animals such as elephants,
giraffes, antelopes and zebras. Lions, leopards and hyenas also live there.
a) non-backbone animals b) meat-eating animals
c) invertebrate animals d) grass-eating animals
3. A tourist guide advised them to see the elephant round up. There was racing,
colorful war procession, marching, kicking a ball and tug-of-war between men and
elephants.
a) show b) breed
c) sleep d) born

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READING EXERCISE
The birth of our galaxy
1 Long before the Sun and the solar system formed, before the galaxy existed, the
universe was filled with gas - mainly hydrogen, with some helium. This gas was
eventually to be turned into stars, planets and people. But before these things could
happen, the galaxy had to form.

Prr.1
5


10
Astronomers believe that the galaxy formed out of a large, fairly spherical cloud of
cold gas, rotating slowly in space. At some point in time, the cloud began to collapse
in on itself, or condense, in the same way that the clouds which formed individual
stars also condensed. Initially, some stars may have formed as the gas cloud began to
fragment around the edges, with each fragment condensing further to form a star or
group of stars. Because the cloud was spherical at that time, we do see some very old
stars distributed in a spherical halo around the outside of the galaxy today. At such
early times, these stars consisted only of the hydrogen and helium gas which made up
the cloud.



Prr.2
15



20





The cloud continued to collapse, with more and more stars being formed as it did so.
Since the cloud was rotating, the spherical shape began to flatten out into a disc, and
the stars which were formed at this time filled the disc regions. Once again we see
this shape today in the main body of the galaxy. As the formation of new stars
continued, some of those which had been created earlier had enough time to evolve
to the end of their active lifetimes, and these stars began to shed their atmospheres
or explode in huge supernova events. In the process, these older citizens of the still
young galaxy enriched the gas in the cloud with the new, heavier elements which they
had formed, and the new stars being created in the disc regions contained the heavier
elements. Astronomers call these younger, enriched stars population 1 stars, and the
older stars population 2.







Prr.3
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I. De acuerdo al texto y al prrafo indicado entre parntesis, escriba V para verdadero o F para
falso en el espacio en blanco.

1.- El sistema solar se formo antes del universo ______
2.-Las estrellas se conforman bsicamente de hidrgeno ______

II. Circule la opcin correcta.
1.- La palabra these en la lnea 19 hace referencia a:
a) New stars
b) Young galaxies
c) Old stars
d) Clouds

III. De acuerdo con el texto responda las siguientes preguntas en espaol.

1.- Explique el proceso de la formacin de las estrellas. (Prr. 2)


2.- Qu sucedi en la evolucin de las primeras estrellas? (Prr.3)






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IV. En espaol, escriba un resumen del texto en aproximadamente 50 palabras.





















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Costs and causes of executive alcoholism, drug abuse and
mental illness

Exactly what constitutes mental health or mental illness? It is indeed a difficult question to
answer. Although psychiatry is a respected subspecialty of medicine, a clear definition of
mental illness remains elusive. Many psychiatric disorders overlap (American Psychiatric
Association, 1987) and the reasons for their onset are still obscure. The cures are even
more uncertain. Professional opinions can differ widely about definitions, etiologies, and
treatments. In short, psychiatry is still as much an art as it is a science. If the professionals
cannot agree, where does this leave the employer who is aware that the troubled senior
executives are a problem and is sincerely motivated to help?

How much are troubled senior executives costing their organizations? No one knows for
sure. Although the costs of mental illness in the population as a whole and in the hourly
employee work force in particular are generally well documented, data about the costs of
troubled senior executives are not available. Many corporations do not keep separate
records about the nature or cost to the firm of their impaired senior executives, preferring
to merge these data with those for overall employee impairment. As a consequence, it is
difficult to be precise in determining the costs of senior executive alcoholism, drug abuse,
or mental illness within an organization. In addition, many of the costs of senior executive
impairment are not quantifiable and, therefore, cannot be subjected to rigorous analysis.

Although difficult to measure, the costs of troubled senior executives fall into several
categories. First is the cost of lost productivity, that is, paying substantial salary and
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benefits to a troubled senior executive who is not performing. An executive whose yearly
salary is $400,000 and who receives an additional $100,000 a year in benefits but who
works at only one fifth of his or her maximum productive effort loses the firm more than
$7,000 a week a good deal more than the cost of the most expensive psychiatric
treatment.

The second category of costs includes sick leave, absenteeism, health care costs, and
disability payments. Troubled senior executives may be absent from the office for
significant periods of time due to illness. If their illness has progressed to the point of no
return, they may become permanently disabled and need to prematurely retire. Troubled
senior executives may run up large health care bills, for example, for repeated
hospitalizations for alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver, repeated psychiatric hospitalizations for
recurrent depressive or psychotic episodes, and the like.

