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VMware Education Services

VMware, Inc.
www.vmware.com/education
VMware vSphere:
Overview
Student Manual
ESXi 5.0 and vCenter Server 5.0
VS5OVR_LectureGuide.book Page 1 Thursday, August 25, 2011 10:55 PM
www.vmware.com/education
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VMware vSphere:
Overview
ESXi 5.0 and vCenter Server 5.0
Part Number EDU-ENG-OVR5-LECT-STU
Student Manual
Revision A
VS5OVR_LectureGuide.book Page 2 Thursday, August 25, 2011 10:55 PM
VMware vSphere: Overview i
TA B L E O F C O N T E N T S
MODUL E 1 Course Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Importance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Learner Objectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
You Are Here . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Typographical Conventions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
VMware Online Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
MODUL E 2 Virtual Infrastructure Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
You Are Here . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Importance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Learner Objectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Physical Infrastructure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Virtual Infrastructure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Physical Versus Virtual Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Why Use Virtual Machines? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Virtualization Using a Bare-Metal Hypervisor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
What Is VMware vSphere? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
vSphere Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
What Is a Virtual Network? What Is a Virtual Switch? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Benefits of Distributed Virtual Switches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
vSphere Storage Choices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
VMFS and NFS Datastores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Physical File Systems Versus VMware vStorage VMFS . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Management Made Easy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
User Interfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Navigating the vSphere Client. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Viewing vCenter Server Inventory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Lab 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Review of Learner Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
MODUL E 3 Creating Virtual Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
You Are Here . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Importance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Learner Objectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
What Is a Virtual Machine?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Virtual Machine Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Fast, Flexible, Guest Operating System Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Enhanced Virtual Machine Performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Reducing Virtual Machine Deployment Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Creating a Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Deploying a Virtual Machine from a Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
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ii VMware vSphere: Overview
Deploying Virtual Machines Across Datacenters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Hot-Adding Devices to Virtual Machines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Lab 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Review of Learner Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
MODUL E 4 Allocating Resources to Business Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
You Are Here . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Importance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Learner Objectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
CPU Management Supports Server Consolidation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
How Virtual Machines Compete for Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Limits, Reservations, and Shares, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Virtual Memory Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Using Memory Efficiently. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Supporting Higher Consolidation Ratios. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Using Resource Pools to Meet Business Needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Resource Pool Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Resource Pools Example: CPU Contention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Lab 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Review of Learner Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
MODUL E 5 Migrating Virtual Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
You Are Here . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Importance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Learner Objectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
vMotion Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
How vMotion Works. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Virtual Machine Requirements for vMotion Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Performing a vMotion Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Storage vMotion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Storage vMotion in Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Migrating with Storage vMotion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Storage vMotion Guidelines and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Lab 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Review of Learner Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
MODUL E 6 Distributing Virtual Machine Workloads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
You Are Here . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Importance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Learner Objectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
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Contents iii
What Is a DRS Cluster?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
What is Storage DRS?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Creating a DRS Cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
DRS Cluster Settings: Automation Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Reducing Power Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
Adding a Host to a Cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Automating Workload Balance Per Virtual Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
DRS Cluster Settings: Affinity Rules for Virtual Machines . . . . . . . . . . 95
Lab 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Review of Learner Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
MODUL E 7 Monitoring the Virtual Datacenter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
You Are Here . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Importance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Learner Objectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
vCenter Server Performance Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Example: Using Overview Charts to Monitor Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Example: Using Advanced Charts to Monitor Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Proactive Datacenter Management Using Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Defining Alarms in the vCenter Server Inventory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Configuring an Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108
Configuring Condition-Based Triggers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Configuring Event-Based Triggers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Configuring Reporting Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Configuring Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Viewing and Acknowledging Triggered Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Lab 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Review of Learner Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
MODUL E 8 High Availability and Fault Tolerance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
You Are Here . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Learner Objectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Importance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
High Availability and Fault Tolerance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
What Is vSphere HA? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124
vSphere HA Architecture: Agent Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Enabling VMware HA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Configuring Cluster-Wide Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Configuring Virtual Machine Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
FT in Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132
Enabling FT on a Virtual Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
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iv VMware vSphere: Overview
Lab 7 and eLearning Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Review of Learner Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
MODUL E 9 Extending VMware vSphere Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
You Are Here . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Learner Objectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Importance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
New IT Landscape: Promise & Challenge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Three Layers of the VMware Cloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Infrastructure and Operations Management Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
VMware vCenter Server: A Unified Control Center. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
VMware vCenter CapacityIQ: Capacity Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
VMware vCenter Operations: Understanding Your
Virtual Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
VMware vCenter Site Recovery Manager: Disaster Recovery. . . . . . . 147
VMware vCenter Orchestrator: Automate Workflows . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
VMware vCenter Configuration Manager: Automate
Configuration Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
vShield: Securing the Private Cloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
VMware vCloud Director: Deliver Intelligent
Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IAAS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Applications Management Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
VMware vCenter Application Discovery: Application Discovery
and Dependency Mapping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
VMware AppSpeed: Application Performance Management . . . . . . . . 156
VMware vFabric: Modern Application Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
End-User Computing Management Layer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
VMware View Manager: Managing the Modular Desktop. . . . . . . . . . 159
View Composer: Image Management And Storage Optimization . . . . 160
ThinApp: Simplified Application Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
VMware IT Business Management Solutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
VMware Service Manager: Automate IT Service Management . . . . . . 164
vCenter Chargeback: Charging for Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Review of Learner Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
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VMware vSphere: Overview 1

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M O D U L E 1
Course Introduction 1
Slide 1-1
Cou se t oduct o
Module 1
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2 VMware vSphere: Overview
Importance
Slide 1-2
This course introduces the foundational capabilities and features of
virtualization and VMware vSphere. It also provides a brief overview
of the array of products available from VMware of the array of products available from VMware.
VS5OVR_LectureGuide.book Page 2 Thursday, August 25, 2011 10:55 PM
Module 1 Course Introduction 3

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Learner Objectives
Slide 1-3
This course discusses the following:
Core VMware virtualization concepts, such as virtual infrastructure, hypervisor, and virtual
machines
Virtual machine deployment using the VMware vCenter Server templates
Migrations of virtual machines using VMware vSphere vMotion and Storage vMotion
VMware Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS), used to distribute virtual machine workloads
Allocation of CPU and memory resources to specific business functions using shares and
resource pools
Proactive monitoring of the virtual datacenter with vCenter Server performance graphs and
alarms
High availability of applications with VMware High Availability and VMware Fault Tolerance
Additional VMware products and features used to extend vSphere capabilities
After this course, you should be able to do the following:
Understand VMware virtualization concepts.
Deploy virtual machines using VMware vCenter Server.
Perform live migrations using VMware vSphere vMotion and
vSphere Storage vMotion.
Configure VMware ESXi clusters to automatically distribute virtual
machine workloads.
Hierarchically allocate CPU and memory resources to specific
b i f i business functions.
Use vCenter Server performance graphs and alarms to proactively
monitor the virtual datacenter.
Ensure high availability of applications with vSphere High Availability
and VMware Fault Tolerance.
Understand how to extend vSphere capabilities.
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4 VMware vSphere: Overview
You Are Here
Slide 1-4
The course map lists the modules discussed in this course. Each module contains one or more
lessons. All lessons have a lecture component, and most of them have a laboratory exercise.
VMware vSphere: Overview VMware vSphere: Overview
Course Introduction
Virtual Infrastructure Overview Virtual Infrastructure Overview
Creating Virtual Machines
Allocating Resources to Business Functions
Migrating Virtual Machines
Distributing Virtual Machine Workloads
Monitoring the Virtual Datacenter
High Availability and Fault Tolerance
Extending VMware vSphere Capabilities
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Module 1 Course Introduction 5

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Typographical Conventions
Slide 1-5
The following typographical conventions are used in this course:
Monospace Filenames, folder names, path
names, command names:
the bin directory
Monospace bold What the user types:
Type ipconfig and press Enter Type ipconfig and press Enter.
Boldface Graphical user interface items:
the Configuration tab
It li B k titl d h i Italic Book titles and emphasis:
vSphere Datacenter
Administration Guide
<filename> Placeholders: <filename> Placeholders:
<ESXi_host_name>
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6 VMware vSphere: Overview
VMware Online Resources
Slide 1-6
The VMware Communities Web page provides information about virtualization technology through
technical papers, documentation, a knowledge base, discussion forums, user groups, and technical
newsletters.
The VMware Support page provides a central point from which you can view support offerings,
create a support request, and download products, updates, drivers/tools, and patches.
The VMware Education page allows you to view the course catalog as well as the latest schedule of
courses offered worldwide.
The key point is that the VMware Web site is the main source for vSphere information.
VMware Communities: http://communities.vmware.com
Start a discussion.
Access the knowledge base.
Access documentation, technical papers, and compatibility guides.
Access communities.
Access user groups.
VMware Support: http://www.vmware.com/support
VMware Education: http://www.vmware.com/education
Access course catalog and worldwide course schedule.
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Module 1 Course Introduction 7

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Key Points
Slide 1-7
This course demonstrates vSphere features capable of reducing your
IT costs while improving efficiency, availability, flexibility, and
manageability. g y
This course will help you make or influence informed buying decisions
about vSphere.
VS5OVR_LectureGuide.book Page 7 Thursday, August 25, 2011 10:55 PM
8 VMware vSphere: Overview
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VMware vSphere: Overview 9

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M O D U L E 2
Virtual Infrastructure Overview 2
Slide 2-1
tua ast uctu e O e e
Module 2
VS5OVR_LectureGuide.book Page 9 Thursday, August 25, 2011 10:55 PM
10 VMware vSphere: Overview
You Are Here
Slide 2-2
VMware vSphere: Overview VMware vSphere: Overview
Course Introduction
Vi t l I f t t O i Virtual Infrastructure Overview
Creating Virtual Machines
Allocating Resources to Business Functions
Migrating Virtual Machines
Distributing Virtual Machine Workloads
Monitoring the Virtual Datacenter
High Availability and Fault Tolerance
Extending VMware vSphere Capabilities
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Module 2 Virtual Infrastructure Overview 11

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Importance
Slide 2-3
Virtualization technology has revolutionized the computer industry
by lowering capital and operational costs, providing higher service
availability, and providing new data protection mechanisms. This y, p g p
module introduces core virtualization concepts and VMware
vSphere.
VS5OVR_LectureGuide.book Page 11 Thursday, August 25, 2011 10:55 PM
12 VMware vSphere: Overview
Learner Objectives
Slide 2-4
After this lesson, you should be able to do the following:
Describe the core concepts of virtualization.
Describe the main components of vSphere.
Describe virtual network components.
Describe datastores.
VS5OVR_LectureGuide.book Page 12 Thursday, August 25, 2011 10:55 PM
Module 2 Virtual Infrastructure Overview 13

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Physical Infrastructure
Slide 2-5
Operating systems and software run on a physical computer. Some challenges arise in running a
large number of physical servers in your datacenter, such as:
The model is not flexible and can be inefficient.
The planning and cost of proper infrastructure, such as square footage, rack space, power,
cooling, cabling, and server provisioning are but a few of the problems that IT staff must
address.
Typically, a relationship exists between a physical computer and the software that it runs. In the
scenario where only 5-10% of physical server capacity is used, the 1:1 arrangement leaves most
computers vastly underused. The cost of the space and power required to house, run and keep
these systems cool can be expensive.
Provisioning physical servers is a time consuming process. In nonvirtualized environments,
time must be allotted to procure new hardware, place it in the datacenter, install an operating
system, patch the operating system, and install and configure the required applications. All of
this activity can take weeks. This process also includes a myriad of other tasks to integrate the
system into the infrastructure. For example, configuring firewall rules, enabling switch ports
and provisioning storage.
applications
operating system
physical host
Fibre
Channel
Ethernet
Fibre Channel
storage
NFS
storage
iSCSI
storage
Network
g
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14 VMware vSphere: Overview
Virtual Infrastructure
Slide 2-6
Virtualization enables you to run more workloads on a single server by consolidating the
environment. One benefit of this consolidation is that each virtual machine can be provided
redundant storage and network connectivity without the hardware costs and cabling complexity
required in a physical infrastructure. In the preceding diagram, each of the 24 virtual machines is
provided redundant connectivity as the result of each host having redundant connectivity. As
consolidation ratios increase from 1:1 (physical infrastructure) to 6:1 (as illustrated) to 30:1
(commonly achievable for normal applications) and higher, the cost savings increases and the
cabling complexity decreases.
Virtual infrastructures reduce the required datacenter square footage, rack space, power, cooling,
cabling, storage and network components by reducing the number of physical machines.
Using virtualization technology also changes the way servers are provisioned. You do not need to
wait for the hardware to be procured or cabling to be installed. Virtual machine provisioning is
performed using an intuitive graphical user interface. In contrast to the long process of deploying
physical servers, deploying virtual machines can be deployed in a matter of minutes.
hypervisor
virtual
machines
VMware ESXi
host
Fibre
Channel
Ethernet
Channel
Fibre Channel
storage
NFS
storage
iSCSI
storage
Network
storage storage
g
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Module 2 Virtual Infrastructure Overview 15

