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# CHAPTER 17

Exercise 17.2
1. (a) y
t+1
= y
t
+ 7 (b) y
t+1
= 1.3y
t
(c) y
t+1
= 3y
t
9
(a) Iteration yields y
1
= y
0
+1, y
2
= y
1
+1 = y
0
+2, y
3
= y
2
+1 = y
0
+3, etc. The solution
is y
t
= y
0
+ t = 10 + t.
(b) Since y
1
= y
0
, y
2
= y
1
=
2
y
0
, y
3
= y
2
=
3
y
0
, etc., the solution is y
t
=
t
y
0
=
t
.
(c) Iteration yields y
1
= y
0
, y
2
= y
1
=
2
y
0
, y
3
= y
2
=
3
y
0

2
, etc. The solution is y
t
=
t
y
0
(
t1
+
t2
+ . . . +
| {z }
a total of t terms
+ 1).
(a) y
t+1
y
t
= 1, so that a = 1 and c = 1. By (17.9
0
), the solution is y
t
= y
0
+ct = 10 +t.
(b) y
t+1
y
t
= 0, so that a = , and c = 0. Assuming 6= 1, (17.8
0
) applies, and we have
y
t
= y
0

t
=
t
. It checks. [ Assuming = 1 instead, we nd from (17.9
0
) that y
t
= ,
which is a special case of y
t
=
t
.]
(c) y
t+1
y
t
= , so that a = , and c = . Assuming 6= 1, we nd from (17.8
0
)
that y
t
=

y
0
+

1

1
. This is equivalent to the earlier answer, because we can
rewrite it as y
t
= y
0

1
t
1

= y
0

t
(1 + +
2
+ . . . +
t1
).
(a) To nd y
c
, try the solution y
t
= Ab
t
in the homogeneous equation y
t+1
+ 3y
t
= 0. The
result is Ab
t+1
+ 3Ab
t
= 0; i.e., b = 3. Hence y
c
= Ab
t
= A(3)
t
. To nd y
p
, try the
solution y
t
= k in the complete equation, to get k + 3k = 4; i.e. k = 1. Hence y
p
= 1.
The general solution is y
t
= A(3)
t
+1. Setting t = 0 in this solution, we get y
0
= A+1.
The initial condition then gives us A = 3. The denite solution is y
t
= 3(3)
t
+ 1.
(b) After normalizing the equation to y
t+1
(
1
2
)y
t
= 3, we can nd y
c
= Ab
t
= A(
1
2
)
t
, and
y
p
= k = 6. Thus, y
t
= A(
1
2
)
t
+6. Using the initial condition, we get A = 1. The denite
solution is y
t
= (
1
2
)
t
+ 6.
(c) After rewriting the equation as y
t+1
0.2y
t
= 4, we can nd y
c
= A(0.2)
t
, and y
p
= 5.
Thus y
t
= A(0.2)
t
+ 5. Using the initial condition, this solution can be denitized to
y
t
= (0.2)
t
+ 5.
118
Exercise 17.3
1. (a) Nonoscillatory; divergent.
(b) Nonoscillatory; convergent (to zero).
(c) Oscillatory; convergent.
(d) Nonoscillatory; convergent.
2. (a) From the expression 3(3)
t
, we have b = 3 (region VII). Thus the path will oscillate
explosively around y
p
= 1.
(b) With b =
1
2
(region III), the path will show a nonoscillatory movement from 7 toward
y
p
= 6.
(c) With b = 0.2 (region III again), we have another convergent, nonoscillatory path.
But this time it goes upward from an initial value of 1 toward y
p
= 5.
3. (a) a =
1
3
, c = 6, y
0
= 1. By (17.8
0
), we have y
t
= 8(
1
3
)
t
+ 9 nonoscillatory and
convergent.
(b) a = 2, c = 9, y
0
= 4. By (17.8
0
), we have y
t
= (2)
t
+3 oscillatory and divergent.
(c) a =
1
4
, c = 5, y
0
= 2. By (17.8
0
), we have y
t
= 2(
1
4
)
t
+ 4 oscillatory and
convergent.
(d) a = 1, c = 3, y
0
= 5. By (17.9
0
), we have y
t
= 5+3t nonoscillatory and divergent
(from a moving equilibrium 3t).
Exercise 17.4
1. Substitution of the time path (17.12
0
) into the demand equation leads to the time path of Q
dt
,
which we can simply write as Q
t
(since Q
dt
= Q
st
by the equilibrium condition):
Q
t
= P
t
=

P
0

P
Whether Q
t
converges depends on the

t
term, which determines the convergence of P
t
as well. Thus P
t
and Q
t
must be either both convergent, or both divergent.
2. The cobweb in this case will follow a specic rectangular path.
119
3. (a) = 18, = 3, = 3, = 4. Thus