Termination and replacement costs make up the third category. The cost of replacing
senior executives who must eventually be released can be quite high when the costs of
recruitment, hiring, orientation, and training are included.

The fourth category includes the costs of poor professional judgment and bad business
decisions. As noted earlier, troubled senior executives often display poor business
judgment and make bad decisions that may adversely affect the firm as a whole the more
senior the executive, the greater the impact of the bad decision.
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The fifth category includes the costs of lowered morale, negative publicity, and damage to
the corporate image if the inappropriate actions and behaviors of troubled senior
executives become public knowledge or widely known in the corporate community.
Alcoholic executives embezzling corporate funds, manic executives getting involved in
messy extramarital affairs, drug-dependent executives selling inside information to support
their habit, depressed executives committing suicide, psychotic executives attacking other
executives or employees all are examples that fall within this fifth category.

Last of all are the cots of litigation when the organization has to defend itself against legal
action taken by the terminated executive for wrongful discharge or discrimination. Legal
action can also be initiated by other executives who may have been emotionally abused or
physically harmed by the troubled executive.

Alcoholism and drug abuse and dependency are psychiatric disorders in their own right
(Vailant, 1983; Mirin, 1984). The causes of alcoholism in executives and other individuals
are still not clearly understood. One popular theory is that the causation of alcoholism is a
function of genetic endowment. Family studies clearly show that relatives of alcoholics
have a higher rate of alcoholism than the population as a whole (Kaplan and Sadock,
1985). Adoption studies conducted in Denmark concluded that adopted males whose
biological parents were alcoholics were more than four times as likely to become
alcoholics as adopted males whose parents were not alcoholics (Kaplan and Sadock,
1985). They usually developed severe cases of alcoholism by their early twenties and
usually required treatment. Another theory of etiology is that alcoholism is a function of
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early childhood experience and family dynamics. Investigators have discovered that family
histories of alcoholics often reveal childhood environments of marital and family conflict
and parental emotional neglect. The child of an alcoholic is unable to get his or her
emotional needs fulfilled and experiences feelings of anger, depression, and guilt.

A third category of causation is that alcohol acts as a direct toxin on the brain, destroying
vital brain tissue and significantly altering brain function. This results in the appearance of
a variety of other psychiatric illnesses, including several of the organic mental disorders.
There also appears to be a strong relationship between depression and the extended use
of drugs or alcohol. Individuals who were depressed prior to drug or alcohol abuse
frequently turn to drugs or alcohol as a way to ease their emotional pain. Unfortunately,
continued use usually results in greater levels of depression rather than less because of
the toxic effect of the substances on the brain. The deepening depression in turn results in
continued alcohol or drug use, and the vicious cycle continues.

What about the causes of drug abuse? Because there are so many different types of drugs
to abuse and become dependent on, it is difficult to postulate one comprehensive theory of
causation of drug abuse and dependency (Vaillant,1983; Mirin, 1984). Also, as with
alcohol, there is little agreement within the psychiatric community as to the definitive
origins of drug abuse and dependency. Research data suggest that drug abuse and
dependency are a disease caused by complex interaction of biological vulnerabilities,
psychological issues, and environmental settings. Drug abusers usually have a history of
experimentation with more socially approved substances like tobacco, alcohol, and
marijuana (Kaplan and Sadock, 1985). Recent studies also indicate that drug abusers
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have problems with poor impulse control, ego deficits, and an inability to appropriately
manage intense affects, including anger and rage (Kaplan and Sadock,1985). It is thought
that some of these deficits in psychological structures and their associated functioning are
in part a consequence rather than a cause of long-term chronic drug use. Becoming a drug
abuser appears to be a function of the following: the cost, availability, and status of the
drug; the financial condition of the drug abuser; the methods of initiation and the social
supports that encourage continued usage; the psychological makeup and biological
vulnerabilities of the individual; the type and intensity of current life stressors; the coping
skills of the drug abuser; and the unwitting encouragement of the social or occupational
environment. Drug abusers often have a low frustration tolerance and a need for
immediate gratification. They are motivated to seek to induce and perpetuate a highly
pleasurable mental state. Recent research indicates that certain drugs may impact on the
genetically vulnerable brain to produce biochemical changes that further induce the drug-
seeking and drug-taking behavior (Kaplan and Sadock, 1985).

