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Joint Position paper - Bahrain

September 2014
FIDH, Bahrain Center for Human Rights (BCHR), Bahrain Institute for Rights and Democracy
(BIRD), Americans for Democracy and Human Rights in Bahrain (ADHRB)
Human rights in Bahrain: EU must ursue efforts and deeen its search for resu!ts
In mid-2012, the EU confirmed and strengthened its commitment to foster human rights in its eterna!
re!ations" #he EU notab!$ stated that it %ou!d & raise human rights issues 'igorous!$ in a!! appropriate
forms of bi!atera! po!itica! dia!ogue, inc!uding at the highest !e'e! ( and that & %hen faced %ith 'io!ations
of human rights, the EU %i!! ma)e use of the fu!! range of instruments at its disposa!, inc!uding sanctions
or condemnation (" #he research for resu!ts and or increased efficienc$ c!ear!$ underpins the adopted
2012 EU strategic frame%or) and action p!an on human rights and democrac$
#he human rights situation in Bahrain hasn*t progressed since the fina!isation of the 2011 report of the
Bahrain Independent +ommission of In,uir$ -BI+I." #he 2012 UP/ recommendations
e,ua!!$ !ac) im-
p!ementation" #he authorities ha'e actua!!$ increasing!$ demonstrated their determination to restrict
freedom of epression, freedom of peacefu! assemb!$ and association" Impunit$, !ac) of fair tria! guar -
antees and reports of i!!-treatment and torture in detention faci!ities remain" 0ore recent!$, the 1o'ern-
ment of Bahrain has increasing!$ resorted to arbitrar$ depri'ation of nationa!it$ %ithout due process in
order to sanction opponents and dissenting 'oices" 2ina!!$, and as sho%n in the present note, three
$ears after the estab!ishment of the Bahrain Independent +ommission of In,uir$, the situation in the
countr$ is sti!! characterised b$3
- repression and imprisonment of human rights defenders and 4ourna!ists
- the use of the anti-terrorism measures to crac)do%n on rights and freedoms
- repressi'e measures against po!itica! societies
- pre'a!ent impunit$
#o address the situation, the EU has put some effort into mobi!isation but has underestimated the effi -
cienc$ of pub!ic dip!omac$" Strong condemnations of human rights 'io!ations and a c!ear ca!! for the re-
!ease of prisoners arbitrari!$ arrested and detained are re,uired" Bahrain has sho%n that it can be sens-
iti'e to pub!ic condemnations" It %as the case %hen, !ast June, 45 countries 6 inc!uding a!! 27 EU 0em-
ber States - signed a 4oint Statement during the 28th session of the 9uman /ights +ounci!
%hich e-
pressed ;serious concerns< %ith regards to the human rights situation in the countr$" In the same 'ein,
the strong appea! made b$ 0ember States -inc!uding Ire!and and =enmar). during the 25th Session of
the 9uman /ights +ounci!, b$ 0embers of the European Par!iament
added to the internationa! com-
munit$>s mobi!isation4 for the re!ease of 0ar$am ?! @ha%a4a" #hese actions shou!d be maintained and
further efforts pursued" 9er re!ease on September 17 is not unconditiona!, and other peacefu! human
rights defenders and acti'ists remain behind bars" ?mong them 0r" ?bdu!hadi a! @ha%a4a, sentenced to
!ife, and suffering, on 22 September, his 27th da$ of hunger stri)e" #his hunger stri)e is a desperate
ca!!, shared b$ man$ others %ithin the Bahraini ci'i! societ$, for genuine reforms rather than cosmetic
changes aimed at ca!ming the epectations of internationa! dip!omacies, %hose si!ence diminishes their
1 EU Strategic 2rame%or) and ?ction P!an on =emocrac$ and 9uman /ights, 2A June 2012, http3BB%%%"consi!ium"europa"euBue-
2 http3BBadhrb"orgB%p-contentBup!oadsB2014B04B?=9/BC2ebruar$2014C%eb"pdf
3 Joint Statement on Bahrain at 9uman /ights +ounci! 28th Session, 1ene'a, 10 June 201:,
4 0EPs ca!! for the immediate re!ease of 0ar$am ?!-@ha%a4a, ?bdu!hadi a!-@ha%a4a and a!! those %rongfu!!$ imprisoned in Bahrain,
4 September 2014, http3BB%%%"anagomes"euBen-1BBne%s"aspFne%sidGdfAefAA5-:abc-44a1-a4dE-2a17a055b0ff
Be$ond pub!ic condemnations and si!ent dip!omac$, and as committed to in 2012, due attention shou!d
be gi'en b$ the EU to the coherent use of a!! a'ai!ab!e foreign po!ic$ !e'erages, and the use of the fu!!
