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Bonjour

Hello / Good day / Good


morning
Bonsoir


Good evening
Bonne nuit
n ni
Good night (only said
when going to bed)
Salut
/saly/
Hi / Bye
Au revoir
()v
Goodbye
S'il vous plat / S'il te
plat
il v pl
Please (formal / informal)
Merci (beaucoup)
mi ok
Thank you (very much)
De rien.


You're welcome.
Je vous en prie.
v

pi
You're welcome. (formal) /
Go ahead.
Bienvenu(e)

vn
Welcome (also You're
welcome in Quebec)
Allons-y!
l

i
Let's go!
A tout l'heure
t t l
See you in a little while
A plus tard
pl t
See you later
A bientt

to
See you soon
A demain
m


See you tomorrow
Je suis dsol(e)
ele
I'm sorry
Pardon !
p


Excuse me! (pushing
through a crowd) / Sorry!
(stepped on someone's foot)
Excusez-moi !
/ekskyze mwa/
Excuse me! (getting
someone's attention) / I'm
sorry! (more formal
apology)
Comment allez-vous ?
km

tle v
How are you? (formal)
Je vais bien
ve


I'm fine.
Trs bien / mal / pas mal
t

ml p ml
Very good / bad / not bad
a va ?
/sa va/
How are you? (informal)
a va.
/sa va/
I'm fine. (informal response
to a va ?)
Oui / non
i n


Yes / no
Comment vous appelez-
vous ?
km

v ple v
What's your name? (formal)
Tu t'appelles comment ?
t tpl km


What's your name?
(informal)
Je m'appelle...
mpl
My name is...
Enchant(e)

te
Nice to meet you.
Monsieur, Madame,
Mademoiselle
m mm ml
Mister, Misses, Miss
Mesdames et Messieurs
/medam/ /mesj/
Ladies and gentlemen
Vous tes d'o ? / Vous
venez d'o ?
v t v vne
Where are you from?
(formal)
Tu es d'o ? / Tu viens
d'o ?
t t v


Where are you from?
(informal)
Je suis de... / Je viens
de...
i v


I am from...
O habitez-vous ?
/u abite vu/
Where do you live? (formal)
Tu habites o ?
/ty abit u/
Where do you live?
(informal)
J'habite ...
it
I live in...
Quel ge avez-vous ?
kl ve v
How old are you? (formal)
Tu as quel ge ?
t kl
How old are you? (informal)
J'ai ____ ans.
e


I am ____ years old.
Parlez-vous franais ? / Tu
parles anglais ?
ple v

t pl

l
Do you speak French?
(formal) / Do you speak
English? (informal)
Je parle allemand.
pl lm
I speak German.
Je ne parle pas espagnol.
n pl p pl
I don't speak Spanish.
Comprenez-vous? / Tu
comprends?
k

pne v t k


Do you understand? (formal
/informal)
Je comprends
k


I understand
Je ne comprends pas
n k

p
I don't understand
Pouvez-vous m'aider ? / Tu
peux m'aider ?
/puve vu mede/ /ty p mede/
Can you help me? (formal
/ informal)
Bien sr.


Of course.
Comment ?
km


What? Pardon?
Tenez / Tiens
tne t


Hey / Here (formal
/ informal)
Je sais

I know
Je ne sais pas
n p
I don't know
O est ... / O sont ... ?


Where is ... / Where are ... ?
Voici / Voil
/vwasi/ /vwala/
Here is/are... / There it is.
Il y a ... / Il y avait...
il i il i v
There is / are... / There was
/ were...
Comment dit-on ____ en
franais ?
km

i t


How do you say ____ in
French?
Qu'est-ce que c'est que a
?
k k k
What is that?
Qu'est-ce qu'il y a ?
k kil i
What's the matter?
a ne fait rien.
n


