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Oxford denes ethos as The characterstc Sprt and Beefs of communty/ peope whch dstngushes one cuture
from the other.
Indan ethos s drawn from the Vedas, the Ramayana, Mahabharat, the Bhagwadgta, and Upnshads.
Rght from the Vedc age t has been dscovered two basc unversa truths of fe.
1. The essenta nntude and dvnty of a sous.
2. The essenta oneness and sodarty of unverse and a fe.
The rst truth was expressed UPNISHADA as AHAM BRAHMASI (I am Brahman)
Or AYAM ATMA BRAHMAN .e. The Indvdua sou s Brahman
Or TATTWAMASI (Thou art that).
Ths s the rst truth thought to every chd. Even a poor uneducated man vng n a hut knows that God s n everybody
and therefore there s sameness n a.
The second truth s about a hostc unverse. Where at a eve of pervadng conscousness everythng s nterconnected
at VYASTHI LEVEL (Indvdua eve) my mbs, hands, egs, cars, eyes, heart, ungs.. Everythng are me. I ve n a of
them. Ther sorrows and |oys are my sorrows and |oys. Smary at SAMASTHI eve (the whoe unverse) I am not a snge
ndvdua but I am a part of the whoe unverse |ust as my mbs are part of me.
Modern scence has accepted that n ths hostc unverse a mnds and matters are nterconnected at a deeper eve.
The basc unty of fe cannot be broken. Love, sacrce therefore emerge as the ony for a meanngfu vng. On the
bass of ths hostc vson, Indans have deveoped work ethos of fe. They found that a work, physca or menta,
managera or admnstratve have to be drected towards snge purpose. The manfestaton of the dvnty n man by
workng for the good of others, for the happness of others.
These Indan ethos are requred a over the word n present scenaro n managng busness and ndustry ehectvey and
Some of these ethos are as foows:
A work/Karma to manfest dvnty, hence these must be pure, good, honest and sncere. Indan phosophy aso teaches
to perform every work wthout havng any attachment to resut, because resuts do not fa under the |ursdcton of a
doer. Such thnkng and understandng w change the whoe atttude. Now the resuts w become a PRASAD-grattude
- comng from the God hmsef. You can now accept the resut wth open mnd wthout apprehensons-|ust as you accept
members nto Karma Yoga.
Consderng motvatons as nterna every human beng has the same dvne atman wth mmense potentates wthn
Vedanta brngs nnte expanson of mnd, breaks down a the barrers and brngs out the God n man.
Motvaton s to be nterna and not externa. Such motvaton nvoves the nner beauty and does not promote any greed
n an ndvdua to have more and more n return of hs work.
Vedanta teaches to perform a actvtes.
Serve your persona nterest but do not forget others
Shankaracharya has gven the concept to gan perfecton n ndvdua fe as we as the wefare of the whoe word.
Work s consdered as duty or SADHANA and there s no dherence between KARMA (work) and DHARMA (regon). The
term DHARMA does not ndcate any partcuar regon. Dharma s a duty to be performed n a gven stuaton. Thus
Dharma s possbe through Karma ony.
Thus socety acceptabe vaues are to be foowed n determnng the ob|ectves as we as n the process of achevng
these ob|ectves.
Integrated human personaty of sef-deveoped manager can assure best and competent management of any
enterprse, nvovng coectve works and ehorts. The rened or hgher conscousness w adopt hostc atttude. It w
brng out the dvne n man. It w acheve perfecton or exceence n whatsoever sector you work. We sha acheve
peace, harmony and prosperty wthn and wthout .e., n or nterna word and n our externa word smutaneousy.
|ob Sks
Healthy World
Insights infnite potentials
Ths s the dea of Indan ethos:
(For ganng perfecton n ndvdua fe, as we as for the wefare of the word)
Human and ethca vaues or quates such as courage, vson, soca awareness, fearessness, ntegrty, pure and cear
mnd, truth, etc, are sub|ectve and ntangbe concepts. These represent dvne weath.
Busness need not be regarded ev, traned and unethca. Busness s scared. It s a matter of atttude, approach and
eve of management conscousness.
Indan ethos demands sub|ectve management system.
1. Management atttude.
2. Humanzng the organzaton.
3. Interor sng management
4. Sef ntrospecton
5. Bran stng (decson makng n sence)
6. Sef dynamsng medtaton.
Indan Ethos s more vta to modern management than any other management theory for the smpe reason that t takes
nto account a whoe man rather than approachng man n a parta fashon as the other theores do. Each and every
stuaton can be met ehectvey f one takes tme to reect over t. Reecton wth a tranqu mnd heps n drawng out
soutons from wthn. Such gudance from wthn heps a manager ook at the perceved probem stuaton n a creatve
manner. It eads to a more coherent and compete understandng.
Inda beongs to femnne - coectvstc category. In femnne orented cuture co-operaton and sharng are the basc
ethcs and human actons are governed by the gvng orentatons. Femnne coectvstc managers are softness
For them Carng and Sharng comes st. Such managers tend to take a hghy humanstc approach to management,
and have a greater abty to nspre peope. By takng care of subordnates, they are abe to ensure achevement for
Indan cuture s predomnanty a Sprtua and Inward ookng cuture. It has a soco-centrc vson. The orentaton of the
sprtuay domnated cuture s that of wefare, the soca good or the good of the greater members. Smpe vng and
hgh thnkng s the characterstc feature of our cuture.
One of the domnant features of the Indan cuture s the |ont Famy System. The vaues that are partcuar to our
socety are extremey mportant n the context of management, where group ehort rather than an ndvdua endeavour
s more mportant. Lvng n a |ont famy, an ndvdua endeavour s more mportant Lvng n a |ont famy, an ndvua
s brought up n a system of management, whch may be termed the KARAT stye of management. Karta n a |ont famy
s a fathery gure. Everyone n the famy reposes condence n hm, he s respected and he s open to constructve
and respectfu crtcsm. There s the warmth of reatonshp, coseness, consderaton for others and a feeng of
sacrce for the arger famy nterest.
Another characterstc of Indan cuture s PURUSHARTHAS - The Msson of Lfe. Purushartha means and connotes the
ams, msson or purpose of fe. These four Purusharthas comprse mans aspraton. Purusharthas are four n number
mpact and sgncance w be ost to a sgncant extent.
Before we tak about the cuture specc system of management suted to Indan psyche, we shoud rst understand
and apprecate the saent characterstcs of Indan cuture.
Such an understandng s essenta before embarkng on the task of budng the ndgenous system of management.
These are:
Essenta dvnty of human sou
Essenta owners and sodarty of unverse and a fe.
Phosophy of an ntegra experence.
Famy s the basc unt of soca system.
Rsh and ashramac cuture.
Purusharth the msson.
Varna-Ashram system.
Sprt s free enqury, toerance and seectve assmaton.
The characterstcs of Indan cuture are that attends to be pervasve and endurng. When an nternatona company s
settng up busness n Inda, t w have to ook for the acceptabty of ther management n ts present form n the
Indan stuaton.
The four basc cutura dmensons whch may account for dherences n
management and HRD practces across cuture are:
The extent to whch a socety emphaszes coectve rather than
ndvdua actvty.
The extent of power dstance or toerance for soca nequaty.
The extent of acceptance of uncertanty.
The extent to whch a socety emphaszes Mascune vaues and behavour such as assertveness,
ambtousness, domnaton etc.
In the above dagram, the basc or the fundamenta requrement for a manager s hs VISION and atttude towards the
envronment n ts totaty .e. Cosmc vew based on cutura vaues. Next comes the emotona stabty of the manager.
He must be a sef-controed and sef-propeed man. Ths can come by the heavy nput of sattvc gunas and the
constant practce of nskam karm. |ob sks s the ast nput. Whch though mportant, s not the Core Requrement as
the westerners vew t.
Hence any nternatona company shoud mbbe above mentoned features seekng the busness n Inda.
A!. Personaty s the sum tota of what we are. It reects our vews, characters, beefs, atttude, knowedge,
abtes etc. We act / behave /thnk n a partcuar way because vaues, ethcs and cutures determne to a very arge
extent or personaty.
The foowng trats need to be deveoped are:
1. A"#$%&'#(&'('!):
Authortaran tend to be rgd n ther postons, pace hgh mora vaue systems and are strongy orented towards
conformty to rues and reguatons. They naturay prefer stabe and structured work envronments, whch are governed
by cean rues and procedures.
2. L%*"! %+ C%#&%,:
Locus of contro refers to an ndvduas beef that events are ther wthn ones contro or are determned by forces
beyond ones contro. These personaty trats are manfested n dherent behavours, whch are sgncant to managers.
3. M(*$'(-.,,'('!):
Machaveansm, a term refers to an ndvduas propensty to manpuate peope. In |obs that requre barganng sks
or where there are substanta rewards for wnnng, Machaveansm perform better.
4. A*$'.-.).# O&'.#(#'%:
Managers wth a hgh need to acheve contnuay strve to dong thngs better. They want to overcome obstaces, but
they want to fee ther success or faure s due to ther actons.
5. S.,+/E!#..):
Managers shoud have a hgh sef-esteem. Peope wth hgh sef-esteem beeve that they have abtes to undertake
chaengng |obs. They tend to choose uncongena |obs than those wth ow sef-esteem. Hgh-esteems are more
satsed wth ther |obs.
6. R'!0 T(0'1:
Hgh rsk takng managers make more rapd decsons and use ess nformaton n makng ther choces.
7. S#&('1$#+%&2(&3.!! (3 !')4,'*'#5:
It refers to an ndvduas abty to ad|ust hs or her behavour to externa factors. The hgh sef-montor s capabe of
puttng on dherent faces for dherent audences. Managers hgh n sef-montorng can show consderabe adaptabty
n ad|ustng ther behavour to externa stuatona factors.
Managers shoud be emotonay stabe:
1. Managers shoud have a very corda reaton wth others n the organzaton and he shoud bud harmonous
envronment n the organzaton.
2. He shoud have an exceent rapport wth hs superors, peers as we as hs subordnates n the organzaton.
3. He shoud be stabe enough .e. nstead of gettng evauated by others he shoud gan mportance by hs own vews.
4. The decsons taken by an emotonay stabe managers are ratona an anxety eves are ow.
5. An emotonay stabe manager has detached nvovement towards hs work and he s not worred about the
consequences of actons .e. hs actons are ratona.
A!. Bhagwad Gta has dented dherent Personaty Modes / Trats / Behavours n the Indan context:
# Tamasic: Lvng wth the vaues whch are uttery sesh, ego-centered motves, du and meant to satsfy ony persona
# Rajasic: Lvng wth tendences whch are extremey passonate and ambtous, dynamc n nature but centered to
fung sesh desres. Motves sghty nober but centered on sesh etc.
# Sattvic: The atttude and motves are seess, more baanced and dscrmnaton based on hgher vaues.
The western vew taks about varous personaty trats whch are found n the Indan context:
1) Passve personaty:
Eg: Bhsma, Vdur & Dhronacharya showed ther behavour durng Draupad Vastraharan.
2) Aggressve Personaty:
Eg: Duryodhana and Dushashan.
3) Manpuatve personaty:
Eg: Shakun.
4) Assertve Personaty:
The other trats that are found n the Indan context are:
1) Respect The respect for others as we as eders and youngsters can be gured out as a dstnct personaty trat
n the Indan context.
2) Trust: Indans do trust easy and very fast on others.
3) Emoton: Indans are very much emotona n nature and feengs ahect them.
4) Straghtforwardness and Smpcty: The straghtforwardness and smpcty n the fe of an Indan can be ceary
seen as a speca personaty tran n the Indan context.
5) Perseverance: Ths s a unque feature of a personaty trat found n Indans and aong wth t. Indans have a
sense of hgh and deep thnkng.
A!. Personaty s the sum tota of what we are. It reects our vews, characters, beefs, atttude, knowedge,
abtes, etc. We act/behave/thnk n a partcuar way because that s vaues ethcs and cutures determne to a very
arge extent our personaty.
The roe of heredty n the deveopment of personaty s an od argument n the personaty theory. Heredty refers to
those factors whch were determned at concepton and reexes, energy eves and boogca rhythms are
characterstcs that are generay consdered to be mported ether competey or substantay by ones parents. The
heredty approach argues that the utmate expanaton of an ndvduas personaty s the moecuar structure of the
genes, ocated n the chromosomes.
The foowng casscaton of characterstcs s sad to be nherted by a humans:
1. Physca structure
2. Reexes
3. Innate drves
4. Integence
5. Temperament
Nevertheess, the roe of heredty on personaty deveopment cannot be mnmzed totay. Physca attrbutes for
nstance may be argey attrbuted to heredty. Thus heredty pays a very mportant part n shapng the personaty.
Personaty deveopment owes as much to envronment as t does to heredty. Envronment s a board term and ncudes
such factors as cuture. The methods by whch an nfant s fed and s toet traned and makes transton from
adoescence to aduthood are a cuturay determned.
Whe growng the chd earns to behave n ways expected by the cuture of the famy to whch the baby was born. One
of those expectatons has to do wth sex roes. Most cutures expect dherent behavour from maes than from femaes.
The cutura sub-groups exerts ts nuence on personaty. Athough cuture has sgncant nuence on personaty
deveopment, near reatonshp cannot be estabshed between personaty and gven cuture for 2 reasons.
1. The cutura mpacts upon an ndvdua s not unform, because they are transmtted by certan peope, parents
and others - who are not at a ake n ther vaues and practces and
2. The ndvdua has some experence that s unque. Each ndvdua reacts n hs own way to soca pressures,
dherences n behavour beng caused by boogca factors.
A!. R%,. P.&!%(,'#5:
1. We term roe personaty as our roe mode.
2. Roe personaty has certan personaty trats whch we try to ncorporate n our fe.
3. We try to create a SWOT anayss of Roe personaty and try to t ourseves n that range.
4. We aways try to keep our roe personaty n focus and act accordngy to hs roe .e. we try to t ourseves n
hs/her roe.
5. Roe personaty contnues to estabsh themseves a roe mode for others and thus hardy any scope for them
to get manpuated.
T&". P.&!%(,'#5:
1. True personaty refers to what we are .e. t ndcates or own personaty.
2. We aways try to manpuate our personaty but n the end t s our personaty whch gets reected.
3. We aways try to manpuate our pe3rsonaty but n the end t s our personaty whch gets reected.
4. We aways try to brdge the gap between our personaty and roe personaty.
5. True personaty can be moded and can be mproved.
6. Sometmes our own personaty keeps on changng due to externa contro, but n the end f eads us to
A!. To answer the foowng queston et us know the core meanng of both vaues and management.
The menta contents of a good person are caed ethca vaues. Ths s aso caed dav sampat or dvne quates.
Some fundamenta vaues whch are unversay appcabe are:
1. Cosmc unty - That the ndvduas sou or |vatvam s nked to the unversa sou/dea/energy or parmatman or
2. Ahmsa or non-voence, derved from ths unty.
3. Satya or truth
4. Cht or conscousness
5. Ananda or bss, as a permanent state of mnd.
Management s a process of desgnng and mantanng an envronment n whch peope acheve common organzatona
goas n most ehectve and emcent manner. In short, management s gettng thngs from others.
Now f we coaguate both the meanngs then we woud reaze that both are compmentary to each other than
Our ehectveness at work s ted to exercsng ntrnsc human vaues .e. mora and ethca vaues such as
communcaton exceence, credbty, nnovaton, creatvty and co-ordnaton, the human vaues hep sef deveopment
managera functons such as drecton contro, supervson, communcaton, ntegraton, co-ordnaton are much easer,
the human vaues hep good nter persona nteractons. They reduce concts and dsputes. They are part and parce of
achevng acceerated process of mprovement, customer, worker and ctzen satsfacton they enhance the goodw of
the organzaton.
We seek fument, happness and success t s achevement of nner and outer success needs hostc vew. Inner
sprtua, menta, emotona, physca, enrchment.
The outer achevement s reated to achevng set goas usng ones taents and experence for the benet of others
(Empoyees, customers, cents and pubc). Outer success fus soca responsbtes and ecoogca baance. Outer
success s reated to a parts of our personaty thus by anayzng the above ponts. I come to the concuson that vaues
and management can be ntegrated n every yug .e. that s n Satyug, Dwaparyug Tartyug or Kayug as we.
A!. As stated n the Bhagwad Gta, the utmate goa of fe s not earnng money and budng up propertes but to
attan the state of ananda or bss. To acheve ths state, one has to have peace wthn s heart, mnd and sou. Peace s
the most covetabe possesson on the earth. It s the greatest treasure n the unverse. Peace s the most mportant and
ndspensabe factor for a growth and deveopment. Peace s a state of quet. It s freedom from dsturbance, anxety,
agtaton, rot or voence. t s harmony sence, response, rest. Peace s the natura state of mnd. It s hs brthrght.
In todays word peope have teray everythng: a sweet home, car, sumcent money to survve, uxures to fu ther
desre but st they do not have peace. Truy speakng, rea, deeper peace s ndependent of externa condtons. Money
cant gve you peace.
You can purchase many thngs, but you cannot purchase peace. You can buy soft beds but you cannot buy seep. You
can buy good food, but cannot buy good appette. You can buy good toncs but you cannot buy good heath. You can
buy good books, but you cannot buy wsdom.
