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x 1 :=

f
m
4
3
e
2x
:= f
m
236.45 =
(c) Calculation
(i) T i
1
i
2
d
d
L
12

( )
= 2 marks
(ii) i
1
4 = i
2
8 sin 10t ( ) = L
12
0.5 cos
( )
= 5 marks
T 4 8 sin 10t ( )
d
d
0.5cos
( )
=
calculator:
T 16 sin 10 t ( ) sin
( )
= sin 60deg ( ) 16 13.856 =
T 13.856 sin 10 t ( ) =
Because of T consists only sine function, the average torque is zero.
SEE 3433 (version: 4Mei)
Solution for Final Examination
Semester: 2010/11-02
Question 1: Electromechanical Energy Conversion
(a) Production of torque in a singly excited and doubly excited system 6 marks
In a singly excited system,
T
1
2
i
2
d
d
L
( )
=
The torque is produced because of variation of self-inductance with rotor position. This is also called
reluctance torque.
In a doubly excited system,
T
1
2
i
1
2

d
d
L
11

( )

1
2
i
2
2

d
d
L
22

( )
+ i
1
i
2

d
d
L
12

( )
+ =
The first two terms in the equation represent torques produced because of self-inductance with the
rotor position. These torques are the same torque produced in a singly excited system. The third term
represents torque produced by the variation of the mutual inductance between the stator and the rotor
winding. This torque uniquely belongs to a doubly excited system.
6 marks
(b) i k
2
e
2x
=
W
f
i

d = 6
2
e
2 x

d = 6

3
3
e
2 x
= 2
3
e
2 x
=
f
m

x
W
f
x ,
( )
= f
m
4
3
e
2x
=
2 :=
0.025 := N
m
1000 :=
K
a
N p
a
:= K
a
286.479 =
m
N
m
60
2 :=
(i)
E
a
K
a

m
:= E
a
750 V =
(ii)
I
a
25 a := I
a
50 A = P E
a
I
a
:= P 37.5 kW =
(c) Calculation for DC generator
(i) Diagram of compound DC machine 3 marks
Insert Diagram of Compound DC Machine here
(iii)
T 4 8 sin 10t ( )
d
d
0.5cos
m
t +
( )
=
6 marks
T 4 8 sin 10 t ( )
d
d
0.5 cos 10 t 60 + ( ) =
T 16 sin 10 t ( ) sin 10 t 60 + ( ) =
T 8 cos 10 t 10 t 60 + ( ) [ ] 8 cos 10 t 10 t 60 + ( ) + [ ] =
T 8 cos 60 ( ) 8 cos 20 t 60 + ( ) =
T
ave
8 cos 60 deg ( ) := T
ave
4 Nm =
Question 2: DC Machine (generator)
6 marks
(a) V
t
- I
a
characteristics of DC generator
In cumulative compound generator, the field of the
shunt and series winding add each other. With
increasing armature current the field due to series
winding increases. This may compensate the drop
in terminal voltage due to I
a
R
a
drop and armature
reaction. Then, the terminal voltage may rise.
In differential compound generator, the field of the
shunt and series winding oppose each other. With
increasing armature current the field due to series
winding decreases. Therefore, the terminal voltage
drops very quickly with incraesing armature current.
(b) Calculation for generated voltage 5 marks
p 6 := N 300 := a 2 :=
Given
I
a
I
f
I
t
+ = I
f
R
f
I
t
R
sr
V
t
+ =
I
f
I
t

Find I
f
I
t
,
( )
:= I
f
0.832A = I
t
99.168 A =
E
a
V
t
I
t
R
sr
+ I
a
R
a
+ := E
a
113.967 V =
From the graph, I
f_eff
1.20 A :=
N
sr
5 := (Guess value) Given
I
f_eff
I
f
N
sr
N
f
I
t
+ I
f_AR
=
N
sr
Find N
sr
( )
:= N
sr
5.061 =
Question 3: DC Machine (motor)
(a) The terminal voltage speed control 4 marks
The terminal voltage control is the best method to control speed of DC motors. This is because
the maximum torque capability is maintained and smooth variation of speed from zero to base
speed is guaranteed. This method, however, is relatively expensive because it requires a
variable DC supply.
(b) The effect of armature reaction in DC motor operation 4 marks
The effect of armature reaction is that it reduces the useful flux in the air gap. In DC motor
operation, the decreasing field will cause the higher speed. It also shifts the magnetic neutral axis
of the machine at which the brushes are normally placed.
(ii) Draw a field resistance line that intersects the magnetization curve at 100 V. 4 marks
From the graph: I
f
0.8 A := E
a
100 V :=
At no load, V
t
E
a
:= R
f
V
t
I
f
:= R
f
125 =
(iii) V
t_NL
100 V := R
f
125 = R
sr
0.04 := R
a
0.1 := N
f
1200 :=
I
f_AR
0.05 A := 7 marks
At full-load: V
t_FL
V
t_NL
:= V
t
100 V := I
a
10 kW
100 V
:= I
a
100 A =
I
f
1 := I
t
100 := (Guess values)

