Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 30

developedatSandiaNationalLaboratory NewMexico USA developedatSandiaNationalLaboratory,NewMexico,USA

andcommercialised byOptomec,USA
presented by
PS h IITKh PSaha IITKharagpur
11/11/2013 1 PSaha
Motivationbehinddevelopment p
Fullydense functionalmetallic components.
Pickand placematerialcompositiontotailor p p
localizedmaterialcharacteristics withinapart.
Repairandoverhaul technologiestoextendthelifeof
componentsinagingaircraft ship vehicles andweapon componentsinagingaircraft,ship,vehicles,andweapon
systems.
Convetional repairtechniquessuchasMIGorTIGweldinginduce
excessiveheatandalargeHEATAFFECTEDZONE(HAZ) excessiveheatandalargeHEATAFFECTEDZONE(HAZ)
destroyingusefulnessofthepart.
Highcostofscrappingormaintainingcriticalparts,especially,
whendrawingsdonotexist, whendrawingsdonotexist,
Partsdeemednonrepairableduringtheirrepairprocess
Fabricate sparepartasandwhenrequiredfromits
originalCADdesign ratherthankeepingahugeinventory originalCADdesign,ratherthankeepingahugeinventory.
11/11/2013 2 PSaha
Schematic of the LENS process SchematicoftheLENSprocess
11/11/2013 3 PSaha
LENSProcesssteps p
Acomponentisfabricatedbycreatingamoltenpool
throughfocusingalaserbeamontoasubstrate.
Metalpowder particlesaresimultaneouslyinjected
intothepooltoaddmaterial.
Usingcomputercontrol thesubstrateismovedbeneath Usingcomputercontrol,thesubstrateismovedbeneath
thelaserbeam intheXYplane,depositingathincross
sectionofpredeterminedCADgeneratedgeometry.
Af d i i f l h d i i h d Afterdepositionofalayer,thedepositionhead
(consistingofapowderdeliverynozzleandfocusinglens
assembly)isincrementedinthepositiveZdirection,
ll i i f h l f h allowinggenerationofthenextlayerofthepart.
Depositionoflayersisrepeateduntilthedesiredthree
dimensionalcomponenthasbeenlayeradditivelyformed. dimensionalcomponenthasbeenlayeradditivelyformed.
11/11/2013 4 PSaha
Powderdeliverynozzle
11/11/2013 5 PSaha
Constructionofthinwalledstructurewithfournozzle Constructionofthin walledstructurewithfournozzle
powderdeliverysystem
11/11/2013 6 PSaha
NdYAGlaservs.CO2 laser
Sinceitisundesirable
tovaporizemateial as
itisdeposited optical itisdeposited,optical
absorptionofmaterial
iscriticalforeffective
utilizationoflaser
energy.
Withtheexceptionof
copper allofthe copper,allofthe
elementalmetals
showninthegraph
havesignificantly g y
absorptionattheNd
YAGlaserwavelength
ascomparedtoCO2
laser laser.
Fiberlaserat1070nmhassimilarabsorptionasthatofNdYAGlaser
11/11/2013 7 PSaha
CapabilitiesofLENSprocess p p
Abilitytobuildfullydense shapes
Closedloopcontrol ofprocessforaccuratepartfabrication
Abilit t t il dd iti t t f t i f d Abilitytotailoreddeposition parameterstofeaturesizeforspeed,accuracy,
andpropertycontrol
Compositeandfunctionallygraded materialdeposition
Threeaxisandfouraxissystemsforcomplexpartfabrication Three axisandfour axissystemsforcomplexpartfabrication
Withthistechnology,materialsthateithercannotbe cast andthermo
mechanicallyprocessed,orthatcannotbeconsolidated successfullyby
powdermetallurgy,canbeformed.
d f l h l d l l ll Widevarietyofmaterials that,atminimum,include:stainlesssteelalloys
(316,304L,309,174),maraging steel (M300),nickelbasedsuperalloys
(Incodesignations625,600,718,690),toolsteel alloys(H13),titaniumalloy
(6Al4V),andotherspecialtymaterials ( 4 ), p y
Highcoolingrate(10
2
10
3
K/s)leadsto finermicrostructure
Mechanicalproperties similarorbetter thantraditionalprocessing
methods
11/11/2013 8 PSaha
VaryingComposition y g p
Multiplepowderdeliverynozzlesarecapableof
varyinglocalcomposition varyinglocalcomposition.