Qu'est-ce qui se passe ?
k ki p
Je n'ai aucune ide.
ne okn ie
It doesn't matter. What's happening? I have no idea.
Je suis fatigu(e) / Je suis
malade.
i tie i ml
I'm tired / I'm sick.
J'ai faim / J'ai soif.
e

e
I'm hungry / I'm thirsty.
J'ai chaud / J'ai froid.
e o e
I'm hot / I'm cold.
Je m'ennuie.
m

ni
I'm bored.
a m'est gal. / Je m'en
fiche.
m tel m

i
It's the same to me / I don't
care. (informal)
Ne vous en faites pas. / Ne
t'en fais pas.
n v

t p n t


pa/
Don't worry (formal
/ informal)
Ce n'est pas grave.
n p v
It's no problem. / It's alright.
J'ai oubli.
e lie
I forgot.
Je dois y aller.
i le
I must go.
A vos souhaits ! / A tes
souhaits !
vo te
Bless you! (formal
/ informal)
Flicitations !
eliit


Congratulations!
Bonne chance !
n


Good luck!
C'est vous ! / C'est toi !
t v t t
It's your turn! (formal
/ informal)
Taisez-vous ! / Tais-toi !
te v t t
Shut up! / Be quiet! (formal
/informal)
Je vous aime / Je t'aime
v m tm
I love you (formal & plural
/informal)
Tu me manques.
t m m

k
I miss you. (informal)
Quoi de neuf ?
k n
What's new?
Pas grand-chose.
p

o
Not a whole lot.

Notice that French has informal and formal ways of saying things. This is
because there is more than one meaning to "you" in French (as well as in
many other languages.) The informal you is used when talking to
close friends, relatives, animals or children. The formal you is used when
talking to someone you just met, do not know well, or someone for whom
you would like to show respect (a professor, for example.) There is also a
plural you, used when speaking to more than one person. Also notice that
some words take an extra e, shown in parentheses. If the word refers to a
woman or is spoken by a woman, then the e is added in spelling; but in
most cases, it does not change the pronunciation. To make verbs
negative, French adds ne before the verb and pas after it. However,
the ne is frequently dropped in spoken French, although it must appear in
written French.
Don't forget to check out my video series on informal French
expressions and slang vocabulary at theInformal French tutorial

2. PRONUNCIATION / LA PRONONCIATION For a more in-
depth look at French pronunciation, try to the French Phonetics tutorial.
French Vowels
IPA Phoneticspelling
Sample
words
General
spellings
[i] ee
vie, midi,
lit, riz
i, y
[y] ee rounded
rue, jus,
tissu,
usine
u
[e] ay
bl, nez,
cahier,
pied
, et,
final er
and ez
[] ay rounded
jeu,
yeux,
queue,
bleu
eu
[]
eh
lait, aile,
balai,
reine
e, ,
, ai, ei,
ais
[] eh rounded
sur,
uf,
fleur,
beurre
u, eu
[a] ah
chat,
ami,
papa,
salade
a, ,
[]
ah longer
bas, ne,
grce,
chteau
a,
[u] oo
loup,
cou,
caillou,
outil
ou
[o] oh
eau, dos,
escargot,
htel
o,
[]
aw
sol,
pomme,
cloche,
horloge
o
[]
uh
fentre,
genou,
cheval,
cerise
e
2. PRONUNCIATION / LA PRONONCIATION
For a more in-depth look at French pronunciation, try to
the French Phonetics tutorial.
French Vowels
IPA Phoneticspelling Sample words
General
spellings
[i] ee
vie, midi, lit,
riz
i, y
[y] ee rounded
rue, jus, tissu,
usine
u
[e] ay
bl, nez,
cahier, pied
, et,
final er
and ez
[] ay rounded
jeu, yeux,
queue, bleu
eu
[]
eh
lait, aile, balai,
reine
e, ,
, ai, ei,
ais
[] eh rounded
sur, uf,
fleur, beurre
, e
[a] ah
chat, ami,
papa, salade
a, ,
[]
ah longer
bas, ne,
grce, chteau
a,
[u] oo
loup, cou,
caillou, outil
ou
[o] oh
eau, dos,
escargot, htel
o,
[]
aw
sol, pomme,
cloche, horloge
o
[]
uh fentre, genou, e
cheval, cerise
[] is disappearing in modern French, being replaced by [a].
Vowels that do not exist in English are marked in blue.

