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5ng, the moisture of the mortar ; and this, if used plentifully, will consequently exercise
a greater cementing power; because from their containing a large portion of moisture,
the wall will not, of course, dry so soon as otherwise ; and as soon as the moisture is
absorbed by the pores of the stones from the mortar, the lime, losing its power, leaves
the sand, so that the stones no longer adhere to it, and in a short time the work becomes
unsound. We may see this in several monuments about the city (Rome) which have
been built of marble, or of stones squared externally, that is, on one face, but filled up
with rubble run with mortar. Time in these has taken up the moisture of the mortar,
and destroyed its efficacy by the porosity of the surface ou which it acted. All cohesion
is thus ruined, and the walls fall to decay. He who is desirous that this may not hap-
pen to his work should build his two-face walls two feet thick, either of red stone, or of
bricks, or of common flint, binding them together with iron cramps run with lead, and
duly preserving the middle space or cavity. The materials in this case not being
thrown in at random, but the work well brought up on the beds, the upright joints pro-
perly arranged, and the face -walls, moreover, regularly tied together, they are not liable
to bulge, nor be otherwise disfigured. In these respects one cannot refrain from
admiriug the walls of the Greeks. They make no use of soft stone in their buildings
wlien, however, they do not employ squared stones, they use either flint or hard stone,
and, as thougii building with brick, they cross or break the upright joints, and thus
produce the most durable work. There are two sorts of this species of work, one called
isodomum (CC), the other j)seudisodomum (DD). The first is so called, because in it
all the courses are of an equal height ; the latter received its name from the unequal
heights of the courses. Both these methods make sound work ; first, because the stones
are hard and solid, and therefore unable to absorb the moisture of the mortar, which
is thus preserved to the longest period
; secondly, because the beds being smooth and
level, the mortar does not escape
and the wall, moreover, bonded throughout its whole
thickness, becomes eternal. There is still another method, which is called i/xTr^fKrov
(emplcclon) (E), in use even among our country workmen. In this species the faces
are wrought. The other stones are, without working, deposited in the cavity between
the two faces, and bedded in mortar as the wall is cai-ried up. But the workmen, for
the sake of despatch, carry up these casing walls, and then tumble in the rubble between
them, so that there are thus three distinct thicknesses, namely, the two sides or facings,
and the filling in. The Greeks, however, pursue a different course, laying the stones
flat, and breaking the vertical joints ;
neither do they fill in the middle at random, but,
by means ot bond stones, make the wall solid, and of one thickness or piece. They,
moreover, cress the wall from one face to the other, witli bond stones of a single piece,
which they call Biarovoi (diatoni) (F), tending greatly to strengthen the work." (G) is
supposed to show the solid masonry of a wall properly bonded in the courses.
Mass. (Germ. Masse.) The quantity of matter whereof any body is composed. The
mass of a body is directly as the product of its volume into its density. Multiplied into
the constant force of gravity, the mass constitutes the weight; hence the mass of a body
is properly estimated by its weight.
Mastic. (Gr. Ma<TTtKri, a species of gum.) A cement employed for plastering outside
walls. It is used with a considerable portion of linseed oil, and sets hard in a few daj's.
From this latter circumstance, and from its being fit for the reception of paint in a veiy
short period, it is extremely useful in works where expedition is necessary, but it must
be constantly painted; when the oil has dried out, it has proved to be worthless.
Asphalte mixed with coal tar or limestone, ready for use in paving, is termed "mastic."
Things composed of matter, or possessing its fundamental properties.
Mathematics. (Gr. Ma6r](ns, learning.) The science which investigates the consequences
logically deducible from any given or admitted relations between magnitude or numbers.
It has usually been divided into two parts, pure and mixed. The first is that in which
geometricul magnitude or numbers are the subjects of investigation
the last that in
which the deductions so made are from relations obtained by observation and experiment
from the
phenomena of material nature. This is sometimes called physics, or physical
Mathematics, as respects what is necessary for the architect, comprises Arith-
metic, Algebra, and Geometey.
Mausoleum. A term used to denote a sepulchral building, and so called from a very
celebrated one erected to the memory of Mausolus, king of Caria, by his wife Artemisia,
about 353 B.C. From its extraordinary m.tgnificence, it was in ancient times esteemed
the seventh wonder of the world. Many statuesand other portions of it are now in the
British Museum.
Mean. In mathematics, that quantity which has an intermediate value between several
others, formed according to any assigned law of succession. Thus, an arithmetical mean
of several quantities is merely the ai-ew^c, found by dividing the sum of all the quantities
by their number, A geometrical mean between two quantities, or a mean proportional, is
the middle term of a duplicate ratio, or continued proportion of three terms
that is,