11/11/2013 9 PSaha
Different Build Styles with Varying DifferentBuildStyleswithVarying
Composition p
Dependingonthedesigncriterionofapart,material
compositioninLENScanbevariedthrough compositioninLENScanbevariedthrough
compositematerialdeposition thepowder
compositionremainsconstantfordistinctbuild p
regions,and
functionallygradedmaterial(FGM) deposition
thepowdercompositioniscontinuouslychanging
FGMrequiresaheavierinteraction betweenthe
powderfeedercontroller andtheLENSmotion
controller controller.
11/11/2013 10 PSaha
(a)AcompositeconsistsofdistinctregionsofAandB
(b)CompositesmaybeconstructedbyfirstdrawingallofregionAandthen
(c)drawingallofregionB,allowingpowderfeederstobereconfiguredbetweencompositions.
(d)FGMsrequirethepowdertobecontinuallyvariedthroughoutthebuild (d)FGMsrequirethepowdertobecontinuallyvariedthroughoutthebuild.
(e)eachdepositionvectorinanFGMbuildwillhaveauniquepowderfeederprofile.
11/11/2013 11 PSaha
PowderFeederCharacterization
PowderFeeder
SetUp(Feeder,
Screw,Feedline
lengthetc.)
Powderistransportedfromapowderhoppertothegasstream
Ascrewfeeddevice usesanopenthreadedshafttometerpowderintoan
argoncarriergasstream argoncarriergasstream
Asinglecarriergaslineisdividedintotwodistinctflows,passedthrough
thefeedersandthenrecombinedintoasingleline.
Mixingofthetwopowders occursnaturallyintherejoinedargonstream g p y j g
11/11/2013 12 PSaha
Forcomposites,thechiefcriterionforsuccessful
depositionisthatthepowderfeedersprovidethedesired depositionisthatthepowderfeedersprovidethedesired
powdercompositionforagivenperiodoftime.Thesystem
caneffectivelypauselongenough forpowder y p g g p
compositionstobealteredandreachsteadystate.

ForFGMs,thereisasignificanttimelagbetweenaskingfor
agivencompositionandwhenthatcompositionisactually
i j di h l lb i i l H injectedintothemoltenpoolbecomescritical.Hence
thoroughcharacterizationofpowderfeederisneeded.
11/11/2013 13 PSaha
OPTOMECs
F
OPTOMEC s
LENS850SYSTEM
Features
1100Wcontinuous
NdYAGlaser d G ase
Fiberopticbeam
delivery
18x18x42build 18 x18 x42 build
envelop
4
th
and5
th
axis:rotary
andtiltstages andtiltstages
Controlargon
atmospherewith
oxygensensor oxygensensor
Filteringsystemfor
particulatecontrol
CCD i i CCDvision
Glovebox
Power220V3phase Power220V3phase
100A
11/11/2013 14 PSaha
S 8 0 ifi i LENS850systemspecifications
11/11/2013 15 PSaha
Materials deposited using the LENS MaterialsdepositedusingtheLENS
Process
11/11/2013 16 PSaha
Measured tensile values for LENS v MeasuredtensilevaluesforLENSv.
forged/annealedspecimens g / p
11/11/2013 17 PSaha
ApplicationsofLENS pp
ToolingapplicationsforInjectionMoldToolingandDie
Casting whereLENS'canimprovecycletimesby50%and g p y y 5
extendmoldlife. Conformalcoolingchannelsarepossible.