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Physical Versus Virtual Architecture
Slide 2-7
virtual architecture physical architecture
application
VMware vSphere
operating system
x86 architecture
x86 architecture
VS5OVR_LectureGuide.book Page 15 Thursday, August 25, 2011 10:55 PM
16 VMware vSphere: Overview
Why Use Virtual Machines?
Slide 2-8
Several benefits are realized in choosing to use virtual machines over physical machines. In a
physical machine, the operating system (Windows, Linux, and so forth) is installed directly on the
hardware. This approach requires specific device drivers to support specific hardware. If the
computer is upgraded with new hardware, new device drivers are required. Hardware upgrades also
require direct hands-on contact by technical support personnel.
Virtual machines are 100 percent software. The virtual machine is nothing more than a set of files.
This includes files known as virtual disks, which replace hard disk storage. All the files for a single
virtual machine are located in one directory. Because the virtual machine uses standardized virtual
device drivers, the hardware can be upgraded without changing the virtual machine.
Multiple virtual machines are isolated from one another, which means you can have your database
server and your mail server running on the same physical computer. The isolation between the
virtual machines means that software-dependency conflicts and performance-tuning conflicts are not
a problem.
Because a virtual machine is just a set of files, it is simple to move the entire virtual machine to a
new server to perform hardware upgrades. This simplicity also makes disaster recovery planning
and testing much easier.
Easy to move and copy:
Encapsulated into files
Virtual machine Physical machine
Difficult to move or copy
Bound to a specific set of
p
Independent of physical hardware
Easy to manage:
Bound to a specific set of
hardware components
Often has a short life cycle
R i l t t
Isolated from other virtual machines
Insulated from hardware changes
Provides the ability to support
Requires personal contact
to upgrade hardware
Provides the ability to support
legacy applications
Allows servers to be consolidated
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Virtualization Using a Bare-Metal Hypervisor
Slide 2-9
A bare-metal
hypervisor hypervisor
system does
not require an
operating g
system. The
hypervisor is
the operating
t system.
ESXi uses a hypervisor architecture.
VS5OVR_LectureGuide.book Page 17 Thursday, August 25, 2011 10:55 PM
18 VMware vSphere: Overview
What Is VMware vSphere?
Slide 2-10
vSphere virtualizes and aggregates the underlying physical hardware resources across multiple
systems and provides pools of virtual resources to the datacenter. vSphere consists of the following
components:
VMware ESXi The virtualization platform for vSphere
VMware vCenter Server The central point for configuring, provisioning, and managing
virtualized IT environments
VMware vSphere Client An interface that allows users to connect remotely to vCenter
Server or ESXi from a Windows PC.
VMware vSphere VMFS A high-performance file system for ESXi virtual machines
VMware vSphere Virtual Symmetric Multiprocessing A feature that enables a single virtual
machine to use multiple physical processors simultaneously
vSphere also provides functionality for the following:
resource management (vSphere Distributed Resource Scheduler)
availability (vSphere High Availability)
data protection (VMware Consolidated Backup and VMware Data Recovery)
An infrastructure virtualization suite
that provides virtualization,
management, resource optimization, g p
application availability, and
operational automation capabilities
It consists of the following It consists of the following
components:
VMware ESXi
VMware vCenter Server VMware vCenter Server
VMware vSphere Client
VMware vSphere VMFS
VMware vSphere Virtual
Symmetric Multiprocessing
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vSphere Networking
Slide 2-11
Virtual networking, or vNetwork, provides several services to the host and virtual machines. You
can enable three types of network services in ESXi:
Connecting virtual machines to the physical network.
Connecting VMkernel services (such as NFS, iSCSI, or VMware vSphere vMotion) to the
physical network.
Networking for the management interface, which runs management services for ESXi (set up
by default during installation).
vNetwork supports two kinds of virtual switches:
vNetwork standard switch A virtual switch configuration at the host level.
vNetwork distributed switch A single virtual switch across all associated hosts. This aproach
allows virtual machines to maintain consistent network configuration as they migrate across
multiple hosts. This switch has similar components to a standard switch and is configured at the
vCenter Server level.
Virtual networking (vNetwork) capabilities optimally align physical
and virtual machine networking and provide the networking for hosts
and virtual machines and virtual machines.
vNetwork supports two types of virtual switches:
vNetwork standard switches
Virtual switch configuration for a single host
vNetwork distributed switches
Virtual switches that provide a consistent network configuration for virtual
machines as they migrate across multiple hosts
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20 VMware vSphere: Overview
What Is a Virtual Network? What Is a Virtual Switch?
Slide 2-12
A virtual network provides networking for ESXi hosts and virtual machines. The fundamental
component of a virtual network is a virtual switch. A virtual switch is a software construct,
implemented in the VMkernel, that provides networking connectivity for an ESXi host.
All network communication is handled by a host passes through one or more virtual switches. A
virtual switch provides connections for virtual machines to communicate with one another, whether
they are on the same host or on a different host. A virtual switch allows connections for the
management network on ESXi hosts and connections to access IP storage.
Virtual switches work at layer 2 of the OSI model. You cannot have two virtual switches mapped to
the same physical network interface card (NIC). But you can have two or more physical NICs
mapped to the same virtual switch.
Use virtual switches to combine the bandwidth of multiple network adapters and balance
communications traffic among them. You can also configure virtual switches to handle physical NIC
failover.
When two or more virtual machines are connected to the same virtual switch, network traffic among
them is routed locally. If an uplink adapter (physical Ethernet adapter) is attached to the virtual
switch, each virtual machine can access the external network that the adapter is connected to.
A virtual network provides the networking for hosts and virtual
A virtual switch:
Directs network traffic between
application
application
application
A virtual network provides the networking for hosts and virtual
machines that use virtual switches.
Directs network traffic between
virtual machines and links to
external networks.
Combines the bandwidth of
operating system
Virtual
NIC
operating system
application
Virtual
NIC
operating system
Virtual
NIC
Combines the bandwidth of
multiple network adapters and
balances traffic among them. It
can also handle physical
f ( C) network interface card (NIC)
failover.
Models a physical Ethernet
it h
Physical NIC
switch:
A virtual machines NIC can
connect to a port.
Each uplink adapter uses one
E t l W ld
physical
switch
ports p p
port.
External World
p
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Benefits of Distributed Virtual Switches
Slide 2-13
Having the network configuration at the datacenter level (distributed switches) instead of at the host
level (standard switches) offers several advantages:
Datacenter setup and administration are simplified by centralizing network configuration. For
example, adding a new host to a cluster and making it vMotion compatible is much easier.
Distributed switches support private VLANs. Private VLANs allow you to use VLAN IDs in a
private network without having to worry about duplicating VLAN IDs across a wider network.
Distributed Switches support Port mirroring, Netflow, and Network I/O Control.
Distributed ports migrate with their clients. So for example, when you migrate a virtual
machine with vMotion, the distributed port statistics and policies move with the virtual
machine, thus simplifying debugging and troubleshooting.
Enterprise networking vendors can provide proprietary networking interfaces to monitor,
control, and manage virtual networks. The vNetwork Appliance API allows third-party
developers to create distributed switch solutions.
Benefits of distributed switches over standard switches:
Simplify datacenter administration
Provide support for private VLANs Port mirroring Netflow Network I/O Provide support for private VLANs, Port mirroring, Netflow, Network I/O
Control
Enable networking statistics and policies to migrate with virtual machines
during a migration using VMware vMotion g g g
Provide for customization and third-party development
vSwitch vSwitch
vSwitch
Distributed Virtual Switch
t d d it h distributed switches standard switches distributed switches
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22 VMware vSphere: Overview
vSphere Storage Choices
Slide 2-14
ESXi hosts should be configured so that they have shared access to datastores. Datastores are logical
containers that hide specifics of each storage device and provide a uniform model for storing virtual
machine files. Depending on the type of storage that you use, datastores can be formatted with a
VMFS or a file system native to an operating or storage device that is shared using the Network File
System (NFS) protocol.
Several storage technologies are supported by ESXi hosts in the vSphere environment:
Direct-attached storage Internal or external storage disks or arrays attached to the host
through a direct connection instead of a network connection.
Fibre Channel A high-speed transport protocol used for storage area networks (SANs). Fibre
Channel encapsulates SCSI commands, which are transmitted between Fibre Channel nodes. In
general, a Fibre Channel node is a server, a storage system, or a tape drive. A Fibre Channel
switch interconnects multiple nodes, forming the fabric in a Fibre Channel network.
FCoE The Fibre Channel traffic is encapsulated into FCoE frames. These FCoE frames are
converged with the networking traffic. By enabling the same Ethernet link to carry both Fibre
Channel and Ethernet traffic, FCoE increases the use of the physical infrastructure and reduces
the total number of network ports and cabling.
ESXi hosts
datastore
types
NFS
VMware vSphere VMFS
yp
File
system
storage
technology
FCoE iSCSI
Fibre
Channel
Direct
Attached
NAS
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VMFS and NFS Datastores
Slide 2-15
A virtual machine is stored as a set of files in its own directory in the datastore. A datastore can also
be used for storing ISO images and virtual machine templates.
VMFS is a clustered file system that allows multiple physical servers to read and write to the same
storage device simultaneously. The cluster file system enables unique virtualization-based services.
The services include live migration of running virtual machines from one physical server to another
and clustering virtual machines across different physical servers for workload distribution and high
availability.
VMFS allows IT organizations to greatly simplify virtual machine provisioning by efficiently
storing the entire machine state in a central location. VMFS allows multiple ESXi hosts to access
shared virtual machine storage concurrently. VMFS provides the foundation that allows the scaling
of virtualization beyond the boundaries of a single system.
NFS is a file-sharing protocol that ESXi hosts use to communicate with a NAS device. NAS is a
specialized storage device that connects to a network and can provide file access services to ESXi
hosts.
NFS datastores are treated like VMFS datastores and can be used to hold virtual machines files,
templates, and ISO images. In addition, an NFS volume allows vMotion migration of virtual
machines whose files reside on an NFS datastore.
A datastore is a logical storage unit,
which can use disk space on one
physical device or one disk partition or physical device or one disk partition, or
span several physical devices.
Types of datastores:
S
ESXi host
VMFS
Network File System (NFS)
Datastores are used to hold virtual Datastores are used to hold virtual
machines, templates, and ISO images.
datastore
VM content
volume
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24 VMware vSphere: Overview
Physical File Systems Versus VMware vStorage VMFS
Slide 2-16
physical architecture virtual architecture
application
x86 architecture
operating system
x86 architecture
VMware vSphere
x86 architecture
VMware vSphere
NTFS,
ext3, UFS
VMFS
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Management Made Easy
Slide 2-17
vCenter Server and the vSphere Client interface make centralized management of the VMware
virtual infrastructure easy. During a default vSphere Client installation, a vSphere Client icon is
added to the user desktop.
To start the vSphere Client, double-click the vSphere Client icon, located on the desktop of the
system on which you installed the client.
In the login window, enter the host name or IP address of the vCenter Server system. If you are
launching the vSphere Client on the vCenter Server system, you can enter localhost as the name.
Enter your Windows user and password, which is either a local or domain account. To log in to the
vCenter Server system with the same user name and password that you used to start your Windows
session, select the Use Windows session credentials check box. If you do this, you do not have to
enter your user name and password in this login window.
The vSphere Client allows
you to centrally manage
your vSphere your vSphere
environment.
At the login screen, enter:
Host name or IP address
of the vCenter Server
system
Wi d d Windows user and
password
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26 VMware vSphere: Overview
User Interfaces
Slide 2-18
Two graphical user interfaces exist that can be used to interact with a vSphere environment. The
most common interface to use is named the vSphere Client. The vSphere Client provides all the
tools needed to effectively configure and manage your virtualized datacenter. The vSphere Client
can be used to connect to a vCenter Server or to an ESXi host. More features are available to you if
you connect to the vCenter Server.
The other interface is known as VMware vSphere Web Client, which a is browser-based, fully-
extensible, platform-independent implementation of the vSphere Client based on Adobe Flex. The
vSphere 5.0 release includes both the new browser-based client and the Windows-based client
available in prior releases. In this release, the browser-based client includes a subset of the features
available in the Windows-based client, primarily related to inventory display and virtual machine
deployment and configuration.
vSphere Client
ESXi
host
vCenter
Server
Web Client
Your
desktop
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Navigating the vSphere Client
Slide 2-19
When you log in to vCenter Server using the vSphere Client, the Home page is displayed. The
default layout is the Home page with a menu bar, navigation bar, search box, and panels. The Home
page contains icons for major vSphere Client functions, distributed across the following panels:
Inventory, Administration, and Management. When you log out of the vSphere Client, the client
application retains the view that was displayed when it was closed and returns you to that view
when you next log in.
The navigation bar displays the hierarchical navigational path to the current vSphere Client view.
For example, when you display the Host and Clusters Inventory view, the navigation bar displays
Home > Inventory > Hosts and Clusters. You can click an item in the navigation bar to display a
menu of all the options available at that level of the hierarchy.
The vSphere Client also has a search field, which is available in all its views. By default, the
vSphere Client searches every kind of inventory object, but you can click the icon to limit your
search. When you perform a simple search by entering search terms in the search field, the results
appear in a results pane directly beneath the search field.
search box
menu bar
Home page p g
navigation bar
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28 VMware vSphere: Overview
Viewing vCenter Server Inventory
Slide 2-20
The vCenter Server inventory is a hierarchy of objects. These objects are either containers of other
objects, such as folders, or objects that you manage. Examples of objects are hosts, virtual machines,
templates, clusters, resource pools, datastores, or networks. The inventory hierarchy is used to group
your objects in a meaningful way and provides a natural structure on which to apply permissions.
The topmost object in the vCenter Server inventory is vCenter Server, also known as the root folder.
You can change the name of the root folder, but you cannot add or remove it.
Under the root folder, one or more datacenter objects are created. A datacenter is the primary
container of inventory objects. From the datacenter you can add and organize inventory objects,
such as your hosts, virtual machines, datastores, and networks.
The vCenter Server inventory panels organize objects into a hierarchy.
Hosts and Clusters
Datastores
VMs and Templates Networks
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Lab 1
Slide 2-21
In this lab, you will become familiar with the vSphere Client user
interface.
Use the vSphere Client to log in to vCenter Server Use the vSphere Client to log in to vCenter Server.
Navigate through the vCenter Server inventory.
View licensing information.
VS5OVR_LectureGuide.book Page 29 Thursday, August 25, 2011 10:55 PM
30 VMware vSphere: Overview
Review of Learner Objectives
Slide 2-22
You should be able to do the following:
Describe the core concepts of virtualization.
Describe the main components of vSphere.
Describe virtual network components.
Describe datastores.
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Key Points
Slide 2-23
Virtual infrastructure allows dynamic mapping of compute, storage, and
network resources to business applications.
Virtualization allows multiple operating system instances to run Virtualization allows multiple operating system instances to run
concurrently on a single computer within virtual machines.
vSphere aggregates physical hardware resources and provides virtual
resources to the datacenter resources to the datacenter.
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32 VMware vSphere: Overview
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VMware vSphere: Overview 33

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M O D U L E 3
Creating Virtual Machines 3
Slide 3-1
Module 3
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34 VMware vSphere: Overview
You Are Here
Slide 3-2
VMware vSphere: Overview VMware vSphere: Overview
Course Introduction
Vi t l I f t t O i Virtual Infrastructure Overview
Creating Virtual Machines
Allocating Resources to Business Functions
Migrating Virtual Machines
Distributing Virtual Machine Workloads
Monitoring the Virtual Datacenter
High Availability and Fault Tolerance
Extending VMware vSphere Capabilities
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Module 3 Creating Virtual Machines 35

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Importance
Slide 3-3
Virtual machines are a core component of a virtual infrastructure.
VMware vSphere includes to the ability use templates to quickly
provision virtual machines A template is created by creating provision virtual machines. A template is created by creating,
configuring, and testing a virtual machine, and then converting it to
template format. Templates reduce deployment time and costly
mistakes when you deploy additional virtual machines. y p y
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36 VMware vSphere: Overview
Learner Objectives
Slide 3-4
After this lesson, you should be able to do the following:
Describe virtual machine hardware.
Create a virtual machine template.
Deploy a virtual machine from a template.
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What Is a Virtual Machine?
Slide 3-5
A virtual machine is a software construct controlled by the VMkernel. A virtual machine has virtual
hardware that appears as physical hardware to an installed guest operating system and its
applications. All virtual machine configuration information, state information, and data are
encapsulated in a set of discrete files stored on a datastore. This encapsulation means virtual
machines are portable and can easily be backed up or cloned.
Multiple methods exist for creating virtual machines. One way to create a virtual machine is by
launching a wizard in the VMware vSphere Client and answering a few simple questions. A
second and faster method is to use the vSphere Client to deploy the new virtual machine from a
virtual machine template. The second method (using templates) is discussed later in the module.
A virtual machine is:
A set of virtual hardware on
which a supported guest which a supported guest
operating system and its
applications run
A set of discrete files virtual machine A set of discrete files
A virtual machines configuration
file describes the virtual
machines configuration
MyVM.vmx
virtual machine
machines configuration,
including its virtual hardware.
Avoid using special characters
and spaces in the virtual

guestOS = winnetstandard
y
and spaces in the virtual
machines name.