Working in the world is a demanding, challenging, stressful and sometimes hazardous
activity. Unfortunately, little hard research data are available to shed light on this important
precipitating factor. My clinical experience with many employees and managers indicates
that work can adversely affect one's psychological balance. Boring, unstimulating work in
unpleasant and unattractive surroundings can contribute to the appearance of
psychological distress. At the other extreme, individuals who experience work overload, or
"burnout", frequently complain of a variety of somatic and psychological symptoms. Some
workers may become emotionally distressed when they find themselves in a work situation
for which they feel unqualified. Conflicts with superiors over unclear expectations,
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performance evaluation, or inconsistent or insufficient guidance and support can increase
the level of psychological distress. Working environments that do not afford opportunities
for developing a sense of accomplishment, personal growth, creative expression, and
personal initiative can retard the development of high self-esteem and positive self-image.
Major and unexpected changes in responsibilities can also contribute to anxiety and
psychological distress. Such events include promotion or demotion, transfer to another
location, retirement, and termination. Specific events such as mergers, acquisitions, and
divestitures can also contribute to increased levels of emotional distress. Not all individuals
experience events in the work place as emotionally distressing, nor will difficulties in the
work place be the only contributing factor in the development of mental illness. Those
individuals who by reason of their genetic endowment, early childhood experiences, and
past medical and psychiatric history are predisposed to the development of psychiatric
illness may have particular difficulty with the changing demands of the workplace.
Selecciona con un clic la opcin correcta.
1. Entre los siquiatras existe mucho desacuerdo en relacin a la etiologa y al
tratamiento de los problemas mentales.
o V
o F
2. Hay registros muy completos sobre el costo que ocasionan a las empresas
los ejecutivos que sufren de problemas mentales.
o V
o F
3. Los datos relacionados con los problemas del personal ejecutivo se
mantienen separados de los del resto del personal.
o V
o F
4. Adems de la falta de productividad, los problemas mentales pueden costar
a la empresa ms de 7,000 dlares a la semana en tratamientos mdicos.
o V
o F
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5. La incapacidad total permanente es un ejemplo de la segunda categora de
costos que esta clase de empleados provocan a la compaa.
o V
o F
6. El reemplazo de un ejecutivo de alto nivel puede implicar un alto costo para
la empresa al sumar todos los gastos que sto produce.
o V
o F
7. Los ejecutivos que cometen desfalcos y que para cubrirlos venden
informacin confidencial sobre la empresa pueden tratar de suicidarse.
o V
o F
8. El personal sano de la empresa puede entablar demandas legales por el
dao emocional que les producen los ejecutivos enfermos.
o V
o F
9. Un estudio realizado en Dinamarca mostr que el tener padres alcohlicos
aumenta el riesgo de padecer esta enfermedad.
o V
o F
10. Es inevitable que los hijos de las familias donde existen problemas
emocionales graves desarrollen problemas tempranos con el alcohol.
o V
o F
11. Una teora sobre el alcoholismo indica que el alcohol acta como una toxina
para el cerebro y es la causa de problemas mentales orgnicos.
o V
o F
12. Un gran nmero de trastornos serios de depresin son producidos por el
consumo frecuente de alcohol.
o V
o F
13. La investigacin sobre el abuso y la dependencia a las drogas muestra que
son provocados por diversos factores que interactan.
o V
o F
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14. Estudios recientes afirman que la falta de habilidad para manejar
emociones como la ira puede ser consecuencia del abuso crnico de las
drogas.
o V
o F
15. Entre los factores que pueden dar origen a un drogadicto se encuentra la
manera en que una persona se enfrenta a los problemas diarios.
o V
o F
16. El trabajar en un ambiente poco estimulante puede dar por resultado la
aparicin de sufrimiento psicolgico.
o V
o F
17. Muchos problemas de tensin en el empleo pueden darse tanto por
ocupaciones muy aburridas o que implican una gran carga de trabajo.
o V
o F
18. Un gran nmero de personas que enfrentan cambios drsticos en su mbito
laboral desarrollan trastornos psicolgicos.
o V
o F
19. La carga gentica de algunos individuos puede hacerlos propensos a
desarrollar enfermedades mentales en ambientes de trabajo muy exigentes.
o V
o F








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Bibliografa
1. Arman, Louann. Leech, Patrick. Murria, Janet. Reading Skills for the Social Sciences Oxford
University Press. 1988

2. Alvarez, Guadalupe; Williamson, Marcela. English for law. Centro de Enseanza de Lenguas
Extranjeras. Universidad Autnoma de Mxico. Mexico DF, 1996

3. Koda, K. (2005). Insights into second language reading: A cross-linguistic approach.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

4. Grellet, F Developing Reading Skills. Cambridge University Press. 2001

5. Peregoy, S. F., & Boyle, O. F. (2001). Reading, writing, and learning in esl: A resource book
for k-12 teachers. New York: Longman.

6. Vacca, J. L., Vocca, R. T., Gove, M. K., Burkey, L., Lenhart, L. A., & McKeon, C. (2003).
Reading and learning to read (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

7. Yopp, R. H., & Yopp, H. K. (2006). Informational texts as read-alouds at school and home.
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8. http://cwabacon.pearsoned.com/bookbind/pubbooks/seyler_ab/chapter1/deluxe.html

9. http://www.mediacampus.unam.mx/videos/501/cognados-y-falsos-cognados

10. http://www.uefap.com/reading/readfram.htm