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# Active earth pressure is the smallest limiting lateral pressure developed at the onset of shear

failure by wall moving away from the soil in the direction of the acting earth pressure (minimal
wall rotation necessary for the evolution of active earth pressure is about 2 mrad, i.e.
2 mm/mofthe wall height).
The following theories and approaches are implemented for the computation of active earth
pressure assuming effective stress state:
The Mazindrani theory
The Coulomb theory
The Mller-Breslau theory
The Caquot theory
The Absi theory
For cohesive soils the tension cutoff condition is accepted, i.e. if due to cohesion the negative
value of active earth pressure is developed or, according to more strict requirements, the value
of "Minimum dimensioning pressure" is exceeded, the value of active earth pressure drops down
to zero or set equal to the "Minimum dimensioning pressure".
The program also allows for running the analysis in total stresses.
Active earth pressure is given by the following formula:

Assuming cohesionless soils (c = 0) and horizontal ground surface ( = 0) yields the Rankin
Active earth pressure
Active earth pressure the Mazindrani theory
where:
z
- vertical geostatic stress
K
a
- coefficient of active earth pressure due to Rankin
- slope inclination
- weight of soil
z - assumed depth

- coefficient of active earth pressure due to Mazindrani
where: - slope inclination
- angle of internal friction of soil
c - cohesion of soil
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solution, for which the active earth pressure is provided by:

and the coefficient of active earth pressure becomes:

Horizontal and vertical components of the active earth pressure become:

Literature:
Mazindrani, Z.H., and Ganjali, M.H. 1997. Lateral earth pressure problem of cohesive backfill
with inclined surface. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 123
(2): 110112.
Active earth pressure is given by the following formula:

The coefficient of active earth pressure K
a
is given by:

The coefficient of active earth pressure K
ac
is given by:

for:
where: - angle of internal friction of soil
where:
a
- active earth pressure
- angle of friction structure - soil
- back face inclination of the structure
Active earth pressure - the Coulomb theory
where:
z
- vertical geostatic stress
c
ef
- effective cohesion of soil
K
a
- coefficient of active earth pressure
K
ac
- coefficient of active earth pressure due to cohesion
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for:

Horizontal and vertical components of the active earth pressure become:

Literature:
Arnold Verruijt: Soil mechanics, Delft University of Technology, 2001, 2006,
"http://geo.verruijt.net/"
Active earth pressure is given by the following formula:

The coefficient of active earth pressure K
a
is given by:

where: - angle of internal friction of soil
- angle of friction structure - soil
- slope inclination
- back face inclination of the structure
where:
a
- active earth pressure
- angle of friction structure - soil
- back face inclination of the structure
Active earth pressure - the Mller-Breslau theory
where:
z
- vertical geostatic stress
c
ef
- effective cohesion of soil
K
a
- coefficient of active earth pressure
K
ac
- coefficient of active earth pressure due to cohesion
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The coefficient of active earth pressure K
ac
is given by:

for:

for:

Horizontal and vertical components of the active earth pressure become:

Literature:
Mller-Breslau's Erddruck auf Stutzmauern,Stuttgart: Alfred Kroner-Verlag, 1906 (German)
where: - angle of internal friction of soil
- angle of friction structure - soil
- slope inclination
- back face inclination of the structure
where: - angle of internal friction of soil
- angle of friction structure - soil
- slope inclination
- back face inclination of the structure
where:
a
- active earth pressure
- angle of friction structure - soil
- back face inclination of the structure
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Active earth pressure is given by the following formula:

The following analytical solution (Boussinesque, Caquot) is implemented to compute the
coefficient of active earth pressure K
a
:

The coefficient of active earth pressure K
ac
is given by:

for:

Active earth pressure - the Caquot theory
where:
z
- vertical geostatic stress
c
ef
- effective cohesion of soil
K
a
- coefficient of active earth pressure
K
ac
- coefficient of active earth pressure due to cohesion
where: K
a
- coefficient of active earth pressure due to Caquot
K
a
Coulomb

- coefficient of active earth pressure due to Coulomb
- conversion coefficient see further
where: - slope inclination behind the structure
- angle of internal friction of soil
- angle of friction structure - soil
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for:

Horizontal and vertical components of the active earth pressure become:

Active earth pressure is given by the following formula:

The program takes values of the coefficient of active earth pressure K
a
from a database, built
upon the values published in the book: Krisel, Absi: Active and passive earth Pressure Tables,
3rd Ed. A.A. Balkema, 1990 ISBN 90 6191886 3.
The coefficient of active earth pressure K
ac
is given by:

for:

where: - angle of internal friction of soil
- angle of friction structure - soil
- slope inclination behind the structure
- back face inclination of the structure
where:
a
- active earth pressure
- angle of friction structure - soil
- back face inclination of the structure
Active earth pressure - the Absi theory
where:
z
- vertical geostatic stress
c
ef
- effective cohesion of soil
K
a
- coefficient of active earth pressure
K
ac
- coefficient of active earth pressure due to cohesion
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for:

Horizontal and vertical components of the active earth pressure become:

Literature:
Krisel, Absi: Active and Passive Earth Pressure Tables, 3rd ed., Balkema, 1990 ISBN 90
6191886 3
When determining the active earth pressure in cohesive fully saturated soils, in which case the
consolidation is usually prevented (undrained conditions), the horizontal normal total stress
x

The coefficient of earth pressure K
uc
is given by:

where: - angle of internal friction of soil
- angle of friction structure - soil
- slope inclination
- back face inclination of the structure
where:
a
- active earth pressure
- angle of friction structure - soil
- back face inclination of the structure
Active earth pressure total stress
where:
x
- horizontal total stress (normal)

z
- vertical normal total stress
K
uc
- coefficient of earth pressure
c
u
- total cohesion of soil
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where: K
uc
- coefficient of earth pressure
c
u
- total cohesion of soil
a
u
- total adhesion of soil to the structure
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