displayName = MyVM
(etc.)
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38 VMware vSphere: Overview
Virtual Machine Hardware
Slide 3-6
A virtual machine uses virtual hardware. Each guest operating system sees ordinary hardware
devices and does not know that these devices are virtual. All virtual machines have uniform
hardware (except for a few variations that the system administrator can apply). Uniform hardware
makes virtual machines portable across VMware virtualization platforms.
For more about configuring virtual machine hardware, see vSphere Virtual Machine Configuration
Guide at http://www.vmware.com/support/pubs. For a complete list of virtual machine configuration
maximums, see Configuration Maximums at http://www.vmware.com/support/pubs.
Up to 1 TB
RAM
(up to 8 CPUs with
virtual SMPs
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Fast, Flexible, Guest Operating System Installations
Slide 3-7
Installing a guest operating system on your virtual machine is essentially the same as installing it on
a physical computer. To install the guest operating system, interact with the virtual machine through
the virtual machine console, accessible in the vSphere Client.
It is easy to install a guest operating system or an application by using ISO files and virtual
CD-ROM devices. To install software, you connect an ISO image loaded on an accessible datastore
to the virtual CD-ROM device. To simplify management, a library of ISO images can be written to a
datastore accessible to all VMware ESXi hosts. Although you can map a physical CD in a
physical CD-ROM device to the virtual CD-ROM device, using ISO images frees administration
staff from having to be physically present in the datacenter. Using ISO images also saves time and
reduces costs.
vSphere supports a wide variety of operating systems, including Windows, Linux, Solaris, and
Novell. For details on the supported guest operating systems, see Guest Operating System
Installation Guide at http://www.vmware.com/pdf/GuestOS_guide.pdf.
virtual machine
VM console
local
Install from ISO image to virtual disk.
Configure a datastore with a library of ISO
images for easy virtual machine
deployment and application installation. p y pp
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40 VMware vSphere: Overview
Enhanced Virtual Machine Performance
Slide 3-8
VMware Tools is a suite of utilities that enhances the performance of the virtual machines guest
operating system and improves management of the virtual machine.
VMware Tools installs into the guest operating system like an application. Installing VMware Tools
in the guest operating system is vital. Although the guest operating system can run without VMware
Tools, you lose important functionality and convenience. When you install VMware Tools, you
install the following:
The VMware Tools service. This service synchronizes the time in the guest operating system
with the time in the host operating system.
A set of VMware device drivers. These drivers include an SVGA display driver, the vmxnet
networking and the BusLogic SCSI drivers for some guest operating systems, the memory
control driver for efficient memory allocation between virtual machines, and the VMware
mouse driver.
The VMware Tools control panel, which enables you to modify settings and connect and
disconnect virtual devices.
The VMware user process, which enables you to copy and paste text between the guest
operating system and the managed host operating system.
VMware Tools
enhances
performance
Install VMware Tools into the guest
operating system.
p
and improve
management of a
virtual machine.
Features include: Features include:
Virtual machine
heartbeat
Improved mouse p
movement
Ability to gracefully
shut down virtual
machine
VMware
Tools
icon icon
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Reducing Virtual Machine Deployment Time
Slide 3-9
Templates are a VMware vCenter Server feature. A template is a master copy of a virtual machine
that can be used to create and provision new virtual machines. This image includes a guest operating
system, a set of applications, and a configuration that provides virtual counterparts to hardware
components.
Templates coexist with virtual machines at any level in the VMs and Templates inventory. You can
organize collections of virtual machines and templates into arbitrary folders and apply various
permissions both to virtual machines and templates.
Creating a library of templates can dramatically decrease provisioning time and reduce costly
mistakes.
A template is a VMware
C t S f t d vCenter Server feature used
to create and provision new
virtual machines.
A template is a master image A template is a master image
that typically includes a guest
operating system, a set of
applications, and a specific pp , p
virtual machine configuration.
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42 VMware vSphere: Overview
Creating a Template
Slide 3-10
Three ways exist to create a template:
Clone a virtual machine to a template.
Convert a virtual machine to a template.
Clone an existing template.
When you clone a virtual machine to template, the original virtual machine is retained. When you
convert a virtual machine to a template, the original virtual machine goes away. When you clone an
existing template, you make a copy of a template that has already been created.
The Clone to Template option offers the choice between normal (uncompressed) and compact disk
(compressed) format. The Convert to Template option leaves the virtual machines disk file intact
(which uses normal disk format).
Clone the virtual machine to a
template.
The virtual machine can either
b d d ff be powered on or powered off.
Convert the virtual machine to a
template.
Th i t l hi t b The virtual machine must be
powered off.
Clone a template.
Select the template in inventory
first.
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Deploying a Virtual Machine from a Template
Slide 3-11
To deploy a virtual machine from a template, navigate to the VMs and Templates inventory view.
Right-click the template and select Deploy Virtual Machine from this Template. The Deploy
Template wizard asks you for virtual machine deployment information. You also have the option of
allowing vCenter Server to customize the guest operating system for you.
The Guest Customization wizard allows you to create specifications that you can use to prepare the
guest operating systems of virtual machines to function in a target environment.
You can store specifications in the database to customize the guest operating system of a virtual
machine during the cloning or deploying process. Use the Customization Specification Manager to
manage customization specifications that you create with the Guest Customization wizard.
To deploy a virtual machine, provide such information as virtual
machine name, inventory location, host, datastore, and guest
operating system customization data operating system customization data.
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44 VMware vSphere: Overview
Deploying Virtual Machines Across Datacenters
Slide 3-12
vCenter Server allows you to provision virtual machines across datacenters. Administrators can
create a template in one datacenter and then deploy a virtual machine from that template, placing the
virtual machine in a different datacenter.
In the preceding example, an administrator can deploy a virtual machine from the template named
Lab VM Template, located in Datacenter B, to a folder (for example, Test VMs) in Datacenter A.
Virtual machine
deployment is allowed
across datacenters across datacenters.
For example, deploy
from a template located
in one datacenter to a in one datacenter to a
virtual machine in a
different datacenter.
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Hot-Adding Devices to Virtual Machines
Slide 3-13
After a virtual machine has been deployed and is being used, it is possible to add several devices to
the virtual machine while it is powered on. These devices are known as hot-pluggable.
To add hardware to your virtual machine, in the virtual machine Properties dialog box, click Add.
The list of devices that you are allowed to add depends on whether the virtual machine you selected
is powered on or powered off.
In the preceding example, the virtual machine is powered on. The devices that you are allowed to
add while the virtual machine is powered on are USB controllers, Ethernet adapters, hard disks, and
SCSI devices. (Although you can add a USB controller to a virtual machine, attaching USB devices
is not supported at this time.)
CPU and memory can also be added while the virtual machine is powered on if the guest operating
system supports this task. In addition, VMware Tools must be enabled for hot-plug functionality for
this feature to work properly.
For a list of guest operating systems that provide hot-add support of CPU and memory, see the
Guest Operating System Installation Guide at http://www.vmware.com/support/pubs.
Certain devices (hot-
pluggable devices) can
be added while the be added while the
virtual machine is up
and running.
CPU and memory can CPU and memory can
also be added while the
virtual machine is
powered on powered on.
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46 VMware vSphere: Overview
Lab 2
Slide 3-14
In this lab, you will perform virtual machine template operations.
1. Modify a virtual machine.
2. Convert a virtual machine to a template.
3. Deploy a virtual machine from a template.
4. Convert a template back to a virtual machine. p
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Review of Learner Objectives
Slide 3-15
You should be able to do the following:
Describe virtual machine hardware.
Create a virtual machine template.
Deploy a virtual machine from a template.
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48 VMware vSphere: Overview
Key Points
Slide 3-16
A virtual machine is a set of virtual hardware on which a supported
guest operating system and its applications run.
A template is a master image that typically includes a guest operating A template is a master image that typically includes a guest operating
system, a set of applications, and a specific virtual machine
configuration.
Deploying virtual machines from a template provides a fast easy Deploying virtual machines from a template provides a fast, easy,
scalable method for creating virtual machines.
Virtual machine hardware is scalable enough to meet most business
and application needs. pp
VMware Tools enhances the performance and improves the
management of a virtual machine.
Certain devices (hot-pluggable devices) can be added while the virtual Certain devices (hot pluggable devices) can be added while the virtual
machine is up and running.
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M O D U L E 4
Allocating Resources to Business
Functions 4
Slide 4-1 g
Module 4
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50 VMware vSphere: Overview
You Are Here
Slide 4-2
VMware vSphere: Overview VMware vSphere: Overview pp
Course Introduction
Vi t l I f t t O i Virtual Infrastructure Overview
Creating Virtual Machines
Allocating Resources to Business Functions
Migrating Virtual Machines
Distributing Virtual Machine Workloads
Monitoring the Virtual Datacenter g
High Availability and Fault Tolerance
Extending VMware vSphere Capabilities
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Importance
Slide 4-3
Resource allocation settings for resource pools allow CPU and
memory resources to be hierarchically assigned to meet the
business requirements of your organization Resource allocation business requirements of your organization. Resource allocation
settings for virtual machines provide finer-grained tuning options to
meet the business requirements of your applications.
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52 VMware vSphere: Overview
Learner Objectives
Slide 4-4
After this lesson, you should be able to do the following:
Describe virtual machine CPU and memory resource controls.
Understand how resource pools work.
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CPU Management Supports Server Consolidation
Slide 4-5
Physical servers in a typical datacenter use on average less than 10 percent of their available CPU
resources. Higher CPU utilization can be achieved by combining multiple virtual machines on one
physical server. This efficient use of CPU resources reduces datacenter capital and operating costs.
VMware ESXi hosts often achieve and maintain 80 to 90 percent CPU utilization.
A virtual machine is configured with at least one virtual CPU (vCPU). When a vCPU needs to run,
the VMkernel maps the vCPU to an available hardware execution context (HEC). An HEC is a
processors capability to schedule one thread of execution. An HEC is a CPU core or a hyperthread,
if the CPU supports hyperthreading. Hyperthreaded or multicore CPUs provide two or more HECs
on which vCPUs can be scheduled to run.
Using ESXis virtual symmetric multiprocessor feature (VMware Virtual SMP) means virtual
machines can be configured with one to 32 vCPUs. For example, a single-vCPU virtual machine
gets scheduled on one HEC at a time. A two-vCPU virtual machine gets scheduled on two HECs at
a time, or not at all. A four-vCPU virtual machine gets scheduled on four HECs at a time, or not at
all.
A virtual machine can have up to 32
virtual CPUs (vCPUs).
When a vCPU must be scheduled the When a vCPU must be scheduled, the
VMkernel maps a vCPU to a hardware
execution context (HEC).
A hardware execution context is a A hardware execution context is a
processors capability to schedule
one thread of execution.
A core or a hyperthread
HEC HEC HEC
yp
VMkernel load balances
All the vCPUs in a virtual machine are
scheduled at the same time. scheduled at the same time.
HEC HEC HEC HEC
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54 VMware vSphere: Overview
How Virtual Machines Compete for Resources
Slide 4-6
The proportional share mechanism applies to CPU, memory, and storage I/O allocation and operates
only when virtual machines are contending for the same resource.
Shares guarantee that a virtual machine is given a certain amount of a resource (CPU, RAM, or
storage I/O). For example, consider the third row of virtual machines on the slide, where virtual
machine D has been powered on with 1,000 shares. Before it was powered on, a total of 5,000
shares were available, but virtual machine Ds addition increases the total shares to 6,000. The
shares of all other virtual machines decline in value. But each virtual machines share value still
represents a minimum guarantee. Virtual machine A is still guaranteed one-sixth of the resource
because it owns one-sixth of the shares.
You can add shares to a virtual machine while it is running, and it will get more access to that
resource (assuming competition for the resource). When you add a virtual machine, it gets shares,
too. The virtual machines share amount factors into the total number of shares, but the existing
virtual machines are guaranteed not to be starved for the resource. When you delete or power off a
virtual machine, fewer total shares remain, so the surviving virtual machines get more access.
Proportional-share system for relative resource management:
Applied during resource contention
Prevents virtual machines from monopolizing resources
Number of shares
Prevents virtual machines from monopolizing resources
Guarantees predictable resource shares
Number of shares
Change number of Change number of
shares
Power on VM Power on VM
Power off VM
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Limits, Reservations, and Shares,
Slide 4-7
A virtual machine has three user-defined settings that affect its resource allocation: limit,
reservation, and shares.
When a host resource is overcommitted, a virtual machines allocation target is somewhere between
its specified reservation and specified limit depending on the virtual machines shares and the
system load. VMware vSphere 5 employs a share-based allocation algorithm to achieve efficient
resource use for all virtual machines and to guarantee a given resource to those virtual machines
which need it most. There are three configurable parameters which control a virtual machines
access to a given resource: shares, reservation, and limit.
Limit: Consumption of CPU cycles or host physical memory cannot exceed this value.
Reservation: This value, defined in terms of CPU or memory, must be available in order for the
virtual machine to start.
Shares: A value that specifies the relative priority or importance of a virtual machines access to
a given resource.
Limit
This value is the cap on the
consumption of CPU time by this consumption of CPU time by this
virtual machine, measured in MHz.
Reservation
This value is the number of CPU
cycles reserved for this virtual
machine, measured in MHz.
The VMkernel chooses which CPUs
it can migrate.
Shares
Having more shares means that this
virtual machine will win competitions
for CPU time more often.
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56 VMware vSphere: Overview
Virtual Memory Management
Slide 4-8
Although physical servers in a datacenter are often configured with large amounts of memory, only
a small portion is typically active at any one time. Higher active memory use is achieved by
combining multiple virtual machines on one physical server. This efficient use of memory resources
reduces datacenter capital and operating costs.
The definition of virtual memory remains unchanged in a virtual datacenter. Virtual memory is
managed by the virtual machines guest operating system and includes both real memory and disk
space.
Memory that is managed by the guest operating system in the virtual machine is called physical
memory. Physical memory is analogous to the memory available in a physical server.
The ESXi VMkernel manages the servers RAM. RAM in an ESXi host is called machine memory.
Various pages of machine memory are collected and presented as contiguous memory to each virtual
machine. Virtual machines might be sharing identical pages of read-only machine memory, which is
called transparent page sharing and is discussed next.
Virtual memory
This is memory mapped by an
application inside the guest li ti application inside the guest
operating system.
Physical memory
application
Host presents virtual machines
with physical pages.
Machine memory
guest OS
This represents actual pages
allocated by host from RAM.
hypervisor
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Using Memory Efficiently
Slide 4-9
ESXi uses several features that are designed by VMware to support efficient use of RAM and higher
consolidation ratios. Transparent page sharing is one of these features.
The VMkernel detects when different virtual machines have memory pages with identical content
and arranges for those pages to be shared. That is, a single physical page is mapped into each virtual
machines address space. If a virtual machine tries to modify a page that is (unbeknownst to it)
shared, the VMkernel creates a new, private copy for that virtual machine and then maps that page
into the address space of that virtual machine only. The other virtual machines continue to share the
original copy.
Transparent page sharing is enabled by default. The system dynamically scans memory to look for
duplicate pages. This mechanism is a way in which an ESXi host tries proactively to conserve
physical memory so that it does not have to resort to the other techniques.
Transparent page sharing
allows the VMkernel to use
physical memory efficiently. p y y y
The VMkernel detects identical
pages in virtual machines
memory and maps them to the
same underlying physical page.
No changes to guest operating
system required
The VMkernel treats the shared
pages as copy-on-write.
Read-only when shared
Private copies after write
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58 VMware vSphere: Overview
Supporting Higher Consolidation Ratios
Slide 4-10
Another feature that ESXi uses to support efficient use of RAM and higher consolidation ratios is
the balloon driver. The term balloon driver is an informal way of referring to the vmmemctl device
driver. The balloon driver is installed into the guest operating system when you install VMware
Tools.
When a virtual machine needs to yield memory, the best approach is to let the guest operating
system in that virtual machine pick which pages of memory to give up. The virtual machine knows
which pages have been least recently used and which pages can easily be refreshed from some
backing store on disk. This is what vmmemctl achieves: a balloon driver is installed in the guest
operating system when you install VMware Tools.
The balloon drivers only function is to demand memory from the guest operating system and later
to relinquish it, under the control of the VMkernel.
The guest operating system in the virtual machine is not aware (at any level) of the communication
taking place between the balloon driver and the VMkernel. The guest operating system is aware that
the balloon driver is installed but is not aware of its purpose.
When a system is not under memory pressure, no virtual machines balloon is inflated. But when
memory becomes scarce, the VMkernel chooses a virtual machine and inflates its balloon. That is, it
tells the balloon driver in that virtual machine to demand memory from the guest operating system.
Ample memory.
The VMware Tools balloon driver
supports higher memory consolidation
ratios
Balloon remains
uninflated.
ratios.
Deallocate memory from selected virtual
machines when RAM is scarce.
Inflate balloon.
(Driver demands
memory from
Guest is forced to page out to its own
paging area. The VMkernel reclaims
memory memory from
guest operating
system.)
memory.
Guest can page in Host Guest can page in. Host
grants memory.
Deflate balloon.
(Driver relinquishes
memory.)
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The guest operating system complies by yielding memory, according to its own algorithms. The
VMkernel can assign relinquished pages to other virtual machines.
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60 VMware vSphere: Overview
Using Resource Pools to Meet Business Needs
Slide 4-11
Resource pools provide a business with the ability to divide and allocate CPU and memory
resources hierarchically as required by business need. Reasons to divide and allocate CPU and
memory resources include such things as maintaining administrative boundaries, enforcing charge-
back policies, or accommodating geographic locations or departmental divisions. Resource pools are
also used to delegate privileges to other users and groups.
Configuring CPU and memory resource pools is possible on nonclustered (standalone) ESXi hosts
or in a cluster enabled for VMware Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS). Clusters are indicated in
the inventory with pie chart icons.
The topmost resource pool is known as the root resource pool. The root resource pool consists of the
CPU and memory resources of a particular ESXi host or DRS cluster. It is possible to further divide
and allocate resources by creating child resource pools.
A resource pool:
Is a logical abstraction
for hierarchically for hierarchically
managing CPU and
memory resources
Is used on standalone
hosts or clusters hosts or clusters
enabled for VMware
Distributed Resource
Scheduler (DRS)
resource
pools
root
resource
pool
A resource pool
provides resources for
virtual machines and
child pools
Geography?
Department?
F ti ?
pool
child pools. Function?
Hardware?
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Resource Pool Settings
Slide 4-12
Like virtual machines, a resource pool has reservation, limit, and share values for both CPU and
memory resources:
Shares They guarantee that the resource pool is given a certain amount of CPU and memory
resources.
Reservation This is the minimum amount of CPU and memory resources that are required by
the resource pool.
Limit This is the maximum amount of CPU and memory resources given to this resource
pool. By default, the resource pool is given unlimited access to the maximum amount of
resources (specified by the limit).
Expandable reservation This allows a resource pool that cannot satisfy a reservation request to
search through its hierarchy to find unreserved capacity to satisfy the reservation request.
Shares, reservations, and limits can also be applied at the virtual machine level and are constrained
by the resources of the resource pool to which the virtual machine belongs.
To create a resource pool, right-click a host or cluster object in the vCenter Server inventory and
select Create Resource Pool. The Create Resource Pool dialog box appears.
Resource pools have the following
attributes:
Shares
Low, Normal, High, Custom
Reservations, in MHz and MB
Limits in MHz and MB Limits, in MHz and MB
Unlimited access, by default (up to
maximum amount of resource
accessible))
Expandable reservation?
Yes Virtual machines and
subpools can draw from this pools p p
parent.
No Virtual machines and subpools
can draw only from this pool, even if
its parent has free resources its parent has free resources.
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62 VMware vSphere: Overview
Resource Pools Example: CPU Contention
Slide 4-13
Assume that all four virtual machines have been scheduled by the VMkernel onto the same physical
CPU. The virtual machines are in direct competition with one another.
The Engineering pool gets 33 percent of that CPU and then splits its allotment between virtual
machines Eng-Test and Eng-Prod. Likewise, the Finance pool gets 67 percent of that CPU and splits
its 67 percent allotment between virtual machines Fin-Test and Fin-Prod. A virtual machines
resource settings are constrained by the resources of the resource pool to which the virtual machine
belongs.
The virtual machine Eng-Test gets approximately 33 percent of the CPU allocation of the
Engineering resource pool [1,000/(1,000+2,000)]. This figure is equal to about 11 percent of the
physical CPU (33 percent of 33 percent equals about 11 percent). Each of the virtual machines gets
a percentage of the physical CPU allocated to its resource pool that is based on its individual share
allocation.
The example on the slide uses approximations to explain how the number of shares affects the
amount of CPU allocated to a virtual machine.
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Lab 3
Slide 4-14
In this lab, you will configure resource pools to allocate CPU.
1. View resource pool information.
2. Verify resource pool functionality.
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64 VMware vSphere: Overview
Review of Learner Objectives
Slide 4-15
You should be able to do the following:
Describe virtual machine CPU and memory resource controls.
Understand how resource pools work.
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Key Points
Slide 4-16
The proportional-share system prevents any single virtual machine
from monopolizing CPU or memory resources.
Transparent page sharing and the balloon driver are mechanisms for Transparent page sharing and the balloon driver are mechanisms for
allowing the VMkernel to make efficient use of physical memory.
A resource pool is a logical abstraction for hierarchically managing
CPU and memory resources CPU and memory resources.
All the vCPUs in a virtual machine must be simultaneously scheduled.
Settings used to allocate CPU or memory resources are limit,
reservation and shares reservation, and shares.
The root resource pool consists of the CPU and memory resources of
a particular host or DRS cluster.
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66 VMware vSphere: Overview
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VMware vSphere: Overview 67