Through nner peace, a manager can have a heathy reaton wth hs customers and suppers snce every person kes to
nteract wth a happy go ucky person rather than a person who s mentay dsturbed, the best and emcent decsons
are made ony when someone s at menta peace snce such a person can anayze a the aternatves n ehectve
manner. A manager can easy motvate hs empoyees and workers as he w be oved by everyone through hs
peacefu nature and he can very we teach them the concept of Karma Yoga, whch states Yogah Karmeshu Kaushaam
Samatvam Yogah Udyate .e. he who works wth cam and even mnd acheves the most. Thus he can brng out hgher
productvty wth ehectve use of resources. He woud have good reatons wth hs boss and coeagues. Most
mportanty, he woud have great reatons wth hs wfe and other famy members. He woud have a good heath snce
the basc root of a dseases s worry or tenson.
If a person ncucates Dav sampat or dvne quates such as fearessness, courage, purty of mnd and heart,
ntegraton of thought, acton and behavour, straght forwardness, generosty, sprt of sacrce for the sake of common
good, nspred deas, vson, creatvty, empathy, ove and ahecton, patence, forbearance, fath, frendshp wth a
camness, contro of mnd and restrant on senses and passons, non-voence, non-greedness, rm but far, charty,
steadfastness n devoton to knowedge, uprghtness, harmessness, modesty, humty, genteness, truthfuness, oyaty,
ntegrty, forttude, vgour, cheerfuness, smpcty and reguar practce of medator woud dentey hep hm to acheve
nner peace.
A!. Accordng to me I do beeve that busness exceence s possbe wthout compromsng ntegrty quaty and
economy/protabty. In todays word busness s regarded as ev tanted and unethca but t s not so. Busness s a
sacred sadhana t s a matter of atttude approach and eve of management conscousness. One can do busness, make
money, earn prot, bud up property and even then t can be managed wth due recognton to human and ethca
vaues and respectng a persons n expertse and n the socety as human bengs. Let us rst consder ntegrty.
Integrty s whoeness, a goodness, courage and sef dscpne to ve by your nner truth.
Whoeness mpes totaty soundness perfecton and competeness. It s our ego whch has separated us from others by
mpementng the concept of whoeness. We can have a peace workng envronment whch woud ead to zero concts.
Goodness covers a essenta vaues such as honesty, moraty, mndness, farness, charty, truthfuness, generosty, etc.
Ths woud pure our thoughts and woud be abe to motvate our empoyees to work ehectvey.
Courage ponts out acts of bravery the person wth courage has guts to go ahead do somethng whch s rsky through
courage. We can set up an open exampe to our foowers. Sef dscpne means that we have contro on mnd and
senses. Our quaty of fe changes wth dscpne and sef contro. The quaty of fe woud gve us greater harmony and
happness. We aways need dscpne and courage together to reach our ob|ectve n tme.
L'-'1 @5 '.& #&"#$:
Inner mnd or truth communcates through |ont whspers ntutve thought feeng bured deep wthn us. To ve by nner
truth at work amounts to reman ncorruptbe, cean and nvoabe whch s the ma|or crss of todays word. It woud
aso be protabe to the organzaton snce t w cutvate a good companys mage n the mnd of the customers.
Q"(,'#5: It s one of the most mportant features of a product or servces whch every customer ooks nto a quaty
product or servce gets very we dstngushed from other product and servce n the market, t creates good brand
mage n the sght of the customers. In todays compettve word quaty s the ony feature whch can enabe a company
to the top poston.
Ouates requred for deveopment of a personaty (Sarvang Vkas or Sarvatomukh Pratbha) are :
1. A#)(-'!$2(! (!.,+ C%A3.*.): Sef-condence s a must n each and every ndvdua. Can do atttude
must be deveoped n every ndvdua.
2. P(&( S())( (R.-.&.*. +%& (,, *&.(#'%): An ndvdua must have reverence for nature, man, anma,
3. S($(! (D(&'1): An ndvdua must have the darng to face chaenges and accept everythng that s new and
sudden whether t s a new thought or a sudden crcumstance etc.
4. D$('&5( (P(#'.*.): Sow and steady wns the race. The atttude of wat must be deveoped. Resuts
aways take tme. A person must have patence. He must not do thngs n a hurry, as Haste s Waste.
5. N'!*$(5#)(0#( (D.*'!'-..!!): An ndvdua must be decsve and not ndecsve. A person must have
Nrnay Shakt and Nschayatmak Buddh.
6. A@$5(!" V&"##' (R.(3'.!! #% ,.(&): Readness to earn and curosty to earn go hand-n-hand. They hep
an ndvdua gan knowedge, resutng n the deveopment of the ndvdua.
7. S#&('1$#+%&2(&3.!! (3 !')4,'*'#5: A person shoud be straghtforward and smpe n fe f he wants to
deveop. A person must know how to ad|ust n any stuaton.
8. S(#(#( (C%#'"'#5): He must be a constant and consstent earner.
9. P.&!.-.&(*.: He must have perseverance and deep-thnkng.
10. S4%&#!)( !4'&'#: He must earn to accept faures |ust as he accepts success.
11. A"3(&5( ()G..&%!'#5): A person must have a bg heart and not a narrow one.
12. S($(!$',#( (T%,.&(*.): He must have the quaty of toeratng any human beng and any stuaton.
13. T5(1' (!(*&'A*'1): He must be a tyag. He must earn to sacrce hs persona nterests for a cause.
14. C%)4(!!'%(#.: He must have ove and compasson for a.
15. A44&.*'(#'%: A person must earn to apprecate others.
16. A,.&#.!! (3 A2(&..!!: He must be aert about good and bad and must know how to carry hs dutes and
17. T()(-#(: He must be competey engrossed n hs work.
In order to ncucate these vaues n an ndvdua an dea must be paced n front of them; from whom they can earn
these quates themseves.
a. The dea of Arstota was Abraham Lncon.
b. Vvekanands dea was hs guru Ramkrshna Paramhansa.
c. The dea of Shankaracharya was hs guru Gaudpadacharya.
The deveoped the quates of ther deas n themseves and bud up ther personaty.
Hence we can say that the above mentoned peope are great exampes of Hostc approach to personaty snce a the
above mentoned vaues are mbbed n them.
Motvaton s a genera term appyng to entre cass of drvers, desres, needs, wshes, and smar forces. To say that
managers motvate ther subordnates s to say that they do those thngs, whch they hope w satsfy these drvers and
desres and nduce the subordnate to act n a desred manner.
Throughout evouton, suherng has formed an ntegra part of human experence. Tme and agan, the queston s
rased: Why does suherng exst n a word created by an amghty and a-ovng God? Aowng suherng he cannot be
a ovng. If suherng s outsde hs doman, he cannot be amghty. The queston seems nsoube, but ony as ong as
we mantan that suherng s bad. Coud t be that suherng has a purpose, may be even a ovng purpose?
Peope from the east have ong had an expanaton for the cause of suherng and how to termnate t. Even Buddha
keeps returnng to ths cruca probem. In hs four truths and teachngs about the nobe eghtfod path, he emphaszes
that suherng s caused by earthy desres and that suherng ony stops when a person has acheved compete
awareness and has no desres at a. These thoughts seem odd to most Westerners. Let me therefore begn by
descrbng the aw that causes a ths suherng. The ntates of the East ca t the Law of Karma. In the West peope ca
t the Law of Cause and Ehect.
Karma s a Sanskrt word meanng acton. Accordng to the Law of Karma, you sha reap n ths fe or the next as you
have sown n ths and prevous ves.
Every thought, feeng and need mpes a correspondng reacton. However, t s more the motve and ntent behnd a
deep that mpes a reacton rather than the deed tsef. Ths s why a chd ony creates very tte karma through hs
actons. Ths s aso why deeds seemng good, but wth an egostc motve behnd, ony have a sma postve ehect. On
the other hand, a poce omcer kng a potenta evdoer to save a vctms fe w ony face tte karma. Krshna tes
us s n the Bhagvad Gta: One who acts by dedcatng a actvtes to the Utmate Truth, gvng up attachment; s not
ahected by sn; |ust as a otus eaf n water.
Ignorance s to a far greater extent than mace the cause of human suherng. As ong as we are attached to transent
earthy thngs, we sha experence suherng when we ose them. Therefore, a great and enghtened sous, who have
taught us humans about eterna vaues, rst tod us to seek the kngdom of God; then we sha be gven a that we need.
St, we have a free w to choose and earn through our choces.
It s mportant to emphasse that karma not ony nvoves a the postve ehects we have brought about through our
many ves, but aso the panfu crcumstances we have had to dea wth and earn from. Bad Karma resuts n suherng
and the purpose s to hep man get back on the rght path. Good karma on the other had opens up for possbtes, and
the am here s for man to use hs good experence and quates to hep others. Thus he w hep hmsef.
Learn to ve accordng to sprtua rues of eterna fe and mprove the quaty of your fe. Your mnd, emotons, speech
and actons are ahected by ths aw.
Manknd sometmes gets struck by ther destny> Some suher from ness, accdents, from beng beaten haf death or
death and they most f not a the tme cams others of beng guty.
Ths of course s competey wrong. Manknd needs to earn to be fuy responsbe for a they do. The aw of Karma
expans why ness, accdents and dsasters of any knd may occurs to some persons, and why others may en|oy a
happy fe, free, heathy and |oyfu.
Learn to propery appy ths aw for your persona benet - t w be at the same tme for the benet of a. By propery
appyng a sprtua prncpes of Gods Dvne creaton, your fe w become nstanty easer - provded you foow ALL
rues exacty to the word.
Actuay t s very smpe and has been known for thousands of years. The aw of Karma s known n Chrstan teachngs,
as we as n many other cutures. It says:
Whatever you do to others - w be done to you, n ths or any future ncarnaton of your sou.
Ths aw s so straghtforward and ogca, t sometmes s hard to beeve, that some persons st thnk they may
somehow get around t. If you knock your head aganst a wa, t s obvous - t may damage the wa and t may hurt
your head. If you knock someone by physcay ghtng - you may cause harm, pan, n|ury to the person and the aw of
Karma requres you to experence the same pan. Ths s to have you earn to behave n a way that accuses but peasant
experence to others and yoursef ake.
Whatever you do, you may attract persons around you, that have a same or smar Karma than you have. If you are of a
physcay ghtng nature, you may attract such persons agan and agan. Unt you start to become aware of your own
behavor and start to be fed up wth the resut of your very own actons. Unt you start to strve for a more peacefu
envronment. The ony sure method of ndng one s changng your very own behavor.
Ths aw appes for ndvduas as much as for fames, groups, vages, ctes, natons, cutures or even entre panets.
It appes for a you do toward any beng ncudng anmas, pants, panets, bengs of any nature beyond physca
sphere, humans, ncudng what some may consder crmnas - remember: A are chdren of God - made out of hs
Hoy Sprt, made to the mage of God. Ths aw s vad for
a of your actons
a of your words
a of your thoughts
a of your emotons
Western scentsts aso see a reaton between deeds and ether we beng or suherng. Current researchers of
psychoogca and soca ssues are tryng to uncover ths reaton. It s actuay wdey accepted that traumas may be
traced back to chdhood and eary adoescence. It s further recognsed that unfortunate decsons made by decson-
makers of prevous generatons contrbute to soca probems n ater generatons. A n a, t s acknowedged that
suherng s an nteracton between ndvdua psychoogca dspostons, heredtary genetc factors and soca
crcumstances. In short, ndvdua probems are the resut of both nner and outer crcumstances havng root n the
The core ssue separatng Western beef from Eastern beef s whether the causes of suherng ony may be ascrbed to
ths fe or whether they may aso be ascrbed to past ves. The atter beef s not accepted n academc crces today,
even though the dea was wdespread n ancent Greece, the crade of modern scence.
Leadershp s the abty to artcuate a vson, embrace the vaues of the vson and nurture an envronment where
everyone can reach the organzatons goa and ther own persona needs. Leadershp s an ndescrbabe abty based
on concrete prncpes and a too that anyone can earn that heps gudes an organzaton or group of peope n a
beneca drecton or to a vauabe destnaton.
The abty to get work done wth and through others, whe at the same tme wnnng ther condence respect, oyaty
and wng cooperaton. Before we get started, ets dene eadershp. Leadershp s a compex process by whch a
person nuences others to accompsh a msson, task, or ob|ectve and drects the organzaton n a way that makes t
more cohesve and coherent. A person carres out ths process by appyng her eadershp attrbutes (beef, vaues,
ethcs, character, knowedge, and sks).
The compete denton hghghts the dherence between smpy managng and beng a eader. Good eaders are made
not born. If you have the desre and w power, you can become an ehectve eader; Good eaders deveop through a
never-endng process of sef-study, educaton, tranng and experence.
There s very tte evdence that the so-caed naturay born eader reay exsts. Contnung and ongong studes are
showng that the concept of a natura born eader has tte mert. One reason for ths error may be that peope often
mstake charsma for eadershp. It s true that some eaders possess a great amount of charsma. However, many
eaders do not. In reaty eaders are not born, they are forged by many factors. Some factors that often forge ehectve
eadershp trats are educaton, preparaton, experence and opportunty.
To nspre your peope nto hgher eves of teamwork, there are certan thngs you must know and, do. These do not
come naturay, but are acqured through contnua work and study. The best eaders are contnuay workng and
studyng to mprove ther eadershp sks. Athough your poston as a manager, supervsor, ead, etc. gves you the
authorty to accompsh certan tasks and ob|ectves n the organzaton ths power does not make you a eader.. It
smpy makes you the boss. Leadershp makes peope want to acheve hgh goas and ob|ectves, whe on the other
hand, bosses te peope to accompsh a task or ob|ectve.
Basss theory of eadershp states that there are three basc ways to expan how peope become eaders. The rst two
expan the eadershp deveopment for a sma number of peope. These theores are: Some personaty trats may ead
peope naturay nto eadershp roes. Ths s the Trat Theory.
A crss of mportant event may cause a person to rse to the occason, whch brngs out extraordnary eadershp
quates n an ordnary person. Ths s the Great Events Theory.
Peope can choose to become eaders. Peope can earn eadershp sks. Ths s the Transformatona Leadershp
Theory. It hods that, contrary to popuar beef, no one s born a eader but some peope do have certan abtes that
predspose them to deveopng nto a eader ke pubc speakng, and many other sks, eadershp can be earned and
deveoped. Whe there s no agreed st of quates that make a good eader and dherent eadershp styes sut
dherent stuatons. It s the most wdey accepted theory today. Born eaders are the ones who have nborn quates of
a eader. Where as, n case of made eader, t s often a mentor who shapes a eader.
B%& L.(3.&: Dhrubha Amban, |RD Tata, Ba Thackeray, Daa Lama, Shva| Mahara|, Indra Gandh, Gandh|,
Aexander, Shree Ram.
M(3. L.(3.&: KM Bra, IK Gu|ra, the great Narayan Murthy, Swam Vvekanand.
D$'&"@$(' A)@(' R.,5 % $')
Dhra|a Hrachand Amban popuary known as Dhrubha Amban has become corporate Indas vng egend. Amban,
a hgh schoo dropout from Chorwad n Gu|arats |unagadh dstrct, has puzzed conformsts and compettors wth hs
brand of management where the ony thngs that mattered were resuts and benets for hs sharehoders.
Dhrubha had been an opportunty rght from hs chdhood. A he needed was a whh of a busness opportunty and he
was to tap t. Durng the Mahashvratr festva, he woud se gantha to the oca communty to earn money. Later, due
to shortage of money, he eft educaton after matrcuaton and went to Aden to earn a vng. He worked for amost 8
hours n a petro pump where he earnt a about the o busness unt a day came when he was btten by the
entrepreneura bug. He came back to Bombay to start hs own busness. Wth a oan, he started Reance Commerca
Corporaton, nvoved n genera merchandsng. He then started hs yarn busness n the 60s foowed by hs own
spnnng m n 1966 known as Reance Texte Industres.
He rmy beeved that f a person wshes to succeed, then compete access to nformaton s cruca. He aways coected
updated nformaton on compettors, market sze, government rues and reguatons etc.
He beeved n DS')4,. ,'-'1E )%3.& #$'0'1<.
He was aways a poneer. He woud act nstanty and captaze on market changes, new poces etc. and woud
mpement hs pans successfuy. He dd not beeve n meetng demand but creatng demand. He aways produced n
arge quanttes. He aways amed at provdng best goods to the consumer at ahordabe prces. Moreover, he unke
other eaders, he was an expert n varous eds. He was a manufacturng as we as marketng wz. He knew how to
oher the rght product mx, dentfy markets and estabsh emcent dstrbuton centers and structures, whch hods true
for one of hs famous brands, Vma. He s aso referred to as the DM(*$.!#.& %+ I3'(<.
He ddnt mnd copyng deas, whch he coud mpement better than hs compettors. As n the case of copyng the
concept of seng through showrooms to counter the resstance from tradtona markets from Bombay Dyeng. He
aways had the dynamsm and condence n future and was aways ready to go aganst a odds. He aways beeved n
He aways beeved n hs responsbty towards stakehoders. He was aso known as the stock master messah. Ths s
because once some marwar men were tryng to brng down the prce of hs shares by short seng; he counter attacked
them n turn earned a hefty sum from them. He aways had a wde nvestor base and most of hs subscrptons were
aways oversubscrbed. An nnovator n the nanca market, he rentroduced concepts ke parta convertbe bonds,
fuy convertbe bonds etc. he aways beeved n thnk bg, thnk fast, and thnk ahead.
