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CE BIO 1989

1.

(a)

(i)

Alex Lam

with foot supplied from the corm

buds develop into aerial shoots

carry out photosynthesis

) any FOUR ------------------------------------1,1,1,1

storage of excess food in base of stems

to form daughter corms

(ii)

food storage / pass over unfavorable periods (winter) / perennation -------------------------------1

(iii)

No

- the stamens / stigma are not hanging out

- the stigma is not feathery

) any ONE----------------------------------1+1

(iv) A

- dries up / withers / falls off ----------------------------------------------------------------------------1

- forms fruit wall / fruit ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1

(1)

get flowers / new plants more easily / rapidly------------------------------------------------------1

(v)

maintain the desired quality of the flowers ---------------------------------------------------------1


(2)

variation occurs / may give rise to flowers of a better quality ----------------------------------1


Total : 12 Marks

1.

(a)

(i)

Most candidates wrongly stated that during vegetative propagation of a corm, food from the
aerial shoot is passed down to the lateral buds. In fact, excess food is passed down to the
base of the stem to form a daughter corm for storage until the next growing season.

(iv) Some candidates wrongly thought that ovaries will develop into seeds rather than fruit.
(v)

Many candidates were unable to point out that sexual reproduction by seeds has the
advantage of variation over vegetative propagation. Quite a number mentioned "to prevent
overcrowding" as an advantage of using seeds to produce new plants for flowers. This is an
advantage from the viewpoint of plant dispersal, not from the viewpoint of gardeners
growing flowers. This is a clear indication of the inability of many candidates to apply simple
biological principles to daily life. Candidates were not aware that genetic variations may give
rise to new varieties which may or may not be better adapted. A considerable number
incorrectly thought that genetic variation will always give rise to better adaptation to the
environment.

Paper I Marking Scheme & Year Report

P.1

CE BIO 1989
1.

(b)

(i)

Alex Lam

(1)

remains relatively constant -----------------------------------------------------------------------------1

(2)

mouth temperature approximates to internal temperature

this indicates that enzyme activity / rate of metabolism


remains relatively constant, irrespective of changes in
external temperature

)---------any ONE set 1+1

Mouth temperature is better than skin

temperature as an indicator of internal temperature

OR

(ii)

(1)

Skin temperature drops ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------1

(2)

vasoconstriction / vessels in skin constricts --------------------------------------------------------1


and less blood / heat is carried to the skin ---------------------------------------------------------1

(iii)

yes - there is still a temperature gradient / difference


between the skin and the environment ----------------------------------------------------------1+1
Total : 8 Marks

1.

(b)

(i)

Many candidates did not fully understand the "significance" of having a constant mouth
temperature. They were unable to point out that mouth temperature is an indication of
internal body temperature.

(ii)

Most candidates could not clearly distinguish the physiological process from either the
structural or the physical process in temperature regulation of the skin. Many candidates
gave contraction of erector pili muscle or goose skin as the answer, but they failed to
realize that this is not an efficient mechanism for temperature control in humans when
compared with other mammals.

(iii)

Many candidates did not appreciate that heat energy always flows from a region of high
temperature to a region of low temperature even in biological systems. Thus in the graph
given in this question, even when the skin temperature was at its minimum, the skin could
still lose heat to the outside room.

Paper I Marking Scheme & Year Report

P.2

CE BIO 1989
1.

(c)

Alex Lam

(i)

carbon dioxide -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1

(ii)

(1)

to absorb carbon dioxide from the incoming air ---------------------------------------------------1

(2)

to check that all carbon dioxide from the incoming


air has been removed ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1

(iii)

by putting the plant in darkness for a

few days before setting up

destarch the leaves

) any TWO ------------------------------------------------1,1

to ensure that any starch detected


was formed during the expt.

)
)

(iv) - put the leaf in boiling water for a few minutes ----------------------------------------------------------1
- put the leaf in a cube of alcohol in a hot water-bath ---------------------------------------------------1
- put the leaf in water --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
- add iodine solution ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
(v)

replace both sodium hydroxide solution and lime


water by water / use any leaf outside the glass bottle --------------------------------------------------1
Total : 10 Marks

1.

(c)

(iv) In the test for the presence of starch in a leaf after photosynthesis, many candidates wrote
"boil the leaf" without mentioning the medium used for boiling. This was a crucial point in the
experiment. A common language weakness was that they wrote "put iodine" instead of "put
iodine solution" in the test for starch.
(v)

In setting up a control experiment, many candidates mentioned using water to replace either
sodium hydroxide solution or limewater instead of both. This signifies another weakness of
many candidates: not being able to critically appraise the experimental techniques used in
biological investigations.