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M O D U L E 5
Migrating Virtual Machines 5
Slide 5-1
Module 5
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68 VMware vSphere: Overview
You Are Here
Slide 5-2
VMware vSphere: Overview VMware vSphere: Overview
Course Introduction
Vi t l I f t t O i Virtual Infrastructure Overview
Creating Virtual Machines
Allocating Resources to Business Functions
Migrating Virtual Machines
Distributing Virtual Machine Workloads
Monitoring the Virtual Datacenter
High Availability and Fault Tolerance
Extending VMware vSphere Capabilities
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Module 5 Migrating Virtual Machines 69

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Importance
Slide 5-3
VMware vSphere vMotion and vSphere Storage vMotion are
valuable VMware tools for delivering higher service levels and
improving overall hardware utilization and balance improving overall hardware utilization and balance.
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70 VMware vSphere: Overview
Learner Objectives
Slide 5-4
After this lesson, you should be able to do the following:
Describe the benefits of vMotion.
Describe the vMotion process.
Using vMotion to migrate a live virtual machine.
Describe the benefits of Storage vMotion. g
Describe the Storage vMotion process.
Use Storage vMotion to migrate the files of a live virtual machine.
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vMotion Migration
Slide 5-5
VMware vSphere vMotion is a VMware vCenter Server feature that moves a running virtual
machine from one VMware ESXi host to another with no virtual machine downtime.
vMotion capitalizes on the fact that the entire state of a running virtual machine is encapsulated in
memory and a set of files on a datastore. vMotion requires at least a dedicated Gigabit Ethernet
network to move the memory from one ESXi host to another. Virtual machine files do not have to be
moved, because both the source and target hosts have access to the datastore containing the virtual
machines files. Migrated virtual machines maintain their unique host name, IP address, and MAC
address.
vMotion enables higher service levels. Virtual machines can be moved from one host to another to
do the following:
Make the most efficient use of your hardware
Accommodate planned downtime for hardware maintenance
Distribute virtual machine workloads across multiple ESXi hosts
A vMotion migration moves a
powered-on virtual machine
from one host to another.
vMotion can be used to do
the following:
Improve overall hardware
utilization
Allow continued virtual
machine operation while
accommodating scheduled accommodating scheduled
hardware downtime
Allow VMware Distributed
Resource Scheduler (DRS) Resource Scheduler (DRS)
to balance virtual machines
across hosts
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72 VMware vSphere: Overview
How vMotion Works
Slide 5-6
vMotion works as follows:
1. A vMotion migration is initiated with the Migrate Virtual Machine wizard. In this example, the
source host is esx01 and the destination, or target, host is esx02. Both source and target host
have access to the shared datastore holding the virtual machines files.
2. The virtual machines memory state is copied over the vMotion network from the source to the
target host. Users continue to access the virtual machine and, possibly, to update pages in
memory. A list of modified pages is kept in a memory bitmap on the source host.
3. After most of the virtual machines memory is copied from the source to the target host, the
virtual machine is quiesced: no additional activity occurs on the virtual machine. During this
quiesce period, vMotion transfers the virtual machine device state and memory bitmap to the
target host.
4. Immediately after the virtual machine is quiesced on the source host, the virtual machine is
initialized and starts running on the target host. Additionally, a Reverse Address Resolution
Protocol (RARP) request notifies the subnet that virtual machine As MAC address is now on a
new switch port.
5. Users are now accessing the virtual machine on the target host instead of the source host.
6. The virtual machine is deleted from the source host.
vMotion network
Production network
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Virtual Machine Requirements for vMotion Migration
Slide 5-7
The vMotion migration produces an error in certain conditions, which are stated on the slide. When
an error is encountered, the migration does not proceed until you fix the error.
You cannot migrate virtual machines that are attached to a virtual intranet with vMotion, even if the
destination host has a virtual intranet configured with the same network label.
You cannot use vMotion to migrate a virtual machine that uses a virtual device that is backed by a
device on the client computer. Disconnect these devices before migrating the virtual machine.
vMotion also produces warnings in certain conditions, for example, when a virtual machine is
configured to access a local CD-ROM drive or floppy image but is not connected to it. The vMotion
migration still proceeds even if warnings have not been addressed.
For the complete list of vMotion migration requirements, see vSphere Datacenter Administration Guide at
http://www.vmware.com/support/pubs.
A virtual machine must meet the following requirements:
A virtual machine must not have a connection to an internal vSwitch
(vSwitch with zero uplink adapters) (vSwitch with zero uplink adapters).
A virtual machine must not have a connection to a virtual device (such
as a CD-ROM or floppy drive) with a local image mounted.
A i t l hi t t h CPU ffi it fi d A virtual machine must not have CPU affinity configured.
If the virtual machines swap file is not accessible to the destination
host, vMotion must be able to create a swap file accessible to the
destination host before migration can begin destination host before migration can begin.
If a virtual machine uses an RDM, the RDM must be accessible by the
destination host.
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74 VMware vSphere: Overview
Performing a vMotion Migration
Slide 5-8
Before migrating a virtual machine with vMotion, ensure that your hosts and virtual machines meet
the requirements for migration with vMotion.
To migrate a virtual machine using vMotion, right-click a virtual machine that is powered on and
select Migrate. Two migration types are available: Change host and Change datastore. Select
Change host to perform a vMotion migration. (Change datastore performs a migration using
vMotion.) You are also prompted to select a destination host or cluster for the virtual machine, a
resource pool, and the migration priority level.
F th VM C t S i t i ht li k i t l From the VMware vCenter Server inventory, right-click a virtual
machine that is powered on and select Migrate.
vMotion
Cold; Function
available when virtual
machine is powered
off off
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Storage vMotion
Slide 5-9
The following are the several uses of vSphere Storage vMotion:
Moving virtual machines off a storage device to allow maintenance or reconfiguration of the
storage device without virtual machine downtime.
Manually redistributing virtual machines or virtual disks to different storage volumes to balance
capacity and improve performance.
Evacuating physical storage that is about to be retired, such as storage arrays whose
maintenance and release cycles are coming to an end.
Storage tiering: migrating virtual machines from Fibre Channel to iSCSI or NAS or in or
between enclosures, or moving virtual machines to tiered storage with different service levels
due to changing business requirements for that virtual machine.
Upgrading datastores without virtual machine downtime. You can migrate running virtual
machines from a VMFS-2 datastore to a VMFS-3 datastore and upgrade the VMFS-2 datastore
without affecting virtual machines. You can then use Storage vMotion to migrate virtual
machines back to the original datastore without virtual machine downtime.
Storage vMotion is storage-type independent and works across NFS datastores as well as across
VMFS datastores on Fibre Channel, iSCSI, and local SCSI storage.
Storage vMotion allows you to do the
following:
Perform storage maintenance g
and reconfiguration
Redistribute storage load
Evacuate physical storage Evacuate physical storage
soon to be retired
Perform storage tiering
Upgrade VMware ESXihosts Upgrade VMware ESXi hosts
without virtual machine
downtime
Storage vMotion is Storage vMotion is
storage-type independent.
Source and destination can be
different storage types different storage types.
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76 VMware vSphere: Overview
Storage vMotion in Action
Slide 5-10
In VMware vSphere 5, Storage vMotion uses an I/O mirroring architecture, called mirror mode, to
copy disk blocks between source and destination. Mirror mode produces predictable results, shorter
migration times, and fewer I/O operations. This method also guarantees migration success even
when using a slow destination. Mirror mode works as follows:
1. The virtual machine directory is copied from the source datastore to the destination datastore.
2. The mirror mode driver takes a single pass and copies the virtual disk file or files from the
source to the destination. The mirror mode driver keeps track of which blocks have been copied
to the destination disk. If a write occurs to a disk block on the source that has already been
copied to the destination, the mirror mode driver copies the modified block to the destination.
3. The virtual machine on the destination datastore is started using the copied files. The
destination virtual machine waits for all virtual machine disk files to finish being copied from
the source datastore to the destination datastore.
4. After the single-pass copy is complete, Storage vMotion transfers control to the virtual machine
on the destination datastore.
5. The virtual machine directory and the virtual machines disk files are deleted from the source
datastore.
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This approach guarantees complete transactional integrity and is fast enough to be unnoticeable to
the end user.
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78 VMware vSphere: Overview
Migrating with Storage vMotion
Slide 5-11
To migrate a virtual machine with Storage vMotion:
Right-click a powered-on virtual machine and select Migrate.
In the Migrate Virtual Machine wizard, select Change datastore.
You select the destination datastore as well as the disk format of the virtual disk. By default, the
disk format used is the same format as the sources disk format.
Virtual Machine > Migrate
Storage vMotion
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Storage vMotion Guidelines and Limitations
Slide 5-12
A virtual machine and its host must meet certain resource and configuration requirements for the
virtual machine disks to be migrated with Storage vMotion. One of the requirements is that the host
on which the virtual machine is running must have access both to the source datastore and to the
target datastore.
Storage vMotion is subject to the following limitations:
Virtual machine disks must be in persistent mode or be RDMs. For virtual compatibility mode
RDMs, you can migrate the mapping file or convert to thick-provisioned or thin-provisioned
disks during migration if the destination is not an NFS datastore. For physical compatibility
mode RDMs, you can migrate only the mapping file.
You cannot migrate virtual machines to a different host and a different datastore
simultaneously, unless you power off the virtual machine.
Storage vMotion of a virtual machine in snapshot mode with associated snapshots is now supported. Allows the user
to better manage storage capacity and performance by leveraging flexibility of migrating a virtual machine and its
snapshots to a different datastore.
Guidelines:
Plan and coordinate with administrators.
Perform during off-peak hours.
Ensure that source host has access both to source datastores and
target datastores.
Limitations:
Virtual machine disks must be in persistent mode or be RDMs.
The virtual machine must be powered off to concurrently migrate to The virtual machine must be powered off to concurrently migrate to
another host and datastore.
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80 VMware vSphere: Overview
Lab 4
Slide 5-13
In this lab, you will migrate virtual machines with Storage vMotion
and vMotion.
Use Storage vMotion to migrate a virtual machine Use Storage vMotion to migrate a virtual machine.
Verify that your virtual machines settings meet vMotion requirements.
Verify that your VMware ESXi host meets vMotion requirements.
Perform a vMotion migration of your virtual machine.
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Review of Learner Objectives
Slide 5-14
You should be able to do the following:
Describe the benefits of vMotion.
Describe the vMotion process.
Using vMotion to migrate a live virtual machine.
Describe the benefits of Storage vMotion. g
Describe the Storage vMotion process.
Use Storage vMotion to migrate the files of a live virtual machine.
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82 VMware vSphere: Overview
Key Points
Slide 5-15
The Migrate Virtual Machine wizard allows you to perform either a
vMotion or a Storage vMotion migration.
If a virtual machine or host does not meet one or more vMotion If a virtual machine or host does not meet one or more vMotion
requirements, the Migrate Virtual Machine wizard catches any
inconsistencies during its validation process.
Storage vMotion can be used to redistribute the storage load while Storage vMotion can be used to redistribute the storage load while
virtual machines are up and running.
Storage vMotion can ease the process of storage maintenance and
reconfiguration. g
vMotion can be used to balance live virtual machines across hosts in a
DRS cluster.
vMotion is the underlying technology required for DRS to function vMotion is the underlying technology required for DRS to function
properly.
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M O D U L E 6
Distributing Virtual Machine
Workloads 6
Slide 6-1
Module 6
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84 VMware vSphere: Overview
You Are Here
Slide 6-2
VMware vSphere: Overview VMware vSphere: Overview pp
Course Introduction
Vi l I f O i Virtual Infrastructure Overview
Creating Virtual Machines
Allocating Resources to Business Functions
Migrating Virtual Machines
Distributing Virtual Machine Workloads
Monitoring the Virtual Datacenter g
High Availability and Fault Tolerance
Extending VMware vSphere Capabilities
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Module 6 Distributing Virtual Machine Workloads 85