Dhrubha s one of the greatest eaders of Inda who had the zea to acheve somethng bg rather than |ust earnng
money. He worked t hs death.
As a true eader, Dhrubha had once sad, Peope thnk I have nay arrved, but I thnk I have |ust begun.
In 20 years Dhrubhas Reance empre has grossed saes of Rs.13,740 crore (Rs.67 crore n 1997) and made a net prot
of Rs.1,653 crore for the year ended 1998. Its assets have grown to Rs.24,388 crore from Rs.33 crore n 1977. When
most ndustry payers went to the banks for money, Dhruba went drecty to the pubc. A ghter, Amban aways tred
to safeguard the nterests of hs nvestors aong wth hs companys. If Reance bets on the rght peope, t w aways
reman a company of entrepreneurs. Says Mr. Amban.
D&. APF A@3", K(,() T$. 8M'!!',. M(< %+ I3'(
He was born n Dhanushkod n Rameswaram dstrct of Tam Nadu on October 15, 1931. Hs father rented out boats to
pay Abdu Kaams schoo fees. The young man dstrbuted newspapers to hep and contrbute towards the househod
and hs schoo expenses. He dd hs B.Sc. at St. |osephs Coege, Trch, and DMIT n Aeronautca Engneerng at MIT,
Abdu Kaam |oned the Defence Research and Deveopment Organsaton (DRDO) n 1958. Later he moved to the Indan
Space Research Organsaton (ISRO) where he succeeded n puttng the 35-Kg Rohn-I satete on a ow-earth orbt wth
the hep of the SLV-III (Satete Launch Vehce). After spendng 19 proc years n ISRO, he returned to DRDO to head
the countrys msse deveopment programme, whch cumnated n the successfu aunch of the Agn and the Prthv.
He went on to be the Scentc Advser to Defence Mnster and Secretary, Department of Defence Research &
Deveopment, and has been apponted Prncpa Scentc Advser to the Government of Inda. As chef of Indas defence
research and deveopment programme, Kaam, transformed morbund government organzatons nto ghtng machnes
that can dever. The three underground nucear tests n the Pokhran range of Ra|asthan despte mountng pressure to
abandon nucear programme under hs abe gudance has made Inda reamrm ts nucear preparedness.
The ony bref experence that he had abroad was n 1963-64 when he was nvted by the Natona Aeronautcs and
Space Admnstraton (NASA) to spend four months n the US at the Waops Isand Rocketry Centre and the Langey
Research Centre.
He has been awarded wth the Indas Hghest Cvan Award the Bharat Ratna n 1998. Othe rprestgous awards
ncude Dr. Bren Roy Space Award, Om Prakash Basn Award for Scence and Technoogy, Natona Nehru Award, Arya
Bhatta Award. He s aso the author of Wngs of Fre - an autobography.
The 66 year od, scentst eads an austere fe and when he s not workng hs usua 18 hours a day, - he aso wrtes
poetry and pays the veena.
Krshna was a born eader to whch the Indan communty ooks at. He s someone who s the best denton of
successfu eader.
S')',(&'#5 @.#2.. D$'&"@$(' (3 L%&3 K&'!$(
Hostc vson - both possessed t. Krshna aways knew that was happenng and deveoped tmey strateges.
We networked - both had strong contacts wth peope, and knew how to get work done.
Opportunst and shrewd.
Aggressve, proactve and hghy potca.
Very creatve.
Peope orented eaders.
Optmum utzaton of a resources, aso recognze and dentfy sks of peope.
Stuatona eaders.
Hgh eve of condence and sef-beef.
Ouck decson maker.
Leaders nuence many aspects of work, they :
The chef communcator of the group;
Ahect motvaton by ther behavour;
Are responsbe for the groups ob|ectves beng understood and acheved.
As eadershp s a crtca nuence of group performance, t s worth understandng more about eadershp and that
makes an ehectve eader.
EG.*#'-. L.(3.&!$'4
Contrary to popuar beef, no one s a born eader. But some peope do have certan abtes that predspose them to
deveopng nto a eader. Lke pubc speakng, and many other sks, eadershp can be earned and deveoped.
Whe there s no agreed st of quates that makes a good eader and dherent eadershp styes sut dherent stuatons.
It s wdey agreed that eaders tend to have the foowng characterstcs:
Integence academc achevement
Soca maturty - emotona maturty and a wde range of nterests
Sef-motvaton and an achevement orentaton
Sef condence and good communcaton sks.
Leadershp s the behavor of an ndvdua when he s drectng the actvtes of a group towards shared goas.
Leaders nuence many aspects of work, they:
are the chef communcaton of the group;
ahect motvaton by ther behavour;
are responsbe for the groups ob|ectve beng understood and acheved.
Leadershp pays a sgncant roe n the success of an organzaton, nfact eadershp transforms potenta nto reaty.
Leadershp s a part of management and not fu as management s gettng thngs done by others by gvng orders usng
authorty etc. as eaders, gude, consut and depend on condence.
Wthout eadershp, an organzaton woud be what the same Vamk wrote n Ramayana.
Lke a herd of catte wthout a keeper
Lke an army wthout a genera
Lke a nght wthout moon
Lke a group of cows wthout a bu
Such woud be a country
When the kng s not seen
C$(&(*#.&'!#'*! %+ ( L.(3.&:
1. He shoud be nnovatve and creatve
2. He shoud be orgna .e. he shoud take
3. He shoud have good communcaton sks.
4. He shoud have decson-makng sks.
5. He shoud have good human reaton sks.
6. He shoud have conceptua sks.
7. He shoud be abe to focus on peope.
8. He shoud be an nspre .e. he shoud have
motvaton sk.
9. H shoud have ong-range perspectve.
10. He shoud be abe to deveop hs foower so
that they can take ntatve, whch generates a
sense of sef-nvovement, whch s very much
necessary n management.
11. He shoud aways have hs eye on the vson.
12. He shoud aways be ready to accept
nterruptbe chaenges.
13. Leader s not ke a soder; he s a person n
hmsef. He eads, everyone foows.
14. Integence academc achevement.
15. Soca maturty
16. Sef-motvaton and an achevement
17. A wde range of nterests.
The character of a eader s not one-dmensona: compromses spectrum of trats that ncude ntegrty and compasson
n the yogc psychoogy. The trat of compasson s found at the fourth chakra, the subte energy center of the heart.
Leaders who are attached to thrd chakra the center of ambton and the w to power are unreazed as eaders dctators
such as Napoeon, Hter and Stan are deuded by dreams of gory. Those who have evoved to the hgher fourth chakra
w exhbt compassonate unty wth ther foowers.
Leaders construct and dene ther own vaue system, and they proceed wth moraty toward nobe goas.
In the na anayss good ntentons are not enough. The quaty of eadershp shoud be |udged aso on the quaty of
the outcome or consequences of the eaders actons and they must mantans mora symmetry as the dea wth varous
stakehoders. Organzatona and potca success correates sgncanty wth tness of character, thought. Great
eaders are mora; they operate from a deep ethca patform that consders vaues such as |ustce and goodness, to be
the gudng prncpe for organzaton decsons.
Because of the ma|or shfts n a aspects of organzatona fe, a new knd of eadershp s emergng. It s the knd of
eadershp that enabes the exporaton of new and nnovatve ways to drve vaue and dever rea resuts n an ever-
changng busness envronment. Ths new eadershp aows ndvduas and organzatons to thrve at the edge of chaos,
nsprng the nnovaton and creatvty needed to deveop new products and technooges, even new busness modes
that can ead to sustanabe compettve advantage n the new economy. Ths new form of eadng s caed
8#&(!+%&)(#'%(, ,.(3.&!$'49.
The sprt of transformatona eadershp s founded n the ethos of poneerng, nnovatng and the exporaton of new
dmensons of human endeavor.
The competency of transformatona eadershp s founded n the ethos of poneerng, nnovatng and the exporaton of
new dmensons of human endeavor.
The competency of transformatona eadershp provdes eaders and managers wth a whoe new way to energze and
enven ndvdua contrbutors to dever ther best ehort and deas to organzatona ob|ectves as a matter of persona
expresson and professona esprt dcor.
From the behavor standpont, transformatona eadershp begns wth sef-deveopment and extends to the coachng
and deveopng of others. It s about makng sure that the peope around you have the toos and resources they requre
to do ther best work. It s about takng persona responsbty to remove the barrers that nhbt the optma
sustanabe performance of peope who foow you. Ths knd of eadershp s about recognzng the expct and mpct
vaue of ndvduas, networks, and reatonshps and provdng energy and nspraton for others to acheve the mutua
am of the enterprse.
T$. 0.5 3'&.*#'%(, '3.(! %+ #&(!+%&)(#'% ,.(3.&!$'4 (&.:
O4. S5!#.)!: Ths dea s about recognzng the nterconnectons and nter-reatonshps between |ust about
everythng. Its about creatng synerges between peope, process, an technoogy. Its about nuence vs. contro.
C$(%!: Ths dea ponts to the sheer magntude of nterconnectons, reatonshps, and dependences that defy
categorzaton and manpuaton. It s aso about the natura order nherent n seemngy chaotc events that can be
harnessed as a source of creatvty, nnovaton, and nspraton.
W',,'1.!!: s about nuence, conuence, and synergy vs. domnaton, contro of wfuness. To be wng
s to attract and aow thngs (peope, process, technoogy, opportunty) to sef-organze vs. mposng order and makng
thngs happen.
D.A(*.: Ths s about standng n the face of opportunty, at the edge of what s possbe, and dong
everythng humany possbe (ethcay and moray correct) to acheve goas that drve the msson and fu the vson
of the organzaton.
Leaders who brng about mportant changes are sad to exercse transformatona eadershp. In recent years
transformatona eadershp has become a ma|or new emphass n studyng eadershp party because so many
organzatons need to be transformed.
In study of eadershp charsma s a speca quaty of eaders whose purposes, powers and extraordnary determnaton
dherentate them from others. A key dmenson of Charsmatc eadershp s that t nvoves a reatonshp between the
eader and the peope beng ed. The beefs of the group members must be smar to those of the eader, and
unquestonng acceptance of and ahecton for the eader must exst. The group members must wngy obey the
eader, and they must be emotonay nvoved both n the msson of the eader as we as ther own goas. Fnay they
must have a strong desre to dentfy wth the eader.
Transformatona eaders are the ones who motvates ndvdua more than the ndvdua expects hmsef to perform.
Ths resuts n an overa deveopment of the eader and the foowng. It aso rases herarchy of need from satsfacton
towards sef-actuazaton.
Transformatona eadershp has four components:
I3.(,'H.3 'I".*.: havng a cear vson and sense of purpose. Such eaders are abe to wn the trust and
respect of foowers.
I3'-'3"(, *%!'3.&(#'%: payng attenton to the needs and potenta for deveopment of ther foowers,
deegatng, coachng and gvng drecton and constructve feedback.
I#.,,.*#"(, !#')",(#'%: actvey soctng new des and new ways of dong thngs.
I!4'&(#'%: Motvatng peope, generatng enthusasm, settng an exampe, beng keen to share the oad.
Charsma and Transformatona eadershp are cosey ntertwned, though a charsmatc eaders may not be
transformatona. The specc characterstcs of transformatona eaders sted beow appy to eaders n genera.
VISION: A transformatona eader ohers an exctng mage of where the organzaton s headed and how to get
there. A vson s more than a forecast because t descrbes an dea verson of the future of an entre organzaton.
MASTERFUL COMMUNICATION SKILLS: To nspre sk, he transformatona eader uses coourfu anguage and
exctng metaphors and anaoges.
ABILITY TO INSPIRE TRUST: Group members and consttuents beeve so strongy n the ntegrty of
transformatona eaders that they w rsk ther careers to pursue the chefs vson.
ABILITY TO MAKE GROUP MEMBER FEELS CAPABLE: One technque for hepng group members fee more
capabe s to enabe them to acheve success on reatvey easy pro|ects. The eader then prases them and gves more
demandng assgnments.
ENERGY AND ACTION ORIENTED: Lke entrepreneurs, most transformatona eaders are energetc and serve as
a mode for gettng thngs done on tme.
EMOTIONAL EXPRESSIVENESS AND WARMTH: A key characterstcs of transformatona eaders s the abty to
express feengs openy. Non-verba emotona expressveness, such as warm gestures s aso characterstc of
transformatona eaders.
WILLINGNESS TO TAKE PERSONAL RISKS: Transformatona eaders are typcay rsk takers, and rsk takng adds
to ther charsma. Rchard Branson of the vrgn group s an exempary rsk taker n hs buyng and seng of companes.
USE OF UNCONVENTIONAL STRATEGIES: Part of beng creatve s to use unconventona strateges to acheve
SELF - PROMOTING PERSONALITY: transfor-matona eaders are hardy dmdent; they toot ther horns and aow
others to know how mportant they are.
PROPENSITY TO EMERGE DURING RISIS: Eary formuatons of transformatona eadershp emphaszed that the
transformatona eader arses n response to a crss. Such emergence s more evdent wth potca and unon eaders
because they may arse to power when economc condtons are at ther worst.
MINIMUM INTERNAL CONFLICT: Transformatona eaders are condant and determned that they are rght, even
though setbacks. They appear to have ess nterna conct between ther emotons, mpuses, and feengs and ther
conscences than do most peope. Because they are convnced they are rght, they experence ess gut than do most
Aso, they act as change agents, they beeve n peope, have a strong set of vaues fe ong earners, and above a they
are vsonares.
Eg. |ehangr Ratan| Dadabha Tata (1904-1993)
|RD Tata has been one of the greatest buders and personates of modern Inda n the twenteth century.
He assumed Charmanshp of Tata Sons Lmted at the young age of 34; but hs charsmatc, dscpned and
forward-ookng eadershp over the next 50 years and more, ed the Tat Group to new heghts of achevement,
expanson and modernzaton. Under hs stewardshp, the number of Tata ventures grew from 13 to around 80,
encompassng stee, power generaton, engneerng, hotes, consutancy servces, nformaton technoogy, art and
cuture, consumer goods, ndustra products, etc.
He was the poneer of cv avaton n Inda. In 1932, he ntroduced ar transport n the country - the enterprse
ater became Ar Inda.
He mpcty foowed the prncpes of busness ethcs of the great vsonary |amset| Tata, hs dea. He aso
personay crusaded for ssues that he fet were mperatve for Indas deveopment - famy pannng, womens
educaton, and spread of teracy. The 100% successfu famy wefare schemes at Tata Stee and the varous educatona
programmes for a, drecty emanate from |RD Tatas nsght.
Government of Inda conferred the hghest cvan award of the and , Bharat Ratna to |RD Tata n 1992.
For a hs coossa achevements, |RD Tata was a modest, senstve man, forever espousng the cause of hs
empoyees. Hs natura ove for peope endeared hm to a... across the entre spectrum of socety.
The dstnct sks that characterzed hm as a transformatona eader are:
A#'*'4(#%&5 !0',,!: foresght nto a constanty changng word.
V'!'%(&5 !0',,!: a process of persuason and exampe by whch a person or eadershp team nduces a group to take
acton n accord wth the eaders purposes or more key the shared purposes of a arge group.
V(,"./*%1&".*. !0',,!: the need of corporate eader to be n touch wth the empoyees economc, safety,
psychoogca, sprtua, aesthetc and physca needs n order to engage peope on the bass of the shared motves,
vaues and goas.
E)4%2.&).# !0',,!: the wngness to share power and to do so ehectvey.
S.,+ "3.&!#(3'1: ntrospecton and assessment of ones and others goas.
How Transformatons take pace
The eader:
R('!.! P.%4,.<! A2(&..!!
The transformatona eader makes group members aware of the mportance and vaues of certan rewards and how to
acheve them. He/She mght pont to the prde, workers woud experence, shoud the rm be number one n ts ed. At
the same tme, the eader shoud pont to the nanca rewards accompanyng such success.
H.,4! 4.%4,. ,%%0 @.5%3 !.,+ '#.&.!#
Transformaton a eader heps the group members ook to the bg pcture for the sake of the team and the
H.,4! 4.%4,. !.(&*$ +%& !.,+ +",A,,).#
The Transformatona eader heps peope to go beyond the focus on mnor satsfactons to a quest for sef-fument.
H.,4! 4.%4,. "3.&!#(3 ..3 +%& *$(1.
Transformatona eader must hep group members to understand the need for change both emotonay and
nteectuay. The probem s that change nvoves dsocaton and dscomfort. An ehectve transformatona eader
recognzes ths emotona competent to resstng change and deas wth t openy. Organzatona change s much ke a
ve transton. Endngs must be successfuy worked through before new begnnngs are possbe.
I-.!#! )((1.&! 2'#$ !.!. %+ "&1.*5
To create the transformaton, the eader assembes a crtca mass of managers and mbues n them the urgency of
change. The manager must aso share the top eaders vson of what s both necessary and achevabe. To se ths vson
of an mproved organzaton, the transformatona eader must captaze on avaabe opportuntes.