French semi-vowels
IPA Phoneticspelling
Sample
words
General spelling
[w] w
fois, oui,
Louis
oi, ou
[]
ew-ee
lui,
suisse
ui
[j] yuh
oreille,
Mireille
ill, y
French nasal vowels
IPA Phonetic spelling Sample words General spelling
[]
awn gant, banc, dent en, em, an, am, aon, aen
[ ]
ahn pain, vin, linge
in, im, yn, ym, ain, aim, ein, eim, un, um,
en, eng, oin, oing, oint, ien, yen, en
[ ]
uhn brun, lundi, parfum un
[]
ohn rond, ongle, front on, om
[ ] is being replaced with [ ] in modern French
In words beginning with in-, a nasal is only used if the next
letter is a consonant. Otherwise, the in- prefix is
pronounce een before a vowel.
French Consonants
ex + vowel egz examen, exercice
ex + consonant eks exceptionnel, expression
ch (Latin origin) sh architecte, archives
ch (Greek origin) k orchestre, archologie
ti + vowel (except ) see dmocratie, nation
c + e, i, y; or s cent, ceinture, maon
c + a, o, u k caillou, car, cube
g + e, i, y zh genou, gingembre
g + a, o, u g gomme, ganglion
th t maths, thme, thym
j zh jambe, jus, jeune
qu, final q k que, quoi, grecque
h silent haricot, herbe, hasard
vowel + s + vowel z rose, falaise, casino
x + vowel z six ans, beaux arts
final x s six, dix, soixante (these 3 only!)
There are a lot of silent letters in French, and you usually do
not pronounce the final consonant, unless that final
consonant is C, R, F or L (except verbs that end in -r).
Liaison: French slurs most words together in a sentence,
so if a word ends in a consonant that is not pronounced and
the next word starts with a vowel or silent h, slur the two
together as if it were one word. S and x are pronounced as
z; d as t; and f as v in these liaisons. Liaison is always made
in the following cases:
after a determiner: un ami, des amis
before or after a pronoun: vous avez, je les ai
after a preceding adjective: bon ami, petits
enfants
after one syllable prepositions: en avion, dans
un livre
after some one-syllable adverbs (trs, plus, bien)
after est
It is optional after pas, trop fort, and the forms of tre, but it
is never made after et.
Silent e: Sometimes the e is dropped in words and phrases,
shortening the syllables and slurring more words.
rapid(e)ment, lent(e)ment,
sauv(e)tage pidm

o
sous l(e) bureau, chez l(e) docteur ul byo
el dko
il y a d(e)... , pas d(e)... , plus d(e)... /yad/ /pad/
/ plyd/
je n(e), de n(e) n dn
j(e) te, c(e) que k (noe he chnge of he
pronunciation of the j as well)
Stress & Intonation: Stress on syllables is not as heavily
pronounced as in English and it generally falls on the last
syllable of the word. Intonation usually only rises for yes/no
questions, and all other times, it goes down at the end of the
sentence.

3. ALPHABET / L'ALPHABET
a /a/

j i

s
b /be/

k /ka/

t /te/
c /se/

l l

u /y/
d /de/

m m

v /ve/
e

n n

w lve
f

o /o/

x /iks/
g

p /pe/

y ik
h

q /ky/

z
i /i/

r


4. NOUNS, ARTICLES & DEMONSTRATIVES / LES
NOMS, LES ARTICLES & LES DEMONSTRATIFS

All nouns in French have a gender, either masculine or
feminine. For the most part, you must memorize the
gender, but there are some endings of words that will help
you decide which gender a noun is. Nouns ending in -age
and -ment are usually masculine, as are nouns ending with
a consonant. Nouns ending in -ure, -sion, -tion, -ence, -
ance, -t, and -ette are usually feminine.
Articles and adjectives must agree in number and gender
with the nouns they modify. And articles have to be
expressed even though they aren't always in English; and
you may have to repeat the article in some cases.
Demonstratives are like strong definite articles.
Definite Articles (The)
Masculine

Feminine

Before Vowel

Plural
le lit
l li
the bed

la pomme
l pm
the apple

l'oiseau
/lwazo/
the bird

les gants
le


the gloves
Indefinite Articles (A, An, Some)
Masculine

Feminine

Plural
un lit

li
une pomme
n pm
des gants
e


a bed an apple some gloves
Demonstrative Adjectives (This, That, These, Those)
Masc.

Masc, Before
Vowel
Fem.

Plural
ce lit
li
this/that
bed

cet oiseau
to
this/that bird

cette pomme
t pm
this/that
apple

ces gants
e


these/those
gloves
If you need to distinguish between this or that and these or
those, you can add -ci to the end of the noun for this and
these, and -l to the end of the noun for that and those. For
example, ce lit-ci is this bed, while ce lit-l is that bed.