range of instruments at its disposa!" ? benchmar)ed strateg$ c!ear!$ !in)ing a possib!e deepening of re-
!ations %ith tangib!e and effecti'e human rights measures is a!so needed" /ecommendations are made
in that sense at the end of the present paper"
Reression and imrisonment of human rights defenders and "ourna!ists
Since 2001, doHens of peop!e ha'e been arbitrari!$ detained for ha'ing eercised their right to freedom
of epression" 9uman rights defenders ha'e been at the forefront of the demands for more freedom in
Bahrain, %hich the$ ha'e paid for through constant harassment" #he fo!!o%ing prominent cases are 4ust
an i!!ustration of a %ider pattern of repression %hich affects, in different %a$s, a !arge part of Bahraini
#s$ #aryam A! %ha&a"a, co-director of the 1u!f +entre for 9uman /ights -1+9/. and member of the
Bahrain +enter for 9uman /ights -B+9/. %as arrested on ?ugust :0 at 0anama Internationa! ?irport,
%hen tr$ing to enter Bahrain" #he authorities refused entr$ to 0s" ?!-@ha%a4a e'en though she has dua!
nationa!it$ -Bahraini and =anish." She %as then charged %ith ;assau!t and batter$ against on-dut$
pub!ic emp!o$ees during their performance of officia! dut$<" If con'icted, she faces up to t%o $ears
imprisonment" In September 18, her case %as transferred to the 9igh +rimina! +ourt, %ith the first
hearing schedu!ed for Ictober 1st" In September 17, the 4udge ordered her pro'isiona! re!ease and
imposed a tra'e! ban" =uring her arrest, she %as reported!$ assau!ted b$ securit$ forces" 9er !a%$er
fi!ed a comp!aint for ;assau!t< at the Pub!ic Prosecution, ho%e'er the Prosecution refused to record 0s"
?!-@ha%a4a>s fu!!$ testimon$ regarding the incident" In fact, the Prosecution on!$ %rote do%n that she
%as in4ured %hi!e the po!ice %ere tr$ing to ta)e her phone a%a$" 0s" ?!-@ha%a4a thus refused to sign
her incomp!ete testimon$"
In ?ugust 24, 2014, 0s" ?! @ha%a4a>s father, 0r" A'du!hadi A! %ha&a"a, a prominent human rights
defender and co-founder of the Bahrain +enter for 9uman /ights, started a hunger stri)e to protest
against the continuation of his arbitrar$ arrest and detention" 9is hea!th is rapid!$ deteriorating but he
has refused to be transferred to the prison*s medica! c!inic out of fear of force-feeding b$ the prison
authorities" 0r" ?!-@ha%a4a %as sentenced on June 22, 2011 b$ the Dationa! Safet$ +ourt 6 a mi!itar$
court 6 to !ife imprisonment for his peacefu! human rights acti'ities" In Januar$ 5, 201: Bahrain*s
highest court uphe!d the con'ictions against 1: !eading acti'ists for their ro!e in anti-go'ernment
demonstrations in 2011, inc!uding ?bdu!hadi ?! @ha%a4a" #he Iffice of the United Dations 9igh
+ommissioner for 9uman /ights epressed concerns about the !ac) of fairness and due process
afforded to these acti'ists" #he court ru!ing came more than a $ear after the go'ernment*s p!edge to
imp!ement the recommendations of the BI+I, %hich ca!!ed on authorities to ;commute the sentences of
a!! persons charged %ith offences in'o!'ing po!itica! epression not consisting of ad'ocac$ of 'io!ence<
and to o'erturn con'ictions imposed after gross!$ unfair tria!s"< In September 2012, the UD Jor)ing
1roup on ?rbitrar$ =etention conc!uded that 0r" ?! @ha%a4a*s arrest %as due to his eercise of the
