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College of Engineering and Computer Science

Mechanical Engineering Department


Mechanical Engineering 375
Heat Transfer
Spring 2007 Number 17629
Instructor: Larry Caretto
February 7 Homework Solutions
1.55 The inner and outer surfaces of a 4-m by -m bric! "all of
thic!ness #$ cm and thermal conducti%ity $.&' ()m *
are maintained at temperatures of +$,C and 5,C-
respecti%ely. Determine the rate of heat transfer
through the "all- in (. ./igure 01.55 from 1engel- Heat
and Mass Transfer2
Here we use the basic equation for one-dimensional
conduction heat fow. We take the temperature
diference as Tleft Tright to get the heat fow in the
direction shown in the fgure.
L
T T kA
Q
right left
) (

rom the gi!en data we see that " # $.% m& Tleft Tright # '($
o
) *
o
) # (*
o
) # (* +& k
# $.,- W.m+& and / # 01 m203 m2 # '4 m
'
. 5ubstituting these !alues into the heat
fow equation gi!es6.
( )

m
K
m
K m
W
L
T T kA
Q
right left
3 . 0
15
28
69 . 0
) (
2

966 W
1.59E. The north "all of an electrically heated home is +$ ft long- 1$ ft high- and 1 ft thic!-
and is made of bric! "hose thermal conducti%ity is k 3 $.4+ 4tu)h ft ,/. 5n a certain "inter
night- the temperatures of the inner and the outer surfaces of the "all are measured to be
at about &+,/ and +5,/- respecti%ely- for a period of 6 h. Determine .a2 the rate of heat loss
through the "all that night and .b2 the cost of that heat loss to the home o"ner if the cost
of electricity is 7$.$)!(h.
/gain we use the basic equation for one-dimensional conduction heat fow. We take
the temperature diference as Tleft Tright to get the heat fow lea!ing the house.
L
T T kA
Q
outer inner
) (

rom the gi!en data we see that " #( ft& Tleft Tright # ,'
o
'*
o
# %1
o
& k # $.3'
7tu.hrft
o
F& and / # 0'$ ft20($ ft2 # '$$ ft
'
. 5ubstituting these !alues into the heat
fow equation gi!es6.
( )

ft
F
ft
F ft hr
Btu
L
T T kA
Q
o
o
right left
1
37
200
42 . 0
) (
2

3108 Btu/hr
acaran!a "#ngineering$ %%%% &ai' Co!e ()one: *1*+677+6,,*
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The cost is found b8 multipl8ing the heat loss b8 the 9$.$1.kWh cost of pro!iding the
heat and the 4 hour t during which the heat loss occurs..
( ) ( )
Btu
kWh
hr
hr
Btu
kWh
t Q t Unit Cost
3412
8
3108 07 . 0 $
cos

$0.51
1.&4 Consider a person standing in a room maintained at +$,C at all times. The inner surfaces
of the "alls- floors- and ceiling of the house are obser%ed to be at an a%erage temperature
of 1+,C in "inter and +#,C in summer. Determine the rates of radiation heat transfer
bet"een this person and the surrounding surfaces in both summer and "inter if the
e8posed surface area- emissi%ity- and the a%erage outer surface temperature of the person
are 1.& m
+
- $.'5- and #+,C- respecti%ely.
To compute this radiation heat transfer we assume that the person in the room is a
small ob:ect in a large enclosure. or this situation we can use equation (.'4 for the
radiation heat transfer.
( )
4 4
surfaces person
T T A Q

We are gi!en the following data6 Tperson # %'


o
) # %$*.(* +& Tsurfaces # ('
o
) # '4*.(* +
in the winter and '%
o
) # '-,.(* + in the summer& / # (., m
'
& and # $.-*. The
5tefan-7olt;mann constant& # *.,1$<($
-4
W.m
'
+
3
. 5ubstituting these !alues into
the radiation equation gi!es the following heat transfer !alues.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
4 4
4 2
8
2 4 4
15 . 296 15 . 305
10 670 . 5
6 . 1 95 . 0 K K
K m
W x
m T T A Q
surfaces person summer

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
4 4
4 2
8
2 4 4
int
15 . 285 15 . 305
10 670 . 5
6 . 1 95 . 0 K K
K m
W x
m T T A Q
surfaces person er w

W Q
summer
3 . 84

W Q
er w
3 . 177
int

=ote that the room temperature !alue of '$


$
) is irrele!ant in this problem where we
are onl8 computing the radiation heat transfer. >n a real situation we would also
compute the con!ecti!e heat transfer from the person?s bod8 to the room air at a
temperature of '$
o
).
1.&& /or heat transfer purposes- a standing man can be modeled as a #$-cm-diameter- 1$-cm-
long %ertical cylinder "ith both the top and bottom surfaces insulated and "ith the side
surface at an a%erage temperature of #4,C. /or a con%ection heat transfer coefficient of +$
()m
+
,C- determine the rate of heat loss from this man by con%ection in an en%ironment at
16,C.
Here we use the basic equation for con!ecti!e heat transfer. We take the
temperature diference as Tperson T

to get the heat fow from the person to the


en!ironment.
) (

T T hA Q
person

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rom the gi!en data we ha!e h # '$ W.m
'

o
)& and Tperson T

# %3
o
) (4
o
) # (,
o
).
5ince we are gi!en that the ends of the c8linder are insulated the area a!ailable for
heat transfer is the ares of the side of the c8linder6 / # @" # 0$.% m20(.1 m2 #
(.,$' m
'
. 5ubstituting these !alues into the heat transfer equation gi!es the desired
solution.
( )( )