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Importance
Slide 6-3
VMware Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS) clusters assist
systems administrators by providing automated resource
management across multiple VMware ESXihosts Automatic management across multiple VMware ESXi hosts. Automatic
resource management, along with more efficient use of hardware
resources, lowers operating costs.
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86 VMware vSphere: Overview
Learner Objectives
Slide 6-4
After this lesson, you should be able to do the following:
Describe the function and benefits of DRS.
Create and configure a DRS cluster.
Create resource pools in a DRS cluster.
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What Is a DRS Cluster?
Slide 6-5
A cluster is a collection of ESXi hosts and associated virtual machines with shared resources and a
shared management interface. When you add a host to a DRS cluster, the hosts resources become
part of the clusters resources. In addition, you can support cluster-wide resource pools and enforce
cluster-level resource allocation policies. The following cluster-level resource management
capabilities are also available:
Initial placement When you first power on a virtual machine in the cluster, DRS either places
the virtual machine on an appropriate host or makes a recommendation.
Load balancing DRS continuously monitors the distribution and usage of CPU and memory
resources for all hosts and virtual machines in the cluster. DRS compares these metrics to an
ideal resource use, given the attributes of the clusters resource pools and virtual machines and
the current demand. DRS then performs (or recommends) virtual machine migrations
accordingly.
Power management When vSphere DPM is enabled, DRS compares cluster-level and host-
level capacity to the demands of the clusters virtual machines, including recent historical
demand. DRS places (or recommends placing) hosts in standby power mode if sufficient excess
capacity is found or powering on hosts if capacity is needed. Depending on the resulting host
power state recommendations, virtual machines might have to be migrated to and from the
hosts.
A cluster is a collection of
ESXi hosts and associated
virtual machines virtual machines.
A DRS cluster is managed by
VMware vCenter Server and
has these resource has these resource
management capabilities:
Initial placement
cluster
Load distribution
Power management
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88 VMware vSphere: Overview
What is Storage DRS?
Slide 6-6
Storage DRS requires that Storage I/O Control be enabled on all the datastores in a datastore cluster.
When Storage DRS is enabled with I/O metrics, Storage I/O Control is enabled on the datastores in
a datastore cluster. Storage I/O Control monitors the I/O metrics of the datastores. Storage DRS uses
this information to determine whether a virtual machine should be moved from one datastore to
another. Storage DRS uses Storage vMotion for storage load balancing.
Storage DRS is used to automatically load balance across multiple
datastores.
Datastores are grouped Datastores are grouped.
Performs automatic placement of virtual machines upon creation.
Storage DRS runs infrequently and does analysis to determine long
t l d b l i term load balancing.
Storage DRS does not use real-time latency to calculate load
balancing.
I/O load history is checked once every 8 hours.
Storage DRS requires that Storage I/O Control be enabled on all the
datastores.
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Creating a DRS Cluster
Slide 6-7
A DRS cluster is configured using a wizard in the VMware vSphere Client. The user is
prompted to provide the cluster a unique name and enable it for DRS.
To create a DRS cluster, right-click your datacenter in the inventory and select New Cluster. The
New Cluster Wizard appears. On the Cluster Features page, enter a descriptive name for your cluster
and select the Turn On vSphere DRS check box.
Ri ht li k d t t Right-click your datacenter.
Select New Cluster.
Name your cluster, y ,
then select the
Turn On vSphere DRS
check box.
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90 VMware vSphere: Overview
DRS Cluster Settings: Automation Level
Slide 6-8
To create a DRS cluster, right-click your datacenter in the inventory and select New Cluster. The
New Cluster Wizard appears. On the Cluster Features page, enter a descriptive name for your cluster
and select the Turn On vSphere DRS check box.
On the vSphere DRS page (shown on the slide), you define the automation level. The automation
level determines whether DRS makes migration recommendations or automatically places virtual
machines on hosts. DRS makes decisions on placement when a virtual machine is powered on and
when virtual machines must be rebalanced across hosts in the cluster. The automation levels are:
Manual When you power on a virtual machine, DRS displays a list of recommended hosts on
which to place the virtual machine. When the cluster becomes unbalanced, DRS displays
recommendations for virtual machine migration.
Partially automated When you power on a virtual machine, DRS places it on the best-suited
host. When the cluster becomes unbalanced, DRS displays recommendations for virtual
machine migration.
Fully automated When you power on a virtual machine, DRS places it on the best-suited
host. When the cluster becomes unbalanced, DRS migrates virtual machines from overused
hosts to underused hosts to ensure a balanced use of cluster resources.
Configure the automation level for Configure the automation level for
initial placement of virtual machines
and dynamic balancing while virtual
machines are running.
A t ti I iti l VM D i Automation
level
Initial VM
placement
Dynamic
balancing
Manual Manual Manual
Partially
Automatic Manual
automated
Automatic Manual
Fully
automated
Automatic Automatic
Migration threshold determines
how quickly virtual machines
are migrated.
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Initial placement occurs when you power on or a resume a virtual machine. By default, DRS decides
how many resources that virtual machine is entitled to and picks the appropriate host for it. If your
automation level is manual, you must manually perform the initial placement. A prioritized list of
recommendations is presented to help you make good decisions.
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92 VMware vSphere: Overview
Reducing Power Consumption
Slide 6-9
On the Power Management page of the New Cluster wizard, you can turn on vSphere DPM.
vSphere DPM allows a DRS cluster to reduce its power consumption by comparing per-host
capacity versus demand and then taking (or recommending) the appropriate actions. If sufficient
excess capacity is found, DRS places one or more hosts in standby mode, migrating virtual
machines running on them to other hosts and then powering them off. Conversely, when capacity is
deemed to be inadequate, DRS brings hosts out of standby mode (powers them on) and uses
VMware vSphere vMotion to migrate virtual machines to them.
ESXi hosts cannot automatically be brought out of standby mode unless VMware vCenter Server
is running in the cluster.
vSphere DPM can use Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI), HP Integrated Lights-Out
(iLO), and Wake on LAN (WOL) as the wake protocols that bring hosts out of standby mode. A
host that supports both WOL and either IPMI or iLO, however, defaults to using IPMI or iLO, if
configured. For each of these wake protocols, you must perform specific configuration or testing
steps on each host before you can enable vSphere DPM for the cluster. A host that is not properly
configured for IPMI or iLO, or does not support WOL, is disabled for vSphere DPM.
If any of your ESXi hosts support IPMI or iLO, VMware strongly recommends that you configure
them to use one of these wake protocols.
vSphere Distributed
Power Management
ll DRS l t t allows a DRS cluster to
continuously optimize
power consumption in a
datacenter.
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Adding a Host to a Cluster
Slide 6-10
To add a host to a DRS cluster, drag an ESXi host onto the cluster object in the inventory. Use the
Add Host wizard to complete the process.
When adding a host with resource pools to a DRS cluster, you must decide on resource pool
placement. By default, the resource pool hierarchy is discarded and the host is added at the same
level as the virtual machines. You can graft the hosts resource pools onto the clusters resource pool
hierarchy. And you can name the resource pool created to represent the hosts resources. By default,
the resource pool created to represent the hosts resources is named Grafted from <host_name>,
but you can choose a different name. The term grafted was chosen because the branches of the
hosts tree are added to the branches of the clusters tree, as fruit tree branches are grafted onto
rootstock.
When adding a new host or moving a host into the cluster, you can
keep the resource pool hierarchy of the existing host.
F l dd il04 t L b Cl t For example, add sc-quail04 to Lab Cluster.
When adding
the host,
choose to
create a
resource
pool for this
hosts virtual
machines
and resource and resource
pools.
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94 VMware vSphere: Overview
Automating Workload Balance Per Virtual Machine
Slide 6-11
You can customize the automation level for individual virtual machines in a DRS cluster to override
the automation level set on the entire cluster. This action allows you to fine-tune automation to suit
your needs. For example, you might have a virtual machine that is especially critical to your
business and you would like more control over its placement. So you would set its automation level
to manual. If a virtual machine is set to disabled, vCenter Server does not migrate that virtual
machine or provide migration recommendations for it.
As a best practice, enable automation. Choose the automation level based on your environment and
level of comfort. For example, if you are new to DRS clusters, you might choose Partially
Automated because you want some control over the placement of virtual machines. After you are
comfortable with what DRS does and how it works, you might set the automation level to Fully
Automated. Set the automation level of Manual on virtual machines over which you want to
exercise more control, such as your business-critical virtual machines.
Optionally, set automation level per virtual machine.
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DRS Cluster Settings: Affinity Rules for Virtual Machines
Slide 6-12
After a DRS cluster is created, you can edit its properties to create rules that specify affinity. You
have two types of rules to work with:
Affinity rules DRS should try to keep certain virtual machines together on the same host (for
example, for performance reasons).
Anti-affinity rules DRS should try to make sure that certain virtual machines are not together
(for example, for availability reasons).
The slide shows an anti-affinity rule that requires three database servers (Fin-DBSvr-01, HR-
DBSvr-01, and Sales-DBSvr-01) to be placed on different hosts, probably for availability and
perhaps for performance reasons. Conversely, affinity rules can be used to keep certain virtual
machines on the same host because of increased locality or performance benefits. For example, if
virtual machines are communicating heavily with one another.If two rules conflict, you are
prevented from enabling both.
When you add or edit a rule, and the cluster is immediately in violation of that rule, the system
continues to operate and tries to correct the violation.
For DRS clusters that have a default automation level of manual or partially automated, migration
recommendations are based on both rule fulfillment and load balancing.
Affinity rules for virtual
machines specify that
either selected virtual
machines be placed on
the same host (affinity)
or on different hosts
(anti-affinity).
Affinity rules: y
Use for multivirtual machine systems where performance
benefits virtual machines communicating heavily with one
another.
Two rules:
Keep Virtual
Machines
Together and
Anti-affinity rules:
Use for multivirtual machine systems that load-balance or
require high availability
g
Separate
Virtual
Machines
require high availability.
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96 VMware vSphere: Overview
Lab 5
Slide 6-13
In this lab, you will use a DRS cluster.
1. Work with your partner team to prepare hosts for lab.
2. Populate the DRS cluster.
3. Verify DRS cluster functionality.
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Review of Learner Objectives
Slide 6-14
You should be able to do the following:
Describe the function and benefits of DRS.
Create and configure a DRS cluster.
Create resource pools in a DRS cluster.
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98 VMware vSphere: Overview
Key Points
Slide 6-15
A DRS cluster is managed by vCenter Server and allows for initial
placement of virtual machines and virtual machine load balancing.
In a DRS cluster you can automate workload balance per virtual machine In a DRS cluster, you can automate workload balance per virtual machine.
A DRS affinity rule specifies that selected virtual machines be placed on
the same host.
A DRS anti-affinity rule specifies that selected virtual machines be placed y p p
on different hosts.
A DRS cluster allows for efficient power management of ESXi hosts
within the cluster with vSphere DPM.
For best results, DRS must be able to migrate virtual machines
successfully with VMware vSphere vMotion.
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M O D U L E 7
Monitoring the Virtual Datacenter 7
Slide 7-1
Module 7
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100 VMware vSphere: Overview
You Are Here
Slide 7-2
VMware vSphere: Overview VMware vSphere: Overview
Course Introduction
Vi t l I f t t O i Virtual Infrastructure Overview
Creating Virtual Machines
Allocating Resources to Business Functions
Migrating Virtual Machines
Distributing Virtual Machine Workloads
Monitoring the Virtual Datacenter
High Availability and Fault Tolerance
Extending VMware vSphere Capabilities
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Importance
Slide 7-3
Although VMware ESXi hosts and VMware vCenter Server work
proactively to avoid resource contention, maximizing and verifying
performance levels require both analysis and ongoing monitoring performance levels require both analysis and ongoing monitoring.
vCenter Server performance graphs and alarms allow system
administrators to easily monitor the virtual datacenter.
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102 VMware vSphere: Overview
Learner Objectives
Slide 7-4
After this lesson, you should be able to do the following:
Understand vCenter Server performance monitoring capabilities:
C t S f h vCenter Server performance graphs
vCenter Server alarms
Configure virtual machine alarms
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vCenter Server Performance Charts
Slide 7-5
VMware vCenter Server provides performance charts for hosts and virtual machines. The
Performance tab allows you to view a host or virtual machines performance using graphs. To
display the Performance tab, select the host or virtual machine in the inventory and click the
Performance tab. This tab includes two panes: Overview and Advanced.
The Overview pane displays charts for the most common data counters for CPU, disk, memory, and
network metrics. Overview charts provide a quick summary view of resource usage in the datacenter
without navigating through multiple charts. Overview charts are displayed side by side, so you can
quickly identify bottlenecks and problems associated with related metricsfor example, CPU and
memory. To get help with a chart or to understand the meaning of a counter, click the blue question
mark. A Web page provides information explaining how to analyze the chart and things to consider.
The charts on the Advanced pane allow you to view data counters not supported in the overview
charts, to export chart data, and to print charts.
Performance charts for both hosts and virtual machines can help you determine whether a virtual
machine is constrained by a resource.
The Performance tab
displays two kinds of charts
for hosts and virtual for hosts and virtual
machines:
Overview charts:
Display the most common Display the most common
metrics for an object
Advanced charts:
Display data counters not Display data counters not
shown in the overview
charts
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104 VMware vSphere: Overview
Example: Using Overview Charts to Monitor Disk
Slide 7-6
Monitoring a virtual machines disk activity is one example of using a chart in the Overview pane.
Disk performance problems are commonly caused by saturating the underlying physical storage
hardware. You can use the vCenter Server performance charts to measure a virtual machines disk
use.
The virtual machine disk usage (percent) and I/O data counters, such as disk read rate and disk write
rate, provide information about average disk usage on a virtual machine. Use these counters to
monitor trends in disk usage.
To view a virtual machines disk usage, select the virtual machine in the inventory and click the
Performance tab. In the Overview pane, view the disk chart that tracks the Disk Rate (KBps)
counter.
Disk-intensive applications
can saturate the storage or
the path the path.
If you suspect that a virtual
machine is constrained by
disk access: disk access:
Measure the effective
bandwidth between virtual
machine and the storage machine and the storage.
Measure the resource
consumption using
performance graphs performance graphs.
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Example: Using Advanced Charts to Monitor Memory
Slide 7-7
A general memory counter to monitor over time is a hosts active memory counter. Host active
memory refers to the amount of physical memory that is actively being used by virtual machines and
the VMkernel. If the active memory of certain virtual machines is continuously high, this state
might lead to those virtual machines being constrained by memory.
To view active memory
1. Select your host in the inventory and click the Performance tab.
2. In the Advanced pane, click Chart Options.
3. In the Chart Options pane, select Memory > Real-time.
4. In the Chart Type pane, select Stacked Graph (per VM).
5. In the Objects pane, select all your virtual machines and the host.
6. In the Counters pane, select the Active check box.
Monitor for increases in active memory on the host:
Host active memory refers to active physical memory used by virtual
machines and the VMkernel.
If amount of active memory is high, this could lead to virtual machines
that are memory-constrained.
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106 VMware vSphere: Overview
Proactive Datacenter Management Using Alarms
Slide 7-8
Alarms are asynchronous notifications that occur in response to selected events or conditions that
occur with an object in the inventory. Most objects have default alarms set on them, and you can
define custom alarms.
VMware provides a set of default alarms for most objects in the VMware vSphere Client
inventory. For example, alarms exist for host, virtual machine, and resource pool memory and CPU
usage. You can also define custom alarms for virtual machines, hosts, clusters, datacenters,
datastores, networks, vNetwork distributed switches, and distributed port groups.
The default alarms are not configurable. You can only associate actions with the alarms. For
example, you cannot change the triggers, names, or descriptions of default alarms. If your
environment requires such changes, create custom alarms.
An alarm is a notification that
occurs in response to selected
events or conditions that occur with events or conditions that occur with
an object in the inventory.
Default alarms exist for various
inventory objects:
Default
datacenter
inventory objects:
Many default alarms for hosts and
virtual machines
alarms
(partial list)
You can create custom alarms for a
wide range of inventory objects:
Virtual machines, hosts, clusters,
datacenters, datastores, networks,
distributed switches, and distributed
port groups
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Defining Alarms in the vCenter Server Inventory
Slide 7-9
The highest point in the vCenter Server inventory, the vCenter Server object itself, is the location of
the default alarms. You can modify these alarms in place. You can also define finer-grained alarms.
For example, you might organize several virtual machines into a resource pool and apply an alarm to
that resource pool.
Default alarms are defined at the top of the inventory (the vCenter
Server level).
C t l b d fi d h i th i t Custom alarms can be defined anywhere in the inventory.
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108 VMware vSphere: Overview
Configuring an Alarm
Slide 7-10
To create an alarm, right-click an object in the inventory and select Alarm > Add Alarm. The
Alarm Settings dialog box has four tabs: General, Triggers, Reporting, and Actions.
In General tab, you name the alarm, give it a description, and give it an alarm type.
You also select what to monitor:
Monitor for specific conditions or state A condition-based alarm. You can create condition-
based alarms for virtual machines, hosts, and datastores.
Monitor for specific events occurring on this object An event-based alarm. You can create
event-based alarms for virtual machines, hosts, clusters, datacenters, datastores, networks,
distributed virtual switches, and distributed virtual port groups.
The General tab also allows you to enable or disable the alarm (by selecting or deselecting the
Enable this alarm check box).
To create an alarm, right-click the
inventory object and select Alarm.
Alarm types for:
Virtual machines
Hosts
> Add Alarm.
Hosts
Clusters
Datacenters
Datastores
Networks
Distributed switches
Distributed virtual port groups
Two types of alarms: Two types of alarms:
Condition-based
Event-based
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Configuring Condition-Based Triggers
Slide 7-11
Condition or state triggers monitor metrics for a host, virtual machine, or datastore. Triggers monitor
the current state of a host, virtual machine, or datastore.
On the slide, you can configure a condition trigger so that a virtual machines CPU usage must be
above 75 percent for more than 5 minutes to generate a warning and above 90 percent for more than
5 minutes to generate an alert. Time periods are used to ensure that the metric conditions are valid
and not caused by incidental spikes.
Also on the slide, you can configure a state trigger to generate an alert if a virtual machine has no
heartbeat. When the triggering conditions are no longer true, a triggered alarm resets itself and no
longer triggers.
If you add multiple triggers, you can choose to trigger the alarm if one of the conditions is satisfied
or if all of the conditions are satisfied.
To add a trigger, click Add. To remove a trigger, select the trigger and click Remove.
A condition or state trigger monitors the current condition or state of
an object (for example, a virtual machine).
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110 VMware vSphere: Overview
Configuring Event-Based Triggers
Slide 7-12
Event triggers do not rely on thresholds or durations. Event triggers use arguments, operators, and
values to identify the triggering condition.
On the slide, the event trigger monitors Guest OS shut down. Whenever a guest operating system
issues a shutdown command, it triggers the alert. A condition has also been configured to trigger the
alert only if the guest is in a datacenter named Training.
An event trigger monitors specific events that occur on an object (for
example, a host).
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Configuring Reporting Options
Slide 7-13
If you plan to transmit alarms to some external monitoring system (such as an SNMP monitoring
tool, someones email, or someones pager), you probably want to avoid generating many duplicate
alarms. Use the controls on the Reporting tab to avoid such a flood.
In the Alarm Settings dialog box, use the Reporting tab to define a tolerance range and trigger
frequency for condition or state triggers. (The Reporting tab is dimmed for event triggers.)
Reporting further restricts when the condition or state trigger occurs. You can specify a range or a
frequency:
Range The triggered alarm is repeated when the condition exceeds the range, which is a
percentage above or below the limit.
For example, if a virtual machines CPU usage is above 75 percent for 5 minutes, a warning is
generated. If a range of 20 percent is set, the warning is repeated if the virtual machine's CPU
usage reaches 90 percent (75 + (20% x 75): condition length + reporting range = trigger alarm).
Frequency The triggered alarm is repeated every so often (in minutes).
The frequency sets the time period during which a triggered alarm is not reported again. When
the time period has elapsed, the alarm reports again if the condition or state is still true.
Use the Reporting tab to avoid needless repeat alarms.
Avoid
small small
fluctuations.
Avoid
repeats.
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112 VMware vSphere: Overview
For example, if a virtual machine has no heartbeat, an alert is generated. If the frequency is set
to 10 minutes, the alert is repeated if the virtual machine still has no heartbeat after 10 minutes
have passed.
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Configuring Actions
Slide 7-14
Alarms include a trigger and an action. An action is the operation that occurs in response to the
trigger, for example, sending an email notification to one or more administrators.
In the Alarm Settings dialog box, use the Actions tab to specify actions to take when the alarm is
triggered. Colors and shapes are used to denote the alarms severity: a green circle is normal, a
yellow triangle is a warning, and a red diamond is an alert.
You can set alarms to trigger when the state changes:
From a green circle to a yellow triangle
From a yellow triangle to a red diamond
From a red diamond to a yellow triangle
From a yellow triangle to a green circle
For every action, you can specify an option for each color transition:
Empty indicates no interest in the transition.
Once tells vCenter Server to do the action only one time.
Every alarm type provides the following actions:
Send a notification email, send a notification trap, or
d run a command.
Virtual machine alarms and host alarms have
additional actions available.
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114 VMware vSphere: Overview
Repeat tells vCenter Server to repeat the action until another color change occurs. The default
is five minutes. The maximum is two days.
Every alarm type has the following actions:
Send a notification email.
Send a notification trap.
Run a command.
Virtual machine alarms and host alarms have more actions, such as:
Power on a virtual machine.
Power off a virtual machine.
Suspend a virtual machine.
Reboot host.
Shut down host.
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Viewing and Acknowledging Triggered Alarms
Slide 7-15
Acknowledging a triggered alarm suppresses the alarm actions from occurring, but does not reset
the alarm to a normal state. You can acknowledge one or more triggered alarms at one time. The
Acknowledged and Acknowledged By columns show when and by whom the alarm was
acknowledged.
To view a list of triggered alarms, select an object in the inventory and click the Alarms tab. The
Triggered Alarms view is displayed. The Definitions view shows a list of all alarms that are enabled
for this object.
An alarm that is triggered by an event might not reset to a normal state if vCenter Server does not
retrieve the event that identifies the normal condition. In such cases, you can reset the alarm
manually to return it to a normal state. Right-click the event triggered alarm and select Reset Alarm
to Green.
The Acknowledge Alarm feature is used to track
when triggered alarms are addressed.
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116 VMware vSphere: Overview
Lab 6
Slide 7-16
In this lab, you will demonstrate the vCenter Server alarm feature.
1. Create a virtual machine alarm.
2. Trigger the virtual machine alarm, then acknowledge it.
3. Disable the alarms.
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Review of Learner Objectives
Slide 7-17
You should be able to do the following:
Understand vCenter Server performance monitoring capabilities:
C t S f h vCenter Server performance graphs
vCenter Server alarms
Configure virtual machine alarms.
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118 VMware vSphere: Overview
Key Points
Slide 7-18
vCenter Server performance graphs and alarms provide two ways to
proactively monitor your VMware vSphere environment.
The two types of performance graphs are overview and advanced The two types of performance graphs are overview and advanced.
Advanced charts display data counters not shown in the overview charts,
for example, a hosts active memory.
The two types of alarm triggers are condition (or state) and event The two types of alarm triggers are condition (or state) and event.
Alarms exist for a wide range of inventory objects: virtual machines, hosts,
clusters, datacenters, datastores, networks, distributed switches, and
distributed port groups.
An alarm can be configured for the following actions: send a notification
email, send a notification trap, or run a command.
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M O D U L E 8
High Availability and Fault Tolerance 8
Slide 8-1
Module 8
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120 VMware vSphere: Overview
You Are Here
Slide 8-2
VMware vSphere: Overview VMware vSphere: Overview pp
Course Introduction
Vi t l I f t t O i Virtual Infrastructure Overview
Creating Virtual Machines
Allocating Resources to Business Functions
Migrating Virtual Machines
Distributing Virtual Machine Workloads
Monitoring the Virtual Datacenter g
High Availability and Fault Tolerance
Extending VMware vSphere Capabilities
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Learner Objectives
Slide 8-3
After this lesson, you should be able to do the following:
List the benefits of vSphere High Availability.
Use a vSphere HA cluster.
List the benefits of Fault Tolerance (FT).
Use FT.
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122 VMware vSphere: Overview
Importance
Slide 8-4
Services that are highly available are important to any business.
Configuring vSphere High Availability (HA) or VMware Fault
Tolerance (FT) will increase service levels Tolerance (FT) will increase service levels.
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High Availability and Fault Tolerance
Slide 8-5
High availability refers to a system or component that is continuously operational for a desirably
long length of time. Availability can be measured relative to 100 percent operational or never
failing.
Fault-tolerant describes a computer system or component designed so that, in the event that a
component fails, a backup component or procedure can immediately take its place with no loss of
service. Fault tolerance can be provided with software or embedded in hardware, or provided by
some combination of software and hardware.
The key to designing for availability is to decide what level of availability is important to you,
eliminate as many single points of failure as possible, and protect your data.
A widely held standard of availability for a system is known as the five 9s (99.999 percent)
availability. For example, if your systems must always be 99 percent available, then you can afford
at most 3.5 days per year of combined unplanned and planned downtime. Planned downtime is
scheduled to minimize impact on availability and is normally scheduled when few people need to
use the system.
A highly available system is one that is continuously operational for
a desirably long length of time.
A f lt t l t t i d i d th t i th t f A fault-tolerant system is designed so that, in the event of an
unplanned outage, a backup component can immediately take over
with no loss of service.
What level of availability is
important to you?
It varies. The system must
Level of availability Downtime per year
99% 87 hours (3.5 days)
match the highest level of
requirement (the most 9s)
for any virtual machine.
99.9% 8.76 hours
99.99% 52 minutes
99.999% 5 minutes
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124 VMware vSphere: Overview
What Is vSphere HA?
Slide 8-6
vSphere High Availability provides high availability for applications running in virtual machines. In
event of a server failure, affected virtual machines are automatically restarted on other production
servers with spare capacity. vSphere HA is configured, managed, and monitored in VMware
vCenter Server.
Using vSphere HA has a number of advantages over traditional failover solutions:
Reduced hardware cost and setup When you use vSphere HA, you must have sufficient
resources to fail over the number of hosts you want to guarantee. However, the vCenter Server
system automatically manages resources and configures clusters.
Increased application availability Because the virtual machine can recover from hardware
failure, all applications that start at boot have increased availability without increased
computing needs, even if the application is not itself a clustered application.
vSphere Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS) integration If a host has failed and virtual
machines have been restarted on other hosts, DRS can provide migration recommendations or
migrate virtual machines for balanced resource allocation.
VMware Fault Tolerance (FT) checks that individual virtual machines are functioning and responds
to failures without any interruption in service. FT creates a hidden duplicate copy of each running
vSphere HA:
Provides automatic restart of virtual machines in case of physical host
failures failures
Provides high availability while reducing the need for passive standby
hardware and dedicated administrators
P id t f i t l hi f il ith i t l hi Provides support for virtual machine failures with virtual machine
monitoring and FT
Integrates with vSphere Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS)
Is configured, managed, and monitored with VMware vCenter Server
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virtual machine, so if a virtual machine fails due to hardware failures, the duplicate virtual machine
can immediately replace the one that was lost.
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126 VMware vSphere: Overview
vSphere HA Architecture: Agent Communication
Slide 8-7
To configure high availability, some number of VMware ESXi hosts are grouped into an object
called a cluster. When vSphere HA is enabled, the fault domain manager (FDM) service starts on the
member hosts. After the FDM agents have started, the cluster hosts are said to be in a fault domain.
Hosts cannot participate in a fault domain if they are in maintenance mode, standby mode, or
disconnected from vCenter Server. A host can only be in only one fault domain at a time.
The fault domain is managed by a single master host. All other hosts are referred to as slaves. To
determine which host will be the master, an election process takes place. The system that can access
the greatest number of datastores is elected the master. In the event that all cluster hosts see the same
number of datastores, the election process will determine the master host by using the host managed
object ID (MOID) assigned by the vCenter Server. The election process for a new master completes
in approximately 15 seconds and occurs when:
vSphere HA is enabled
the master encounters a system failure (or is placed in maintenance mode)
when the slaves cannot communicate with the master due to a network issue
During the election process the master FDM agent communicates with slave FDM agents using the
management network with user datagram protocol (UDP). All network connections are point-to-
point. After the master FDM agent has been determined, master and slave hosts communicate using
datastore datastore
datastore datastore datastore
datastore
FDM FDM FDM
hostd hostd hostd vpxa vpxa vpxa
VMware ESXi
host (slave)
ESXi host (master) ESXi host (slave)
vpxd
vCenter Server
= Management network
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the secure, Transmission Control Protocol (TCP.) The master FDM agent will then contact vpxd
which responds by sending a compatibility list to the master FDM agent. The compatibility list is
saved to local storage on the master host and then pushed out to the slave hosts in the cluster.
The master host provides an interface for vCenter Server to query the state of and report on the
health of the fault domain and virtual machine availability. Virtual machine state, such as power
operations, are communicated from the vpxd process running on the vCenter Server host to the
master FDM agent. The master host monitors the health of the slave hosts and takes responsibility
for virtual machines that were running on a failed slave host.
A slave host monitors the health of virtual machines running locally and sends state changes to the
master host. A slave host monitors the health of the master host. The vCenter Server interfaces with
slave hosts to manage fault tolerant virtual machines (if any.)
vSphere HA is configured, managed, and monitored through vCenter Server. The cluster
configuration data is maintained by the vpxd process which runs on the vCenter Server host. Cluster
configuration changes are reported by the vpxd process to the master FDM agent. The master FDM
agent tells the slave FDM agents to fetch a new copy of the configuration information from the
master. Each slave writes the updated configuration information to local storage. A list of protected
virtual machines is stored on each datastore. The virtual machine list is updated after each user-
initiated power-on (protected) and power off (unprotected) operation. The virtual machine list is
managed by the master host and contains all protected virtual machines.
A virtual machine becomes protected when an operation results in a power on. Hence, reverting a
virtual machine to a snapshot with memory state will cause the virtual machine to power on and
become protected. Similarly, any user action that causes the virtual machine to power off, for
example reverting to a snapshot without memory state, or a standby operation done inside the guest
will cause it to become unprotected.
Information, other than cluster configuration, maintained in the vCenter Server database includes a list of hosts with
membership in the fault domain and a compatibility list that details the hosts that each virtual machine can run on.
The process to protect a virtual machine is as follows:
vpxa tells vpxd that a virtual machine is powered on
vpxd adds the virtual machine to the protected set for the cluster
vpxd tells the master FDM agent with which it is in contact for that cluster to protect the virtual machine
If the master owns the datastore, it writes the on-disk file, and tells vpxd
vpxd then updates the configuration information and changes the state of the virtual machine to protected
<Transition to next slide> vSphere HA is able to detect three types of host failures:
Host failure
Virtual machine failure
Application failure
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128 VMware vSphere: Overview
Enabling VMware HA
Slide 8-8
To enable vSphere HA, create a new cluster or modify an existing DRS cluster. The best practice is
to enable both vSphere HA and DRS in the cluster.
Right-click the cluster in the inventory and select Edit Settings. The cluster settings dialog box
appears. Select the Turn On vSphere HA check box. When this box is checked, vSphere HA
settings can be configured.
Enable vSphere
HA by creating a
new cluster or new cluster or
modifying an
existing DRS
cluster.
A vSphere
HA/DRS
cluster
combines
automatic
failover with
load balancing load balancing.
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Configuring Cluster-Wide Settings
Slide 8-9
vSphere HA has the option to disable host monitoring. This option is useful to avoid affecting
maintenance activities like backups and network maintenance. Disabling host monitoring
temporarily is better than removing a host from the cluster entirely.
If the Enable Host Monitoring check box is selected (which is the default), each ESXi host in the
cluster is checked to ensure that it is running. If a host failure occurs, virtual machines are restarted
on another host. Host monitoring is also required for best performance for FT. If host monitoring is
suspended and a failure is detected, FT will use the secondary virtual machine to recover from the
failure of the first virtual machine. After the first failure, if host monitoring is disabled, no new
secondary will be created. Hence, without host monitoring, no further failures can be tolerated.
Admission control helps ensure that sufficient resources remain to provide high availability, even
after some number of concurrent host failures. If a host in a cluster fails, the virtual machines that
were on that host are restarted on other remaining hosts. If more than the configured number of
hosts fail, virtual machines might be started on all hosts in the cluster, consuming all available
memory and CPU resources. If all resources were in use and a host failed, there would be
insufficient resources to restart the affected virtual machines and maintain the level of performance
expected. Some resources in a cluster are reserved until they are needed for recovery from failure.
To prevent too many virtual machines from starting, which would leave too few resources available
for failover, vSphere HA uses admission control.
Disable host monitoring
when performing host
maintenance activities
Admission control:
Which is more
maintenance activities.
Which is more
important for you:
uptime or
resource fairness?
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130 VMware vSphere: Overview
vSphere HA provides options for which policy is enforced if admission control is enabled:
Host failures cluster tolerates vSphere HA reserves a certain amount of resources across a
set of hosts. These reserved resources are sufficient to sustain performance even if the specified
number of hosts fail. This admission control policy is most efficient if all virtual machines have
similar CPU and memory reservations.
Percentage of cluster resources reserved as failover spare capacity vSphere HA reserves a
certain percentage of aggregate resources in the cluster to accommodate failures. If the virtual
machines in the cluster have highly variable CPU and memory reservations, consider using this
policy.
Specify a failover host vSphere HA reserves a specific host to accommodate failures. This is
a more static solution, where a single host is designated as the host that will be the target for
virtual machines if one of the other hosts fails. This setting is most similar to a traditional
clustering solution. However, it does not take advantage of the capacities of vSphere HA for
detailed control of reserving resources across hosts. This policy provides the strongest
guarantees but requires a dedicated failover host. It is up to the administrator to choose a
failover host of sufficient capacity to restart virtual machines from a failed host.
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Configuring Virtual Machine Options
Slide 8-10
When a cluster host fails vSphere HA tries to restart virtual machines on the remaining hosts in the
cluster in this order:
Start individual secondary virtual machines, that is virtual machines configured for fault
tolerance)
In order by restart priority, that is High, Medium, and Low
The low priority virtual machines will not be started until all of the high priority virtual machines
have been started. That is, if there are 16 high priority and 16 low priority virtual machine, the 16
low priority virtual machines will not start until all of the 16 high priority virtual machines have
been recovered. Virtual machine restarts will be distributed across all remaining active cluster hosts.
vSphere HA will wait to power on lower priority virtual machines until restart of higher priority
virtual machines has completed.
The Default host isolation response is Leave Powered On (not shutdown).
Redundant heartbeat networks can also be configured by using distributed virtual switches.
Configure options at the cluster level or per virtual machine.
VM restart priority
d t i l ti d i determines relative order in
which virtual machines are
restarted after a host failure.
Host Isolation response
determines what happens when a
host loses the management network
but continues running.
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132 VMware vSphere: Overview
FT in Action
Slide 8-11
FT can be enabled on a virtual machine in a cluster enabled for vSphere HA. FT creates a duplicate,
secondary copy of the virtual machine on a different host. Then VMware record/replay technology
is used to record all executions on the primary virtual machine and replay them on the secondary
instance.
VMware vLockstep technology ensures that the two copies stay synchronized and allows the
workload to run on two different ESXi hosts simultaneously. One copy of the virtual machine, called
the primary, is in the active state. It is receiving requests, serving information, and running
applications. Another copy, called the secondary, receives the same input that is received by the
primary. All tasks that the secondary virtual machine completes follow the changes made on the
primary. To the external world, the virtual machines appear as one virtual machine. That is, they
have one IP address and one MAC address, and you need only manage the primary virtual machine.
If either the primary or the secondary virtual machine fails, FT creates a new copy of the virtual
machine on another host in the cluster. If the failed virtual machine is the primary, the secondary
takes over and a new secondary is established. If the secondary fails, another secondary is created to
replace the one that was lost.
In a failure, the secondary immediately comes online and all or almost all information about the
state of the virtual machine is preserved. Applications are already running, and data stored in
memory does not need to be reentered or reloaded.
vLockstep technology vLockstep technology
primary
VM
secondary
VM
new
primary
VM
new
secondary
VM
FT id d ti d d t l t ti FT provides zero-downtime and zero-data-loss protection
to virtual machines in a vSphere HA cluster.
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Module 8 High Availability and Fault Tolerance 133

