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Home > Think Tank > German WWII > Flak from a modeller's viewpoint (part II of II)

Flak from a modeller's viewpoint (part II of II)


by Dan Mouritzsen
[Click here to view Part 1 of this article.]
mm!nition details
There were 14 main types of Flak guns used by the ermans during !!"". in addition# several
captured so$called Beutewaffen were also used. %owever# they will not be covered in this article.
un feed by
!eight of round&
mag. 'mmunition storage(
"#m Flak "$
(%erlikon) 1) round maga*ine +.,kg
'irtight amm. -o.. 1,/
cartridges 40kg
"#m Flak &'
"#m Flak &$
"#m Ge() Flak &$
"#m Flak *ierlin+
&$ 1/ round maga*ine 0.)kg
'irtight amm. -o..
1// cartridges 4).) kg
&),#m Flak 1$
&),#m Flak &-.&,
+ round clip
2ingle shot 3
42tiel$r. 415
11.)kg
6.+/kg
'irtight amm. -o.. 16
11 cartridges 1) kg
$ 'irtight amm. -o..
1+ cartridges ,1 kg
$ 'irtight amm. Con.
1 grenade 1/.4kg
&),#m Flak /& 6 round clip 1+.)kg
'irtight amm. -o..
1+ cartridges ,1kg
/#m Flak "$ 4 round clip 1.1/kg
'mm. -o.
6 cartridges 11kg $ 1/
cartridges +1kg
0#m Flak /1 ) round clip ,/kg
'irtight amm. -o.. 41
, cartridges 10kg
$)$#m Flak
1$.&-.&, 2ingle shot
%7 14.8kg
'9 1).,kg
'mm. wicker basket
, cartridges )+kg
$ 'mm. -o.
, cartridges +/kg
$ 'irtight amm. Con.
1 cartridge 1/kg
$)$#m Flak /1 2ingle shot
%7 10.1kg
'9 10.6kg
'irtight amm. Con.
1 cartridge 1)kg
$ 'mm. bo.
1 cartridges )/kg
1')0#m Flak
&$.&1 2ingle shot
%7 1+kg
'9 1+.1kg
'mm. Con. ,6
1 cartridge ,1kg
$ 'mm. bo.
1 cartridges +1kg
1")$#m Flak /' 2ingle shot
%7 48.8kg
'9 4+.)kg
'mm. -o. 4/
1 cartridge 81kg

( :ew ammunition bo.es 4factory fresh5.
((reviations. e2planations3
1. 'irtight ; The wooden bo. had an airtight sheet metal lining.
1. 'mm. ; 'mmunition.
,. '9 ; 'rmour piercing.
4. Con. ; Container 4tube container5.
). eb. ; ebirge 4<ountain 4un for mountain troops55.
+. r. ; ranate 4grenade5
8. %7 ; %igh 7.plosive
6. kg ; =ilogram
0. <ag. ; <aga*ine
1/. 2tiel ; 4stick5