Paper I Marking Scheme & Year Report

P.3

CE BIO 1989
2.

(a)

(i)

Alex Lam

A is thick-walled and B is thin-walled ------------------------------------------------------------------------1


valves present in B but absent in A --------------------------------------------------------------------------1

(ii)

C is thin-walled (one cell thick) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------1


to facilitate exchange by simple diffusion ------------------------------------------------------------------1

(iii)

(1)

* left ventricle -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1

(2)

* right atrium / auricle ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1

(iv) (1)

white blood cell --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1


their amoeboid shape enables them -----------------------------------------------------------------1
to squeeze through the capillary wall --------------------------------------------------------------1

(v)

(2)

for body defence / to kill germs ------------------------------------------------------------------------1

(1)

* lymph -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1

(2)

contraction of surrounding muscles ------------------------------------------------------------------1


presence of valves ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
Total : 13 Marks

2.

(a)

(i)&(ii)

Many candidates, in writing about the thickness of the blood vessels, wrote "cell walls"
instead of "the wall of the vessels".

(iv) Many candidates wrongly thought that white blood cells are so small that they can actually
diffuse through the walls of the capillaries. They failed to realize that white blood cells can
utilize amoeboid movement to actually squeeze through the walls of the blood vessels.

Paper I Marking Scheme & Year Report

P.4

CE BIO 1989
2.

(b)

(i)

Alex Lam

(1)

* geotropism / geotropic response --------------------------------------------------------------------1

(2)

the force of gravity ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1


results in a higher concentration of auxin / hormone on the lower side of the root ------1
since a high concentration of auxin / hormone retards growth of the root -----------------1
upper part of the root grows faster / lower side of the root grows slower ------------------1

(ii)

(1)

the root bends upwards / towards the source of water instead of downwards ------------1
because the effect of water -----------------------------------------------------------------------------1
is greater than that of gravity ---------------------------------------------------------------------------1

(2)

root grows towards sources of water to


ensure enough supply of water for growth ---------------------------------------------------------1
Total : 9 Marks

2.

(b)

(i)

The term "geotropism" was often wrongly spelt as "geotroprism" or "geotrophism".

(ii)

Many candidates stated incorrectly that auxin can inhibit the growth of roots without giving
the relative concentration. Many failed to provide a proper explanation of geotropism on a
hormonal basis. This weakness was also mentioned in last years report and this should be
brought to the notice of students by teachers. Quite a number of candidates did not know
the meaning of "significance" with respect to the growth response of a seedling.

Paper I Marking Scheme & Year Report

P.5

CE BIO 1989
2.

(c)

(i)

Alex Lam

white flower --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1


this trait appears in the offspring but not in parents in cross II ---------------------------------------1
[also accept : about of the offspring in cross II produce white flowers ]

(ii)

(1)

Ff --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1

(2)

FF and Ff ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 or 0
N.B. No marks to be awarded for answers using other symbols.

(iii)

(1)

a pair of genes which controls a certain character / different forms of a gene ------------1

(2)

appearance / expression of a character -------------------------------------------------------------1

(3)

an individual which results from crossing two


individuals (homozygous) which are genetically unlike -----------------------------------------1

(iv) 2N --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
Total : 8 Marks
2.

(c)

(ii)

Despite the stipulation given in the question requiring the use of the symbols F and f in
listing the genotypes, some candidates used different symbols to represent the dominant
and recessive alleles. Many ignored the instruction to "list" and so put down detailed genetic
crossings instead of just giving the genotypes as required.

(iii)

Very few candidates were able to give a simple explanation of basic genetic terms. Many
confused alleles with chromosomes; in fact, alleles are alternative forms of a gene. Others
wrongly considered hybrids as resulting from the crossing of two different species.

Paper I Marking Scheme & Year Report

P.6

CE BIO 1989
3.

(a)

(i)

Alex Lam

C - * spongy mesophyll / cells / layer -----------------------------------------------------------------------1


D - * guard cell ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1

(ii)

cells are closely packed ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1


possessing a large number of chloroplasts ----------------------------------------------------------------1

(iii)

for rapid diffusion of gases to facilitate photosynthesis ------------------------------------------------1

(iv) (1)

air in the intercellular aces expands on heating ---------------------------------------------------1


and passes out through the stomata -----------------------------------------------------------------1

(2)
(v)

stomata occur on only one surface of the leaf -----------------------------------------------------1


A (cuticle)

there is no danger of desiccation

1+1

cell D(guard cell)

gaseous diffusion occurs all over the plant

1+1

surfaces where there is no cuticle


[accept other suitable answers]
Total : 12 Marks
3.