C m
C m
W
T T hA Q
o
o
person
16 602 . 1
20
) (
2
2

513 W
1.6 9 transistor "ith a height of $.4 cm and a diameter of $.&
cm is mounted on a circuit board. The transistor is
cooled by air flo"ing o%er it "ith an a%erage heat
transfer coefficient of #$ ()m
+
,C. :f the air temperature
is 55,C and the transistor case temperature is not to
e8ceed $,C- determine the amount of po"er this
transistor can dissipate safely. Disregard any heat
transfer from the transistor base. ./igure at right ta!en
from 1engel- Heat and Mass Transfer.2
The basic idea here is that the power dissipated b8
the transistor is the heat transfer that has to be
con!ected to the air at **
o
)A so& we can use the
basic equation for con!ecti!e heat transfer. We take
the temperature diference as Ttransistor T

to get the
heat fow from the transistor to the en!ironment.
) (

T T hA Q
transistor

rom the gi!en data we ha!e h # %$ W.m


'

o
)& and Ttransistor T

# 1$
o
) **
o
) # (*
o
).
5ince we are gi!en that the base of the transistor is negligible& area a!ailable for heat
transfer is the area of the side of top of the transistor that we will assume is a
c8linder6 / # @" B @
'
.3 # 0$.$$, m20$.$$3 m2 B 0$.$$, m2
'
# $.$$$($%1 m
'
.
5ubstituting these !alues into the heat transfer equation gi!es the desired solution.
( )( )



C m
C m
W
T T hA Q
o
o
transistor
15 0001037 . 0
30
) (
2
2

0.0467 W
1.'5 Consider a person standing in a room at +#,C Determine the total rate of heat transfer
from this person if the e8posed surface area and the s!in temperature of the person are 1.
m
+
and #+,C- respecti%ely- and the con%ection heat transfer coefficient is 5 ()m+;,C. Ta!e
the emissi%ity of the s!in and the clothes to be $.'- and assume the temperature of the
inner surfaces of the room to be the same as the air temperature.
This is a combination of the work we did in problems (.,3& where we considered onl8
radiation& and (.,,& where we considered onl8 con!ection. Here we do the work of
both problems and add the results to get the total heat transfer.
( )
4 4
) (
surfaces person person rad conv
T T A T T hA Q Q Q + +


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rom the gi!en data we ha!e / # (.1 m
'
& # $.-& h # * W.m
'

o
)& and Tperson T

#
%'
o
) '%
o
) # -
o
)& so that Tperson # %$*.(* + and Tsurfaces # T

# '-,.(* +. The 5tefan-


7olt;mann constant& # *.,1$<($
-4
W.m
'
+
3
. 5ubstituting these !alues into the
heat transfer equation gi!es the desired solution.
( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
1
1
]
1

4 4
4 2
8
2
2
4 4
15 . 296 15 . 305
10 670 . 5
9 . 0 9
5
7 . 1
) (
K K
K m
W x
C
C m
W
m
T T T T h A Q
o
o
surfaces person person

= 161 W
1.1$1 9 1$$$-( iron is left on the iron board "ith its base e8posed to the air at +$,C. The
con%ection heat transfer coefficient bet"een the base surface and the surrounding air is
#5 ()m
+
;,C. :f the base has an emissi%ity of $.& and a surface area of $.$+ m
+
- determine
the temperature of the base of the iron.
This is another problem where we ha!e both con!ection and radiation. We compute
each mode of heat transfer then add the two the get the total heat transfer. Here we
know the total heat transfer is ($$$ W& the heat produced b8 the iron. What we do
not know is the surface temperature of the iron. /s usual we assume that the iron is
a small item in a large enclosure to get the equation for radiation heat transfer.
( )
4 4
) ( 1000
surfaces iron iron rad conv
T T A T T hA Q Q W Q + +


rom the gi!en data we ha!e / # $.$' m
'
& # $.,& h # %* W.m
'

o
)& and T

# '$
o
).
We are not gi!en the surfaces of the room for radiation& but we can assume that the8
are the same as the air temperature so that Tsurfaces # '$
o
) # '-%.(* +. The 5tefan-
7olt;mann constant& # *.,1$<($
-4
W.m
'
+
3
. 5ubstituting these !alues into the heat
transfer equation gi!es the desired solution. =ote that we ha!e to use +el!in
temperatures for the con!ection term in this combined con!ection-radiation problem
with an unknown temperature. >f we did not do this we would ha!e an inconsistent
!ariable for the unknown temperature of the iron.
( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]

'

4 4
4 2
8
2
2
4 4
15 . 293
10 670 . 5
6 . 0 15 . 293
35
02 . 0
) ( 1000
K T
K m
W x
K T
C m
W
m
T T T T h A W Q
iron iron
o
surfaces iron iron

We cannot sol!e this equation directl8& but we can use a root fnder in our calculator
or in a software application like C<cel& Datlab or CC5. Esing the FGoal 5eekH tool of
C<cel to sol!e this equation gi!es the result that Tiron = 947.04 K = 674
o
C.
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