I! *%))'##.3 #% 1&.(#.!!
Busness can be an opportunty for ndvdua and organzatona greatness. By adoptng ths greatness atttude, eaders
can ennobe human nature and strengthen socetes. Greatness encompasses strvng for busness, ehectveness such as
prots and hgh stock vaue as we as ethcs and emphass on ethca eadershp nsts a desre for customer servce
and quaty and fosters feengs of propretorshp and nvovement.
I)4%&#(*. %+ V(,".! ' L.(3.&!$'4
Human and vaues consttute the weath of character. Vaues express dharma or dvne nature as understood n he
East, partcuary n the Indan ethos and nsght, and deas of ntegrty as understood n the West.
Our ehectveness at work s ted to exercsng ntrnsc human vaues, .e. mora and ethc vaues. These human vaues
support estabshed busness vaues such as servce, communcaton, exceence, credbty, nnovaton, creatvty and
co-ordnaton. The human vaues hep sef-deveopment and good nterpersona nteractons. They reduce concts and
dsputes. They are part and parce of achevng acceerated process mprovement, customer, workers, and ctzen
satsfacton. They enhance reputaton and goodw of the organzaton.
Ethca and mora vaues and character aone can acceerate the unfodng of persons dvnty. Such a person w have
pose, wsdom, harmony and peace to manage ehectvey others and to assure enrched quaty of mnd as we as
enrched quaty of work.
Ehectveness n performance of eader and workers s a functon of vaues and sk together; every ehort must be made
by the eaders (top management) n the organzaton to ncucate vaues. Vaues reate to the nterna doman of
busness .e. nteractons wth empoyees; customers, suppers, credtors, pubc etc. n the corporate msson or creed
we descrbe vaues, vson, goas and ob|ectves chershed by the organzaton.
The Leader
Raises peoples awareness.
Helps people look beyond self interest.
Helps people search for self fulfllment
Helps people understand need for change
Invests Managers with sense of urgency
Vaues shoud be an ntegra part of corporate msson, ob|ectves. They shoud be expressy mentoned n the msson
document. Te members of the management team and the unon eaders of workers must be reguary exposed to
sprtuazaton, satsang of sprtua eaders, semnars and workshops, medtaton, ntrospecton common prayers etc. the
eaders shoud ncucate the sprt of gvng rather than takng n the work fe.
One must aso emphasze ntegrated personaty deveopment n whch endurng vaues en|oy the rght pace aong wth
the requste sks. To brng about a radca change n the thought, speech, acton nd behavor onesef needs dscpned,
sustaned, conscous and we drected ehort or sadhana.
Vaues drven management combned wth requste sks mproves the quaty of work fe and enhances the reputaton
of a company. When management and the stah transate vaue-orentaton nto ther everyday ves, they woud be
better eaders and team members. They woud aso receve vountary co-operaton from ther peers and |unors of our
mnd and heart. Management by conscousness demands prescence of vaues n oru character and personaty.
Managera ehectveness based on hostc vaue based management can sove many probems harassng the economy
n a countres. Such management ohers human wefare, the quaty of fe and the quaty of work.
Vaue emerge ehectvey ony from a pured mnd .e. from the nner mnd of hgher conscousness.
Four tradtona methods of mnd purcaton s:
1. F(( Y%1( (P(#$ %+ K%2,.31.): Dscrmnaton enabes to dstngush ower sef from hgher sef and nd
out (redscover) our Rea Nature God revea thysef n my heart and actons.
2. R(J( Y%1( (P(#$ %+ M'3 C%#&%,): If operates wt the mnd, ams at perfectons of mnd contro, then enter
nto concentraton and trance of Samadh, we have tranng of whoe menta system a pre-condton of perfecton.
3. B$(0#' Y%1( (P(#$ %+ D.-%#'%): Sef surrender to the Lord and emotonay one can reach the goa of pure
conscousness or Dvnty.
4. K(&)( Y%1( (P(#$ %+ A*#'%): Seess acton pures our mnd-nteect. Purer mnd can concentrate,
contempate and medtate to approach perfecton or dvnty .e. pure conscousness.
A these paths meet the sea of wsdom n the end.
Vaues express dharma or dvne nature as understood n the east, partcuary n the Indan ethos and nsght and the
deas of ntegrty as understood n the west.
Vaues creates nvauabe credbty and goodw of ndvduas.
Leaders wth vaues has state of mnd, equanmty. Such a person can mobze hs and others energy and hep
accompsh wonders.
Leaders havng vaues deveop themseves and hep others to deveop vaues n tme. Further ths makes eader a mode
to be emuated by others.
The na proof of sncerty and serousness n uncompromsng emphass on ntegrty of character n a |ob. For t s
character through whch eadershp s exercsed, t s character that sets the exampe and s mtated n turn.
Leader ackng n character and ntegrty whch are the part of vaues no matter how knowedgeabe, how brant, how
successfu - he destroys peope the vauabe asset of company. He destroys sprt and he destroys performance.
Leader havng vaues w pose, wsdom, harmony and peace to manage ehectvey others and to assure enrched
quaty of mnd as we as enrched quaty of work. Ths woud resut n ehectveness of performance.
Leaders are after a bascay human beng who can manage hmsef wth the am of reachng the percepton the human
sprt s capabe proof vaue based eaders can easy purfy hearts and mnds of themseves decsons taken by such
peope woud be unbased one.
Leaders ehectveness at work s ted to exercsng ntrnsc human vaues. These human vaues support estabshed
busness vaues such as servce, communcaton, exceence, credtabty, nnovaton, creatvty and co-ordnaton.
Human vaues heps sef deveopment. Managera functons such as drecton, contro, supervson and communcaton,
ntegraton and co-ordnaton are much easer. Human vaues hep good nterpersona nteractons. They reduce
concts and dsputes. They are part and parce of achevng acceerated process mprovement customer, workers and
ctzen satsfacton. Leaders through ther vaues enhance reputaton and goodw of the organzaton.
Peope consttute the greatest dynamc nputs n any organzaton. They are the center or pvot and must be regard as
the vta and ntegra part of organzaton and management. Every ndvdua s the representaton of a dvne essence.
The true eader has due regard for the dvne, essence n every member of the organzaton and recognzes practcay
unmted potenta energy of a human beng whch can be tapped by any manager. Deveopment of peope not n sks
but n norma, ethca and sprtua vaues now becomes the necessary end n tsef.
Human harmony and happness are the man ob|ectves of any enterprse to |ustfy ts survva and progress. Due
overburden of scence and technoogy at use has bought undesrabe resuts such as unwanted stresses and strans
Managerial Efectiveness
Managerial efectiveness
Pure Mind
Jnana Yoga Raja Yoga Bhakti Yoga Karma Yoga
unrest and oneness n the human mnd whch has to be removed by addng vaues at quaty of work towards whch
eaders must take the step.
Leaders must start aterng the od-man machne stuaton man must be gven postons as masters and not a save to
machne or technoogy. Human vaues woud honour the core humanness and brng about harmony and baance
between vaues as means and vaues as ends.
Men make hstory and not the other way around. In perods where there s no eadershp, socety stands st. Progress
occurs when courageous, skfu eaders seze the opportunty to change thngs for the better.
Learnng s dened as a process where a vng beng experences certan reatonshps between events and s abe to
recognze an assocaton between events and as a consequence the sub|ects behavour changes because of the
experence. More smpy, earnng s the process of recognzng how a vng bengs acton changes ts envronment,
other bengs actons etc.
A vng thngs can earn. There are two basc stages of earnng namey:
When an ndvdua s rst earnng somethng, ths s caed the acquston stage. Ths stage of earnng s usuay
gradua. Once armed wth new nformaton, an ndvdua w act on the new nformaton when t s approprate. Ths s
known as the mantenance stage. Learnng begns to pateau durng the mantenance stage.
Learnng s the most powerfu, engagng, rewardng and en|oyabe aspect of our persona and coectve experence. The
abty to earn about earnng and become masters of the earnng process s the crtca ssue for the next century.
Too often our understandng of earnng has been restrcted by concepts of tranng of schoo/unversty experences, or
of a sense of nadequacy n meetng others expectatons of what we shoud know. Learnng s often seen as educaton
and tranng and as unreated to day fe and work. It s sometmes used as a way of unfary dscrmnatng between
ndvduas through systems of accredtaton whch are often fet to be unreated to rea needs.
The bggest mssed opportunty for pocy makers and eaders n organzatons s the faure to captaze on the coectve
earnng abty of peope. Organzatona eaders need to harness reevant knowedge and experence so that the
organzaton as a whoe and the peope who comprse t can earn more ehectvey. The same prncpe appes at
communty natona and nternatona eves. Every person, team and organzaton both survves and progress through
the abty to nternaze and act upon ths fundamenta truth.
The man ob|ectves of earnng are as foows:
The prmary ob|ectve of earnng s to gan knowedge - the knowedge of organzatons, ts pocy, ts ob|ectve,
envronment, msson, peope and so on.
Secondy, earnng heps to deveop sks. One of the most commony apped methods s tranng and
deveopment programme. Organzatons have reazed the mportance of n-house and outsde tranng both at entry
eve and at dherent eves of empoyees career growth. Apped knowedge s power. Sk factates appcaton of
The ong-term ob|ectve of earnng s to create desrabe changes n the organzaton. The entre ob|ectve of
organzatona earnng s to create necessary change.
T$. (#"&. %+ ,.(&'1
Learnng has a number of key facets:
Learnng s compex and varous coverng a softs of thngs such as knowedge, sks, nsghts, beefs, vaues,
atttudes and habts.
Learnng s ndvdua and can aso be coectvey generated n groups and organzatons.
Learnng can be trggered by any experence - faures, successes and anythng n between.
Learnng s both a process and an outcome.
Learnng may be ncrementa, addng cumuatvey to what has prevousy been earned, or t an be
Learnng can be conscous or unconscous.
Learnng can be both panned and unpanned.
Learnng outcomes may be desrabe as we as undesrabe.
There can be no earnng wthout change.
Learnng can be both the cause of change and the consequence of change.
Learnng has mora dmenson.
Learnng and choce nks the past to the present and crates possbtes takng us from the known to the
Learnng for the future can gve us optons for sustanabe deveopment, carty of vson, and the vaues and
the behavours needed to acheve our purpose.
There s no one rght way to earn snce a match s needed between dverse opportuntes and earnng stye
Whereas the earnng process s essentay nterna, makng t expct and sharng t wth others adds vaue to the
earnng. The ehectveness of how pepe earn can be mproved.
There are dherent types of earnng, namey:
P.&*.4#"(, ,.(&'1: It s the abty to earn to recognze stmu that have been seen before. Its prmary
functon s to dentfy and categorze ob|ects and stuatons. Its ncudes changes wthn the sensory systems of the
S#')","! &.!4%!. ,.(&'1: It s the abty to earn to perform a partcuar behavour when a certan
stmuus s present. It aso nvoves the estabshment of connectons between sensory systems and motor systems. It
conssts of two types, namey:
o C,(!!'*(, *%3'#'%'1:
Cassca condtonng s one way of earnng. It s the abty to assocate between two stmu. The terms of
Uncodtoned Stmuus, Uncondtoned Response. Condtoned Stmuus, Condtoned Response et. Re very
commony heard here. In an organzaton settng,. We can see cassca commony heard here. In an organzaton settng
we can see cassca condtonng operatng Eg. At one manufacturng pant, every tme the top executves from the head
omce woud make a vst, the pant management woud cean up the admnstratve omces and wash the wndows. Ths
went on for four years. Eventuay empoyees woud turn on ther best behavour and ook prm and proper when the
wndows were ceaned even n those occasons when the ceanng was not pared wth the vst from the top
management. Peope had earnt to assocate the ceanng of the wndows wth the vst from the head omce. From the
above cted exampe, t can be made out that the response gven by the worker s a natura one, aso caed as a reex.
Ths reex s dependent upon a stmuus or a vst made by the top executve.
o I!#&").#(, *%3'#'%'1:
A more compex form of earnng s that of operant/nstrumenta condtonng. It stresses that behavour s a functon of
ts consequences. Behavour s key to be repeaed when the consequences are favourabe and vce-versa. E.g. the boss
assures hs subordnates that he woud be sutaby compensated n the next performance apprasa, provded the
empoyee works over tme. However, when the evauaton tme comes, the boss does not fu hs assurance to hs
subordnates, though the atter dd attend to overtme work. Next tme the subordnate cooy decnes to work overtme
when the boss requests. The behavour of the empoyee s expaned by operant condtonng.
Thus, t can be rghty sad as the abty to assocate between a response and a stmuus. It aows an organsm to ad|ust
ts behavour accordng to the consequences of the behavour. It ncudes renforcement and punshment, who s the
postve and negatve response to stmuus respectvey.
M%#%& ,.(&'1: It s the estabshment of changes wthn the motor system.
R.,(#'%(, ,.(&'1: It nvoves earnng about the reatons among many stmu.
S4(#'(, ,.(&'1: It nvoves earnng about the reatons among many stmu.
E4'!%3'* ,.(&'1: It nvoves rememberng sequences of events that we wtness.
O@!.&-(#'%(, ,.(&'1: It ncudes earnng by watchng and mtaton of other peope.
C%1'#'-. ,.(&'1: It assumes that the organsm earns the meanng of varous ob|ects and events, and that
erned responses depend upon the meanng assgned to the stmu.
S%*'(, ,.(&'1: It stresses upon the abty of an ndvdua to earn by observng modes (parents, teachers,
peers, moton pcture, bosses and others), they earn by observng ther behavour and consequence of ther actons.
Thus these are the dherent ways of earnng as seen n dherent organzatons and a mans day to day fe.
Learnng s dened as a process where a vng beng experences certan reatonshps between events and s abe to
recognze an assocaton between events and as a consequence the sub|ects behavour changes because of the
experence. More smpy, earnng s the process of recognzng how vng bengs acton changes ts envronment,
other bengs actons etc.
Learnng s a contnuous process, from pre-brth t the next brth. It s the outow of experence, vaues, moras, ethcs
etc. Thus earnng s assocated wth accumuaton of nformaton, knowedge and ts appcaton reguatng n wsdom.
The Indan tradton beeves that ony the teacher can hep a student to earn. The student s not expected to accept
what the teacher conveys, but s expected to appy hs mnd and vadate the essons before acceptng them.
Conformty s not expected. Thus the mechansm of earnng s totay dherent from our current practces of earnng.
The dherent mechansms of earnng are as foows:
O. ,.(&! #$&%"1$ .L4.&'.*.. Experence s known to be the best teacher as t has the rea touch n t, one
experences the tras and trbuatons of fe and then earns to resove wth t. It s as smpe as ths wthout gettng
nto the water, one cannot earn swmmng.
O. *( ,.(& #$&%"1$ (!!%*'(#'%E (!!')',(#'%E .L4,%&(#'%E (3 !%,"#'% %+ *%&&.*# &.!4%!.. Based on
ths forms habts whch utmatey bos down aong wth our vaues to form character.
O.! +()',5E +&'.3! (&. (,!% ( )(J%& !%"&*. +&%) 2$'*$ %. *( ,.(&. They are the ones who have gven us
vaues, cuture, taught us prncpes and hence ther teachngs form an mportant source of earnng.
I!#'#"#'%! ,'0. !*$%%,E *%,,.1. .#*. whch ncucate vaues n young chdren aso forms an mportant source of
earnng. The teacher or guru s gven the next pace of God as he nsts the seeds of vrtues n the youth at ther
maturng stage.
A#)( )(#$( (I#&%!4.*#'%) - s aso a source of earnng because t gves a chance to an ndvdua to search
wthn hmsef what are hs core competences, vaues, what are hs strengths, sef reazaton makes a man reaze hs
nner conscousness and heps to dea wth emotons and accept the postve aspects of fe. Learnng s based on sef-
acceptabty and t s through ntrospecton one knows what to accept and what not to accept.
M(( V&(# (!',.*.) - t s a search wthn onesef, whch, heps to reaze sef-exceence whch eads to sef-
D$5(( ().3'#(#'%) - opens access to unmted knowedge wthn. The source of persona earnng comes from
wthn and medtaton provdes a medum to t.
O"& !%*'(, '!#'#"#'%! ,'0. *$"&*$.!E #.)4,.! .#*.E whch provde the source of sprtua earnng acts as gudes
to duty.
Thus, these are the mechansms of earnng.
Guru refers to the teacher or the master. Ku refers to hs doman. It aso means the one who can carry on the
new generaton Guruku s an ancent Indan concept of educaton wheren the partcpant mbbed knowedge by
resdng wth hs teacher as a part of hs famy.
Indan has been known as the Land of Gurus and Gurukus. The Guru was more than merey a teacher. He was a father,
a gude and a roe mode for a the students.
The students of the Guruku ved a fe of tuteage and obedence. They woud eave ther homes and ther oved ones
and come and ve at the Guruku for years to earn the essons of fe from ther guru.
Lfe at the Guruku was tough but at the end of ther tranng, the students emerged as responsbe ndvduas that were
we earned and capabe of facng the toughest chaenge of fe.