P =
21
7
= 3. Since > , there is explosive
oscillation.
(b) = 22, = 3, = 2, = 1. Thus

P =
24
4
= 6. Since < , the oscillation is
damped.
(c) = 19, = 6, = 5, = 6. Thus

P =
24
12
= 2. Since = , there is uniform
oscillation.
4. (a) The interpretation is that if actual price P
t1
exceeds (falls short of) the expected price
P

t1
, then P

t1
will be revised upward (downward) by a fraction of the discrepancy
P
t1
P

t1
, to form the expected price of the next period, P

t
process is essentially the same as in (16.34), except that, here, time is discrete, and
the variable is price rather than the rate of ination.
(b) If = 1, then P

t
= P
t1
and the model reduces to the cobweb model (17.10). Thus
the present model includes the cobweb model as a special case.
(c) The supply function gives P

t
=
Q
st
+

## , which implies that P

t1
=
Q
s,t1
+

. But
since Q
st
= Q
dt
= P
t
, and similarly, Q
s,t1
= P
t1
, we have
P

t
=
+ P
t

and P

t1
=
+ P
t1

Substituting these into the adaptive expectations equation, and simplifying and shift-
ing the time subscript by one period, we obtain the equation
P
t+1

P
t
=
( + )

## which is in the form of (17.6) with a =

6= 1, and c =
(+)

.
(d) Since a 6= 1, we can apply formula (17.8
0
) to get
P
t
=

P
0

+
+

t
+
+
+
=

P
0

t
+

P
This time path is not necessarily oscillatory, but it will be if

1

is negative,
i.e., if

+
< .
120
(e) If the price path is oscillatory and convergent (region V in Fig. 17.1), we must have
1 < 1

## < 0, where the second inequality has to do with the presence

of oscillation, and the rst, with the question of convergence. Adding ( 1), and
dividing throught by , we have 1
2

<

< 1
1

## . Given that the path is oscillatory,

convergence requires 1
2

<

range for

is 1 <

## < 0. If 0 < < 1, however, the range will become wider.

With =
1
2
, e.g., the range becomes 3 <

< 1.
5. The dynamizing agent is the lag in the supply function. This introduces P
t1
into the model,
which together with P
t
, forms a pattern of change.
Exercise 17.5
1. Because a = ( + ) 1 6= 1, by model specication.
2. (IV) 1 ( + ) = 0. Thus =
1
+
.
(V) 1 < 1 ( + ) < 0. Subtracting 1, we get 2 < ( + ) < 1. Multiplying
by
1
+
, we obtain
2
+
> >
1
+
.
(VI) 1 ( + ) = 1. Thus =
2
+
.
(VII) 1 ( + ) < 1. Subtracting 1, and multiplying by
1
+
, we obtain >
2
+
.
3. With = 0.3, = 21, = 2, = 3, and = 6, we nd from (17.15) that P
t
= (P
0

3)(1.4)
t
+ 3, a case of explosive oscillation.
4. The dierence equation will become P
t+1
(1 )P
t
= ( k), with solution
P
t
=

P
0

(1 )
t
+
k

The term b
t
= (1 )
t
is decisive in the time-path conguration:
Region b
III 0 < b < 1 0 < <
1

IV b = 0 =
1

V 1 < b < 0
1

< <
2

VI b = 1 =
2

## VII b < 1 >

2

121
[These results are the same as Table 17.2 with set equal to 0.] To have a positive

P, we must
have k < ; that is, the horizontal supply curve must be located below the vertical intercept
of the demand curve.
Exercise 17.6
1. No, y
t
and y
t+1
can take any real values, and are continuous.
2. (a) Yes, L and R give two equilibria.
(b) Nonoscillatory, explosive downward movement.
(c) Damped, steady upward movement toward R.
(d) Damped, steady downward movement toward R.
(e) L is an unstable equilibrium; R is a stable one.
3. (a) Yes.
(b) Nonoscillatory explosive decrease.
(c) At rst ther iwll be steady downward movement to the right, but as it approaches R,
oscillation will develop because of the negative slope of the phase line. Whether the
oscillation will be explosive depends on the steepness of the negatively-sloped segment
of the curve.
(d) Oscillation around R will again occur either explosive, or damped, provided y
0
maps to a point on the phase line higher than L.
(e) L is denitely unstable. The stability of R depends on the steepness of the curve.
4. (a) The phase line will be downward-sloping at rst, but will become horizontal at the
level of P
m
on the vertical axis.
(b) Yes; yes.
(c) Yes.
5. From equation (17.17), we can write for the kink point:

P =
+

k or

k =
+

P
122
It follows that
k =

=
+

P
123