5. USEFUL WORDS / LES MOTS UTILES

It's / That's c'est There is/are il y a /il i a/
There is/are voil /vwala/ Here is/are voici /vwasi/
and et /e/ always toujours t
but mais m often souvent v


now maintenant m

tn

sometimes quelquefois klk


especially surtout t usually d'habitude /dabityd/
except sauf /sof/ also, too aussi /osi/
of course bien sr

again encore

k
so so
comme
ci, comme a
km i, km late en retard

t
not bad pas mal /pa mal/ almost presque pk
book le livre l liv friend (fem) une amie /y nami/
pencil le crayon l k

friend (masc) un ami

nmi
pen le stylo l tilo woman une femme /yn fam/
paper le papier l ppe man un homme

nm
dog le chien l

girl une fille /yn fij/


cat le chat l boy un garon


money l'argent (m) l

job / work le travail l tv



The expression il y a is reduced to y a in everyday speech.
When il y a is followed by a number, it means ago. Il y a
cinq minutes means five minutes ago. Some common
slang words for money include: le fric, le pze, le pognon,
des sous and for job/work: le boulot.

6. SUBJECT PRONOUNS / LES PRONOMS
SUJETS
Subject Pronouns
je I nous /nu/ We
tu /ty/ You (informal) vous /vu/ You (formal and plural)
il
elle
on
/il/
l


He
She
One
ils
elles
/il/
l
They (masc.)
They (fem.)
Il and elle can also mean it when they replace a noun (il
replaces masculine nouns, and elle replaces feminine
nouns) instead of a person's name. Ils and elles can
replace plural nouns as well in the same way. Notice there
are two ways to say you. Tu is used when speaking to
children, animals, or close friends and relatives. Vous is
used when speaking to more than one person, or to
someone you don't know or who is older. On can be
translated into English as one, the people, we, they, or you.
Tutoyer and vouvoyer are two verbs that have no direct
translation into English. Tutoyer means to use tu or be
informal with someone, while vouvoyer means to
use vous or be formal with someone.

7. TO BE & TO HAVE / ETRE & AVOIR

Present tense of tre /t/ - to be
I am je suis i We are nous sommes n m
You are tu es t You are vous tes v t
He is
She is
One is
il est
elle est
on est
il
l

n
They are
They are
ils sont
elles sont
il


Past tense of tre - to be
I was j'tais et We were nous tions n et


You were tu tais t et You were vous tiez /vu zetje/
He was il tait il et They were ils taient il et
She was
One was
elle tait
on tait
l et

net
They were elles taient l et
Je and any verb form that starts with a vowel (or silent h)
combine together for ease of pronunciation.
Future Tense of tre - to be
I will be je serai e We will be nous serons n


You will be tu seras t
You will
be
vous serez v e
He will be
She will be
One will be
il sera
elle sera
on sera
il
l


They
will be
They will
be
ils seront
elles seront
il


Present tense of avoir /avwa/ - to have
I have j'ai e We have nous avons n v


You have tu as t You have vous avez /vu zave/
He has
She has
One has
il a
elle a
on a
il
l

n
They have
They have
ils ont
elles ont
il


Past tense of avoir - to have
I had j'avais v We had nous avions n v


You had tu avais t v You had vous aviez /vu zavje/
He had
She had
One had
il avait
elle avait
on avait
il v
l v

nv
They had
ils avaient
elles avaient
il v
l v
Future tense of avoir - to have
I will have j'aurai oe We will have nous aurons n o


You will have tu auras t o You will have vous aurez v oe
He will have
She will have
One will have
il aura
elle aura
on aura
il o
l o

no
They will have
They will have
ils auront
elles auront
il o


l o



In spoken French, the tu forms of verbs that begin with a
vowel contract with the pronoun: tu es = t'es , u
=t'as , ec. In ddiion, i i ery common o ue on (plus
3rd person singular conjugation) to mean we instead of
nous.