Guru means the one who can pay the roe of frend, Phosopher and Gude. Guru, who brghten up the ve rooms of our
fe those are: soca, economca, menta, potca and regous. Lke the same way we can expan mud made by GOD,
but water |ug made by potter, same way our physca body maker are our boogca parents, ke GOD but our fe
makers are our GURUS who gve us partcuar turn, shape to our fe, |ust ke a potter.
Educaton n Inda has aways been regarded as one of the basc nputs n human resource deveopment. In the ancent
days, the Guruku system of educaton was prevaent. The teacher was the Guru and the dscpe was the Ssya. The
dscpes ved n the Gurus aashram durng the course of ther tranng and n turn ohered ther servces to the ashram.
Ths perod of earnng of, about 12 years, was consdered as a great sacrce or a penance. The Guru dented the
capabty of hs Sshya and accordngy mparted knowedge. The sshyas earnt amdst the natura surroundngs of the
ashram, n open ar, n cose contact wth nature.
At the end of ther tranng, the dscpes thanked ther Gurus wth a gft n the form of a gurudakshna - whch teray
means oherng to the Guru.
EL()4,.! %+ &.*.# G"&"0",!
To ustrate by exampes from Mahabharata, the contrast n the earnng processes through whch Ekavya, Ar|una and
Abhmanyu acqured ther knowedge brngs out the essentas of the reatonshp. Ekavya acqured hs knowedge
through an mpersona guru, whe Ar|una under the ovng care and ahecton of hs guru, and Abhmanyu through a
medum - hs mother. In the ast case, the faure of the medum rendered the earnng process ncompete.
The gurus exhated poston and the necessty of hs contnued supervson n renderng gudance through the earnng
process best brought out by exampes. Even n Ramayana, Kng Dasrath reuctanty entrusts Ram and Lakshman to the
care of sage Vshwamtra so that they coud earn from the sage.
The gurus poston n ndspensabe and gong by Avadhoots exampe, a guru can both be mpersona and nanmate. It
s the guru who any study of the guru-shshya parampara woud be ncompete wthout auson to the Bhagavadgta.
Three references to the Gta whch hghght the hest vaues of the guru-shshya parmpara are:
The exated poston of the guru n the prampara s best brought out by:
Guru Brahma, Guru Vishnu, Gur Devo Maheswara
Guru Sakshat Para Brahma, Thasmaye Shri Guruve Namaha
I #$. %,3. 3(5!:
As t was the ony system of earnng known n Inda at the tme, most of the shshyas ganed ther educaton through
ths medum.
It was the ony form of educaton known then.
The shshyas receved knowedge n a sub|ects.
They got a practca and n depth ook nto fe.
Chdren from a casses of socety ved under the guruku roof as brothers.
Aong wth practca knowedge they aso receved knowedge on varous aspects of fe.
They are taught mpeccabe manners and vaues that fe s based on.
They were many taught respect for eders, mother, father and many teacher.
The chdren were taught to ve wth meager matera thngs and no fancy, pretentous ob|ect.
The guruku was a comprehensve earnng center.
They were aso taught sks ke sngng, dancng, archng, ghtng etc.
They were taught n open ar .e. many n |unges, eds or n the shade beow a spreadng tree. They were earnng n
a non-pouted atmosphere as a resut of whch the chdren remaned fresh and grasped everythng more easy.
A# 4&.!.#:
Though not many guruku are seen n present, a need s fet to have ths amazng system of earnng n todays corrupt
The chdren today are osng touch of our vaues and cuture, whch can be mbbed at an eary age and can be done
through gurukus.
Many sks can be taught to the shshyas n the gurukus ke archng, cassca musc etc.
The chdren can earn n a pouton free envronment.
The chdren can be gven a more practca and reastc approach to fe rather than |ust booksh knowedge.
The chdren of today who are starved for roe modes may nd one n form of ther gurus.
D'!(3-(#(1.! %+ #$. G"&"0", S5!#.):
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The chdren had to stay away from home for ong perods of tme, .e. for more than 12 years. Hence when the
chdren returned the fet ost n the rea word.
They were kept away from ther parents and famy.
They ed a shetered fe at the guruku.
They dd not face the harsh reates of everyday fe at the guruku.
They had to bndy foow the guru n a aspects whether he was rght or wrong.
A# 4&.!.#:
Its an outdated system of earnng that s way too behnd for todays |et age.
The chdren of today woud have respect nether for the guru nor for the guruku.
The sks taught n the guruku woud not arm the chdren of today for the present fe.
Peope woud scoh at the deooges and teachng that are ohered the gurukus of yester years.
An dea modern day Guruku s an envronment free of caste restrctons, conventona examnatons and textbooks,
fosterng dscpne and sef-reance. It ohers an atmosphere of serenty and nteectua growth n whch a students
questonng nature s never satsed. A respect for nature and the envronment, patrotsm, and the vaue of smpe
vng are |ust some of the vaues nsted.
There are many advantages and dsadvantages of Guruku system of educaton. However theres Benga proverb,
ganca noae vas, mas korbe tans tas_; When the bamboo s green, you can bend t, but when t s yeow, dred, t w
crack. So educaton begns from the very ch;dhood. Therefore a Guruku s requred. It doesnt requre how much he
has earned ABCD and grammar. Guruku system w rst emphasze on character.
Only y the !ra"e o# the Guru "an the $is"i%le attain the &inal 'ieration()
A*'.# E3"*(#'% S5!#.) ' I3'( P&.!.# !5!#.) %+ .3"*(#'%
In the ancent days, the Guruku system of
educaton was prevaent. The teacher was the Guru
and the dscpe was the Sshya. The dscpes ved
n the Gurus aashram durng the course of ther
tranng and n turn ohered ther servces to the
ashram. Ths perod of earnng of about 12 years,
was consdered as a great sacrce or a penance.
The Guru dented the capabty of ths Sshya and
accordngy mparted knowedge. The sshyas earnt
amdst the natura surroundngs of the ashram n
open ar, n cose contact wth nature.
The present system of educaton s formuated by the
government apponted educatonsts commttee and the
educaton mnsters, the students attend schoo or
coege and stay at home the rest of the tme. there s
nothng ke a sacrce for educaton hence at tmes t s
not taken n a ts serousness, though there are some
boardng schoos st prevaent. Accordng t the grade
that they are n as per ther age they are taught the xed
currcuum t s not mparted as per hs caber nstead he
s supposed to have the caber as per hs age t grasp the
xed currcuum. Aso they re taught n cassrooms and
ony sometmes taken nto nature for pcncs or tours.
2. The Kngs sent ther Prnces to Gurus for tranng. At
the end of ther tranng, the dscpes thanked ther
Gurus wth a gft n the form of gurudakshna -
whch teray means oherng to the Guru.
Today a go to schoos open for common pubc there are
no more many exstent kngs.. Leavng out a few
exceptona schoos and fames. Today ts pay for
educaton. Fees are coected by nsttutons or schoos or
coeges. out of whch saares are pad to the teachers.
The honess of the whoe meanng of gurudakshna s
There was no xed syabus. The man purpose of
ths earnng was to preserve the Vedas and guard
them from non-Brahmns. Besdes regous texts,
students n the ancent unverstes earnt about
Ayurveda (Medcne), Ganta (Mathematcs),
Arthashatra (Potca Scence), |yotsha (Astroogy,
Vykarna (Grammar), Shpasana Vdya (Art and
Crafts), and Adyatma Vdya (Phosophy).
Today for each grade there s a xed syabus. Mosty
concernng on matera studes and encompassng
mathematcs, medcne, geography, hstory, economcs,
arts and crafts and anguages and terature. whch s a
ntroduced to the student n schoo and then eft on to the
student to decde hs own ne of nterest and pursue t
further. Further studes are based on hs grades and
4. The man ob|ectve of educaton are the
deveopment of personaty of an ndvdua, budng
hs outook / character to hep hm prepare to face
the chaenges of the fe ahead of hm.
The man ob|ectve s to prepare the student ot face the
word n any crcumstances and make hs vng.
5. Drect contact wth teachers of nobe yet smpe
character create frutfu mpressons upon the
students mnd durng hs stay n the guruku.
Drect contact to teachers possbe ony for a few hours
after cass. Except for what the teacher teaches n cass
there s no other tmes when a teacher can eave any
other knd of mpresson on the students mnd.
6. The tranqu atmosphere n the guruku certany
creates a beneca ahect on the mnds of the
young students. Aso ancent tradtons and cuture
can be we preserved by mpartng such educaton
n the gurukus.
In modern tmes much tme s dverted n watchng TV,
partes and other such actvtes. Aso actua earnng
happens by the students ony n cass or when he actuay
sts down, wt hs books to reach before hs exams. In
guruku the student devotes a hs tme and energy to
studes and other beneca actvtes.
Guruku was never open to the ma|orty of masses.
About 85 to 90 percent of popuaton was outsde
the pae of Gurukus. Ony the 15 percent
popuaton was beng catered by Gurukus.
Ony the boys were admtted and not the grs.
There were no crtera for admsson apart from the
caste and whms and fances of the teacher.
Exampes of dena of admsson to very mertorous
canddates on the bass of caste are seen.
Admssons are open to a.
They sometmes happen based on certan score n some
entrance exams oron prevousy passed examnaton
grades, persona apttude of student and famy
backgrounds |udged through ntervews.
Though there st exsts ony grs and ony boys schoos.
Propagatons of Guruku system seem to be very
sure that teachers seected were of hgh caber n
knowedge and character. Each and every person
by vrtue of beng born as a Brahmn had a nherent
rght to be a teacher. Hew coud open an ashram
and take pups as and when he kes. And he coud
gve certcate of competon of studes as and
when he chooses.
He was not bound by any aw of and nor any
converson of teachers body.
Most of the gurukus were snge teacher resdenta
ones free from any roya or academc contro.
Seecton of the teachers n each of the present educaton
nsttutes s done based on ther quacatons and no
caste dscrmnaton s nvoved. Ony n certan
nsttutons teachers resde n the campus or ese ony the
prncpa ves on campus a others ve outsde.

Indan ethos for management means the appcaton of prncpes of management as reveaed n our
ancent wsdom brought forth n our sacred books ke our Gta, Upanshads, Bbe and Kuran.
There are 6 basc prncpes, whch come to ght n the hoy books appcabe n todays management word.
They are :
Each sou s a potenta God
Hostc approach
Equa mportance to Sub|ectvty/Ob|ectvty
Karma yoga
Yogah Karmasu Kaushaam
Co - operaton
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A human beng has a sou, a spark of the Dvne. The dvne resdes n the heart of a person. The Dvne means
perfecton n knowedge, wsdom and power. Therefore a human beng has mmense potenta power or energy for sef -
deveopment. Thus human ehorts can acheve even an apparenty mpossbe goa and convert the mpossbe nto a
reaty. The partnershp of God and Man can brng about extraordnary or mracuous resuts; ony f man chooses
wngy to coaborate wth God and actvey partcpates n the ahars of the socety by rght acton under hs gudance
and grace. He can brng about not ony persona deveopment, harmony, happness but aso prosperty of hs own
organzaton and the socety wthout n|ustce to others.
Of course here, aso, God heps those who hep themseves.
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Holistic appoac! i" Ma"a#$m$"t s based on sprtua prncpe of unty, oneness, non-dua or Advata concept.
Under ths prncpe of unty, the unverse n an %"&ivi&$& '!ol$ where each and every partce s connected wth every
other partce. Thus, entre Humanty s ONE.
Such an ntegrated human personaty of sef-deveoped manager and worker can assure best and competent
management of any enterprse, nvovng coectve works and ehorts. It w acheve perfecton or exceence n
whatever sector you work. Ths s the dea of Indan ethos : (Atma"o Mo)s!at!am *a#at Hit+a ,!a-. (For ganng
perfecton n ndvdua fe, as we as for the wefare of the word.). Ths s the message for a managers and workers
gven by the Indan ethos for management.
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Indan ethos for management dstngushes between sub|ect and ob|ect. Sub|ect s subte and ntangbe. Ob|ect
s concrete and tangbe or vsbe.
We have the concept of the thrd eye, the eye of wsdom. It can see even that whch the norma two eyes cannot. It can
see the ntangbe .e. nvsbe.
Human and ethca vaues or quates such as courage, vson, soca awareness, fearessness, ntegrty, pure and cear
mnd, truth, etc. are sub|ectve, subte and ntangbe concepts. These sub|ectve or subte quates are as mportant as
money, materas, machnes, nformaton or data as we as human sks. Inner resources of human bengs are more
powerfu than externa resources.
Creator s sub|ectve. Creaton s ob|ectve. I"si#!t i-$-/ creator s more mportant than O%tsi#!t i-$-/ creaton. Our body,
senses, nteect, mnd,etc., are ob|ectve, seen, tangbe. But our sou atma" s unseen, ntangbe, subtest and
sub|ectve. Hence, wsdom manager/ worker s much more mportant and vauabe than knowedge manager/ worker.
Therefore, manager must deveop hs thrd eye, |nana Chakhu , the eye of Vson ntuton, nsght, foresght and such
other dvne quates or vaues. Ths s the essence of Indan ethos for management.
K(&)( Y%1(
It s yoga of seess servce to others. Karma Yoga s a about dentfyng your prortes and tryng to acheve them. Aso,
a person shoud have accountabty .e. he shoud aways hod ony hmsef responsbe for whatever goes rght or
wrong. Ths brngs about the unon of human beng wth the Dvne.
Gta says that do your duty wthout ego and wthout cacuatons of gan or oss. One shoud beeve n Nshkama Karma
.e. fruts of work shoud not be thought of whe performng the duty.
The memorabe words of Gta are To work ony you have the rght and you have no rght to the fruts of work.
However, ths does not mean that one shoud work day and nght and the returns that he gets shoud be amost
neggbe. What the Gta tres to say s that et not the fruts of acton motvate you as they mght |ust dvert your
attenton from work. When you are dong a |ob, put your heart and sou n to t. One has no contro over the future hence
never waste your present n useess dreams of future hopes and fears of present actons.
1. For my own savaton and persona growth.
2. For the good of the word.
The nner |oy of dong somethng gves the doer a sense of achevement and aso heps hm n respectng hmsef more
than he used to. Money s mportant but runnng behnd money a the tme eads to tenson, stress and tota oss of
peace. Sef-motvaton can assure sef-deveopment. When work s performed wthout passon, hatred, arrogance and
desre we have ndvdua deveopment and soca good.
Indans aways had two great truths of successfu, harmonous and happy fe:
1. Dvnty of fe can be used through sef-deveopment for persona growth and aso for soca wefare.
2. I cannot cheat you and nature wthout cheatng mysef. Workng for harmony and peace resuts n a sense of
It s becomng cear that a chapter, whch had a Western begnnng n busness management, w have to have an Indan
endng. Karma Yoga s not |ust meant for the common man but aso for eaders and managers who f act responsby w
n turn nuence the behavor of a number of peope.
Karma Yoga thus s a good pathway for:
1. Sef-purcaton and Sef-deveopment.
2. Indvdua growth and wefare.
3. Coectve growth and wefare.
4. Mnmum pay of passon, |eaousy, hatred.
5. Team sprt and Teamwork.
6. Autonomous management, mnmum contro and
7. Manager acts as a Mentor.
8. Sef-motvaton.
9. Perfecton.
10. A round happness and prosperty.
11. Sks and vaues unted.
12. Concts resoved by ntegraton.
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Yoga means exceence at work. Seek to perform your assgned duty or work n an exceent manner. Kaushaam
denotes dong work wth devoton and wthout attachment .e. wthout beng a work-a-hoc. Such detatched atttude
enhances ts vaues and mproves the concentraton and sk of the worker. You work wth smartness, determnaton and
abty. Your head, heart and sou co-operate wth your hands. You do not hanker over the fruts of acton. You have no
antcpaton of reward, or persona gan. You become a too of God to perform the work. Any work carred out wth fu
concentraton, dedcaton and wth a abtes that a person has, becomes vauabe and the person aso becomes
vauabe to others as we as to socety. In tota quaty management(TOM) Karma Yoga and Yogah Karmasu Kaushaam
provde vauabe contrbutons. Under ths sogan we have one hundred percen concentraon comng from wthn. The
extrnsc ncentves $-#-/ money, other perks, etc. pay a very mnor roe as motvators.
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Heathy competton s a powerfu motvator for exceence and success, especay busness success. The dea
of cut-throat competeton s founded on the concept of strugge for exstence and survva of the ttest.
Indan ethos says that for human bengs the roya road s co-operaton as a powerfu motve for team work. We
are human bengs havng mnd and power of dscrmnaton.
The Gta says : By co - operaton and mutua hep a sha acheve the hghest human wefare. Unty s
strength. Even n the hostc approach, we stress the co-operaton ntegraton, synthess and team - sprt for
extraordnary performance, for endurng harmony and peace, because n our hearts chamber s vng the pure
concousness of the Dvne, i-$-/ 0%"atma"- Peacefu co-excstence, harmony, not strugge s the rue. Indan nsght
endorses ths n the management of any enterprse.
Excessve competeton at work can destroy many young peope and our soca fe. Co-operaton, unted ehorts
and strvng for success eads to a round prosperty and success eads to a round prosperty and success n any ed of
human enterprse.