4amples of te2t on amm!nition (o2es and #ontainers
mm!nition 5o2es and #ontainers
"#m Flak "$ 1cm 2prgr. 9atr. >&2pur
1cm 9*gr. 9atr.
1cm 9l. 9atr.
>uftdichter
9atronenkasten 16.
"#m Flak &'
"#m Flak &$
"#m Ge() Flak &$
"#m Flak *ierlin+ &$
1cm 2prgr. 9atr. >&2pur
1cm 2prgr. 9atr. ?b.
1cm -r. 2prgr. 9atr. vk
>&2pur !.
1cm -r. 2prgr. 9atr. >&2pur
1cm 9*gr. 9atr.
1cm 9*gr. 9atr. >&2pur
>uftdichter
9atronenkasten.
%77@72 <unition
1
esamtgewkg
&),#m Flak 1$
&),#m Flak &-.&,
,.8cm 2prgr. 9atr. 16
,.8cm -r. 2prgr. 9atr.
>&2pur
,.8cm 9*gr. 9atr. 16
,.8cm %. 9*gr. 9atr. >&2pur
o. Aerl.
,.8cm %. 9*gr. 9atr. >&2pur
m. Aerl.
,.8cm 2tielgranate 41
"
>uftdichter
9atronenkasten 16.
>uftdichter
9atronenkasten
d. ,.8cm Flak 16.
<un. ,.8 Flak 42tiel$r.5
&),#m Flak /& ,.8cm 2prgr. 9atr. 16
,.8cm -r. 2prgr. 9atr.
>&2pur
,.8cm 9*gr. 9atr. 16
,.8cm %. 9*gr. 9atr. >&2pur
o. Aerl.
>uftdichter
9atronenkasten 16.
>uftdichter
9atronenkasten
d. ,.8cm Flak 16.
/#m Flak "$ 4cm 2prgr. 9atr. >&2pur
4cm -r. 2prgr. 9atr. >&2pur
9atronenkasten
4cm Flak 16.
0#m Flak /1 )cm 2prgr. 9atr. 41 >&2pur
)cm -r. 2prgr. 9atr. 41
>&2pur
)cm 9*gr. 9atr. 41
>uftdichter
9atronenkasten 41
d. )cm Flak 41.
$)$#m Flak 1$.&-.&, 6.6cm 2prgr. 9atr. >&4#)
6.6cm 9*gr. 9atr.
6.6cm 9*gr. 9atr. ,0
6.6cm %l.. 9atr. ,0 Flak
6.6cm 9*gr. 9atr. 4/
6.6cm >eucht$geschoss
>&4#4
9atronenkasten
6.6cm Flak 16.
>uftdichter
9atronenbehBlter 6.6cm
Flak 16.
$)$#m Flak /1 6.6cm 2prgr. 9atr. Flak 41
6.6cm 2prgr. 9atr. Flak 41
erillt
6.6cm 9*gr. 9atr. ,0 Flak
41
6.6cm 9*gr. 9atr. 4/ Flak
41
9atronenkastend. 6.6cm
Flak 41.
>uftdichter
9atronenbehBlter 6.6cm
Flak 41.
1')0#m Flak &$.&1 1/.)cm 2prgr. 9atr. >&4#4
1/.)cm 2prgr. >&4.4 erillt
1/.)cm 9*gr. 9atr. Flak
1/.)cm 9*. 2prgr. 9atr. Flak
9atronenkastend. 1/.)cm
Flak ,6.
>uftdichter
9atronenbehBlter 1/.)cm
Flak ,6.
1")$#m Flak /' 11.6cm 2prgr. 9atr. >&4.)
Flak 4/
11.6cm -r. 2chr. Flak 4/
11.6cm 9*gr. 9atr. Flak 4/
9atronenkasten 4/.
Notes:
1. Also Luftwaffe and Kriegsmarine.
2. The fin-stabilised muzzle-loaded hollow charge stick grenade fired by a s!ecial blank cartridge.
The ".#cm $ak L%&' also used this grenade.
((reviations. translations3
1. $)$#m 5r) 4pr+r) Patr) (Gr6n) 7.4p!r ; 6.6cm high e.plosive incendiary grenade cartridge
with a green tracer.
1. 5r) ; -rand 4incendiary5.
,. d) ; Cer 4For5. 49atronkasten d. 6.6cm Flak 41 ; 'mmunition bo. for 6.6cm Flak 415.
4. Gerillt ; roovedD 4a shell engraved with 1) longitudinal grooves to improve fragmentation.5
). Gesamt+ew ; total weight 4in kilos5.
+. Gr. ; ranate 4grenade5.
8. H ; %aube 4ballistic capped grenade5.
6. H88984 :!nition ; 'rmy ammunition 47;FTWFF8 <unition 3 <9I8G4:9I=8 <unition5.
0. Hl)G) ; %ohlladungs$ranate 4hollow charge grenade5.
1/. 7./>0 or 1$ ; 4type5.
11. 7.4p!r ; >euchtspur 4tracer5.
11. 7e!#ht+es#hoss ; illuminating shot 4parachute$suspended illuminating unit# or star shell5.
1,. 7!ftdi#hter ; 'irtight.
14. m) ; <it. 4with5
1). :!n) ; <unition 4ammunition5.
1+. o) ; Ehne 4without5.
18. Patr) ; 9atrone 4Cartridge5.
16. Patronen(eh?lter ; Cartridge container 4tube container5.
10. Patronenkasten ; Cartridge bo..
1/. Pl) ; 9lat*patrone 4blank cartridgeF a cartridge with a hollow wooden bullet for blank firing5.
11. P@+r) ; 9an*ergranate 4armour piercing grenade5.
11. 4#hr) ; schrapnel 4shrapnel5.
1,. 4pr+r) ; 2prenggranate 4high e.plosive grenade5.
14. 4tiel ; 2tick.
1). A() ; Gbung 4e.ercise# practice inert5.
1+. vk) ; HerkIr*t 4shortened i.e with a short$burning tracer5.
18. W) ; !arme Gbertragung 4heat transmitted# i.e. tracer initiated self$destruction5.
16. Berl) ; Aerlegung 4self$destructing5.
(Left) *igure +,- All +cm ammunition came in ,../,". round bo0es !acked
indi1idually in a rolled !a!er cylinder. As soon as there was time for it the
ammunition was un!acked and loaded in the em!ty magazines. 2ormally the
3ermans mi0ed the rounds so e1ery fifth round was a tracer but late in the war
they changed that so e1ery third or second was a tracer. The idea was to make
the attacking !lanes think that a higher amount of shells were coming their way.
(Left) *igure ++- +cm *lak ".%"4 magazine container. 5ontainers for the *lak
,4%"6%"# and &" had the same design but were accordingly larger so they could
contain the 6- and 4-round cli!s. 2ote the colour.
(Left) *igure +"- +cm *lak ".%"4 magazine container.
(Left) *igure +&- +cm *lak ".%"4 magazine container.