(a)

(i)

Many candidates could not distinguish clearly a stoma from the guard cells surrounding it.
Some misspell "guard cells" as "gaurd cells".

(iv) Many candidates could not explain the bubbles on the leaf when it was placed in hot water
and wrongly attributed this to the influx of water - presumably driving air out of the leaf.
(v)

Many candidates could not explain why in an aquatic leaf, the cuticle, guard cells and
palisade layer may be absent. They were not aware that aquatic plants respire by general
diffusion of respiratory gases all over the plant leaf surface and therefore do not require
stomata. They wrongly thought that if the guard cells and stomata are present, the aquatic
leaf will die of suffocation as the water may enter. Many incorrectly thought that in an
aquatic plant, the palisade cells are absent because there is no need for photosynthesis.

Paper I Marking Scheme & Year Report

P.7

CE BIO 1989
3.

(b)

(i)

Alex Lam

species A ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1+
because less water is lost by evaporation / water content in faeces is smaller ------------------1
showing that species A has a better ability to
conserve water / less likely to become dehydrated -----------------------------------------------------1

(ii)

oxidation of food / respiration ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------1

(iii)

breathing ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
sweating ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1

(iv) * large intestine / * colon ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1


(v)

group B would die off first ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1+


because both groups of rats gained similar amount of metabolic water ---------------------------1
but group B has a poorer ability to conserve water / loses more water ----------------------------1
Total : 10 Marks

3.

(b) (ii)

Many candidates inappropriately considered reabsorption of water by the kidneys as a type


of metabolic activity for gaining water.

(iii)

Many candidates wrongly considered urine formation to be water loss by evaporation.

(v)

Few candidates realized that, as shown from the table in this questions, both groups of rats
gained a similar amount of metabolic water.

Paper I Marking Scheme & Year Report

P.8

CE BIO 1989
3.

(c)

Alex Lam

(i)
11
10
9

N u m b e r o f s tu d e n ts

8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

56
|
60
58

61
|
65
63

66
|
70
68

71
|
75
73

76
|
80
78

81
|
85
83

86
|
90
88

91
|
95
93

96
|
100
89

m id - p o in ts

H e a r t b e s t p e r m in u te

correct choice of axes--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1


correct labels-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
correct plotting of all data---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2
(5 data correct 1 mark only)
(ii)

continuous variation --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1+


characteristics show gradation from one extreme to the other ---------------------------------------1

OR variation shows e normal distribution


(iii)

(1)

height / weight / I.Q. / skin colour (any ONE) ------------------------------------------------------1

(2)

eye colour / tongue-rolling ability / characteristics of ear lobe (any ONE) -----------------1
Total : 8 Marks

3.

(c)

(i)

Most candidates could plot the histogram correctly although some drew bar charts instead.

(ii)

Many could not distinguish clearly between continuous and discontinuous variation.

Paper I Marking Scheme & Year Report

P.9

CE BIO 1989
4

(a)

Alex Lam

(i)

photosynthesis absorption of light by chlorophyll --------------------------------------------------------1

(ii)

chemical energy / food substances / starch ---------------------------------------------------------------1

(iii)

predation / feeding -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1

(iv) (1)

Pyramid of biomass : -------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 or 0


Birds
Spiders
Bees
Trees

(2)

energy is lost at each trophic level -------------------------------------------------------------------1


due to respiration / exertion / death ------------------------------------------------------------------1

(v)

decomposers / saprophytes / bacteria / fungi -------------------------------------------------------------1


for recycling of materials ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1

(vi) they do not compete for the same resources -------------------------------------------------------------1


[accept other suitable answers]
Total : 11 Marks
4.

(a)

(iv) Many candidates drew a pyramid of numbers instead of pyramid of biomass. Some even
drew an inverted pyramid with the first trophic level, the trees, having a much smaller
biomass.
(v)

Many candidates wrongly thought that energy can be recycled by decomposers.

(vi) Very few candidates were aware that the caterpillar and bee population do not compete for
the same resources on the same tree.

Paper I Marking Scheme & Year Report

P.10

CE BIO 1989
4.

(b)

(i)

Alex Lam

A - * nucleus -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
B - * cytoplasm ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1

(ii)

(1)

root hair / long cellular extension ---------------------------------------------------------------------1

(2)

increases surface area ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------1


for absorption of water and mineral salts -----------------------------------------------------------1

(iii)

(1)

hollow cell / no cell content -----------------------------------------------------------------------------1


reduces resistance to flow ------------------------------------------------------------------------------1

(2)

thick cell wall -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1


offers great physical strength for support -----------------------------------------------------------1

(iv) cell type II in region X, and cell type III in region Z -----------------------------------------------1 or 0
Total : 10 Marks
4.