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Enabling FT on a Virtual Machine
Slide 8-12
To enable FT on the virtual machine, right-click the virtual machine in the inventory and select
Fault Tolerance > Turn On Fault Tolerance. After the secondary virtual machine is created and
running, only the primary virtual machine is displayed in the VMware vSphere Client inventory.
You can view information about both the primary and the secondary virtual machines in the Fault
Tolerance pane in the virtual machines Summary tab.
Fault Tolerance Status indicates whether FT is enabled or disabled on the virtual machine.
Possible values are Protected, which indicates that fault tolerance is functioning properly, and Not
Protected, which indicates that the secondary virtual machine has not running.
Secondary Location displays the host on which the secondary virtual machine is hosted.
Total Secondary CPU and Total Secondary Memory indicate all secondary CPU and memory
usage.
Secondary VM Lag Time indicates the latency between the primary and the secondary virtual
machines. If the latency is large, you might need to increase available network or CPU and memory
resources to prevent the copies of the secondary virtual machine from getting too far behind the
primary virtual machine and slowing down execution of the primary.
Log Bandwidth indicates the amount of network being used for sending FT log information from
the primary virtual machines host to the secondary virtual machines host.
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134 VMware vSphere: Overview
Lab 7 and eLearning Activity
Slide 8-13
In this lab, you will demonstrate vSphere HA functionality.
1. Work with your partner team to prepare hosts for the lab.
2. Verify the vSphere HA Cluster Configurations.
3. Verify vSphere HA functionality.
In this eLearning activity, you will view a self-paced demonstration In this eLearning activity, you will view a self paced demonstration
on how to configure FT.
Ask your instructor for access to the eLearning module.
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Review of Learner Objectives
Slide 8-14
You should be able to do the following:
List the benefits of vSphere High Availability.
Use a vSphere HA cluster.
List the benefits of Fault Tolerance (FT).
Use FT.
VS5OVR_LectureGuide.book Page 135 Thursday, August 25, 2011 10:55 PM
136 VMware vSphere: Overview
Key Points
Slide 8-15
A best practice is to enable a cluster for vSphere HA (for high
availability) and DRS (for load balancing).
In a vSphere HA cluster admission control helps ensure that sufficient In a vSphere HA cluster, admission control helps ensure that sufficient
resources remain to provide high availability.
vSphere HA provides automatic restart of virtual machines in case a
physical host fails. p y
FT provides zero-downtime and zero-data-loss protection to virtual
machines in a vSphere HA cluster.
FT creates a duplicate copy of the virtual machine, where both copies FT creates a duplicate copy of the virtual machine, where both copies
stay synchronized and the workload runs on two different hosts
simultaneously.
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VMware vSphere: Overview 137