fundamenta! rights to freedom of epression, peacefu! assemb!$, and association" #he BI+I had a!so
conc!uded that 0r" ?! @ha%a4a %as sub4ected to torture and inhumane treatment during his arrest and
detention" 0r" ?! @ha%a4a %as se'ere!$ beaten, resu!ting in a bro)en 4a%, and !ater spent t%o months in
so!itar$ confinement %here he %as sub4ected to ph$sica!, ps$cho!ogica! and seua! torture"
?nother human rights defender, 0r" (a"i Fatee!, a!so started a hunger stri)e on September 1 to protest
against his arbitrar$ detention" 0r" 2atee! is the president of the Bahrain Kouth Societ$ for 9uman
/ights -BKS9/." 9e %as sentenced to 1A $ears in prison on September 2E, 201: on charges of
;setting up a terrorist group %hich aims to suspend the constitution and harm nationa! unit$< under
?rtic!e 8 of the #errorism ?ct -referring to the 2ebruar$ 14 +oa!ition, an opposition pro-democrac$ $outh
mo'ement." 0r" 2atee! %as arrested at his home in the 'i!!age of Bani-Jamra, at da%n on 0a$ 2, 201:,
b$ securit$ men in ci'i!ian c!othes and %ithout a %arrant" 9e %as he!d incommunicado for three da$s,
during %hich time it is reported that he %as se'ere!$ tortured at the +rimina! In'estigation =irectorate
-+I=. %here he %as sub4ected to e!ectric shoc)s, simu!ated dro%ning, se'ere beatings, seua!
harassment, threats of rape, s!eep depri'ation, 'erba! abuse, and other forms of torture" 9e %as ta)en
to the 0inistr$ of Interior*s hospita! t%ice for treatment due to the torture" =espite the photographic
e'idence presented b$ 2I=9 members and partners in Bahrain, no in'estigation %as e'er !aunched into
the reports of torture" ?t the start of 0r" 2atee!>s appea! tria! in Do'ember 201:, the authorities refused
to a!!o% a !a%$er mandated b$ 2I=9 and other D1Is to obser'e the tria!"
2I=9 reca!!s that the Bahrain authorities ha'e !ong targeted human rights defenders because of their
human rights acti'ities" #he use of 4udicia! harassment to imprison and pre'ent human rights defenders
from carr$ing out their !egitimate acti'ities continues unabated" 2I=9 deput$ Secretar$ 1enera!, #r$
(a'ee! Ra"a', ser'ed t%o $ears in prison because he participated in and ca!!ed for peacefu! protests
demanding fundamenta! freedoms" #s$ )aina' A! %ha&a"a, the daughter of 0r" ?bdu!hadi ?! @ha%a4a,
%as a!so targeted b$ the authorities" Since 2011, she has faced at !east 1: cases against her on
charges ranging from ;i!!ega! gathering< to ;insu!ting the @ing< and ;destro$ing pub!ic propert$<" She
spent one $ear in prison from 2ebruar$ 201: to 2ebruar$ 2014" ?t the end of ?ugust 2014, she %as
brief!$ detained %hen she %ent to 'isit her father in hospita! %here he had been transferred to from
In September A, 2014, independent UD eperts, inc!uding the Specia! /apporteur on 9uman /ights
=efenders, epressed concern ;at the human rights 'io!ations faced b$ defenders in Bahrain
high!ighting that the countr$ had accepted recommendations made during its Uni'ersa! Periodic /e'ie%
-UP/. in 2012 to abandon an$ restriction on human rights defenders<" Indeed, despite the repeated
p!edges made b$ the Bahraini authorities in the frame%or) of the BI+I report in Do'ember 2011 as %e!!