COMMON EXPRESSIONS WITH AVOIR AND
ETRE

Avoir and tre are used in many common and idiomatic
expressions that should be memorized:
avoir chaud v o to be hot tre de retour
t
t
to be back
avoir froid v to be cold tre en retard t

t to be late
avoir peur v p to be afraid tre en avance
t


nv


to be early
avoir raison v

to be right tre d'accord t k


to be in
agreement
avoir tort v t to be wrong
tre sur le
point de
t l
p


to be about to
avoir faim v

to be hungry
tre en train
de
t



to be in the act
of
avoir soif v to be thirsty tre enrhume t

me to have a cold
avoir sommeil v m to be sleepy
nous + tre (un
jour)
t

to be (a day)
avoir honte v

t
to be
ashamed

avoir besoin
de
v



to need
avoir l'air de v
to look like,
seem

avoir
l'intention de
v

to intend to
avoir envie de v

vi to feel like
avoir de la
chance
v l


to be lucky
J'ai froid. I'm cold.
Tu avais raison. You were right.
Il aura sommeil ce soir. He will
be tired tonight.
Elle a de la chance ! She's lucky!
Nous aurons faim plus tard. We
will be hungry later.
Vous aviez tort. You were wrong.
Ils ont chaud. They are hot.
Elles avaient peur hier. They
were afraid yesterday.
Je suis en retard! I'm late!
Tu tais en avance. You were early.
Elle sera d'accord. She will agree.
Nous sommes lundi. It is Monday.
Vous tiez enrhum. You had a cold.
Ils seront en train d'tudier. They will be (in
the act of) studying.
Elles taient sur le point de partir. They
were about to leave.
On est de retour. We/you/they/the people are
back.

8. QUESTION WORDS / LES
INTERROGATIFS
Who Qui /ki/
What Quoi /kwa/
Why Pourquoi pk
When Quand k


Where O /u/
How Comment km


How much / many Combien k


Which / what Quel(le) kl

9. CARDINAL NUMBERS / LES NOMBRES
CARDINAUX
Zero Zro eo
One Un


Two Deux /d/
Three Trois t
Four Quatre kt
Five Cinq

k
Six Six /sis/
Seven Sept t
Eight Huit it
Nine Neuf n
Ten Dix /dis/
Eleven Onze


Twelve Douze /duz/
Thirteen Treize t
Fourteen Quatorze kt
Fifteen Quinze k


Sixteen Seize
Seventeen Dix-sept it
Eighteen Dix-huit iit
Nineteen Dix-neuf in
Twenty Vingt v


Twenty-one Vingt et un v

t e


Twenty-two Vingt-deux v


Twenty-three Vingt-trois v

t
Thirty Trente t

t
Thirty-one Trente et un t

t e


Thirty-two Trente-deux t

t
Forty Quarante k

t
Fifty Cinquante

t
Sixty Soixante

t
Seventy Soixante-dix

ti
(Belgium & Switzerland) Septante pt

t
Seventy-one Soixante et onze

t e


Seventy-two Soixante-douze

t
Eighty Quatre-vingts ktv


(Belgium & Switzerland) Octante kt

t
Eighty-one Quatre-vingt-un ktv


Eighty-two Quatre-vingt-deux ktv


Ninety Quatre-vingt-dix ktv

i
(Belgium & Switzerland) Nonante nn

t
Ninety-one Quatre-vingt-onze ktv


Ninety-two Quatre-vingt-douze ktv


One Hundred Cent


One Hundred One Cent un


Two Hundred Deux cents


Two Hundred One Deux cent un


Thousand Mille /mil/
Two Thousand Deux mille /d mil/
Million Un million mil


Billion Un milliard mil

French switches the use of commas and periods. 1,00
would be 1.00 in English. Belgian and Swiss French
useseptante and nonante in place of the standard French
words for 70 and 90 (though some parts of Switzerland
usehuitante for 80 and octante is barely used anymore).
Also, when the numbers 5, 6, 8, and 10 are used before a
word beginning with a consonant, their final consonants are
not pronounced. Phone numbers in France are ten digits,
beginning with 01, 02, 03, 04, or 05 depending on the
geographical region, or 06 and 07 for cell phones. They are
written two digits at a time, and pronounced thus: 01 36 55
89 28 = zro un, trente-six, cinquante-cinq, quatre-vingt-
neuf, vingt-huit.