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M O D U L E 9
Extending VMware vSphere
Capabilities 9
Slide 9-1 g p p
Module 9
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138 VMware vSphere: Overview
You Are Here
Slide 9-2
VMware vSphere: Overview VMware vSphere: Overview pp
Course Introduction
Vi t l I f t t O i Virtual Infrastructure Overview
Creating Virtual Machines
Allocating Resources to Business Functions
Migrating Virtual Machines
Distributing Virtual Machine Workloads
Monitoring the Virtual Datacenter g
High Availability and Fault Tolerance
Extending VMware vSphere Capabilities
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Learner Objectives
Slide 9-3
After this lesson, you should be able to do the following:
Describe the three VMware vCloud layers and match VMware
products to the correct cloud layer products to the correct cloud layer.
Describe the value of various VMware products.
What problem does the product address?
Wh l i d h d id ? What solution does the product provide?
VS5OVR_LectureGuide.book Page 139 Thursday, August 25, 2011 10:55 PM
140 VMware vSphere: Overview
Importance
Slide 9-4
VMware is the fastest growing software company that continues to
grow and lead the market based on a compelling value proposition to
a broad set of IT customers from small to large global enterprises a broad set of IT customers, from small to large global enterprises.
The pioneer in x86 virtualization, VMware continues to redefine the
scope of virtualization for the new era of Cloud Computing.
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New IT Landscape: Promise & Challenge
Slide 9-5
The link between IT and end-users is applications. These applications can be sourced from existing
datacenters, as well as from external cloud services. Apart from conventional computing devices,
end users want to access these applications from a growing variety of other devices. The
requirement to weave all these entities together into a cohesive, secure, compliant whole, in a way
that IT agility improves and not impedes, is a challenge.
These complexities can be efficiently addressed by cloud computing. An IT landscape based on
cloud computing yields the following business benefits:
A more flexible and efficient infrastructure upon which the journey to IT agility will begin.
A new generation of enterprise applications, that represents the convergence of the type of end-
user experience we see in the consumer world, with the requirements of the enterprise.
A more empowered mobile workforce, that does not compromise the security of corporate
assets and data.
Existing Apps New Enterprise Apps SaaS Apps Existing Apps New Enterprise Apps SaaS Apps
Existing Datacenters Public Cloud Services
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142 VMware vSphere: Overview
Three Layers of the VMware Cloud
Slide 9-6
To address this challenge, VMware is focused on three core solution areas in IT:
Infrastructure and Operations Management: How best to evolve the infrastructure to
support this new world:
Application Management: Changes in application development to speed time-to-market for
business-critical applications, that take advantage of this new world
End-User Computing Management: A new way of approaching end-user computing, to
increase user satisfaction.
VMware Management Solutions
End-User Computing Management
VM Vi Vi VM
Application Management
VMware vCenter App
VMware View
Manager
View
Composer
VMware
ThinApp
VMware vCenter
Application Discovery
Manager
SpringSource
Hyperic
VMware AppSpeed
Server
VMware Studio
App
App App
l d li ti
Infrastructure and Operations Management
VMware vCenter
Server
VMware vCenter
CapacityIQ
VMware vCenter
Operations
Enterprise
App
cloud applications
VMware vCenter
Site Recovery Manager
VMware vCenter
Orchestrator
VMware vCenter
Configuration Manager
p
VMware vShield
Manager
vCloud Director
App
App
Public / Private / Hybrid Cloud
Virtualized Infrastructure
VMware vSphere VMware vSphere
VMware vCloud Director
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Module 9 Extending VMware vSphere Capabilities 143

