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An arch, vault, or dome rising higher than a semicircle.
Syenite. A stone which consists of feldspar and hornblende, of various colours, as
dull green, &c., as the feldspar or hornblende may predominate. It obtained
the name from its abundance of syene, and according to Pliny was at first named
pyropcecilos. It is, in fact, a species of granite, and is used in Pompey's Pillar at
Alexandria. It is not the Egyptian porphyry, though often mistaken for it.
Symbol. An attribute or sign accompanying a statue, or a picture of a personage, in
allusion to some passage in the life of tlie person represented, and hence often used as
a figurative representation of the figure itself. The symbols connected with the luetali
are delineated herein s. v. Metals. From the constant occurrence of symbols in tlio
edifices of the Middle Ages it may be useful to insert a list of them, as attiiched to the
Apostles and Saints, most commonly found. The Cross has been received as a symbol
of Christianity, and the crescent of Mahommedanism.
^'- '"""<-'i"^--A dove lighting on his head.
St. Peter.Beaie a key, or two keys -nith different
Anil/vw.'Leans on a cross, so called from him
called by heralds the
" saltire."
,S^ J"fin Evangelist. With a chaUee, in which is a
winged serpent. When this symbol is used, the
eagle, another symbol of him, is never given.
St. JIar-tholomew.'With a flaying knife.
St. James the Less.A fuller's staff, bearing a small
square banner.
,S^ James the Greater.A pilgiim's staff, hat, and
escalop shell.
St. Tlwmus.An arrow, or with a long staff.
St. Simon.A long saw.
St. Jade. A club.
St. Matthias.A hatchet.
,S(. Philip. Leans on a spear ; or has a long cross
in the shape of a T.
St. Matthew.A knife or dagger,
St. Mark.A winged hon.
St. Luke.A bull.
St. John.An eagle.
St. Paul.An elevated sword, or two swordj in
,S^ Jdhn Bapti.':t.An Agnus Dei.
St. Stephen.With stones in his lap.
iS^ Agatha.ScT breast torn by pincers.
St. A<jnes.A lamb at her feet.
.S7. Aidan.A stag crouching at bis feet.
St. Alfihege.His chasuble full of stones.
S'. Amigradesma.Covered with leprosy.
St. AiDie.Teaching the Blessed Virgin to read.
Her finger usually pointing to the words Radix
Jesse Floruit.
St. Antony, Eremite.Devil appears to him in the
shape of a goat.
St. Anthany o/i'iciua. Accompanied by a pig.
St. Apollonia.With a tooth.
St. Barbara.With a tower in her hands.
St. Blaise.With a woolcomb.
St. Boniface.Hewing down an oak.
St. Britius.With a child in his arms.
St. Canute.Lying at the foot of the altar.
St. Cut/iarine.With a wheel and eword.
St. Cecilia.With an organ.
St. Christopher.A giant carrying the infant Sa-
viour on his shoulder across a stream. A monk,
or female figure, with a lantern on the farther
St. Clement.

^With an anchor.
.S;. David.Preaching on a hill.
St. Denis.With his head in his hands.
St. Dorot/ty. Hears a nosegay in one hand and a
sword in the other.
St. Dunstan.Bears a harp.
St. Edith.Washing a beggar's feet.
St. Edmund.Fastened to a tree and pierced with
St. Edward.'Beaxiag in bis hand the Gospel of
at. John.
St. EthelJreda, Abbess.Asleep, a young tree blos-
soming over her liead.
St. Eujttuchius, or St. Hubert.A stag appearing to
him, with a cross between its horns.
St. Eabum.Kneeling at the block with a triple
crown at his side.
St. Faith.With a bimdle of rods.
St. George.With the Dragon.
<S/. Gertrude, Abbess.With a loaf.
St. Giles, Abbot.A hind with an arrow piercing
her neck, standing on her hind legs, and resting
her fift in his lap.
8t. Guduta.With a lantern.
St. Nilai-y With three books.
SI. IJip]>olylus.Torn by wild horses.
St. Ifugh.With a lantern.
,SV. Januarius.Lighting a fire.
St. Joachim.With a staff, and two doves In a
St. Lawrence.With a gi'idiron.
^7. Magnus.Restoring sight to a blind man.
St. Margaret.Trampling on a dragon, a crosier
in her hands.
St. Martin.Giving half his cloak to a beggar.
St. A'icholas.With three naked children in a tub,
in the end whereof rests his pastoral staff.
aS<. Odilo, Abbot.With two gobl >ts.
St. Panrras.Trampling on a Saracen, a palm
branch in his right hand.
St. Richard.A chalice at his feet.
St. Jiosaly. With a rock in her arms.
St. Seb<istian. As St. Edmund, but without a
St. Ursula.Surrounded with virgins much less in
size than herself.
St. y'incent.On the rack.
St. Walburga.Oil distilling from her hand.
St. Waltheof. Kneeling at the block, the 8un
St. Winifred, Abbess. With her head in her arms.
St. Wulfstan. Striking his pastoral staff on a
The Blesseid Virgin Is usually representel

1. At the Annunciation, "with an almond treo

flourishing in a flower-pot.
2. At her Purification with a pair of turtle
3. In her Agony, with a sword piercing bcr
4. In hiT
5. In her Assumption.
fi. With the blessed Saviour in her lap.
7. In her Ecstasy, kneeling at a faldstool, which
faces the Temple, the Holy Dove descending
on her.
Martyrs hold pahns ; Virgin.^, lamps, or. If also
Martyrs, hlies and roses ; Confessors, lilies ; Pa-
triarchs, wheels.
Glories round beads are circular, except when
living prelates eminent for holiness are repre-
sented, when they are square.
HusBNBETH, F. C. Emblems of Saints. 2nd edition, 12mj. London 1860. Twining, L
Symbols ani Emblems of
Early and Medieval Chrislian Art. 93 plates, 4to. Lond. 1852.