ORDINAL NUMBERS / LES NOMBRES
ORDINAUX
first premier / premire
second deuxime / second
third troisime
fourth quatrime
fifth cinquime
sixth sixime
seventh septime
eighth huitime
ninth neuvime
tenth dixime
eleventh onzime
twelfth douzime
twentieth vingtime
twenty-first vingt et unime
thirtieth trentime
The majority of numbers become ordinals by adding -ime.
But if a number ends in an e, you must drop it before
adding the -ime. After a q, you must add a u before the -
ime. And an f becomes a v before the -ime.

Listen to the la tlphone : un message mp3
and try the cloze (fill-in-the-blank) exercise from French
Listening Resources.

10. DAYS OF THE WEEK / LES JOURS DE LA
SEMAINE
Monday lundi l

i
Tuesday mardi mi
Wednesday mercredi mki
Thursday jeudi i
Friday vendredi v

i
Saturday samedi /samdi/
Sunday dimanche im


day le jour l
week la semaine l ()mn
today aujourd'hui oi
yesterday hier
tomorrow demain m


next prochain / prochaine p

pn
last dernier / dernire ne n
day before yesterday avant-hier v

t
day after tomorrow aprs-demain pm


the following day le lendemain l l


the day before la veille l v
Articles are not used before days, except to express
something that happens habitually on a certain day, such
as lelundi = on Mondays. Days of the week are all
masculine in gender and they are not capitalized in writing.

Listen to the l'heure & la date : l'emploi du
temps mp3 and try the cloze (fill-in-the-blank) exercise from
French Listening Resources.

11. MONTHS OF THE YEAR / LES MOIS DE
L'ANNEE
January janvier

ve
February fvrier evie
March mars m
April avril vil
May mai m
June juin


July juillet i
August aot /u(t)/
September septembre pt


October octobre kt
November novembre nv


December dcembre e


month le mois l m
year l'an / l'anne l

lne
decade la dcennie /deseni/
century le sicle l kl
millennium le millnaire milen
To express in a certain month, such as in May,
use en before the month as in "en mai." With dates, the
ordinal numbers are not used, except for the first of the
month: le premier mai but le deux juin. Also note that
months are all masculine and not capitalized in French
(same as days of the week).

12. SEASONS / LES SAISONS
Summer l't /lete/ in the summer en t

nete
Fall l'automne lotn in the fall en automne

notn
Winter l'hiver liv in the winter en hiver

niv
Spring le printemps l p

in the spring au printemps o p



13. DIRECTIONS / LES DIRECTIONS

on the left gauche o
on the right droite t
straight ahead tout droit /tu

North le nord l n Northeast le nord-est l n()t
South le sud l Northwest le nord-ouest l n()t
East l'est lt Southeast le sud-est t
West l'ouest lt Southwest le sud-ouest t

14. COLORS & SHAPES / LES COULEURS & LES
FORMES
Red rouge square le carr ke
Orange orange

circle le cercle kl
Yellow jaune on triangle le triangle ti

l
Green vert / verte v vt rectangle le rectangle kt

l
Blue bleu / bleue /bl/ oval l'ovale vl
Purple violet / violette vl vlt cube le cube /kyb/
White
blanc /
blanche
l

sphere la sphre
Brown
brun / brune
marron
n
m


cylinder le cylindre il


Black noir / noire n cone le cne /kon/
Pink rose o octagon l'octogone kton
Gold dor / dore e box la bote /bwat/
Silver
argent /
argente

te light clair / claire kl


Gray gris / grise i i dark fonc /

e
fonce
Some adjectives of color do not change to agree with
gender or number, such as adjectives that also exist as
nouns:orange, marron, rose; and compound
adjectives: bleu clair, noir fonc remain masculine even if
they describe a feminine noun. Remember to place the
color adjective after the noun.

15. WEATHER / LE TEMPS QU'IL FAIT

What's the weather like? Quel temps fait-il ? kl t

til
It's nice Il fait bon il


bad Il fait mauvais il mve
cool Il fait frais il
cold Il fait froid il
warm, hot Il fait chaud il o
cloudy Il fait nuageux il n
beautiful Il fait beau il o
mild Il fait doux il
stormy Il fait orageux il
sunny Il fait soleil il l
humid Il fait humide /il mi
muggy Il fait lourd il l
windy Il fait du vent il v


foggy Il fait du brouillard il
snowing Il neige il n
raining Il pleut /il pl/
freezing Il gle il l
hailing Il grle il l
It is ____ degrees. Il fait ____ degrs. il e
Il pleut des cordes il pl de kod i common expreion
meaning it's pouring. Il caille /il kaj/ or a caille /sa kaj/ is
slang for it's freezing. And remember that France uses
Celcius degrees.
Listen to the le climat: le temps dans les
Alpes mp3 and try the cloze (fill-in-the-blank) exercise from
French Listening Resources.