FL
E
a_FL
E
a_NL

NL
:=
FL
719.598 rpm =
(iii) With armature reaction,
FL
0.95
NL
= 5 marks
E
a_FL
E
a_NL
0.95
FL

NL
=
FL
1
0.95
E
a_FL
E
a_NL

NL
:=
FL
757.472 rpm =
(iv) E
a
89.5V = at 700 rpm
5 marks
E
a_800
800
700
89.5 := E
a_800
102.286 V =
From magnetization curve 800 rpm: for E
a
78.313V = I
f
0.85A =
I
f_eff
0.85A := I
f
0.79A := I
a
100 = I
f_AR
0.15A :=
N
sr
5 := (guess value) Given I
f_eff
I
f
N
sr
N
f
I
a
I
f
+
( )
+ I
f_AR
=
N
sr
Find N
sr
( )
:=
N
sr
2.5 =
(c) Calculation for DC motor
V
t
100 V := R
a
0.1 :=
NL
800 rpm :=
3 marks
(i) At no load, I
a
5 A :=
E
a
V
t
I
a
R
a
:= E
a
99.5 V = E
a_NL
E
a
:=
From the magnetization curve, for E
a
99.5V = I
f
0.79A =
V
t
E
a
:=
R
f
V
t
I
f
:= R
f
119.63 =
(ii) At full-load I
a
10 kW
100V
:= I
a
100 A = I
a_FL
I
a
:= 4 marks
E
a_FL
V
t
I
a_FL
R
a
:= E
a_FL
89.5 V =
Without armature reaction,
NL

FL
=
N
r
950 := f 50 := R
1
0.25 := R
2
0.2 := p 6 := X
1
0.65 := X
2
0.6 := X
M
60 :=
V
1
V
3
3
:= V
1
239.6V = N
s
120 f
p
:= N
s
1 10
3
=
Z
Th
j X
M
R
1
j X
1
+
( )

R
1
j X
1
X
M
+
( )
+
:= Z
Th
0.245 0.644i + = R
Th
Re Z
Th
( )
:= X
Th
Im Z
Th
( )
:=
V
Th
X
M
R
1
2
X
1
X
M
+
( )
2
+
V
1
:= V
Th
237.03 V =
(i) Line current, power factor, and input power at full load 6 marks
At the full-load, s
N
s
N
r

N
s
:=
s 0.05 =
Based on the original circuit:
Question 4: Induction Machine
(a) Terminal voltage speed control is limited in operating range 3 marks
The torque developed by an induction motor is proportional to the square of the applied voltage. By
reducing the terminal voltage, the torque will reduce drastically and the capability to drive load will
reduce as the same proportion. Therefore the speed of the motor may be controlled over a limited
range by varying the line voltage.
(b) Development of torque in IM and IM can not operate at synchronous speed 4 marks
A three-phase voltage is applied to the stator of IM. This three phase voltage produces a rotating
magnetic field in the stator, rotating at synchronous speed given by
N
s
120 f
p
=
The rotating magnetic field passes over the rotor conductors and induces the voltage in them.
Because the conductors in the rotor are short-circuited, the current flows and causes magnetic field
in the rotor too. The interaction between stator magnetic field and rotor magnetic field will produce
torque.
If the induction motor was running at synchronous speed, then the rotor would be stationary
relative to the rotating magnetic field and there would be no induced voltage. Then, no current
would flow in the rotor's conductor and no flux would be produced. With no rotor field, the
induced torque would be zero.
Q4(c) Calculation for Induction machine
Dummy unit: V 1 rpm 1 1 Hz 1 kW 10
3
A 1
Nm 1 kVAr 10
3
k 10
3

V
3
415 :=
P
ag
19.735 kW =

syn
N
s
60
2 :=
T
st
P
ag

syn
:= T
st
188.456 Nm =
E
1
I
2
R
2
s
j X
2
+

:= E
1
114.676 2.47i + =
I
M
E
1
j X
M

:= I
M
0.041 1.911i =
I
1
I
M
I
2
+ :=
I
1
61.084 172.691i =
(iii) Efficiency at which the maximum developed torque occurs 6 marks
S
Tmax
R
2
R
Th
2
X
Th
X
2
+
( )
2
+
:=
P
rot
1200 :=
(Rotational losses)
S
Tmax
0.158 =
s S
Tmax
:=
Z
in
Z
Th
R
2
s
+ j X
2
+ :=
I
2
V
Th
Z
in
:= I
2
93.476 76.882i = I
2
121.031 = arg I
2
( )
39.437 deg =
Z
1
R
1
j X
1
+
j X
M