as the UP/ in September 2012 to re!ease a!! prisoners of conscience and human rights defenders, this
remains to be imp!emented"
2urthermore, there are numerous reported 'io!ations of the right to freedom of information and
epression against 4ourna!ists, media %or)ers and on!ine acti'ists" 0r" Ammar A'du!*Rasoo!, a
photo4ourna!ist %as arrested in his house on Ju!$ 24, 2014 and ta)en to the Criminal Investigation
Directorate, %here he %as reported!$ se'ere!$ beaten, seua!!$ harassed and threatened %ith e!ectric
shoc)s" #he Prosecution ordered his detention for 4A da$s and transferred him to tria! on charges of
;i!!ega! gathering and rioting<" In ?ugust :1, a +ourt of ?ppea!s uphe!d the 10 $ear sentence against
0r" Ahmed Humaidan, an-a%ard %inning photo4ourna!ist detained since =ecember 2012 for co'ering
protests" 9e %as charged %ith ta)ing part in an attac) against Sirta po!ice station" 0r" Hussain Hu'ai!,
a free!ance photographer, %as sentenced on ?pri! 27, 2014 to fi'e $ears imprisonment on charges of
;i!!ega! gathering<, ;inciting hatred against the regime< and ;maintaining re!ations %ith go'ernment
opponents in ei!e<" #here are at !east nine other photographers and on!ine acti'ists current!$
imprisoned for eercising their right to freedom of information and epression"
In addition, education %or)ers ha'e a!so been targeted b$ the repression" #ahdi A'u Dee'+s member
of the Bahraini #eachers ?ssociation % has been detained since ?pri! 2011" 9e %as sentenced to ten
$ears imprisonment b$ the Dationa! Securit$ +ourt for his participation in a genera! stri)e during the
2011 protests" In Ictober 2012, his sentence %as reduced to fi'e $ears imprisonment but the court
re4ected his appea! against the sentence in Do'ember 201:"
Imact of the amended Anti*terrorism ,a& on rights and freedoms
In ?ugust 201:, the Dationa! ?ssemb!$ passed amendments on the a!read$ 'er$ restricti'e ;?nti-
#errorism< La% of 2008" #he amendments significant!$ reinforced the repressi'e nature of a !a% a!read$
used ecessi'e!$ b$ the authorities to infringe upon fundamenta! human rights inc!uding freedom of
speech, assemb!$ and association" ?mong the most prominent ne% pro'isions is the possibi!it$ to
re'o)e citiHenship as a pena!t$"
?ccording to figures documented b$ 2I=9 member organisation in Bahrain, B+9/, there %ere :7
cases of terrorism charges %ith :27 defendants in 201:" #he$ %ere for the ma4orit$ based on
inade,uate e'idence and in some instances confessions etracted from defendants under torture and
#he !a% %as a!so used to con'ict human rights defenders such as 0r" Da4i 2atee! to 1A $ears
imprisonment -see abo'e." 2ort$-nine other indi'idua!s %ere con'icted in the same case to sentences
ranging from A to 1A $ears imprisonment - most of them reported being tortured in detention" Prominent
po!itica! acti'ists %ere a!so sentenced to heft$ imprisonment termsM I'rahim -haraf, a Sunni mus!im
and !eading figure of the Ja>ad po!itica! societ$ %as sentenced to fi'e $ears imprisonment in the same
case than human rights defender ?bdu!hadi a!-@ha%a4a and other )e$ po!itica! acti'ists" 9e %as
reported!$ tortured after his arrest in 0arch 2011$ A'du!"a!i! A! -ingance, a prominent b!ogger %as
sentenced to !ife imprisonment in the same case"
Po!itica! opponents ha'e a!so been targeted b$ the !a%" 2or eamp!e, senior ?! Jefa, Societ$ !eader
0r" %ha!i! #ar.oo/ %as arrested in September 201: and detained for :7 da$s on charges of ;inciting
to commit terrorist acts< through his a!!eged support and re!ation %ith the ;14 2ebruar$ +oa!ition<" #he
charges %ere based on a speech he ga'e to opposition groups at a peacefu! ra!!$" ?nother case that
demonstrates the infringement of freedom of speech based on the terrorism act is that of 0r" A'du! A!i
%hair, %ho %as arrested in Ju!$ 201:" 0r" @hair %as not a%are of the case brought against him unti! his