RepairandOverhaul applicationsduetosmallHeatAffected
Zone(HAZ) allowingforhigheryieldandsuperiorpartrepairs Zone(HAZ),allowingforhigheryieldandsuperiorpartrepairs.
Functional"PrototypingandSmallLotManufacturing
madepossibleduetoproducingfullydensemetalpartswith
di h i l i (hi h h&d ili ) outstandingmechanicalproperties(highstrength&ductility),
notfoundwithRapidPrototypingsystems
MaterialResearch :improvementofpropertiesinexisting p p p g
alloysandcomposites;developmentofnewalloysand
composites.LENS'abilitytoprovidemultiplematerialgradient
depositionoffersuniquematerialresearchoptions depositionoffersuniquematerialresearchoptions.
11/11/2013 18 PSaha
Applications pp
BuildingUp of Turbine Blade FinishedTurbine Building Up of Turbine Blade
by LENS
Finished Turbine
Blade
11/11/2013 19 PSaha
Applications pp
H13 Tooling
Thin Walled
Housing
H13 Tooling
I mpeller
11/11/2013 20 PSaha
Six Inch Tall Thin Walled Part
Substrate Included in Part
Housing Finished Housing
11/11/2013 21 PSaha
ToolingPartsbyLENSProcess g y
I njectionMolding
InjectionMoldCavity
I njection Molding
Core
I njection Mold Cavity
Conformal Cooling
Channel
11/11/2013 22 PSaha
ToolingPartsbyLENSProcess g y
TrimmingDie Trimming Die
11/11/2013 23 PSaha
Insuchan
injectionmold,a
h d l l hardtoolsteel
maybeselectively
placedinregions
h i whereexcessive
wearwouldbean
issue,yetthebulk
ofthemoldcould ofthemoldcould
bemadeofa
materialwitha
bettercoefficient bettercoefficient
ofthermal
conduction.)
Injectionmoldingdies(coreandcavity,CADimageandFinal j g ( y, g
fabricatedparts)withcopperchillerblockandthree
dimensionalconformalcoolingchannel.
11/11/2013 24 PSaha
11/11/2013 25 PSaha
11/11/2013 26 PSaha
ProcessessimilartoLENSProcess
11/11/2013 27 PSaha
C ll d M l B ild UP (CMB) ControlledMetalBuildUP(CMB)
(Developed at Fraunhofer IPT, Aachen Germany) (DevelopedatFraunhofer IPT,AachenGermany)
11/11/2013 28 PSaha
Di M l D i i (DMD) DirectMetalDeposition(DMD)
(Developed at University of Michigan, USA) (DevelopedatUniversityofMichigan,USA)
11/11/2013 29 PSaha
Comparison of Direct Metal ComparisonofDirectMetal
FreeformProcesses
Process Deposition Type Accuracy
Horizontal
Layer Thickness Deposition Rate Materials
SLS L i i Hi h N/A N/A S l SLS Laser sintering High N/A N/A Steel, copper,
Solder
SDM Droplet based and
cladding
N/A, Machined
finish
Variable 30g/min Stainless steel,
INVAR
Welding Welding 0.2-0.5 mm Up to 50 mm N/A, High Steels, Numerous
Droplet based
freeform fabr
Droplet based N/A N/A 25-150 m dia.
droplets
Bi-Sn
LENS Cladding 0.02mm, Z:
04mm
0.13-0.38 mm N/A, Low SS, Ti alloys,
Numerous 0.4mm Numerous
DLF Cladding 0.075-0.125 mm 0.075-0.125 mm 1-2g/min SS, P20,
Numerous
DMDat Michigan Cladding N/A 0254mm 01 41cm
3
/min H13 Al DMD at Michigan Cladding N/A 0.254 mm 0.1-4.1 cm
3
/min H13, Al,
Numerous
11/11/2013 30 PSaha