(Left) *igure +'- A sam!le of two !a!er labels to be found on both the side and
the end of the ammunition bo0es and ammunition containers. All ammunition
bo0es and containers no matter what calibre had these !a!er labels attached on
the outside to identify the contents. The !a!er labels normally measured #0,.cm
7ome of them could ha1e a green blue yellow or red "cm-wide bar running
across them or in the middle of the label from to! to bottom to identify what
colour of tracer%fuse there was within. 8n addition triangles in the corners of the
label in the colours of the tracers are also 1isible (see *ig.+#).

(Left) *igure +6- $a!er label from a +cm ammunition bo0.

(Left) *igure +#- Luftdichter $atronenkasten d. ".#cm *lak ,4. 2ote the colour
te0t and !a!er label. 8t is e0actly the same container ty!e as used for the 3erman
stick hand grenade.

(Left) *igure +4- +cm ammunition bo0. 2ote the colour and te0t.

(Left) *igure +9- 7am!le of the te0t on the wooden lid of a ty!ical ammunition
bo0. (,.) is where the !a!er label is !laced on the inside of the lid and (+) is were
it is !laced on the outside. The te0t Luftdichter $atronenkasten could be
substituted by the total amount of rounds inside and ty!es of gun the ammunition
inside were for like- first line / ,.. second line - +cm *lak ".%"4. The colours of
all the different ammunition bo0es%containers were either natural wood dark
green or sand.

(Left) *igure ".- The Luftdichter $atronenbeh:lter was a sheet metal tube
container looking a lot like an elongated 3erman gasmask container with a metal
wire carrying handle at both ends. The cartridges were always stored with the
bottom at the o!ening end. A wooden su!!ort s!acer in the bottom of the
container ke!t the cartridge nose cone centred and !rotected the fuse. The
container could be with or without ribs. (,) is where the !a!er label was !laced on
the side of the container. 2ote there was also a label on both the outside and on
the inside of the lid. The colours were dark green or sand. Also note that it only
o!ens at one end.
4hells. (asi# (odC #olo!rs D all #ali(res3
%live +reen> olive dra( or field +reC3 %igh e.plosive 4only non anti$aircraft5# anti$concrete#
smoke# chemical or hollow charge shells# and case shots.
5la#kD 'rmour piercing shot or shell.
EellowD 'nti$aircraft high e.plosive shell.
9ed and (l!eD 'nti$aircraft incendiary shrapnel shell.
Pale +reenD 2tar shell.

Fartrid+e #ases.(asi# (odC #olo!rs D all #ali(res3
(Left) *igure ",- These #.9+mm cartridge case colours are the same as their
bigger sisters. *rom left - Brass with co!!er shine two different brass colours
(un!olished-!olished) 7teel with a shiny light field grey lac;uer layer 7teel with
a shiny greenish lac;uer layer. <ere you should note that the +cm guns were the
only ones that used steel cartridges with the grey%greenish lac;uer layer.
(Left) *igure "+- 7teel ".#cm *lak cartridges in matt light field grey colour the
brown stuff is not rust but wea!on grease.
5rass #artrid+es3 -rass 3 some brass cartridges could also have a copper shine. 1cm311.6cm.
4teel #artrid+esD 2hiny greenish lacJuer layer. 1cm only.
4teel #artrid+esD 2hiny light field grey lacJuer layer. 1cm only.
4teel #artrid+esD <att light field grey. 1cm311.6cm
4teel #artrid+esD 2hiny green. Enly produced from February 104) until end of war. 1cm3,.8cm.
4teel.(rass #artrid+esD 2teel cartridge with a very thin brass skin covering the steel. This brass
skin had a slight copper shine. 4This was an attempt to reduce the wear and tear on the gun
chambers caused by ordinary steel cartridges5. 1cm311.6cm