I3'( .#$%! .L4&.!!.! #$'! :
Parspar Devo Bhava
Paraspar Bhavayantah, Shreyat parma Vapsyatha.
F.(#"&.! %+ I3'( E#$%! (3 I!'1$#
Dvnty of a human beng s not merey a noton but a truth whch can be experenced n the stness of the
Baance s the keynote of Indan thought. We have synthess, harmony between the dua concepts.
The Indvdua s the centra focus.
Devne eement n the ndvdua s ony a porton of the unverse of the unversa or cosmc conscousness.
Gves greater emphass on vaues, human and ethca. Knowedge s not power.
Indan ethos are based on Indan scrpture. Indan thoughts provde eterna knowedge
A work s worthy and honorabe.
Emphass on dutes and responsbtes.
Deas wth two types of knowedge.
a) Knowedge of creaton.
b) Knowedge of creator.
1. .
What s Sprtuaty? Is t somethng concernng the nteect or what s often thought of as the better or hgher part of
mnd? Is t the mora aspect of fe? Perhaps t may even mean a state of beng ncorporea. Whatever way one may
dene, t may be termed as an dea that reckons a reaty n essence as sprtua. When smpy stated, sprtuaty s one's
character or quaty that makes one transcend the barrers of wordness, caste, creed and sensuaty; and reaze one's
connecton wth the Truth.
The etymoogy of the word Sprtuaty tsef s "sprtus," derved from the Hebrew word for breath. Sprtuaty thus came
to mean "the energy or force or breath of God." No one kes the word regon anymore as the word sprtua doesn't have
the baggage regon does. But t's mpossbe to separate sprtuaty from organzed regon. To dene onesef as sprtua
wthout beng a part of a regon mght smpy be "|ustcaton" for not wantng to partcpate n organsed regon and ts
practces. In many ways t doesn't go beyond ones own persona beef for t s ke sayng, 'I'm gong to nd mysef.' It s
an ndvdua exporaton of the nner word of the sef, out of whch ought to arse compasson and wsdom. Even an
athest coud be sprtua. I dene a sprtua person as one "who works to deveop hs fu human potenta and heps
others to deveop thers, recognzng that we are a one.
Sprtuaty has been dened n numerous ways -
: A beef n a power operatng n the unverse that s greater than onesef.
: A sense of nterconnectedness wth a vng creatures.
: An awareness of the purpose and meanng of fe and the deveopment of persona, absoute vaues.
Athough sprtuaty s often assocated wth regous fe, many beeve that persona sprtuaty can be deveoped
outsde of regon. Acts of compasson and seessness, atrusm, and the experence of nner peace are a characterstcs
of sprtuaty. Sprtuaty s the recognton and reazaton of the Beng, the reaty n onesef and a others. The
ntegraton of the body, mnd and sprt n a human beng, whch resuts n factatng the reazaton of a goa n fe,
makes hm a sprtua beng. In order to reaze onesef, t becomes necessary to be aware of onesef. Ths awareness
comes to us n varous ways and forms and through varous means, the sgncant ones beng the scrptures and regous
texts of Inda and the word. As an nnate capacty that exsts n every human beng, psychoogcay heathy sprtuaty s
not mted to any one set of doctrnes or practces. From a psychoogca perspectve, sprtuaty s a unversa experence,
not a unversa theoogy.
Sprtuaty s understood by many as the act of nvovement or state of awareness or devoton to a hgher beng or fe
phosophy. It s not aways reated to conventona regous beefs. A regon s a dogma or creed, a set of beefs about
the sprtua and a set of practces, whch arse out of those beefs. There are many regons, whch arse out of those
beefs and they tend to be mutuay excusve. Regon s dherent from sprtuaty where the former s normay accepted
as an nsttuton wth the organzed doctrnes, ethcs, tenets and beefs that reate everythng to what s deemed as
sacred. Regon s expressed wth the hep of socay approved and accepted rtuas, practces, myths and soca
structures. Sprtuaty s, however, an expresson of what s sacred brngng wth t an agnment wth everythng that s
sacred. It s the experence of a reaty that transforms every ndvdua and ncucates n an ndvdua, quates such as
ove, compasson and ethca ntegrty, aong wth a sense of harmony and |ustce.
A sprtua ndvdua necessary fees ess bound and constraned, n a sense, more free than others, n a persona and
soca sense. It eads the ndvdua to wsdom and a deep understandng of the essence of human condton. Sprtuaty s
somethng that characterzes the reatonshp of an ndvdua to a bengs n the unverse and does not necessary requre
a forma structure, rtua, or medaton by an ntercessor.
Sprtuaty mpes the nner human urge to seek and unte wth a Reaty beyond the eetng, sensory word, fung the
need for a meanng. It s a search for whatever s generay beautfu and awe-nsprng n nature; not aways good by
human standards; but generay knd and ovng n human nature. Much of what peope strve for, after satsfyng the basc
needs of fe, has to do wth enrchng ther hgher sprtua nature, through musc, art and poetry. Ltte acts of kndness,
the atttude of forgvng, and the readness to understand others s possbe ony by a sprtua beng. The sprtua s a -
ncusve. It s the deepest sense of beongng and partcpaton. We a partcpate n the sprtua at a tmes, whether we
know t or not...perhaps one mght say that the sprtua s that ream of human experence whch regon attempts to
connect us to through rtuas and dogma. Sometmes t succeeds and sometmes t fas. Regon may act as a brdge to
the sprtua-but the sprtua es beyond regon.
Sprtuaty s sub|ectvey experencng fe both nsde and outsde of onesef. Fnay, sprtuaty s a convcton. Even
athests, who do not beeve n a creator, have a beef n the sprt that needs to be tended to. They cannot prove ther
beef any more than a "true beever" can prove hs or hers. Ths eads to the need to rease the ntrnsc vaue of onesef
(ones sprt) and equay that of others. I woud ke to dene Sprtuaty, n very smpstc terms, as a connecton, n
some profound and eementa way, wth somethng, whch s both outsde and wthn onesef, whch gves one a sense of
ones essenta nature. Sprtuaty eads one to a feeng of havng transcended tme and gves one a feeng of oneness
wth the entre unverse. One begns to accept onesef as a part of everythng and everythng a part of onesef. The
sprtua ndvdua speaks more from the heart, operatng on a eve that s hgher and totay dherent from the norma,
ratona, near pane of human nteracton. The word seems so fundamentay nseparabe. The sprtua person
transcends boundares - boundares of tme and space, cass and coour, race and speces. The reasaton that one s a
part of the same natura word brngs a shft n the conscous functonng and prepares one at a deeper eve to recognse
the temporarness and transparency of boundares n a other aspects on ones vng. The sprtua dmenson s that part
of the person concerned wth meanng, truth, purpose, or reaty--the utmate sgncance of thngs. It manfests tsef as a
sense that there s an utmate reaty, as a search for that reaty, and n the prepotency of adherence to certan vaues
whch are hed by the person to be absoutes. The sprtua dmenson s fundamentay experenta and ntutve rather
than conceptua. It comprses drect experences of beng and drect menta apprehensons rather than abstracton and
reasonng, and s thus not an aspect of thought. Ths attrbute s responsbe for the nehabe and sub|ectve quates that
have prevousy dscouraged scentc nqury.
In phosophes and regons of Indan orgn, the term sprtuaty s used n a specc sense, dstnct from ts many
meanngs n western dctonares. In Indan tradton, the word sprt s used to refer to atman. Now the word atman s
used to refer to |vatman and paramatma, .e. Indvdua and Supreme Sef. Dvnty s thus, perceved n both Cosmc
Reaty and the ndvdua sef. Moreover, the Paramatma or Supreme Sef s conceved as both transcendent and
mmanent n the phenomena word. Hence, a creaton s perceved as a manfestaton of the Sprt.
In addton to ths, the Supreme sef s conceved as Sat -Ct - Ananda, .e. Beng - Conscousness - Bss and aso as
Satyam - |nanam - Anantam - Shaantam - Poornam Brahman .e. Brahman as Truth, Knowedge, Inntude, Peace and
Perfecton. Thus, sprtuasm n Indan parance mpes the endeavour of the ndvdua sef to reaze and approxmate the
Supreme Sprt. The concept of Sat - Ct - Ananda s unque n Indan phosophy as t s symboc of a compete, hostc
approach to Reaty. Sat s Exstence, the Beng of an entty, whch sgnes metaphyscs, Ct s Conscousness reatng to
cognton and knowedge (epstemoogy), and Ananda s Bss that s determned by ethca vng. Thus, Sat - Ct - Ananda
represents the hosm of Indan thought. It s the conscousness of the Conscous Sprt n the rght perspectve.
Sprtuaty s that whch comes from wthn, beyond the survva nstncts of the mnd. Each of us has a sprtua centre or
core, whch makes us conscous, purposve bengs, n connecton wth the cosmc purpose. Every sprtua beng ves wth
a dvne purpose. Every beng has the sprtua energy, beyond programmed beefs and vaues, whch s actuay the
fountanhead of a wsdom. The sprt n man makes hm ve fe passonatey wth a purpose, wth the rght understandng
of hmsef and hs envronment. He ves wth humty, compasson, empathy and ove, aong wth the others n the same
envronment, workng towards common goas.
Indan Management s prmary based on sprtua vaues and the nherent sprtuaty of the human s manfested n a hs
actvtes of fe, whether t s a soca, cutura, economc or regous actvty.
Hence the need to understand and accept Indan Management as hostc, compete and pragmatc and the need to earn
the management styes of Indan ndustry to reterate the sprtua essence of Indan Management.
The cutura hertage of Inda s mut-faceted, representng a bewderng dversty of thought and forms. The essence of
ths cuture s beautfuy descrbed by a thnker n the foowng manner - there can be two or three persons seepng
together wth ther heads on the same pow and yet havng dherent dreams. Indan cuture depcts unty n dversty n a
smar fashon. In fact, the naton has exsted and progressed as a snge cutura unt, cuttng across potca boundares,
regous dversty and ngustc barrers, dspayng a sprt of essenta unty.
Inda ves today n sprt, despte vsbe degeneraton and depravty n ts potca, soca, cutura and mora fe. The
vsbe progress and growth s more obvous n the economc sphere aone, wth the dea of gobasaton we accepted.
The sprtua and cutura vaues are, however, kept ave by the conscous and devout tradtona Indans, who understood
and vaued the essence of natona conscousness.
Some of the tradtona vaues that determned Indan ethos are:
a) Inherent dvnty of man:
The concept of a Cosmc Conscousness, the Brahman, that nheres n every beng n the form of an ndvdua
conscousness, as the Atman, makes every beng potentay dvne. Ths Brahman-Atman unty brngs n a sense of
Unversa Brotherhood and Cosmc Unty n a bengs. The dea of sprtuaty thus, expounded makes Indan ethos more
sprtua n ts essence.
b) Unty n dversty:
The essenta oneness that s accepted n a creaton due to the Brahman-Atman unty has heped to dssove a
dherences that arse due to races, castes, cass, gender, creed or any other factor. The competeness and whoeness of
creaton s accepted as the bass that determnes the ethos of our country.
c) Sprtuaty n fe-phosophy:
The essenta nature of man beng sprtua, Indan phosophy emphaszes on the ethco-regous nature of mans
exstence. The goas prescrbed for man that can ead to savaton are the four purusharthas - dharma, artha, kama and
moksha. The nstnctua and the economc aspects that keep man satsed need to be derved wthn the framework of
dharma or rghteousness. Ths aone heps man to attan beraton. A aspects of mans vng are thus gven ther due
d) Sef-deveopment:
Every ndvdua shoud strve to actuaze the dvnty and potenta wthn onesef. The deveopment of the ndvdua s
the reazaton of the dvnty wthn and the connecton estabshed wth the nnate core of onesef.
Todays managers are constanty facng new types of chaenges. Managng a busness does not seem as smpe as t used
to be a decade ago. A rapd change n envronment, be t nterna or externa to the ndvdua and the organsaton,
chaenges the creatvty and adaptabty of every busnessman or entrepreneur. Technoogy seems to be gettng obsoete,
as there s contnuous technoogca advancement n every sphere, demandng an upgradaton of nfrastructure, resutng
n the machne age. Today, ths machne age s fast beng repaced by the nformaton age. In the words of futurst Avn
Tomer, the brute force economy s beng superceded by a bran force economy.

. A new word order seems to be

contnuousy emergng from the markngs of goba trends. The Tomeran goba vage wth technoogca advances,
organsatona nnovatons and newer ways of thnkng are the prmary forces that are drvng humanty today.
The management scene faces new chaenges today. There s a need for contnuous upgradaton of technoogy, systems
and nfrastructure. The ncreasng competton aong wth the ncreasng demands of the work-force make t nevtabe for
management to devse new strateges n a sustaned manner. Today a busness house s not |ust a powerhouse of
nformaton and a warehouse of products. Every ndustry today s accountabe to the communty and there s an ncreasng
concern for soca good. The nterna and externa envronment show contnuous changes and chaenge the ndvdua
and the organsaton to engage n atera thnkng. Informaton technoogy, deveopment of communcaton toos, hgh
eve of competton, are a threats to the human resource n the organsaton. The work force today s aware of the
resources, nfrastructure and factes avaabe to the entrepreneur and hence, demands quaty of work fe.
The changng scenaro has paced new demands on both the management and the work force. Socety today seems more
comfortabe, vng a fe of uxury, wth varous amentes at ther dsposa. Technoogy cams to have brought the word
coser wth factes of Internet, teecommuncaton and e-commerce at the ngertps. The dea of goba vage as
evdent n the economc scene s deusve and mseadng. Such a socety brags about openness as ts key force that
actuay determnes the mndset of peope. But t s necessary to understand ths dea of openness, n the context of the
changng economc and soca scene. Is t openness to the dea of free market, the urge to nvove onesef n nternatona
nvestments and goba commerce that s requred? Or s t the openness of ones mnd to the unversay accepted human
dgnty and vaue systems that s requred? In order to adapt we to the changng envronment n the busness word, and
condenty face the ongong chaenges, t s essenta to know onesef n the true sense of the term. It s a ca to
humanty n genera, and companes and organsatons to renvent themseves.
The present day cvsaton suhers prmary because of ts tendency to be nvoved n the process of exterorsng. Ths
has ed to the oss of onesef n more than one way. Ths process of exterorsng s unfortunatey understood to be
synonymous to modernsaton. Every ndvdua tends to derve hs satsfacton from outsde hs beng. The dea of sef-
awareness and sef- enrchment has been osng ts way n the sands of posterty. The cuture of the economy today s
domnated by an Epcurean cuture, whch s akn to the Charvaka phosophy: excessve ndugence, conspcuous
consumpton, materastc vaues and craze for power. Such cuture nevtaby generates confuson and concts. Ths
cuture s responsbe for the degradaton of man hmsef, demotng hm to a mere commodty.
Every ndvdua s a bunde of vrtues and weaknesses of the head and the heart. The resutng ndvduaty of a person
from ths baance sheet of postve and negatve quates s hs CHARACTER. The strength of the character of a person has
aone been the ndcator of hs potenta, capactes and capabtes. Character s thus, the most mportant factor that
makes for ehectve ndvduas, and to be more specc, ehectve managers n an organsaton. A man of character mpes
essentay and necessary, a man who ves fe wth the gudenes of the basc human vaues.
Character stands for sef-dscpne, oyaty, readness to accept responsbty and wngness to admt mstakes. It stands
for seessness, modesty, humty and wngness to forego or sacrce. A person of character practces human vaues
and hs thoughts, words and deeds are n harmony. He s consstent n hs behavour and the constancy and stabty are
evdenty sgns of ntegrty.
CHARACTER and KNOWLEDGE support one another. Ths baance vares from ndvdua to ndvdua. Mere knowedge
wthout strength of character makes a man ndecsve and unstabe. On the other hand, mere character that s not
supported by rght knowedge puts a ceng on mans potenta. There s a cose nterdependence and mutuaty of the
two, character and knowedge. Character has for ts support the basc human vaues, whch n turn, spes Sprtuaty.
Knowedge of the phenomena word, however, depends on Scence. Let us now put t a together once agan. Knowedge
of onesef and the word around, supported by Sprtuaty, eads to a sef-reased ndvdua.
The equaton goes thus:
Sprtuaty mnus Knowedge = Bockng/Ceng of Potenta
Knowedge mnus Sprtuaty = Acton wthout Drecton
Scence eadng to Knowedge + Sprtuaty eadng to character = SARVODAYA.
The word Yo#a comes from the term Y%j meanng unon, or |on, whch mpes the unon of body, mnd and sou.
Some thests understand ths unon to be the unon of the ndvdua sef wth the Absoute Sef, the unon of the Atma"
wth the Ba!ma"..
The basc text of Yo#a s the Yo#as%ta of Patan|a (2
century B.C.). The book s sad to consst of four pa&as or parts:
the sama&!ipa&a, whch deas wth the nature, ams and forms of +o#a, dscusses the modcatons of citta and
eaborates on the dherent methods of attanng +o#a (sama&!i or concentraton);
the sa&!a"apa&a, whch deas wth the path of attanng sama&!i through )i+a+o#a, the )l$s!as or menta states
causng actons, the fruts of actons ()amap!ala) and ther panfu nature, and the fourfod theme of suherng, ts
cause, ts cessaton and the means thereof;
the vi1!%tipa&a gves an account of the nward aspects of +o#a and the supernatura powers that may be acqured by
the practce of +o#a; and
)aival+apa&a, whch descrbes the nature and the atttude that s requred for beraton, the nature of the goa of fe
and the other word, and the reaty of the transcendent sef.
