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Phytoremediation, use plants and natural processes to
remediate or stabilize hazardous wastes in soil, sediments,
surface water, or groundwater (US EPA, 2001)
Phytoremediation is the name given to a set of technologies
that use plants to remediate contaminated sites (ITRC, 1999).
Phytoremediation uses living plants for in situ and ex situ
remediation of contaminated soil, sludges, sediments and
ground water through contaminant removal, degradation or
Phytoremediation can be used to remediate various
contaminants including metals, pesticides, solvents,
explosives, petroleum hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons and landfill leachates.
Plants grow by sending their roots into the soil and producing
leaf and woody material.

Plants utilize carbondioxide to photosynthesize carbon
biomass, produce energy and release oxygen to the
environment, take up and transpire water from the subsurface,
absorb dissolved inorganics through the root system, and
exude photosynthetic products into the root zone.

The upward transport in the xylem and downward transport in
the phloem Translocation
Basic Plant Physiology
Translocation occurs primarily by the equilibrium driving
force between liquid water in the leaves and the gaseous
water (humidity) in the atmosphere.

taken up by the root system as dissolved
constituents in soil moisture
throughout the remainder of
the plant through the
vascular system of the plant
Nonessential inorganics such as various common contaminants
(salts, Pb, Cd, As, etc.) can be taken up as well.
Since these are not essential to the plant and may represent
potential toxins at high concentrations the plant contains
various mechanisms to sequester or stabilize these extraneous
inorganics and prevent translocation into the more sensitive,
terrestrial portion of the plant.
Carbon dioxide that enters plants cells through stomata (in the
leaves) is incorporated into organic matter using reductants
generated during photosynthesis translocated throughout the
plant through another vascular system (phloem).

Typical compounds exuded by the plant roots include amino
acids, enzymes, proteins, organic acids, carbohydrates, and
other cellular materials into the rhizosphere (20% of the total
photosynthetic products produced by a plant).

Plants have the ability to intercept a significant portion of rain (and
irrigation) on their leaf surfaces. This intercepted water is evaporated
directly back into the atmosphere, preventing the water from reaching
the ground surface.

The differences in water interception capacities are due to
morphological factors of the aboveground plant portions such as
structure (vertical vs. Horizontal profile), leaf cuticle (hairy vs. waxy),
and density (number of branches and leaves).

If falling water is not intercepted by the plant and manages to infiltrate
into the soil, it is then subject to the transpirational uptake by the
plant root system.

If the water is able to percolate below the root zone, it is available to
recharge the groundwater. The transpirational stream begins with
soil moisture being drawn from the soil into the root system and ends
when the water evaporates into the atmosphere through the leaf

This whole process occurs primarily by the equilibrium driving force
between liquid water in the leaves and the gaseous water (humidity)
in the atmosphere.

Other climate conditions, as well as the health and condition of the
plant, greatly impact the transpiration capacity
tion (ET)
evaporation and
transpiration of
water from plant
Influence of Environmental Factors On
Soil Structure, Texture, and Organic Matter Content
Soil texture can affect phytoremediation efforts by influencing the
bioavailability of the contaminant.
Soil type may influence the quality or quantity of root exudates,
which may influence phytoremediation efforts

Water and Oxygen Availability
Water is not only a major component of living organisms, it also
serves as a transport medium to carry nutrients to biota and carry
wastes away.
oxygen may be provided to the rhizosphere as a plant exudate
Nutrients are required to support the growth of plants and their
associated microorganisms
Solar Radiation
Increasing the polarity, water solubility, and toxicity of the
compounds prior to uptake by the plant
Plant Considerations
Plant Selection
Plants that have been shown to be effective or that show promise for
Native, crop, forage, and other types of plants that can grow under
regional conditions
Root Depth
The bulk of root mass will be found at shallower depths, with much
less root mass at deeper depths.
The depth of in situ contamination or of excavated soil generally
should not exceed the root zone depth.
Growth Rate
Growth rates can be defined differently for different forms of
For rhizodegradation, rhizofiltration, and phytostabilization, for
example, it is desirable to have fast growth in terms of root depth,
density, volume, surface area, and lateral extension.
For phytoextraction, a fast growth rate of aboveground plant mass is
Plant Considerations
Transpiration Rate
The transpiration rate depends on factors such as species, age,
mass, size, leaf surface area, canopy cover, growth stage, and
climatic factors, and will vary seasonally
Seed/Plant Source
It is generally best to use seeds or plants (and varieties) that are
local or from the region of the site so that the plants are adapted to
the particular climatic conditions
Contaminant Considerations
Organic contaminant
The hydrophobicity of an organic compound (as indicated by the
octanol-water partition coefficient, kow) will affect the uptake and
translocation of the compound
Inorganic contaminant
May be different for mixtures of metals than for one metal alone.
The interaction of the metals in a mixture might need to be
investigated, especially in terms of the ability to take up one or
more metals and nutrients
Waste mixture
The use of several types of vegetation, each to remediate a
different contaminant, might be required either at the same time or
Contaminant Considerations
Contaminant concentration
Contaminant concentrations cannot be phytotoxic or cause
unacceptable impacts on plant health or yield.
A literature review or a preliminary laboratory or field plot screening
study will be needed to determine if the given concentrations are
Contaminant Depth and Distribution in the Soil Profile
The contaminated soil must be within the root zone of the plants in
order for the vegetation to directly impact the contamination
Contaminant Characteristics
The contaminant type, pH, oily contamination can adversely affect
the water movement, air movement, or uptake of nutrients
necessary for plant growth.
An oily contaminant can significantly decrease plant growth.
Advantages and Limitation
In terms of economics, phytoremediation are estimated to be at
least 40% less costly than other in-situ remedial approaches. For
ex-situ technologies estimated to be 90% less costly compared
to alternatives.
Low maintenance
Potentially applicable in remote locations without utility access.
Decreased air and water emissions as well as secondary wastes.
Control of soil erosion, surface water runoff, infiltration, and fugitive
dust emissions.
Applicable to simultaneously remediate sites with multiple or mixed
Favorable public perception, increased aesthetics, and reduced
Advantages and Limitation
Not applicable to all sites.
The capability for contaminant mass transfer to the treatment zone,
or root zone.
Relatively slow in comparison to more active remediation
technologies and is dependent on local climatic conditions
By-products maybe more toxic
Tugas utk kelompok
Pilih salah satu mekanisme fitoremediasi
Cari segala sesuatu tentang mekanisme fitoremediasi yg
dipilih, misalnya tentang:
Definisi / mekanisme
Advantages / disadvantages
Disposal of plant wastes
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