16. TIME / LE TEMPS QUI PASSE

What time is it? Quelle heure est-il ? kl til
It is... Il est... il
one o'clock une heure n
two o'clock deux heures
noon midi /midi/
midnight minuit mini
a quarter after three trois heures et quart t e k
one o'clock sharp une heure prcise n pei
four o'clock sharp quatre heures prcises kt pei
twelve thirty midi (minuit) et demi mii (mini) e mi
six thirty six heures et demie i e mi
a quarter to seven sept heures moins le quart t m

l k
five twenty cinq heures vingt

k v


ten fifty onze heures moins dix

i
in the morning/AM du matin mt


in the afternoon/PM de l'aprs-midi lpmii
in the evening/PM du soir
Official French time is expressed as military time (24 hour
clock.) You can only use regular numbers, and not demi,
quart, etc. when reporting time with the 24 hour system. For
example, if it is 18h30, you must say dix-huit heures
trente. The word pile /pil/ is also a more informal way of
saying prcise (exactly, sharp).

Listen to the l'heure & la date : l'emploi du
temps mp3 and try the cloze (fill-in-the-blank) exercise from
French Listening Resources.

17. FAMILY & ANIMALS / LA FAMILLE & LES
ANIMAUX
Family la famille /famij/ Niece la nice n
Relatives
des
parents
p

Nephew le neveu n()v


Parents
les
parents
p

Grandchildren
les petits-
enfants
p()ti


Grandparents
les
grands-
parents

Granddaughter la petite-fille p()tit i


Mom
la mre /
maman
m
mm


Grandson le petit-fils p()tii
Stepmother/Mother-in-
Law
la belle-
mre
lm Godfather le parrain p


Dad
le pre /
papa
p
/papa/
Godmother la marraine mn
Stepfather/Father-in-
Law
le beau-
pre
op Godson le filleul il
Daughter la fille /fij/ Goddaughter la filleule il
Son le fils /fis/
Distant
Relatives
des parents
loigns
p


ele
Sister la sur Single clibataire elit
Half/Step Sister
la demi-
sur
mi

Married mari(e) me
Sister-in-Law
la belle-
sur
l Separated spar(e) epe
Stepdaughter/Daughter-
in-Law
la belle-
fille
l i Divorced divorc(e) ive
Brother le frre Widower veuf v
Half/Step Brother
le demi-
frre
mi

Widow veuve vv
Brother-in-Law
le beau-
frre
o
Stepson/Son-in-Law
le beau-
fils
/bo fis/ Dog
le chien / la
chienne (m) /
(f)

n
Twins (m)
les
jumeaux
mo Cat
le chat / la
chatte (m) /
(f)
t
Twins (f)
les
jumelles
ml Puppy le chiot o
Uncle l'oncle

kl Kitten le chaton t


Aunt la tante t

t Pig le cochon k


Grandmother
la grand-
mre

m Rooster le coq kk
Grandfather
le grand-
pre

p Rabbit le lapin lp


Cousin (f) la cousine /kuzin/ Cow la vache v
Cousin (m) le cousin k

Horse le cheval ()vl


Wife la femme /fam/ Duck le canard kn
Husband le mari mi Goat la chvre v
Woman la femme /fam/ Goose l'oie /wa/
Man l'homme m Sheep le mouton mt


Child (m) / (f)
un enfant
/ une
enfant

Lamb l'agneau o
Girl la fille /fij/ Donkey l'ne n
Boy le garon

Mouse la souris i
Le gendre

d i noher ord for on-in-law.



Listen to the la famille : ma famille mp3 and try
the cloze (fill-in-the-blank) exercise from French Listening
Resources.