photo %as broadcast on te!e'ision as a defendant charged %ith ;membership in a terrorist organisation<
referring to the ;14 2ebruar$ +oa!ition<" In September 201:, he %as sentenced to 10 $ears
imprisonment based on the so!e e'idence of a >whatsapp> message that he recei'ed and for%arded
%hich contained a statement b$ the 14 2ebruar$ +oa!ition"
#he amended !a% has been used as a !ega! basis for re'o)ing the citiHenship of po!itica! opponents" In
?ugust 8, 2014, a crimina! court issued a sentence to re'o)e the citiHenship of nine Bahrainis, after
charging them %ith ;sp$ing for the Iranian Dationa! 1uard, forming a terrorist organisation and
smugg!ing %eapons into Bahrain<" #he charges %ere based on artic!e 2 of the 201: ?nti-terrorism act"
/e'ocation of citiHenship had pre'ious!$ been used b$ the eecuti'e authorities to repress opponents,
inc!uding former 0Ps, c!erics and !a%$ers" In Do'ember 8, 2012, the 0inistr$ of Interior ordered the
re'ocation of nationa!it$ for :1 indi'idua!s" #he 0inistr$ based its decision then on artic!e 10 of the
nationa!it$ !a% %hich a!!o%s for the re'ocation of citiHenship in cases %here the indi'idua! is a ;threat to
nationa! securit$<" ?mong those indi'idua!s is a senior Shiite c!eric, Shei)h Hussain (a"ati %ho %as
ordered in ?pri! 2014 to !ea'e Bahrain for Lebanon after being eposed to enormous pressure and
harassment from the authorities" In ?pri! 2014, the United Dations Specia! /apporteur on freedom of
re!igion or be!ief issued a communication on the case of Shei)h Da4ati and considered that ;targeting
the most senior and inf!uentia! Shi*a re!igious figure in Bahrain ma$ amount to intimidating and thus
discriminating against the entire Shi*a 0us!im communit$ in the countr$ because of its re!igious
" 2urthermore, the discrimination of indi'idua!s based on their re!igious be!iefs constitutes a
b!atant 'io!ation of fundamenta! human rights"
0ore than 40 Bahrainis ha'e had their nationa!it$ re'o)ed since 2011" #hese persons ha'e become
state!ess, in f!agrant 'io!ation of internationa! !a%, inc!uding the Uni'ersa! =ec!aration of 9uman /ights"
Reressi0e measures against o!itica! societies
In September 201:, the 0inister of Justice dec!ared an amendment to the 200A !a% for po!itica!
societies %hich ob!iges them to see) prior appro'a! before meeting %ith foreign dip!omats and to be
accompanied b$ representati'es of the Bahrain 2oreign 0inistr$ during these meetings" In Ju!$ 10, the
Pub!ic Prosecution charged t%o !eading opposition figures, -hei1h A!i -a!man and 0r" %ha!i! a!*
#ar.oo/ %ith 'io!ating the 200A La% on Po!itica! Societies, because the$ had met on Ju!$ 8 %ith the
U"S" assistant secretar$ of state for democrac$, human rights and !abour, 0r" #om 0a!ino%s)i, %ithout
prior go'ernment appro'a!" #he fo!!o%ing da$, the Bahraini authorities dec!ared 0r" 0a!ino%s)i persona
non grata and ordered him to !ea'e the countr$" Shei)h Sa!man and 0r" a!-0arHoo, %ere interrogated
about the content of their meeting %ith 0r" 0a!ino%s)i"
In Ju!$ 20, 2014, the 0inistr$ of Justice fi!ed a comp!aint against the ?! Jefa, Dationa! Is!amic Societ$,
the !eading opposition part$ in Bahrain" #he comp!aint see)s to ban ?! Jefa, from ta)ing part in an$
acti'ities for three months ;unti! it rectifies its i!!ega! status fo!!o%ing the annu!ment of four genera!
assemb!ies for !ac) of a ,uorum and the non-commitment to the pub!ic and transparenc$ re,uirements
5 http3BB%%%"ohchr"orgBEDBDe%sE'entsBPagesB=isp!a$De%s"aspFDe%sI=G14A::NLangI=GE
for ho!ding them
. ?! Jefa, has c!aimed that its genera! assemb!ies are a!! he!d according to the !a%
and that the concerned officia! institutions are informed of the outcomes of these meetings
#he administrati'e harassment against po!itica! opposition groups ,uestions the c!aim %hich the
authorities ma)e that the$ see) po!itica! dia!ogue and that the$ %ish to restart the nationa! dia!ogue
-interrupted since Januar$ 2014."