R
2
s
j X
2
+

j X
M

R
2
s
+ j X
2
+
+ := Z
1
4.154 1.502i + = Z
1
4.417 =
arg Z
1
( )
19.875 deg =
pf cos arg Z
1
( ) ( )
:= pf 0.94 =
lagging
I
1
V
1
Z
1
:= I
1
51.011 18.441i = I
1
54.241 = arg I
1
( )
19.875 deg =
P
in
3 V
1
I
1
pf := P
in
36.666 kW =
(ii) Current and torque at starting 6 marks
At start,
s 1 :=
Input impedance,
Z
in
Z
Th
R
2
s
+ j X
2
+ := Z
in
0.445 1.244i + =
I
2
V
1
Z
in
:= I
2
61.043 170.779i =
P
ag
3 I
2
( )
2
R
2
s
:=
Input power: P
input
3 V
1
I
1
pf := P
input
6.669 10
4
=
Efficiency
P
out
P
input
100 := Efficiency 68.564 =
Question 5: Synchronous machine
(a) Power angle characteristics and torque characteristics 4 marks
Power angle characteristics Torque-speed characteristics
(b) Power factor of synchronous motor can be controlled by field current 6 marks
The power transfer equations:
P 3V
t
I
a
cos =
and
P
3 V
t
E
f

X
s
sin =
The motor connected to infinite bus, hence
V
t
constant =
E
1
I
2
R
2
s
j X
2
+

:= E
1
164.645 41.392i =
I
M
E
1
j X
M

:= I
M
0.69 2.744i =
I
1
I
M
I
2
+ := I
1
92.786 79.626i = I
1
122.268 = arg I
1
( )
40.635 deg =
pf cos arg I
1
( ) ( )
:= pf 0.759 =
Air gap power: P
ag
3 I
2
( )
2
R
2

s
:= P
ag
5.572 10
4
=
syn
N
s
60
2 :=
Rotor Copper loss: P
2
s P
ag
:= P
2
8.789 10
3
=
Mechanical power: P
mech
1 s ( ) P
ag
:= P
mech
4.693 10
4
=
Output power: P
out
P
mech
P
rot
:= P
out
4.573 10
4
=
E
f
V
t
I
a
e
j
j X
s
+ := E
f
343.941 139.121i + =
E
f
371.012 V = arg E
f
( )
22.023 deg =
Power angle arg E
f
( )
:= 22.023 deg =
Excitation voltage E
f
E
f
:=
E
f
371.012 V =
Include Phasor diagram
(ii) Reactive kVA supplied by the machine 5 marks
E
f1
1.15 E
f
:=
V
t
E
f

X
s
sin
( )

V
t
E
f1

X
s
sin 1
( )
=
E
f
sin
( )
E
f1
sin 1
( )
=
1 asin
E
f
sin
( )

E
f1

:= 1 19.03deg =
E
f1
1.15 E
f
e
j 1
:=
I
a
E
f1
V
t

j X
s

:= I
a
13.912 16.374i = I
a
21.486 A = arg I
a
( )
49.648 deg =
For constant power operation, I
a
cos constant =
and
E
f
sin constant =
These conditions must satisfy this phasor relationship:
E
f
V
t
j I
a
X
s
=
The excitation voltage E
f
changes linearly with the field current I
f
. Therefore, as I
f
is changed, E
f

willl change along the locus of E
f
and Ia will change along the locus of I
a
, signifying a change in
the power factor angle
.
(c) Calculation
(i) Excitation voltage and the power angle 5 marks
P 10k := V
3
415 := pf 0.8 := X
s
10 :=
I
a
P
3 V
3
pf
:=
I
a
17.39A = acos pf ( ) := 36.87 deg =
V
t
V
3
3
:= V
t
239.6V = E
f
V
t
I
a
jX
s
+ =
Include Phasor diagram
Q 17.222 kVAr =
Q 3 V
t
I
a
sin
( )
:= Reactive power,
leading pf 0.84 = pf cos
( )
:= Power factor,
32.854 deg = arg I
a
( )
:= Power factor angle,
arg I
a
( )
32.854 deg = I
a
44.165 A = I
a
37.101 23.96i + = I
a
j E
f
V
t

j X
s
:=
P
max
26.668 k = P
max
3 V
t
E
f

X
s
:=
3 marks E
f
371.012 V = 90deg := (iii)
Include Phasor diagram Q 11.77kVAr =
Q 3 V
t
I
a
sin
( )
:= Reactive power,
lagging pf 0.647 = pf cos
( )
:= Power factor,
49.648 deg = arg I
a
( )
:= Power factor angle,