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Infrastructure and Operations Management Layer
Slide 9-7
Strategy
Full operations
management for the private
App
App
App
management for the private
cloud,
with visibility to existing
hardware and management
pp
pp
Public / Private / Hybrid Cloud
Virtualized Infrastructure
vSphere
vCloud Director
Building Blocks
Automation of management
within vSphere
vCloud Director
within vSphere
Operations Focus Areas
Capacity
Infrastructure and Operations Management
VMware vCenter
Server
VMware vCenter
CapacityIQ
VMware vCenter
Operations
Configuration &
Compliance
Performance
VMware vCenter
Site Recovery Manager
VMware vCenter
Orchestrator
p y
VMware vCenter
Configuration Manager
p
VMware vShield
Manager
vCloud Director
Site Recovery Manager Configuration Manager
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144 VMware vSphere: Overview
VMware vCenter Server: A Unified Control Center
Slide 9-8
VMware vCenter Management Platform is the foundation of the vCenter family of management
products. VMware vCenter Server is the universal hub for virtualization management and
provides centralized, unified management of all the hosts and virtual machines in your datacenter
from a single point. vCenter Server provides a common framework for managing the inventory of
multiple hosts and also facilitates rapid provisioning and detailed monitoring of the environment.
Inventory management
Al l t Alarms, alerts
Templates/provisioning
Including:
Automated patch
management
Orchestration tool
Foundation for vCenter
Product Family
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VMware vCenter CapacityIQ: Capacity Planning
Slide 9-9
VMware vCenter CapacityIQ is integrated with vCenter and facilitates administrators to analyze,
forecast, and plan current and future capacity needs.
With vCenter CapacityIQ administrators can perform what-if impact analysis, identify and reclaim
unused capacity, and forecast the timing of capacity shortfalls and needs.
These key features help administrators achieve both efficiency and predictability in their
environment ensuring that administrators deliver the right capacity at the right time and that they
are equipped with the information they need to make the best decisions for their infrastructure.
VMware vCenter CapacityIQ enables administrators and capacity planners to:
Align business demands with IT capacity
Optimize capacity configuration, allocation, and utilization
Mitigate the risk of capacity shortfalls and bottlenecks
Ensure service levels (SLAs) are consistently met
Empower timely and accurate procurement of new capacity
Analyze, forecast, and plan virtualized
datacenter or desktop capacity
Benefits
Deliver the right capacity at the right time
Make informed planning purchasing and Make informed planning, purchasing, and
provisioning decisions
Enable capacity to be utilized most efficiently
and cost-effectively
Key Features
Perform What-If impact analysis to model
effect of capacity changes
Identify and reclaim unused capacity
Forecast timing of capacity shortfalls and needs
VS5OVR_LectureGuide.book Page 145 Thursday, August 25, 2011 10:55 PM
146 VMware vSphere: Overview
VMware vCenter Operations: Understanding Your Virtual
Environment
Slide 9-10
VMware vCenter Operations Enterprise is an automated operations management solution that
provides integrated performance, capacity and configuration management for highly virtualized and
cloud infrastructure. VMware vCenter Operations integrates directly with third-party monitoring
tools for a complete view of your infrastructure.
Using VMware vCenter Operations you can proactively ensure service levels, optimum resource
usage and configuration compliance in dynamic virtual and cloud environments. vCenter automated
operations management and patented analytic gives you the intelligence and visibility needed to:
Get actionable intelligence to automate manual operations processes
Gain visibility across infrastructure and applications for rapid problem resolution
Proactively ensure optimal resource utilization and virtual/cloud infrastructure performance
Get 'at-a-glance' views of operational and regulatory compliance across physical and virtual
infrastructure.
Comprehensive Visibility Rapid problem resolution.
Patented analytics Automate processes for maximum efficiency and agility.
Integrated automating approach IT more proactive
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VMware vCenter Site Recovery Manager: Disaster Recovery
Slide 9-11
VMware vCenter Site Recovery Manager (SRM) builds on the core properties of VMware
vSphere that already provide basic protection of applications. SRM is a product that simplifies and
automates disaster recovery. SRM helps organizations to simplify and automate the key elements of
disaster recovery: setting up disaster recovery plans, testing those plans, executing failover when a
datacenter disaster occurs, and failing back to the primary datacenter.
SRM makes it possible for customers to provide faster, more reliable, and more affordable disaster
recovery protection than previously possible. Although not a part of vSphere, SRM works closely
with vSphere to manage and automate disaster recovery for virtual environments.
Site Recovery Manager leverages vSphere to deliver advanced disaster
recovery management and automation
Simplifies and automates
disaster recovery
workflows:
Setup, testing, failover,
failback
Turns manual recovery
b k i t t t d runbooks into automated
recovery plans
Provides central
management of recovery management of recovery
plans from the VMware
vSphere Client
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148 VMware vSphere: Overview
VMware vCenter Orchestrator: Automate Workflows
Slide 9-12
vCenter Server also includes an orchestration platform and development components that installs
silently when you install vCenter Server 5. VMware vCenter Orchestrator is an automation
orchestration tool that enables you to put together, using an easy drag-and-drop interface, automated
workflows of tasks and processes specific to your needs and environment.
Workflows are reusable building blocks that combine actions, decisions, and results that, when
performed in a particular order, complete a specific task or process in a virtual environment.
Orchestrator provides a library of out-of-box workflows that encapsulate best practices for common
virtual environment management tasks such as provisioning virtual machines, backing up, and
performing regular maintenance. In addition to these prewritten workflows, you can assemble new
workflows using an easy drag-and-drop interface.
F t Features
Drag-&-drop
design
Create powerful workflows
easily by drop-&-dragging pre-
built actions
Platform
Cloud
scalability
Execute hundreds of workflows
in parallel to meet Cloud scale
Flexible
triggers
Launch workflows from user
interface, web browser,
schedule, event, and API
Plug-ins Ecosystem
vSphere
schedule, event, and API
Automate
VMware
100% coverage of vSphere and
vCloud Director APIs
U t h d VM t t
Key Benefits
Reduce IT OpEx and total cost of ownership of
Unmatched VMware content
Included with
vSphere
Included with vSphere at no
extra cost
Installed with VMware
Reduce IT OpEx and total cost of ownership of
VMware solutions
Integrate VMware solutions into your IT
environment and processes
A tomate o r clo d and accelerate transition
Installed with VMware
vCenter
Automate your cloud and accelerate transition
to IT as a Service model
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VMware vCenter Configuration Manager: Automate
Configuration Management
Slide 9-13
VMware vCenter Configuration Manager automates configuration management across virtual and
physical servers, workstations, and desktops. VCM detects system changes and verifies whether the
change has created a compliance violation or security vulnerability.
The key benefits of VCM are:
Automation: VCM helps you increase the number of systems under management. VCM also
lets you control cost and increase availability of trained systems administrators.
Regulatory Compliance/Best Practices: VCM compares changes to policies to determine a
violation, providing deep compliance capabilities. VCM also checks whether the change
coheres to a predefined policy. The automation policies are formulated based on industry,
regulatory, or your own self-defined best practices.
Detect violations and remediate: VCM tracks more than 80,000 configuration variables and
when change is needed, as it always is, VCM enables you to effectuate this by a Right Click
Fix, which can be either immediate or scheduled, for a single system, machine group or for the
complete datacenter. Furthermore, for every change completed (through VCM), VCM keeps an
audit trail as well as the capability to roll back unwanted or unapproved changes.
Benefits
Automation
Adherence to Regulatory
Compliance / Best Practices
Detect violations and remediate
Key Features
D C ll ti d Vi ibilit Deep Collection and Visibility
Compliance Policy Intelligence
Remediation and Patch
Management Management
Server Provisioning and
Application Stack Deployment
Multiplatform Support
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150 VMware vSphere: Overview
vShield: Securing the Private Cloud
Slide 9-14
For environments based on vSphere, VMware vShield Edge solutions provide capabilities to do
the following:
Secure the edge of the vDC
Protect virtual applications from network-based threats
Discover sensitive data residing in virtual machines
Streamline antivirus protection for VMware View Manager deployments by off-loading AV
processing to dedicated security virtual machine
VMware vShield Edge provides network-edge security and gateway services to isolate the virtual
machines in a port group. Key features of VMware vShield Edge are the following:
Reduces cost and complexity by eliminating multiple special-purpose appliances and rapidly
provisioning edge services.
Ensures policy enforcement with built-in edge network security and services that follow the
Virtual machine Deployments
Enables you to deliver multiple security needs across one shared resource pool increasing
efficiency
Securing the Private Cloud End to End: from the Edge to the Endpoint Securing the Private Cloud End to End: from the Edge to the Endpoint
Edge
VMware vShield
Edge
S it Z Create segmentation
vShield App
Edge
Secure the edge of
the virtual datacenter
Endpoint = VM
vShield Endpoint
Anti-virus processing
Security Zone Create segmentation
between workloads
Sensitive data discovery
DMZ Application 1 Application 2
Endpoint = VM
vShield Manager
p
Centralized Management
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vShield App helps you overcome the challenges of securing the interior of your virtual datacenter.
The key benefits of vShield App are the following:
Completes visibility and control to the Inter virtual machine traffic enabling multitrust zones on
the same VMware ESXi cluster.
Provides you intuitive business language policy leveraging vCenter inventory.
vShield Endpoint is used to do the following:
Improve performance by offloading antivirus functions in tandem with AV partners
Improve virtual machine performance by eliminating antivirus storms
Reduce risk by eliminating agents susceptible to attacks
Satisfy audit requirements with detailed logging of AV tasks
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152 VMware vSphere: Overview
VMware vCloud Director: Deliver Intelligent Infrastructure-as-a-
Service (IAAS)
Slide 9-15
VMware vCloud Director (VCD) brings higher automation and greater efficiencies to the
vSphere environment, delivering virtual datacenters for secure multitenancy. VCD gives you the
ability to build secure private clouds that dramatically increase datacenter efficiency and business
agility. VCD enables:
Consolidation of virtual infrastructure across multiple clusters
Encapsulation of application services as portable vApps
Deployment of those services on-demand with isolation and control.
VCD integrates with existing vSphere deployments and extends capabilities like vSphere
Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS) and vNetwork Distributed Switch, to provide elastic
compute, storage, and networking interfaces across multiple clusters. Using virtual datacenters built
on top of vSphere, VCD enables resources to be provisioned without the need for repeated
configuration or significant maintenance.
VCD packages and migrates workloads between clouds using open standards like the vCloud API
and Open Virtualization Format (OVF). By encapsulating multivirtual machine services and the
Organization 1 Organization m
VMware vCloud Director
Capabilities and Features
Creates virtual datacenters by pooling
resources
P id lf i t l d
Users
g g
Provides self-service portals and
catalogs
Isolates users into organizations with
unique catalogs, policies, and LDAP
VMware
User Portals
Virtual Datacenter N
(Sil )
Virtual Datacenter 1
(G ld)
Security Catalogs
Chargeback provides cost transparency
Benefits
Business agility by empowering users to
vShield (Silver) (Gold)
g y y p g
deploy services with the click of a button
Security and control over multitenant
environments with VMware vShield
Costs reduction by efficiently delivering
VMware
vCenter Server
VMware vSphere
VMware
vCenter Server
VMware vSphere
vCloud API Public Clouds
Programmatic
Costs reduction by efficiently delivering
resources as secure virtual datacenters
Leverage existing investments and open
standards to ensure interoperability
between clouds
IT
Secure Private Cloud
Programmatic
Control and Integrations
between clouds
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associated networking policies into vApps, end users of one cloud can easily share services with one
another, and IT can perform migrations with ease.
Using VCD, end users can store their most frequently used vApp configurations in catalogs that
enables sharing and collaboration across users in an organization. At deployment time, VCD can
detect provisioning of a vApp template that has already been deployed and rapidly provision a clone
using the unique Linked Clone technology from VMware.
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154 VMware vSphere: Overview
Applications Management Layer
Slide 9-16
Application Management
VMware vCenter
Application
VMware AppSpeed
Server
App
Discovery Manager
SpringSource
Hyperic
Server
VMware Studio
App App
Cloud Applications
Strategy
Application packaging & deployment and application performance monitoring solutions for pp p g g p y pp p g
traditional and modern application development frameworks (for example Spring)
Building Blocks
Application transaction performance from AppSpeed
vApp authoring & packaging from Studio vApp authoring & packaging from Studio
New technologies from ADM and Hyperic
Focus Areas
Application provisioning pp p g
Application performance
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VMware vCenter Application Discovery: Application Discovery
and Dependency Mapping
Slide 9-17
VMware vCenter Application Discovery Manager (ADM) provides the automated, real-time
application discovery and dependency mapping capability that you need for effective, dependency-
driven change, configuration, incident and problem management across physical and virtual
environments.
The two primary application areas where you can use ADM are the following:
Change Management
On-going discovery and audit of Data Center Application Infrastructure
P i N k
Datacenter 1
Passive Network-
Based
Active
Credential-Based
Analysis and
Tracking
Dashboards and
Change Reports
Agentless Discovery
Distributed Collection
and Aggregation
Fingerprinting
and Mapping
Application Dependency,
Maps and Blueprints
Datacenter N
Enterprise-Wide Visibility
(Virtual and Physical)
ADM
Database
VMware Service Manager CMDB
and 3
rd
Party CMDBs
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156 VMware vSphere: Overview
VMware AppSpeed: Application Performance Management
Slide 9-18
AppSpeed is an application performance management solution for ensuring SLAs. AppSpeed
nonintrusively monitors application performance based on inspecting traffic flowing over the
vSwitch.
AppSpeed ensures SLAs are met, which increases application performance and uptime, and enables
you to virtualize more, faster and eliminates perceived risks of virtualization. AppSpeed reduces
finger pointing and allows IT to focus on solving the cause of issues, which dramatically reduces
hours wasted trying to troubleshoot vague performance issues.
Manage the performance of virtualized
Benefits
Manage the performance of virtualized
multi-tier applications
Real-time view of end-user application
performance, monitoring against SLAs
Dramatically reduces trouble shooting time and
finger pointing
Application
100% non-intrusive
Integrated into the vCenter Server and vSphere
Client
Reduces barriers to virtualizing business critical Reduces barriers to virtualizing business-critical
applications
Key Features
Dynamically discovers and maps virtual and
physical infrastructure elements
Breaks down application latency into component
parts (infrastructure, network, and application) p ( pp )
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VMware vFabric: Modern Application Infrastructure
Slide 9-19
The VMware cloud application platform is VMware vFabric.
SpringSource framework and tools enable Java developers to leverage the Spring framework (the
most commonly used framework for Java development in the world) for cloud application
development. SpringSource is a complete Java infrastructure provider capable of supporting the
entire enterprise application life cycle, from code development through production deployment and
management across any environment: physical, virtualized, or the cloud.
VMware vFabric Hyperic can find, fix, and prevent performance problems in custom Web
applications, whether running on physical, virtual, or cloud infrastructure. With its ability to
continuously monitor 50,000 metrics across 75 Web technologies, Hyperic provides system admins
the deep visibility they need to ensure server performance, reduce downtime, and meet SLAs.
Hyperic discovers new virtual machines as they come online, eliminating the need for manual
updating of monitoring configurations.
B ild
Spring, Grails
Tool Suite
Build
tc Server
GemFire
Run
Hyperic
Manage
Rabbit MQ
Application
F k
Lightweight Java
Frameworks
and Tools
Application
Runtime
Application
Monitoring
Build custom apps
for virtual and cloud
environments
Run custom apps on a
platform ideally suited for
virtual environments
Monitor custom apps in a
virtual environment with
visibility into VM Guests
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158 VMware vSphere: Overview
End-User Computing Management Layer
Slide 9-20
End-User Computing Management
VMware
View
Manager
View
Composer
VMware
ThinApp
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VMware View Manager: Managing the Modular Desktop
Slide 9-21
VMware View Manager is used by administrators as a central point of control for providing end-
users with secure, flexible access to their virtual desktops and applications. A single instance
VMware View Manager can broker and monitor tens of thousands of virtual desktops at one time,
using the intuitive Web-based administrative interface. Using View Manager Administrators can
apply desktop policy, entitle applications to users or groups as well as deploy desktops to end-users.
Simplicity with Single
Console Management
Manage desktop Manage desktop
components from a single
console
Operating System p g y
Applications
Persona
Apply policy, entitle Apply policy, entitle
applications and deploy
desktops
Monitor and troubleshoot
with a unified view of the
desktop infrastructure
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160 VMware vSphere: Overview
View Composer: Image Management And Storage Optimization
Slide 9-22
View Composer is tightly coupled with View Manager to provide seamless administration. VMware
View Composer offers storage reduction, better operating system management, and rapid
deployment capabilities for virtualized desktops.
View Composer is used to quickly provision new users by spawning new desktops based on the
common disk image. View Composer also simplifies updating, patching, and upgrading since fewer
images need to be touched by IT. Updates are guaranteed to be applied with no user intervention
required
View Composer helps IT scale to manage thousands of desktops by simplifying the desktop
infrastructure. View Composer enables the ability to separate the User Data Disk (users
personalized data) and the Disk Image (OS & Applications common across users).
Image Updates
Manage thousands of desktops
Streamline desktop management with
Vi C View Composer
Quick provisioning
Simplify update, patch, and upgrade p y p p pg
activities while retaining user settings
Guarantee updates are applied to every
desktop
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ThinApp: Simplified Application Deployment
Slide 9-23
VMware ThinApp is an agentless application virtualization solution that can be used to deliver
virtualized applications for virtual and physical desktops. ThinApp does not have complex agents to
deploy or maintain, so IT is not burdened with additional agent footprints to maintain or install.
ThinApp does not require additional servers or infrastructure, you package your applications and use
your existing management frameworks to deploy and manage the ThinAppd (virtualized)
applications.
ThinApp encapsulates each application and all components required for it to run in an isolated
container. User specific configurations and changes are stored in their own unique sandbox (server,
users PC, or USB stick). ThinApp applications can be linked together to have multiple applications
share interdependent components (Java and .Net). This ability keeps the package size small and
eliminates the restrictions and dependencies on vendor roadmaps.
Benefits of ThinApp?
VMwares unique approach allows end-users to run multiple versions of the same application
(like MS Office, Web browsers, and so on) side by side without conflicts because resources are
unique to each application.
Features
Operating System
A li ti A li ti A li ti A li ti
Features
Decouple applications and data
from OS
Agent less architecture Application Application Application Application
App
Files
App
Files
Agent-less architecture
Wide platform and application
support
Pl i i i li i Plug into existing application
management tools
Benefits
VOS VOS
Application Application
sandbox sandbox
VOS VOS
Application Application
sandbox sandbox
Minimize the number of desktop
images managed
Streamline application patch
Operating System
VOS VOS VOS VOS
pp p
updates
Enable the use of multiple
versions of applications
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162 VMware vSphere: Overview
VMware ThinApp reduces storage costs for View
VMware ThinApp enables View Administrators to reuse virtual machine templates
Compared to traditional desktop deployments where the applications are installed on every
desktop, by ThinApping applications, enterprises can save a significant amount of storage.
Storage costs are reduced by enabling a pool of users to leverage a single application
without impacting the application or each other.
Streamline Updates for Secure Applications
Updates can be performed while the application is still in use by a single or multiple users.
ThinApp runs in 100% user mode to enable IT to lock down the PC from the user and
agent solutions to eliminate security risks.
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VMware IT Business Management Solutions
Slide 9-24
Strategy
Ensure process control and governance
(for example, financial, risk, compliance,
IT Business Management
IT Business (for example, financial, risk, compliance,
and business service level
management) across a portfolio of cloud
service providers
B ildi Bl k
IT Business
Management
Orchestrate cloud
processes - simple
& lightweight
Asset
Management
Request
Fulfillment
Building Blocks
Simple, lightweight cloud process
orchestration from Service Manager
Cost metering and allocation from
Manage private
cloud requests
Meter and allocate
costs
Chargeback
Service Desk
Cost metering and allocation from
VMware vCenter Chargeback
Focus Areas
IT service management for virtual &
Products
IT service management for virtual &
cloud infrastructures
Request management portal for private
cloud
Service Manager
Chargeback
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164 VMware vSphere: Overview
VMware Service Manager: Automate IT Service Management
Slide 9-25
VMware Service Manager develops a Web architected solution that automates IT Service
Management processes in enterprise organizations.
The key advantages to the VMware Service Manager solution include:
Rapid ITIL Deployment: Using preintegrated processes in a unified single product, the
VMware Service Manager central web-architecture ensures rapid and centralized installation to
allow administrators to successfully deploy ITIL solution in weeks instead of months.
Flexibility and Configurability: The easy-to-use VMware Service Manager graphical
workflow modeler and flexible screen designer ensure users can easily map the most complex
of business processes to ensure richness of functionality without compromising ease-of-
configuration.
End-to-End Automation: From an Incident and Problem creation to proactive analysis,
provisioning, credentialing updates, finance system updates and an easy to create and maintain
change management database (CMDB). VMware Service Manager allows users to take
advantage of intelligent automation, from business users to underlying infrastructure
management.
A global team of experts: VMware Service Manager provides successful information
technology service management (ITSM) solutions in global enterprises across an international
Service Desk
Self service portal
Incident, problem, SLA
management management
Knowledge management
Configuration & Change
Ch l i Change planning
Change /release process
Asset Management
Manage all classes of IT assets
Manage inventory and lifecycle
Service Request Fulfilment
Hierarchical service catalog
Shopping cart experience
Screen designer & workflow
d li modeling
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client base and is supported by a highly skilled global network of expert ITSM consultants and
24x7 premier support.
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166 VMware vSphere: Overview
vCenter Chargeback: Charging for Resources
Slide 9-26
VMware vCenter Chargeback helps you understand the true cost of virtual machines and results
in better use of resources and IT budgeting. vCenter Chargeback empowers line of business users to
be fully accountable for the virtual machines that are requested. Develop cost models with
maximum flexibility to suite the unique policies of an organization.
B fit
Account, monitor, and report on costs
associated with virtual resources
Benefits
Improve Resource Utilization: By associating costs to
VMs many of the free VMs will go away, freeing up
resources for higher priorities
Optimization of Budgets: Business units can
understand how much they are paying for resources
and how much goes to unused, allowing them to
optimize resource consumption & costs
Key Features
Fixed, allocation, and utilization based costing Fixed, allocation, and utilization based costing
Charge different amounts for tiers of infrastructure
Schedule reports and email results
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Review of Learner Objectives
Slide 9-27
You should be able to do the following:
Describe the three VMware vCloud layers and match VMware
products to the correct cloud layer products to the correct cloud layer.
Describe the value of various VMware products.
What problem does the product address?
Wh l i d h d id ? What solution does the product provide?
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168 VMware vSphere: Overview
Key Points
Slide 9-28
VMware addresses cloud computing on three core solution areas in IT:
Infrastructure and Operations Management: IT teams can optimize capacity with VMware
vCenter CapacityIQ, streamline disaster recovery with VMware vCenter Site Recovery
Manager, and ensure continuous configuration compliance with VMware vCenter
Configuration Manager.
Application Management: With VMware vCenter Application Discovery Manager, you can
quickly understand application dependencies with unparalleled accuracy and efficiency using
agentless, continuous dependency mapping - across physical and virtual application
infrastructures. Using VMware vFabric Hyperic, IT organizations can monitor and manage
performance for Web and custom applications across physical, virtual and cloud environments.
VMware AppSpeed breaks latency issues down to the contributing components using
nonintrusive technologies designed for virtual infrastructures.
End-User Computing Management: Through View Manager, VMware View provides a
single management tool to provision new desktops or groups of desktops, and an easy interface
for setting desktop policies. Based on the mature Linked Clone technology, View Composer
enables the rapid creation of desktop images from a master image. Using VMware ThinApp,
you can package applications into single executables that run isolated from each other and the
operating system for conflict-free execution on end-point devices.
The complexities of todays IT landscape can be efficiently addressed
by cloud computing.
VMware addresses cloud computing on three core solution areas in IT: VMware addresses cloud computing on three core solution areas in IT:
Infrastructure and Operations Management
Application Management
End User Computing Management End-User Computing Management
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