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next tlio Burgher schools, at which children of the lovrcv middle cl.asses tiro educated ;

the Realschulen, consisting of three kinds of instruction ; the Practical school, in which

scientific subjects are taught; then the Gymnasium, which forms a stepping-stone to

the University or the Polytechnic school, to qualify for any business or profession.

Sciagraphy or Sciography. (Gr. Swia, a shadow, and Tpa<pai, I describe.) The doctrine

of projecting shadows as they fall in nature.

ScoNCMEON. (Fr. Ecoingon.) The portion of the side of an aperture, from the back of

the jamb or reveal, to the interior of the wall.


(Gr. 'S.kotm, darkness.) The hollow moulding in the base of a column between

the fillets of the tori. It receives the name from being so much in shadow. The scotia was, from its resemblance to a pulley, called also rpox^^os. It is most frequently

formed by the junction of arcs of different radii, but it ought rather to be profiled as a portion of an ellipsis. Scratch Work. (It. SgrafBata.) A coloured plaster being laid on the face of the build-

ing, it is covered wath a white one, which being scratched through to any design with an

iron bodkin, the coloured work appears through and makes the contrast. It is an Italian method of decorating a plain surface, and is now being much carried out in England. Screed. In plastering or cementing largo spaces, a ledge of about i inches and of the

proper thickness is carefully formed, every 4, 5, or 6 feet apart, to form a gauge for the

remainder of the work, which is then applied in the panel, a long float being worked over it, forcing off the superfluous plaster, and a clear and even f.ice is obtained. Screen. (Lat. Excerno.) An instrument used in making mortar, consisting of three wooden ledges joined to a rectangular frame at the bottom, the upper part of which

This term is uso.i in eccle-

siastical architecture to denote a partition of wood, stone, or metal, usually so placed in a church as to chut out an aisle from the choir, a private chapel from a transept, tlie nave from the choir, the high altar from the east end of the building, or an altar tomb

from a public passage of the church. In the form and ornamental detiiil of screens, the

frame is filled with wire-work for sifting the sand or lime.

ancient artists appear to have almost exhausted fancy, ingenuity, and taste.

Screw. (Dutch, Sjroeve.) One of the six mechanical powers, chiefly used in pressing or

squeezing bodies close, though sometimes also in raising weights, as a screw-jack.

Scribing. Fitting the edge of a board to a surface not accurately plane, as the skirting

of a room to a floor. In joinery, it is the fitting one piece to another, so that their fibres

may be perpendicular to each other, the two edges being cut to an angle to join. Scroll. A convolved or spiral ornament variously introduced. Also the volutes of the Ionic and Corinthian capital. The T'XaC^^ C^'V.C^^ci subjoined woodcut is called a Vitnivian scroll.

Scullery. The apartment for washing up dishes and utensils

wherein the scullion w^orks. Sculpture. (Lat. Sculpo, to carve.)

The art of imitating forms by chiselling and work-

ing away solid substances. It is also used to denote the carved work itself. Properly, the word includes works in clay, wax, wood, metal, and stone ; but it is generally re-

stricted to those of the last material, the terms 7nodellivg, casting, and carving being

.applied to the others.

See Frieze, Pediment, and Metop^e.

Sealing. The fixing a piece of wood or iron on a wall with plaster, mortar, cement, lead

or other binding, for staples, hinges, joints, &c.

Seasoned Timber. Timber that has undergone a proper process of air or hot air drying

so as to render it fit to be used in building.


(Lat.) A line that cuts another. In trigonometry, the secant is a line drawn

to the centre from some point in the tangent, which consequently cuts the circle.

Secos. (Gr.) See Adytum. Section of a Euilding. A geometrical representation of it as divided or separated into two parts by a vertical plane, to show and explain the construction of the interior. The section not only includes the parts that are separated, but also the elevation of the receding parts, and ought to be so taken as to show the greatest number of parts, and those of the most difficult construction. Of every building at least two sections should

be made at right angles to one another, and parallel to the sides.

flues should also be made, in order to avoid placing timbers near them.

A section of the

Section of a

Solid. The plane of separation dividing one part from the other. It is

understood to be always a plane surface. Sector. An instrument for measuring or laying off angles, and dividing lines and circles

into equal parts.

Sector of a Circle. The space comprehended between two radii and the arc terminated

by them.


Seats recessed in the south wall of the sanctuary of a church, and

formerly provided for the clergy in the sacrifice of the mass, during that part of the

office in which the "Gloria" and "Credo "are sung. They are now also provided in