The tranng of a Yo#i s dvded nto eght stages (As!ta"#a Yo#a). By practcng a these stages and technques of Yo#a,
the mpurtes n the citta are destroyed and there s an enghtenment n the ndvdua. The eght mbs of Yo#a are:
1. Yama - (Restrants)
2. Ni+ama - (Observances)
3. Asa"a - (Posture)
4. 0a"a+ama - (Contro and reguaton of pa"a)
5. 0at+a!aa - (Sense wthdrawa)
6. D!aa"a - (Concentraton)
7. D!+a"a - (Medtaton)
8. Sama&!i - (Sef-reasaton)
1.Yama -
Yama mpes Restrant or the practce of the foowng ve ethca codes.
A!imsa: non-voence; not hurtng or kng anyone, even sef.
Sat+a: truthfuness,
Ast$+a: not steang,
Ba!mac!a+a: abstnence and chastty; sef-restrant from yedng to mpuses or desres; and
Apai#a!a: avodance of greed, non-avarceness, non- covetousness.
2.Ni+ama -
Ni+ama mpes Observances, whch s the observance of the ve rues of purty.
S!a%c!a: ceanness and purty, not ony of the externa physca body, but even of the mnd. Ths ncudes persona
hygene, postvty n atttude, remova of negatvty, a postve 1!avas.
Sa"tos!a: contentment, mpyng that man needs to rease that he gets ony what he deserves and not aways what he
yearns for wthout ehort. Ths heps to destroy the keepng up wth the |ones atttude n ndvduas.
Tapas: penance and austerty, whch mpes that man needs to be perseverant n hs attempts and shoud perform dutes
wth a sense of detachment.
S'a&!+a+: sef-study and sef-hep, gudng the student to ntrospect, auto-suggest, and be sef-reant.
Is!vaapa"i&!a"a: resgnaton and submsson to God, wth fath. Ths s aso nterpreted teeoogcay as a submsson to
Dvne W, f the ndvdua does not subscrbe to the thestc vew n Indan thought. The ndvdua needs to work wth a
sense of detachment as he reases that he has no contro over the fruts of hs acton, but ony over hs actons. Ths eads
hm to the dea that hs ehorts aone matter, makng hm a 2ama+o#i.
3.Asa"a -
St!ia s%)!am Asa"am
Posture - sttng n certan comfortabe, steady postures for the purpose of reaxaton of ehorts or medtaton on the
Innte. The most famous s the Lotus Posture (pa&masa"a). A Asa"as can be nterpreted to nst vaues and atttudes
whe teachng or earnng them. There are varous benets to the reguar practce of Asa"as, f they are done correcty, n
a dscpned manner, and regousy. The practce of Asa"as reguary heps to deveop a dscpned mnd, a knd and
senstve heart and a ratonay guded nteect, wth ntuton as ts power. The steadness and steadfastness that comes
wth ths knd of practce eads man to hs goas more easy as he needs to put n ess ehort to acheve hs goas. It
teaches man to conserve energy and utse t n a strngent manner for maxmum benets. Asa"a, aong wth 0a"a+ama,
eads man to acheve the goa of Ao#+am ca &i"$ &i"$.. Ths dscpne heps n keepng the varous organs of the body n
perfect condton, such as the heart, kdneys, ungs, stomach, ver, the i"&i+as, the bran and the spne. Practce of
Asa"as heps to move further wth &!aa"a, &!+a"a, and sama&!i.
4.0a"a+ama -
0a"a+ama nvoves breath-contro or the reguaton of psychc pa"a through the reguaton of nhaaton and exhaaton,
to enhance physca and sprtua aspects n onesef. Reguated breathng heps to manage good ntake of oxygen, whch n
turn determnes the eve of energy n an ndvdua, hs toerance to stress and stran, and hs nature of managng fatgue.
It heps to |udge the state of mnd of an ndvdua by watchng hs rate and state of breathng. The technque of gettng
aware of ones own breathng heps to be aware of onesef. Ths awareness eads to heghtened senstvty n onesef
towards onesef and others. The rate of breathng of ndvduas can be montored, reguated and traned for ncreased
performance and good heath. The agtated and restess mnd of an ndvdua can be camed down by reguatng and
steadyng hs breathng. It s a good technque to manage stress. 0a"a+ama heps n checkng a wanderng mnd, thus
eadng to ncreased attenton and concentraton.
0a"a or )i s that fe energy whch keeps the body ave and heathy. In Greek t s caed p"$%ma., n Poynesan ma"a.
and n Hebrew %a!. whch means breath of fe. Bascay there are three ma|or sources of pa"a: soar pa"a, ar pa"a
and ground pa"a, whch are recognsed and respected for ther fe-gvng capacty. The three pa"as nvgorate the body
and promote fe n a forms. 0a"a absorbed by the body from the varous sources s absorbed drecty by the energy
centres of the bopasmc body. These energy centres are caed c!a)as-

0a"a+ama heps the ndvdua to montor, reguate and channese the vta energy, through technques and asa"as. It s
the vta force that propes fe ahead and beyond the physca. It pusates wth a reguar frequency and rhythm n a vng
bengs. 0a"a+ama s dscpned breathng whch mproves the functonng of a body systems. Speca emphass s gven
to the mprovement of the respratory and nervous systems n the body. It heps the seeker of Truth to arrve at t wth
ease and comfort, by smpy bendng the vta energy wthn hmsef wth Cosmc Energy. It s a brdge that nks the mcro
wth the macro. 0a"a+ama heps the ndvdua to attan the state of Sama&!i. It heps n the proper crcuaton of bood n
the body, n the dgeston of food and the emnaton of waste from our body. 0a"a+ama nuences ones rate of
breathng, thus nstng camness n the mnd. Breathng and thnkng are cosey reated and Pranayama s the best
technque to understand ths. By reguatng ones breathng, t s possbe to sow down the agtated menta state, and ths
heps to experence menta quettude and concentraton. 0a"a+ama heps to augment a peasant feeng throughout the
body and n the mnd. There s a ot of mportance gven to 0a"a+ama n the Gita, Buddhst tradton and the phosophca
tradtons of the varous sages and seers.
5.0at+a!aa -
0at+a!aa s a technque of wthdrawa, where the sensory organs are traned to gnore ther perceptons and consequent
feengs and ook wthn. Every ndvdua gets drawn to the beauty and power of the externa, physca word. The coours,
shapes, szes and varety of the ob|ects n the word keep man trapped n sensory perceptons. Man needs to assmate a
that he gathers as nput through hs senses and act by voton to acheve. In order to do ths, man needs to move nwards,
draw hmsef away from the transent beauty of ths word and know more about hmsef. The ndvdua who knows hmsef
we aone can be a wnner and achever, contrbutng to the many, as he has reased hs capabtes, mtatons and
needs. Ths process of ntroverson s unque and nove to Indan cuture. The scentc study of an ndvdua by hmsef for
hmsef, n a hostc manner s what Yo#a teaches.
6.D!aa"a -
D!aa"a s a technque eadng to steadyng the mnd by concentratng on a snge ob|ect, an con or a sacred symbo or a
body part, such as the tp of the nose. Asa"a and 0a"a+ama hep n steadyng and stabsng the body and mnd, nctng
the ndvdua to be heathy and motvated. Such an ndvdua now needs to focus hs energes and drect them towards
the goa of sef-reasaton. Wth 0at+a!aa and D!aa"a, the ndvdua mnd s ntroverted, attenton span s ncreased
and concentraton s aso heghtened. D!aa"a heps to focus on goas.
7.D!+a"a -
Tata pat+a+ai)ata"ta D!+a"a3
D!+a"a s Medtaton, whch s a technque earnt to hep the ob|ect of concentraton to the whoe mnd. It can be
compared to the scence experment done wth chdren n schoos, where the Suns energy s focussed on a pece of paper
through a magnfyng gass, and ths concentraton of soar energy brngs ames on the paper, thoroughy burnng t. The
Sun does not normay burn thngs such as paper or coth when t shnes reguary, but ts focussed energy does so.
Smary, the energy n an ndvdua needs to be traned to focus.
8.Sama&!i -
Sama&!i nvoves deep Medtaton, when the whoe personaty s dssoved, where the ndvdua reases hs rea sef and
moves on the path of sef-actuasaton and sef-reasaton. Sama&!i s not to be understood as renuncaton of the
physca body, or even buryng onesef n so or wakng down to a water-bed. It merey taks about renouncng the desre
and cravng for the benets of ones ehorts. It s a technque that teaches one to be detached, dong ones duty n fe
accordng to ones staton n fe. Ths s the heghtened practca dmenson to D!ama and the concept of
Nis!)ama)ama, as gven n our scrptures and cuture.
Yoga s a schoo of thought that consttutes the perenna wsdom of Inda. The Yogc cuture s evdent n a aspects of fe
n Inda, be t food, dress styes, postures, actvtes, habts and atttudes. It s expressed n a art forms such as musc,
dance and scupture. A through the years, t has remaned as one of the most mportant facets of Indan Cuture,
remanng vbrant and responsve to the changng tmes a through ths perod. As t deveoped n Inda, t came to be
assocated wth the deveopment of Hndusm and ts phosophy. Yet n ts essence t has aways remaned away from any
regous doctrnes or dogmas and never demanded acceptance of any specc beef system. It has aways remaned as a
pathway to reasaton of Truth, open for a the peope professng dherent faths beongng to dherent regons and
dherent races. In essence, t s a path of sprtua enqury, awakened by the earnest desre for havng a deeper
understandng of Lfe and the entre phenomenon assocated wth t.
The tera meanng of the word Yoga n Sanskrt s INTEGRATION. In ths sense, Yoga represents a process through whch
one can earn how to ve n the most ntegrated way. It nvoves therefore the process of dentcaton and then
emnaton of a that woud contrbute to dsntegraton. It teaches one to ntegrate the body, mnd and sou n onesef. It
further goes on to teach ntegraton of ndvdua goas and ob|ectves wth the soca and organsatona goas. It s aso a
way of fe that ntegrates the phenomena wth the transcendenta, the ndvdua sou wth the Dvne. When taken n ths
sense t becomes a contnuous process, requrng constant vgance and nvovng a the aspects of fe.
Yoga system ncey embodes Indan concepts of vaue and sprtuaty and pays a vta roe n vaue educaton. The rst
thng that comes to our mnd when we speak about yoga s that The Yoga System s not ony a ne ,dvne art and
scence as deang wth the human beng but aso the functonng of the body ,mnd, ntegence and t aso expans and
denes so metcuousy varous behavoura pattern of an ndvdua.
Yoga s prmary a sef-cuturng process, a way of fe. It s a process whch factates one to turn nwards. Yoga-sadhana s
a |ourney from the gross physca body to more subte aspects of nner-sef. The utmate am beng sef-reasaton or
whats popuary known as Kavaya or Samadh .It s predomnanty concerned wth mantanng an undsturbed,
equanmous state of mnd at a tmes. Every yoga schoo of thought emphaszes the mportance of steadyng the mnd
because as the sayng goes, Ony when the water s st, can you see through t.
Yoga Darshan or Yoga Phosophy aso happens to be a vad dscpne of Indan metaphyscs (Brahma Vdya).It s the
human wsdom and an nsght on phosophy, psychoogy, ethcs and sprtuaty coected together and practced over
thousands of for the webeng of humanty.
In Sanskrt the term Yoga s derved from the two roots one s Yu|r" whch means to |on, to combne. So yoga s meant
for unon where the body, senses, organs of acton, unte wth the mnd and mnd untes wth the ntegence, ntegence
wth the conscousness; conscousness wth the sou. The second root s Yu| Samadhau means yoga s Samadh. When
you reach a hgher eve of conscousness, the conscousness transcends ts own boundares, amost reachng to the
regme of the sou. There remans a party between the conscousness and the sou. When the dsparty vanshes,
Samadh happens.
Yoga s a schoo of thought that consttutes the perenna wsdom of Inda. The Yogc cuture s evdent n a aspects of fe
n Inda, be t food, dress styes, postures, actvtes, habts and atttudes. It s expressed n a art forms such as musc,
dance and scupture. A through the years, t has remaned as one of the most mportant facets of Indan Cuture,
remanng vbrant and responsve to the changng tmes a through ths perod. As t deveoped n Inda, t came to be
assocated wth the deveopment of Hndusm and ts phosophy. Yet n ts essence t has aways remaned away from any
regous doctrnes or dogmas and never demanded acceptance of any specc beef system. It has aways remaned as a
pathway to reasaton of Truth, open for a the peope professng dherent faths beongng to dherent regons and
dherent races. In essence, t s a path of sprtua enqury, awakened by the earnest desre for havng a deeper
understandng of Lfe and the entre phenomenon assocated wth t.
The tera meanng of the word Yoga n Sanskrt s INTEGRATION. In ths sense, Yoga represents a process through whch
one can earn how to ve n the most ntegrated way. It nvoves therefore the process of dentcaton and then
emnaton of a that woud contrbute to dsntegraton. It teaches one to ntegrate the body, mnd and sou n onesef. It
further goes on to teach ntegraton of ndvdua goas and ob|ectves wth the soca and organsatona goas. It s aso a
way of fe that ntegrates the phenomena wth the transcendenta, the ndvdua sou wth the Dvne. When taken n ths
sense t becomes a contnuous process, requrng constant vgance and nvovng a the aspects of fe.
The process of dentcaton of a the eements causng heath and the use of approprate technques to neutrase ther
ehects s one of the prmary concerns of Yoga. When Yoga s used as a scence of heath and heang, a ts technques
and methods that are meant for the sprtua experences automatcay get geared to do ther |ob for the promoton of the
webeng of the ndvdua. Yoga s a way of fe. Ths festye ncudes Ahara (food), Ucchara (Rght Speech), Acara
(routnes and reatonshps), Vhara (reaxaton and recreaton), Vchara (thought processes). As ma|or aspects that
determne ndvdua heath and webeng, Indan thought has dscussed them n deta.
As the food, so the mnd;
As the mnd, so the speech:
As the mnd and speech, so the acton;
As the acton, so the festye;
As the festye, so the man.
There can be no fe wthout food, water and ar. The ancent yogs have gven enough thought to ths aspect of mans fe
and they have suggested food habts that can hep to preserve and protect heath. Ther anaytc mnd has ed to the
categorsaton of food nto three knds - Sattvc, Ra|asc and Tamasc. These categores come from the Samkhya anayss
of Matter as havng three gunas - Sattva, Ra|as, and Tamas.
In the Bhagavad Gta, Lord Krshna dscusses the three knds of foods that are dear to dherent knds of men, cassfyng
them on the bass of the Gunas: Sattva, Ra|as and Tamas. Accordng to the Lord, food s of great mportance as the mnd s
formed by the food that s taken by the ndvdua. It s ony pure food that heps to deveop pure mnd and t s ony the
pure mnd that grasps the sprtua truth.
On the hypothess that sprtua exceence depends argey on menta emcency and steadfastness, whch n turn depends
on physca tness, the ethcs of Gta proceeds to dstngush varous knds of foods and ther ehect on human nature. For
the support of fe and the mantenance of a heathy body, food s sgncant. Accordng to the Gta, the sattvka knd of
food s the best for the ndvdua wth the hgher goas n fe who desres peace, tranquty and contentment. It nurtures
fe, provdes energy and vgour, promotes postvty and |oy, s smpe and paatabe.
In the modern word, the choce of food s prmary based on taste, the tme taken for ts preparaton, and the
convenence n packagng whe traveng. The ndustra word has made t mandatory for peope to manage wth ready
and fast foods that come n easy to use packs across the counters. A t requres s a tte heatng and bong. The new
approach to food s to break t nto protens, carbohydrates, vtamns, fat, mneras, etc. as food vaue. Peope who are very
fastdous about ther det and heath wth a modern approach tend to cacuate caores before consumng anythng. In
Yoga and Ayurveda, t s a tendency to seect foods based on the gunas, wth a consderaton of the ehect that the food
has on the body and mnd of the ndvdua. What s necessary s to understand the nutrtve vaue of the food, ts resutant
psycho-sprtua vaue, not |ust the caorc vaue.
The Gta dscusses the austerty of speech n Chpt. XVII, verse 15.The rght knd of speech s that whch does not excte
others, whch s truthfu, deghtng to the stener, beneca to those who sten. Speech shoud convey that the speaker
has studed the Vedas, Upanshads and the Puranas. He shoud be nterested n sharng hs knowedge wth others.
Anudvegakara vaakya mpes that the renement and austerty of speech s seen f t fus the four condtons
mentoned n the above referred verse:
not exctng or nctng, peasant to the ears, soft and genty spoken.
adherng to truth, wth the rght choce of words, and the rght manner of conveyng
beneca to those who sten to the speaker
conveyng truths and knowedge.