F!se.(asi# #olo!rs D all #ali(res3
=ose f!seD 2ilver coloured 'luminium 4in case of two fuse types 'A. At.A. in the same shell# the
other one was placed in the bottom of the shell K-oden*InderB5.

Tra#er markin+s. 5asi# #olo!rs D all #ali(res3
(Left) *igure ""- +cm *lak ".%"4 <= shell with a red tracer.
' )mm$wide red# green# yellow or white band on or Lust above the shellMs driving band on the
calibres from 1cm to 4cm. The rest had a 1cm$wide band. The band reflected the shellMs tracer
colour. @ed was the most common.

In#endiarC markin+s.(asi# #olo!rs D all #ali(res3
(Left) *igure "&- +cm *lak ".%"4 shells. >=d;> is the manufacturer?s code. 8n this
case Deutsche @affen und Munitionsfabriken A.-3 LAbeck-7chlutu!.
' )mm$wide blue band Lust below the nose fuse and or a 11mm high white or black 9h
4phosphorus5 stamped on the side of shell.

Te2t stamped on shells and #artrid+e #ases D all #ali(res3
(Left) Figure 36: 10.5cm cartridges-
A. <= shell.
B. ,9&, A$ ballistic ca!!ed.
5. ,9&" A$ ballistic ca!!ed.
,. *rom early-,9&" the noses of the 4.4cm/,+.4cm A$ shells were !ainted white
to hel! loading them in the dark. The <= shells already had a sil1er coloured
aluminium ti! so it was not necessary to !aint them.
+. ,& +4 46 9+ are bursting charge numbers. $lace day month year of fusing
with work mark.
". $lace day month year of shell filling with work mark. K$7 *=7 or K=7 is the
ty!e of dri1ing band.
&. 5olour of tracer band.
'. @eight of !ro!elling charge.
6. Ty!e of !ro!ellant.
#. Location year deli1ery number of !ro!ellant.
4. $lace day month year of manufacture with work mark.
Te0t was stam!ed on in either black or white !aint de!ending on the colour of the
cartridge.

(Left) *igure "#- @ork mark !laced in a s;uare on a ".#cm shell. 2ote that a
!rotecti1e layer of wea!on grease has been smeared on the entire shell%cartridge
to !rotect it against moisture but at the same time making the colour look a bit
darker.(The 1k. on the shell before the LBs!ur (tracer) means CerkArzt /
NshortenedN. 8t has a short burning tracer).

(Left) *igure "'- ,..'cm cartridges. <e and A$ ballistic ca!!ed. The large 88 888
8C are the weight classes. K$7 *=7 or K=7 stands for the bimetallic ty!e of
dri1ing band.

Normal combat load for a 2cm and a 8.8cm gun in 1!0
"n 104/ the normal combat load of ammunition for one gun for a normal Flak Aug wasD
$)$#m
1// $ 2prgr. 9atr. 9ercussion fused.
1// $ 2prgr. 9atr. Time fused.
1// $ 9*gr. 9atr.
"#m
46// $ 2prgr. 9atr. 9ercussion fused.
1// $ 2prgr. 9atr. Time fused.
1// $ 9*gr. 9atr.
Curing the war this changed slightly due to shortages and new types of ammunition coming into
use.

4o!r#esD
Die *lak 7tellungen ein Ty!en heft 41044# erman handbook# !!"" origin5
Decognition handbook for 3erman ammunition 4104)# 'llied forces handbook# !!"" origin5
The Luftwaffe data book 4"2-: 1$6),+8$10,$05
3erman *lak in @@88 4"2-: /$8+4,$/,00$+5
Die leichte und mittlere *lak ,9.6 / ,9&' 4"2-: ,$80/0$/,0)$85
*LAK im =insatz ,9"9/,9&' 4"2-: ,$80/0$/)+1$,5
Der geschichte der deutschen *lakartillerie ,9"9-,9&' 4"2-: ,$80/0$/1++$/5
"an #ourit$sen% 2003.
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