Continuing imunity
?ccording to the !atest figures documented b$ B+9/, at !east E8 indi'idua!s ha'e been )i!!ed b$
securit$ forces since the 2ebruar$ 2011 uprising, inc!uding :0 deaths since the re!ease of the BI+I
report in Do'ember 2011" #he report recommended that the go'ernment conduct independent and
impartia! in'estigations into a!! deaths as a resu!t of ecessi'e use of force as %e!! a!! a!!egations of
torture in detention centres" In 2ebruar$ 2012, the authorities estab!ished a ;Specia! In'estigation Unit<
to specifica!!$ in'estigate a!!egations of death and torture b$ go'ernment forces" In Do'ember 2012, the
unit announced that it %as in'estigating E2 death cases and 122 a!!egations of torture" In =ecember
201:, the authorities reported that a!! 48 deaths documented in the BI+I report had been in'estigated
and that :E of them had been referred to court" Iut of EA defendants tried in these cases, 1: ha'e been
con'icted, 1A ac,uitted and 2A cases are sti!! ongoing"
#he measures ta)en b$ the authorities to ho!d perpetrators accountab!e for human rights 'io!ations
remain ho%e'er insufficient" #he ma4orit$ of those tried are !o%-ran)ing officers, as on!$ t%o high-!e'e!
personne! %ere e'er charged, and none ha'e been con'icted as of date" In 2ebruar$ 2014, the unit
announced that it %ou!d adopt the ;superior responsibi!it$< doctrine to in'estigate commanding officers"
0r" 0ohamed ?! @hursham, a !ieutenant at the 0inistr$ of Interior %as tried in September 2012 for the
death of a protester
" 9e %as con'icted of assau!t %ith no intention to )i!! and %as sentenced to se'en
$ears imprisonment, !ater reduced in appea! to si months imprisonment in 0a$ 201:" Po!ice officers
0r" ?min 0usaad and 0r" ?hmed ?! =a%adi %ere charged in September 2012 %ith assau!t causing the
death of t%o protesters
but %ere !ater ac,uitted" In 2ebruar$ 201:, their appea! confirmed the ac,uitta!"
In a separate case, t%o po!ice officers, ?bde! 9afiH 9amisan and 0uhammad ?! 9amHa %ere a!so
ac,uitted in 2ebruar$ 201: b$ the court on charges of assau!t !eading to death of one protester
" #he
court found that the officers %ere acting in !egitimate se!f-defence"
#he BI+I report found that 0r" A!i -a/er and 0r" )a1aria A! Ashri died in custod$ as a resu!t of torture
and i!!-treatment b$ securit$ forces" #%o po!ice officers %ere charged %ith assau!t %ith intent to )i!!
regarding the death of 0r" Sa,er and 0r" ?! ?shri" Jhi!e the court sentenced both po!ice officers to 10
$ears imprisonment for the death of 0r" Sa,er, it ac,uitted them for the death of 0r" ?! ?shri, citing that
there is no e'idence !in)ing the officers to his assau!t" #he Prosecution did not appea! the !atter 'erdict"
#he t%o po!ice officers fi!ed an appea! against the 10-$ear 4ai! term" In September 201:, the court
confirmed the assau!t con'ictions but reduced the officers> term to t%o $ears imprisonment" In another
case, %hich concerns the death fo!!o%ing torture -according to the BI+I report. of 0r" A'de! %arim
Fa1hra&i, t%o Dationa! Securit$ ?genc$ officers %ere charged %ith assau!t" #he court sentenced them
to se'en $ears imprisonment citing that the officers did not intend to )i!! 0r" 2a)hra%i" In Ictober 201:,
the Supreme +ourt of ?ppea!s reduced the terms to three $ears imprisonment citing c!emenc$"
#he abo'e !imited cases of prosecutions and con'ictions of human rights 'io!ations demonstrate that an
organised and ,uasi-s$stematic pattern of impunit$ eists in Bahrain" #he case of human rights
defender 0r" Da4i 2atee! is emb!ematic in that regard" ?!though he sho%ed the court the torture mar)s
on his bod$ during his tria!, the court did not order an$ in'estigation but sentenced him to 1A $ears"
#here are numerous other cases of reported torture that ha'e neither been in'estigated nor punished"
6 http3BB%%%"bna"bhBporta!BenBne%sB828817
7 http3BBa!%efa,"netBcmsB2014B0EB1AB:24:0B
8 #he protester %as 9ani ?bde! ?HiH Juma %ho died on 0arch 1E, 2011"
9 #he protesters %ere Isa ?bde! 9assan 9ussein and ?!i ?bdu!!ah a! 0omen %ho died on 2ebruar$ 15, 2011"
10 #he protester %as 2ade! Sa!man 0aatou) %ho died on 2ebruar$ 1A, 2011"
#he BI+I report a!one documented 1,788 cases of torture"
Recommendations to the EU
#he European Union and its 0ember States shou!d increase their efforts in order for Bahrain to
+ease harassment against ci'i! societ$ and human rights defenders, inc!uding at the 4udicia!