Slang words for people and pets:
The entire
family
toute la smala /tut la smala/ Sister la frangine

in
Grandma mm / mamie
/meme/
/mami/
Brother le frangin


Grandpa pp / papi /pepe/ /papi/ Son le fiston it


Children des gosses Aunt tata / tatie /tata/ /tati/
Kid
un gamin / une
gamine
m


/gamin/
Uncle tonton t


Woman une nana /nana/ Dog
le cabot /
clbard
/kabo/
kle
Man un mec / type / gars
mk tip

Cat le minou /minu/

Listen to the animaux : chien ou chat ? mp3
and try the cloze (fill-in-the-blank) exercise from French
Listening Resources.

18. TO KNOW PEOPLE & PLACES / CONNAITRE &
SAVOIR
connatre-to know people /knt/ savoir-to know facts /savwa/
connais kn connaissons kn

sais savons v


connais kn connaissez kne sais savez /save/
connat kn connaissent kn sait savent /sav/
Connatre is used when you know (are familiar with) people,
places, food, movies, books, etc. and savoir is used when
you know facts. When savoir is followed by an infinitive it
means to know how.
There is another form of savoir commonly used in the
expressions que je sache that I know (of) and pas que je
sache not that I know (of).
Je connais ton frre. I know your brother.
Je sais que ton frre s'appelle Jean. I know that your
brother is named John.
Connaissez-vous Grenoble ? Do you know (Are you
familiar with) Grenoble? / Have you ever been to Grenoble?
Oui, nous connaissons Grenoble. Yes, we know (are
familiar with) Grenoble. / Yes, we've been to Grenoble.
Tu sais o Grenoble se trouve. You know where
Grenoble is located.
Ils savent nager. They know how to swim.
Connatre can be translated several ways into English:
Tu connais le film, Les Enfants ? Have you seen the film,
Les Enfants?
Tu connais Lyon ? Have you ever been to Lyon?
Tu connais la tartiflette ? Have you ever eaten tartiflette?

19. FORMATION OF PLURAL NOUNS / LA FORMATION
DES NOMS PLURIELS
To make a noun plural, you usually add an -s (which is not
pronounced).
But there are some exceptions:
Sing. Plural
If a noun already ends in an -s, add nothing. bus(es) le bus les bus
If a noun ends in -eu or -eau, add an x. boat(s) le bateau les bateaux
If a masculine noun ends in -al or -ail, change it
to -aux.
horse(s) le cheval les chevaux
Some nouns ending in -ou add an -x instead of -
s.
knee(s) le genou les genoux

Exceptions: festival, carnaval, bal, pneu, bleu, landau,
dtail, chandail all add -s. There are only seven nouns
ending in -ou that add -x instead of -s: bijou, caillou, chou,
genou, pou, joujou, hibou. There are, of course, some
irregular exceptions: un il (eye) - des yeux (eyes); le
ciel (sky) - les cieux (skies); and un jeune homme (a
young man) - des jeunes gens (young men).
Notice that the only time the pronunciation will change in the
plural form is for masculine nouns that change -al or -ail to -
aux and for the irregular forms. All other nouns are
pronounced the same in the singular and the plural - it is
only the article that changes pronunciation (le, la, l' to les).

20. POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES / LES ADJECTIFS
POSSESSIFS

Masc. Fem. Plural
My mon m

ma /ma/ mes m
Your ton t

ta /ta/ tes t
His/Her/Its son

sa /sa/ ses
Our notre nt notre nt nos /no/
Your votre vt votre vt vos /vo/
Their leur l leur l leurs l
Possessive pronouns go before the noun. When a feminine
noun begins with a vowel, you must use the masculine form
of the pronoun for ease of pronunciation. Ma amie is
incorrect and must be mon amie, even though amie is
feminine. Remember that adjectives agree with the noun in
gender and number, not the possessor! Sa mre can mean
his mother or her mother even though sa is the feminine
form, because it agrees with mre and not the possessor
(his or her).
C'est ma mre et mon pre. This is my mother and my
father.
Ce sont vos petits-enfants ? These are your
grandchildren?
Mes parents sont divorcs. My parents are divorced.
Sa grand-mre est veuve. His grandmother is a widow.
Notre frre est mari, mais notre sur est
clibataire. Our brother is married, but our sister is single.
Ton oncle est architecte, n'est-ce pas ? Your uncle is an
architect, isn't he?
Leurs cousines sont nerlandaises. Their cousins are
Dutch.

Go on to French II


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