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MT 2123: Introduction to Calculus

This course is
offered by
School of Informatics & Applied Mathematics
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu
By
Shalela Mohd Mahali
September 2014
Contents
1 The Real Number System 1
1.1 Types of Real Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Properties of Real Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.3 Mathematical problems involving inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.3.1 Solving a Linear Inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.3.2 Solving a Twosided Inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.3.3 Solving an Inequality Involving a Fraction . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.3.4 Solving a Quadratic Inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.3.5 Solving an Inequality Containing an Absolute Value . . . . . . 8
1.4 Number in Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
iii
iv
List of Tables
v
vi
List of Figures
1 Subsets representing real number system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2 An open interval (, 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3 An open interval (2,
3
2
) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4 Number lines to represent each term in the fraction . . . . . . . . . . 6
5 An open interval (, 2) [1, ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6 Number lines to represent each term of the quadratic expression . . . 7
7 An open interval (, 3) (2, ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
8 The distance between a and b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
9 |x 3| < 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
10 Points A, B, C and D plotted on a cartesian coordinate . . . . . . . 10
11 Sketching lines on a cartesian coordinate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
12 Shading the region for inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
vii
Chapter 1
The Real Number System
1.1 Types of Real Numbers
Natural numbers
Natural numbers are also known as counting numbers.
The numbers are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, .
The set of all natural numbers is denoted as N.
Natural numbers together with zero are called whole numbers (i.e 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, )
Integers
Integers are the positive and negative whole numbers.
The numbers are , 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, .
The set of all integers is denoted as Z
Rational numbers
Rational numbers are quotients of integers (i.e All numbers of the form
a
b
with
a and b are integers and b = 0).
1
1.1. TYPES OF REAL NUMBERS
The set of all rational numbers is denoted as Q.
All integers are rational numbers because for any integer i Z, i can be
written as
i
1
.
Real numbers with terminating decimal or non-terminating decimals that re-
peat are also rational number.
Real numbers with non-terminating decimals that do not repeat are irra-
tional numbers. = 3.14159265 and

2 = 1.41421356 are irrational


numbers.
Real numbers
Real numbers are the set of all decimals, both terminating and non-terminating.
The set of all real numbers is denoted as R.
The above mentioned set of numbers (i.e Natural numbers, Integers, Rational
and Irrational numbers) are subsets of real numbers.
The relationships of the sets consist in real numbers can be illustrated in Figure
1
2
THE REAL NUMBER SYSTEM
Figure 1: Subsets representing real number system
Exercises 1.1
1 Tick the correct type for the following numbers. Each number may fall into
more than one type.
Number Natural Whole Integer Rational Irrational Real
2

0
0.25
-5

2
8
1.342234223422...
1.234567

4
5
2 Tick the correct type of the following decimal number. Then, determined
whether the number is a rational or irrational number. If it is a rational
number, rewrite the decimal number in the form of integer fraction,
a
b
.
3
1.2. PROPERTIES OF REAL NUMBERS
Number Terminating Nonterminating decimal Rational\ Fraction
decimal Repeat Not Repeat Irrational form
3.16792
10.121212...
4.275191919191...
3.14159265...
3.41287548754875...
1.2 Properties of Real Numbers
If a and b are real numbers and a < b, then
i For any real number c, a + c < b + c.
ii For any real numbers c and d, if c < d, then a + c < b + d.
iii For any real number c > 0, a c < b c.
iv For any real number c < 0, a c > b c
1.3 Mathematical problems involving inequality
1.3.1 Solving a Linear Inequality
Problem: Solve the linear inequality 5x + 1 < 6.
Solution: Substract 1 from both sides. Thus we have
(5x + 1) 1 < 6 1
5x < 5
Then divide the resulting inequality by 5
5x
5
<
5
5
4
THE REAL NUMBER SYSTEM
Finally we have x < 1 or also can be written as an interval (, 1)
Figure 2: An open interval (, 1)
1.3.2 Solving a Twosided Inequality
Problem: Solve the twosided inequality 2 < 8 4x < 16.
Solution: We work with both inequalities simultaneously. First, substract 8 from
each term. Thus we have
2 8 < (8 4x) 8 < 16 8
6 < 4x < 8
Then divide the resulting inequalities by -4. Note that, since 4 < 0, our inequali-
ties are reversed.
6
4
>
4x
4
>
8
4
3
2
> x > 2
Rearrange the inequalities, nally we have 2 < x <
3
2
or also can be written as an
interval (2,
3
2
)
1.3.3 Solving an Inequality Involving a Fraction
Problem: Solve the inequality
x1
x+2
0
Solution: In order to visualize the function of the fraction, we draw separate number
5
1.3. MATHEMATICAL PROBLEMS INVOLVING INEQUALITY
Figure 3: An open interval (2,
3
2
)
lines for the numerator and the denominator
Figure 4: Number lines to represent each term in the fraction
From the above number lines, we may conclude that the fraction is satisfying the
inequality (i.e nonnegative in this case) whenever x < 2 or x 0. The solution
also can be written in interval notation as (, 2) [1, )
1.3.4 Solving a Quadratic Inequality
Problem: Solve the quadratic inequality x
2
+ x 6 > 0
Solution: By factorising the quadratic term, we have the following equivalent in-
equality to the original problem:
6
THE REAL NUMBER SYSTEM
Figure 5: An open interval (, 2) [1, )
(x + 3)(x 2) > 0 (1)
From here, we may draw the number lines to represent the two terms: (x + 3) and
(x 2), and nally the combination of both.
Figure 6: Number lines to represent each term of the quadratic expression
The number lines show that the product of the two terms is positive whenever
x < 3 or x > 2. In interval notation, this can be written as (, 3) (2, ).
Figure 7: An open interval (, 3) (2, )
7
1.3. MATHEMATICAL PROBLEMS INVOLVING INEQUALITY
Alternatively, you may sketch the quadratic graph and nd the interval
whenever the quadratic graph is positive. Try this method for the same
problem above!
1.3.5 Solving an Inequality Containing an Absolute Value
Denition of Absolute Value
The absolute value of a real number x is |x| =