The Gta emphasses on the need for Svadhyaya and Satsanga as t s necessary for the ndvdua to know hs rea sef and
the Reaty around hm. If the ndvdua takes to medtaton and readng of the scrptures, he deveops the rght atttudes,
earns to dscrmnate and ths vveka|nana heps hs communcaton. He deveops mysterous powers that enabe hm to
speak the truth fearessy and drecty. He aso conveys to the stener that he expects nothng n return for what he has
shared. Hs carty of thought mproves and hs nspraton and enthusasm becomes contagous. Ths w nspre others to
foow hs path of svadhyaya and medtaton. The speaker wth |ust the weapon of hs speech can motvate others to seek
Speech that provokes others to act wrongy s dentey consdered wrong. Conveyng what one does not know or mean s
agan consdered a sn. Gossp, sander, untruth, es, provocaton, nctement, rdcue and mockery are a characterstcs
of speech that s wrong and vcous.
When t comes to achaara, Indan phosophy needs no certcaton or authentcaton externay, as the entre
phosophca trend seems pervaded by the theme of Dharma. As expounded n the Smrt shastras, acara s the abty to
dscrmnate between dharmc and adharmc actons. It s the enhancement of the abty to dscrmnate whether our
actons are n accordance wth the ethca norms and standards of the socety n whch we ve.
In Indan cuture, an ndvdua s honoured and respected for hs conduct than hs schoary persona. The fact that he s
wse and dharmc eevates an ndvdua n socety rather than hs knowedge of the varous scrptures, arts or scences. If
the ndvdua s a schoar wth a ot of knowedge wth bad conduct, he s ooked down upon much more than an ndvdua
who s prmary gnorant or mooda and s bad n conduct.
The term vic!aa. s understood as thought, reecton, dscrmnaton, cear vson and thought processes eadng to
viv$)aj"a"a.. Accordng to Patan|a, vic!aa s a menta actvty reated to subte ob|ects, n whch there s anayss of a
experences n hs fe. Accordng to Vcaspat Mra, vic!aa s a menta actvty by means of whch the sub|ect brngs
before conscousness a the subte partcuartes and consttutve parts of a subte ob|ect. It s the makng evdent of
the soo)s!ma, the subte.

The +o#i s rst taught to rease what are hs weaknesses/2l$s!as. He has to earn to practce technques and deveop
atttudes/B!aavas that w hep hm eradcate these weaknesses. The +o#i thus adapts hmsef better to change that s
nevtabe and adopts a way of fe that, to a arge extent, heps hm to express hs fe phosophy.
Vi!aa :
Rest and reaxaton are consdered to be as mportant as work n Indan phosophy. Every ndvdua needs to use hs
esure tme we. Man needs to repensh the energy used by the body and here, tamas heps n gvng a break to mans
actvtes. Recreaton has been gven ts due sgncance as s seen n the encouragement of arts, performng or otherwse.
Indan cuture has aways kept an open forum for dspay of ndvdua creatvty and magnaton. Art and Archtecture
have opened vstas for man to express hs aesthetc sense n a uttaran manner. Ths s aso seen n the coour and
structure of dress styes and housng n Inda, where utty matches aesthetcs wth the avaabe resources.
Vi!aa pays an mportant roe n deveopng the et go atttude. Man fees sma and egoess when he s n a group of ke-
mnded and smary abed peope. Whe gettng together for recreaton and entertanment, he chooses hs group. He
beongs to the group more easy and s spontaneous and natura wth them. Ths approach of beng onesef s very
reaxng, and the ndvdua fees at ease wth hmsef. There s a reducton or emnaton of stress n hs fe. Hs approach
to fe changes and he ves more |oyfu and happy. Vi!aa heps to mantan the santy of the ndvdua, as certan
actvtes become means to express or vent out repressed emotons. Vi!aa s a technque of conscous and panned
reaxaton for re|uvenaton of the body, mnd and sou.
Many tmes when peope tak about Yo#a they focus ther attenton ony on the rst component nvovng varetes of
asa"as, 0a"a+ama and medtatona technques. Thus they conne Yo#a to a sma perod of ther day fe as f the rest of
the day has nothng to do wth Yo#a. But reay speakng the Yo#ic way of vng n the rest of the day s not ony equay
but more mportant from the heang pont of vew. Whatever sks one has earnt from the Yo#ic practces need to be used
throughout the day. In ths sense the U0AYOGA .e. the use of the Yo#ic sks, through the day needs to be gven proper
attenton. The ast two components attend to ths Upa+o#a aspect of Yo#a.
If one undertakes Yo#a wth ths sprt kept n mnd and compy wth a the nstructons gven, one woud nd that Yo#a not
ony gves reef from probems, but actuay opens up a new way of en|oyng your fe.
Yo#a s today found to be very popuar n the corporate sector. It s ncorporated n many tranng programmes. The rsng
stress eves of the top manangement stah necesstates the practce of Yo#a. The varous benets, factes and
perqustes gven to a n the corporate sector makes t easer for peope to manage ther fames. Yet the stress that
arses due to the ever-rsng naton, work, responsbtes, the pressures of educatng the chdren and the consumersm
that needs to be understood can never be dened. Keepng up wth the |ones s an atttude that s evdent n every
ndvdua and hs famy members. The workers and the manua abourers, aong wth the non-management stah need to
be physcay t and mentay peacefu, as they shouder the responsbty of ther arge fames entrey by themseves.
Motvaton comes from the word movere whch means to move. Motvaton, thus mpes anythng that makes one
move towards somethng, one that makes one behave or act n a partcuar manner. Motvaton, f apped to an
organzatona context, refers to the wngness to exert hgh eves of ehort towards organzatona goas and to satsfy
some ndvdua need. Motvaton refers those forces operatng wthn an ndvdua whch mpes hm to act or deter from
a certan act.
Actng wthout drecton s meanngess and purposeess. The framework of Dharma actuay gves man a sense of securty,
as he does not have to ve n a demma a the tme. The four Purusharthas not ony make man aware of the egtmacy of
hs need and wants, but aso gude hm on the path of Dharma n order to hep hm attan hs goas. Ths s where the
theory of Purusharthas dhers from Masows herarchy of needs, where the awareness of the herarchy of needs s aowed
n man, but the means to acheve them s totay n the contro of man hmsef.
The abty to understand and nuence human behavour postuates knowedge of the needs of man. A need s normay
understood as a persona unfued vacancy that determnes man and hs behavour to a arge extent. Hs menta
processes, hs externa behavour, hs expressons of kes and dskes - a these presuppose the needs that drect hm to
act n a manner that eads to the attanment of what he craves for. It s the needs that deveop the ndvduas atttudes
about the envronment and about hmsef.
It s generay observed that needs vary n mpact and the resutant behavour n the ndvdua - whe some needs
motvate certan peope, the same needs can prove a burden and stress to others. The ndvdua has to deveop the
capacty to hande many needs smutaneousy. The persona needs of ndvduas vary n ntensty from person to person
and vary day wthn the same person too. They depend on stuatons, both physca and emotona. Thus, needs are
ooked at as motvators by many psychoogsts.
It becomes necessary to understand the psychoogsts vews on needs n reaton to Management. If needs are
understood as motvators, they are aso recognsed as stressors. Needs are responsbe for stuatons that create tensons
and anxetes. They gve rse to menta stran, physca dscomfort and scknesses, cutura dsturbances and physca and
menta nequbrum. The satsfacton of needs to some extent acts as a reease for tenson and stress. Needs are not as
smpe as they seem to be. The vared and sometmes conctng needs of the ndvdua make human fe seem compex.
Man determnes hs goas n fe based on hs needs, accordng to modern psychoogsts. It eads to the necessary
nvovement of man n the varous actvtes that one woud engage n, to survve and progress. The terms needs, wants,
drves, urges, expectatons, emotons and motves, are used nterchangeaby and synonymousy by many.
Prof. Abraham Masow, of Brandes Unversty, has deveoped a theory of Motvaton, organsng needs n a seres of
eves or n a herarchy of reatve potency. Masows theory of the herarchy of needs s more expounded as a theory of
motvaton by western schoos of thought. It s we accepted n deveopng management modes n ndustra houses.
Today the contenton s not that Masows theory s erroneous, but that t s ncompete. It s a fact that man has needs and
that these needs can be graded. But t aso needs to be reased that mans gradaton of hs own needs s dynamc, and t
vares from stuaton to stuaton for the same ndvdua. Moreover, the phosophy of fe determnes hs prortes n fe
and the mportance gven to the needs depends to a arge extent on these prortes. Masows herarchy of needs
becomes necessary to be understood and crtcay evauated n the context of the dynamc man and hs constanty
changng envronment.
The needs, desres and aspratons of a n the organsaton shoud be taken nto consderaton for creatng an
envronment that motvates everyone to work. The w to work depends argey on how much the ndvdua fees that he
beongs n the organsaton. A empoyees are sub|ect to ther own perceptons, beefs, vewponts, opnons and emotons
whch motvate them to work or prevent them from workng to ther fuest capacty. A members of the organsaton strve
to satsfy ther varous needs through the work and actvty that they are nvoved n. The herarchy of needs exerts a
strong nuence of tugs and pus and pushes on empoyees. Masow, D. McGregor, Fredrck Herzberg and many other
psychoogsts have dscussed human needs and sted them n a herarchy, suggestng that the ve man ones are the
foowng - physoogca needs, safety and securty, ove and beongngness, sef-esteem, and sef-actuasaton.
The acceptance of these theores as the na word n understandng human behavour and human motvaton resuts n
mtng onesef. It s not enough to beeve that peope are aways motvated by externa stmu aone. These stmu have
mted and temporary ehect on peope. Hence, the need to be sef-motvated s encouraged. Indan ethos teaches one the
art of motvatng onesef and others from wthn. One needs to foow the Vedc mantra for progress: chara eva t, chara
eva t, .e. move on, move on. There are varous suggestons that one can derve from Indan thought to motvate
The four vaues or goas accepted n Indan phosophy are unversa and comprehensve n nature.
They are, as gven n the Agn Purana, -
Dharma - Duty/ Rghteousness/ Moraty
Artha - Weath/ Matera Prosperty and |ust Potca Order
Kama - Instnctua desres and needs
Moksha - Lberaton, from the bondages of the sou. It coud be nterpreted as sef-actuasaton and sef-reasaton,
as s done by many Indan thnkers, n order to gve t a more pragmatc approach. Lberaton s aso caed as Mukt,
Kavaya or Nrvana n the other schoos of thought as n |ansm and Buddhsm.
The concept of Purushartha s one of the most mportant concepts n Indan phosophy, whch gves a conceptua
framework of Hndu cuture. The Purusharthas sgnfy an ntegrated approach to the probems of humanty. The recognton
of the ntegraton of the body, mnd and sou s ceary vsbe here. The harmonous deveopment of these three aspects n
man aone eads to a heathy, ntegrated and purposve ndvdua. The emphass s on the enhancement of both the
personaty and the soca deveopment of the ndvdua. In any soca group or organsaton, f ndvduas have to ve wth
co-operaton and peace, wth the attanment of common goas and ob|ectves n mnd, then t s necessary that every
ndvdua s aware of hs rea sef. The theory of Purushartha actuay maps the worthwhe ends of a actons of man,
amng towards the webeng of man. "Purushartha" means and connotes the ams and purposes of fe or the
fundamenta aspratons of man. The term Purushartha ' not ony denotes what the ob|ectves of fe shoud be, but t aso
comprehends what the ob|ectves of fe are as the resut of the psychoogca tendences of the ndvdua.
Abraham Masow gave an exposton of the theory of motvaton wth a new dmenson. Accordng to Masow, man has
needs that determne hs behavour to a arge extent. He says that mans needs can be sted n a herarchca manner. He
enumerates them n the foowng way - mans physoogca needs that form the owest eve of needs; then foows mans
need for safety and securty; foowed by mans need for ove and beongngness; whch ater gves rse to mans need for
sef-esteem; to be eadng to the need for sef-actuasaton. Fnay, man, after fung a these needs, ooks for means to
attan transcendence. Accordng to Masow, man moves on to the next eve of needs ony after satsfyng the earer eve
of needs. Indan thought, however, does not subscrbe to ths vew, as t s beeved that man can progress to the hgher
eve of needs even after gvng up the ower needs. Masow beeved that a hungry ndvdua coud never be a good
student. Indan thought contradcts hm here and puts forth the vew that one can attan even transcendence f one was
abe to gve up the ower passons and focus on the attanment of hgher pursuts. Ths vew makes man recognsed more
as a mora and sprtua beng than |ust a boogca and ratona beng. It heps us to understand and accept mans
sprtua needs more sensby. Man as a purposve and conscous beng, wth a system of vaues to gude hm, s ceary
depcted n the Indan thought. The concept of Purusharthas gves us the hostc vew of man n Indan thought.
The term purushartha teray sgnes what s sought by men, so that t may be taken as equvaent to a human end or
purpose. The quafyng word human may gve the mpresson that the term s not appcabe to ends whch man seeks n
common wth the other anmas; but ths s not reay so, for we nd t used wth reference to seekng even ends ke food
and rest. The quacaton s hence, expaned n a dherent way. Man, ke anmas, acts nstnctvey n varous stuatons.
However, he aso exercses hs sense of dscrmnaton and dscreton, when he makes conscous choces, usng hs sense
of reason and vaues. Even choces that he makes, to satsfy hs natura wants and needs, can be done wth deberaton.
He sets before hmsef ends to be acheved and then sets about fung them.
The concept of Purushartha eads us to the awareness that a mans actvtes are amed at the attanment of permanent,
eterna and absoute peace and bss. The purushartha utmatey eads man to the state of sef reasaton. The
acceptance of these four vaues as goas by our Indan thnkers, and rss makes t cear that n our cuture and tradton,
mans physca webeng s consdered naturay necessary. Mans body needs have to be taken care of n a manner that
t eads to hs menta, mora and sprtua growth. The gratcaton of hs basc needs does not happen n the same manner
as n the case of anmas, as t s done nstnctvey n the case of the atter. Man s conscous of hs needs and fus them
wth a hgher purpose n mnd. Hs functonng s aso wthn a mora framework that s vaue based. The four vaues of
dharma, artha, kama and moksha, thus, am at the reasaton of the maxmum, exhaustve and comprehensve growth
and wefare of the ndvdua and the communty.
The concept of Purushartha s hence, taken to mpy a teeoogca bass that aone expans and |ustes a human
behavour n a ts vared manfestatons. It makes a human acton and behavour purposve. Ths s true of a human
conduct, ncudng the mora. It thus, makes t necessary for one to have an dea or goa, more so n the case of mora
actons. Thus, the concept of Dharma tsef ooks for an dea, n order to reassert and renforce the need for moraty. In
ths sense, Moksha becomes the hghest dea or Purushartha. The desre to seek beraton aone needs no other dea to
gve t ts egtmacy. The concept of Purusharthas, wth Moksha as the hghest dea, s sad to gve man a framework for
deveopng hs purposve, rght and compete phosophy of fe.
One needs to queston onesef on the roe that one s payng n the organsaton. If one decdes to foow nstructons,
obey rues and be at the |ob for a stpuated tme as expected of hm, hs work becomes monotonous and routne. Ths
makes hm bored and demotvated. On the other hand, f he has reased hs varna and ashrama n the organsaton, he
w en|oy work as svadharma. He w move from the sthua(gross) to the sukshma. Hs gradaton of desres and wants
that motvate hm to work w change, as the focus w shft from the I to the Us. Workng wth a broader perspectve
and for hgher purposes gves hm a sense of fument. He w be not |ust a doer but a performer. He w mobse
resources, ntate actons, take decsons, and promote change. The need to express hmsef as a sprtua beng wth the
potentaty to create w brng n sustaned motvaton. The need for externa motvators w decrease and the
empowered ndvdua becomes exempary. One who needed to be contnuousy motvated w be a great motvator to
others. The postve energy and the postvty n atttude of such a person w be contagous enough for the envronment
tsef to be dynamc.

Every ndvdua has a the varnas n hmsef. When an ndvdua s earnng or studyng, then he s a Brahmn. To
eaborate on ths pont, t s necessary to understand that a chd s a student rght from brth, and s, hence a Brahmn.
The Brahmn n the ndvdua s contnuousy ave as he s constanty earnng varous sks and taents for hmsef and hs
famy, or even hs organsaton. When he s workng to protect hmsef or hs famy, can, kth and kn, he s a Kshatrya.
He becomes the Kshatrya when he nduges n physca actvtes that are servng to protect and preserve hs knd. Hs |ob,
professon and a other economc actvtes that are needed to sustan hmsef and hs famy make hm the Vashya. When
he s workng to earn for hmsef and hs famy, ndugng n economc actvtes, he s a Vashya. When he works to
mantan Shauca(ceanness), by keepng hmsef and hs envronment cean, then he s a Shudra. Man needs to earn to
respect a varnas, as he too s categorsed on the bass of hs own roes and actvtes n the same manner. The varna
categorsaton system whch s consdered the greatest botch on Indan cuture by many thnkers needs to be re-
evauated. If Lord Krshna hmsef has procamed to the word the sgncance of the varnas, t needs no further
reteraton. The system needs to be understood n ts rght perspectve. It has n fact, made t cear that the dgnty of
abour n Inda s exempary to the entre word.

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