(b)

(iii)

Many candidates failed to give proper explanations "with reference to the diagrams only"
and gave features which were not found in the diagrams. Many did not know that the thick
cell walls of plant cells provide mechanical support. Many also considered the turgidity of
cells (which was a feature not clearly seen in the diagrams) to be a means of support.

Paper I Marking Scheme & Year Report

P.11

CE BIO 1989
4.

(c)

(i)

Alex Lam

A- * pancreas ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
B - * caecum / large intestine ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------1

(ii)

A and C -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 or 0

(iii)

bile secreted by the liver causes emulsification of fat

by reducing surface tension of fat

to increase surface area for the enzymatic action

enzyme from pancreas

) any FIVE --------------1,1,1,1,1

breaks down fat into absorbable forms

pancreatic juice / bile neutralizes acid from stomach

to provide an alkaline medium for enzyme to work

(iv) mix the extract with starch solution for some time -------------------------------------------------------1
test for disappearance of starch with iodine
solution / test for presence of reducing sugar with
Benedicts / Fehlings solution --------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
Total : 10 Marks
4.

(c)

(i)

Many candidates misspell "pancreas" as "pancrease".

(iii)

Many candidates failed to mention the neutralizing effect of bile in fat digestion. Others
wrongly thought that bile contains fat-digesting enzymes. Still others wrongly identified the
caecum as the colon or appendix. A common misconception was that bile is produced in the
gall-bladder. In fact, the gall-bladder is a temporary depot for bile which is produced by the
liver.

Paper I Marking Scheme & Year Report

P.12

CE BIO 1989
5.

(a)

(i)

(1)

Alex Lam
air

Paper I Marking Scheme & Year Report

P.13

CE BIO 1989
5.

(b)

Alex Lam

(i)

possession of a backbone / vertebral column ------------------------------------------------------------1

(ii)

* mammal -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
C (bat) and D (whale) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 or 0

(iii)

(1)

A - * skin -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1

(2)

B - * gills -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1

(iv) no buoyancy of water to support its body weight --------------------------------------------------------1


therefore rib cage / lungs cannot expand ------------------------------------------------------------------1
(v)

(1)

sudden / drastic change of an organism ------------------------------------------------------------1


from a larval / young stage to an adult stage ------------------------------------------------------1

(2)

egg larva pupa adult --------------------------------------------------------------------2 or 0


Total : 11 Marks

5.

(b)

(i)

Many candidates could not distinguish between "vertebrate" and "vertebrae".

(ii)

Many candidates wrongly classified the penguin as a mammal .

(iii)

Some candidates did not read the question carefully and failed to limit their answers to the
respiratory structures of the animals mentioned in the question.

(iv) Most candidates could not relate the respiration of an aquatic mammal (e.g. whale) to the
buoyancy of water. This indicates that candidates are generally weak in applying basic
biological principles to new situations. Quite a number wrongly thought that the whale uses
gills for breathing under water.
(v)

Most candidates could not point out clearly that metamorphosis is a sudden, drastic change
in the form or structure of an animal. Many did not know the meaning of the term "word
diagram".

Paper I Marking Scheme & Year Report

P.14

CE BIO 1989
5.

(c)

(i)

Alex Lam

X - * bone -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
Y - * tendon --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1

(ii)

Q and R -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 or 0
Q only -1 mark
R only -1 mark
No other alternatives

(iii)

P and S -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 or 0 +
both are extensors / extend / straighten the joint --------------------------------------------------------1
Q and R ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 or 0 +
both are flexors / flex / bend the joint -----------------------------------------------------------------------1

(iv) In the model : movement in one plane only ---------------------------------------------------------------1


In actual case : movement in three planes ----------------------------------------------------------------1
Total : 10 Marks
5.

(c) (i)

Most candidates mixed up "tendons" with "ligaments" and also confused "flexors" with
"extensors".
(ii)

Many candidates did not know that when muscles contract they become fatter and shorter.

(iii)

Many candidates could not clearly distinguish the flexors from the extensors. Quite a
number wrongly considered "categories" to be antagonistic pairs of muscles.
In general candidates appear to have little problem in recalling basic biological facts and
principles. They are however quite weak in providing clear and concise explanations of
basic biological terms and processes. Their ability to present data in a graphical form has
improved but they are still weak in applying their biological knowledge to daily life or new
situations.

Paper I Marking Scheme & Year Report

P.15