x, if x 0
x if x < 0
.
For any real numbers a and b,
1. |a b| = |a| |b|.
2. |a + b| = |a| +|b| in general.
3. |a + b| |a| +|b| (the triangle inequality).
4. |a b| is referred as the distance between a and b (Figure 8)
Figure 8: The distance between a and b
Problem: Solve the inequality |x 3| < 5
Solution: The LHS of the inequality refers to the distance between 3 and point x.
Considering the value 5 on the RHS, the inequality shows that the distance between
x and 3 must be less than 5. We may visualise this inequality using the following
gure: Obviously, the solution for x is 2 < x < 8 or in interval notation:(2, 8).
8
THE REAL NUMBER SYSTEM
Figure 9: |x 3| < 5
Problem: Solve the inequality |x + 4| 7
Solution:
(Hint: |x + 4| = |x (4)|)
There is an alternative method for solving inequalities involv-
ing absolute values.
|x a| < d
also can be written as the two-sided inequality
d < x a < d
. Try this method to solve the previous problems!
1.4 Number in Plane
Our previous discussions only considered real numbers as laid out on a single
line (1 dimension coordinate). Now, we extend our discussion to coordinate in
2-dimensions. We locate points in the plane by using two coordinate lines: the hor-
izontal real line is usually called the x axis and the vertical real line is usually
called the y axis. Instead of just one real number, the point now is represent
9
1.4. NUMBER IN PLANE
by an ordered pair (x, y) of real numbers, called coordinates of the point. See the
following example to understand how to locate a point based on the given coordinate.
Example: Plotting points
Plot the points A = (3, 2), B = (3, 6), C = (2, 4) and D = (1, 2).
Ans:Figure 10
Figure 10: Points A, B, C and D plotted on a cartesian coordinate
Example: Drawing lines
Sketch the following lines:
i x = 1
ii y = 4
iii 4x + 3y = 24
10
THE REAL NUMBER SYSTEM
Ans:Figure 11
Line x = 1 and y = 4 are easy to skecth.
The third line, 4x + 3y = 24 can be skecthed by nding 2 points on the line and
connecting those 2 points to have a straight line. The easiest 2 points that can be
considered are points when x = 0 and when y = 0.
Point 1: When x = 0,
4(0) + 3y = 24
3y = 24
y = 8
Hence, the rst point is (0, 8).
Point 2: When y = 0,
4x + 3(0) = 24
4x = 24
x = 6
Hence, the second point is (6, 0)
11
1.4. NUMBER IN PLANE
Figure 11: Sketching lines on a cartesian coordinate
Example: Graphing Inequalities
Shade the region which contains the points that satisfy the following inequalities:
i y 4
ii 4x + 3y > 24
Ans:Figure 12. In order to graph the region for an inequality, we have to determine
the edge of the region rst. This can be done by sketching a line representing the
given equation (replace the inequality sign (<, >, or ) to an equal sign (=)). In
this example, both lines y = 4 and 4x + 3y > 24 are already sketched in Figure
11. We use solid line to represent edge for the rst inequality because of the sign
. However, dashed line is used for the second inequality because of the sign > (i.e
does not include equal sign). The reqion for the rst inequality is obvious. However,
for the second inequality, we have to choose which side to be shaded by testing one
point at each side.
Side 1: Point to test is (0,0):
12
THE REAL NUMBER SYSTEM
4(0) + 3(0) = 0 < 24does not satises the inequality.
Side 2: Point to test is (5,5):
4(5) + 3(5) = 35 > 24satises the inequality. So we choose this side to be
shaded.
Figure 12: Shading the region for inequalities
Your Tasks
Find the formulae and examples for the following topics:
1. The distance and midpoint between 2 points.
2. Equation of a line.
3. Equation of a circle
13
1.4. NUMBER IN PLANE
14
Bibliography
15
BIBLIOGRAPHY
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