!e'e!, and immediate!$ re!ease and drop charges against human rights defenders and other
prisoners of conscience detained for mere!$ eercising !egitimate rights to freedom of epres-
sion, assemb!$ and association"
Put an immediate end to a!! forms of harassment of po!itica! societies, engage in credib!e demo-
cratic reforms and a meaningfu! and inc!usi'e nationa! dia!ogue"
/epea! the decision re'o)ing nationa!it$ for 40 Bahraini citiHens, and put the !egis!ati'e frame-
%or) in accordance %ith internationa! !a%"
?mend the anti-terrorism act in order to bring it in-!ine %ith internationa! human rights standards"
Ensure effecti'e, prompt and independent in'estigation into a!! human rights 'io!ations commit -
ted since 2011, and ensure the 'ictims> right to effecti'e remed$ according to internationa!
Effecti'e!$ imp!ement BI+I and UP/ recommendations, as %e!! as other unimp!emented UD
mechanisms* recommendations such as the 2008 +?# and +E/= recommendations and those
issued b$ internationa! D1Is"
+ooperate %ith UD Specia! Procedures - in particu!ar the Specia! /apporteur on torture but a!so
on the rights to freedom of peacefu! assemb!$ and of association, on the independence of
4udges and !a%$ers and on the situation of human rights defenders - and a!!o% the pre'ious!$
p!anned 'isits"
/atif$ the Iptiona! Protoco! of the +on'ention ?gainst #orture, the Second Iptiona! Protoco! to
the I++P/ aiming at the abo!ition of the =eath Pena!t$, the +on'ention for the Protection of ?!!
Persons from Enforced =isappearances, Internationa! +on'ention on the Protection of the
/ights of 0igrant Jor)ers and 0embers of #heir 2ami!ies"
Based on the 2012 EU strategic frame%or) and action p!an commitments, the EU and 0ember States
Ensure those efforts are ser'ed not on!$ b$ si!ent dip!omac$, but a!so b$ prompt and strong pub-
!ic reactions to human rights 'io!ations"
=e'e!op common messages and adopt comprehensi'e +ounci! +onc!usions in order to contrib-
ute to a time-bound benchmar)ed strateg$ !eading to concrete commitments b$ Bahrain and
progress on the ground"
Underta)e a pub!ic e'a!uation of EU andBor 0ember States> support gi'en to Bahrain -e"g" 4udi -
cia! and po!ice s$stem. and reshape this support %hen needed on the basis of the !essons
!earnt through the e'a!uation eercise" Pub!ish human rights indicators used to assess and
measure the resu!ts and the efficienc$ of the cooperation"
Ban eports of tear gas and cro%d contro! e,uipment unti! in'estigations are conducted regard-
ing their improper use and unti! the perpetrators of such improper use are he!d accountab!eM
Ban the eport of techno!ogies used for trac)ing, tracing, censorship and sur'ei!!ance of inform-
ation and communication f!o%s, resu!ting in human rights 'io!ations" +onsider the ca!! made b$
the European Par!iament in that regard

11 European Par!iament reso!ution of 15 Januar$ 201: on the human rights situation in Bahrain