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# Chapter 38

Solids

Conceptual Problems

1 In the classical model of conduction, the electron loses energy on
average during a collision because it loses the drift velocity it had acquired since
the last collision. Where does this energy appear?

Determine the Concept The energy lost by the electrons in collision with the
ions of the crystal lattice appears as J oule heat (I
2
R).

2 A metal is a good conductor because the valence energy band for
electrons is (a) empty, (b) partly filled, (c) filled, but there is only a small gap to a
higher empty band, (d) completely filled, (e) None of the above.

Determine the Concept If the valence band is only partially full, there are many
available empty energy states in the band, and the electrons in the band can easily
be raised to a higher energy state by an electric field. ( ) b is correct.

3 Thomas refuses to believe that a potential difference can be created
simply by bringing two different metals into contact with each other. J ohn talks
him into making a small wager and is about to win the bet. (a) Which two metals
from Table 38-2 would demonstrate his point most effectively? (b) What is the
value of that contact potential?

Picture the Problem The contact potential is given by
e
V
2 1
contact

= , where
1

and
2
are the work functions of the two different metals in contact with each
other.

(a) Express the contact potential
in terms of the work functions of
the metals:

e
V
2 1
contact

=
Examining Table 38-2, we see that the greatest difference between the work
functions will occur when potassium and nickel are joined.

(b) Substitute numerical values and
evaluate V
contact
:
V 1 . 3
eV 1 . 2 eV 2 . 5
contact
=

=
e
V

4 (a) In Problem 3, which choices of different metals would make the
least impressive demonstration? (b) What is the value of that contact potential?
193
Chapter 38

194
Picture the Problem The contact potential is given by
e
V
2 1
contact

= , where
1

and
2
are the work functions of the two different metals in contact with each
other.

(a) Express the contact potential
in terms of the work functions of
the metals:

e
V
2 1
contact

=
Examining Table 38-2, we see that the least difference between the work
functions will occur when silver and gold are joined.

(b) Substitute numerical values and
evaluate :
contact
V
V 1 . 0
eV 7 . 4 eV 8 . 4
contact
=

=
e
V

5 [SSM] When a sample of pure copper is cooled from 300 K to 4 K,
its resistivity decreases more than the resistivity of a sample of brass when it is
cooled through the same temperature difference. Why?

Determine the Concept The resistivity of brass at 4 K is almost entirely due to
the residual resistance, the resistance due to impurities and other imperfections
of the crystal lattice. In brass, the zinc ions act as impurities in copper. In pure
copper, the resistivity at 4 K is due to its residual resistance, which is very low if
the copper is very pure.

6 Insulators are poor conductors of electricity because (a) there is a
small energy gap between the filled valence band and the next higher band where
electrons can exist, (b) there is a large energy gap between the completely filled
valence band and the next higher band where electrons can exist, (c) the valence
band has a few vacancies for electrons, (d) the valence band is only partly filled,
(e) None of the above.

Determine the Concept Insulators are poor conductors of electricity because
there is a large energy gap between the filled valence band and the next higher
band where electrons can exist. ( ) b is correct.

7 [SSM] How does the sign of the change in the resistivity of a sample
of copper compare with the sign of the change of the resistivity of a sample of
silicon when the temperatures of both samples increase?

Determine the Concept The resistivity of copper increases with increasing
temperature; the resistivity of (pure) silicon decreases with increasing temperature
because the number of charge carriers increases.
Solids

195
8 True or false:

(a) Solids that are good electrical conductors are usually good heat conductors.
(b) At T =0, an intrinsic semiconductor is an insulator.
(c) The Fermi energy is the average energy of an electron in a solid.
(d) At T =0, the value of the Fermi factor can be either 1 or 0.
(e) Semiconductors conduct current in one direction only.
(f) The classical free-electron theory adequately explains the heat capacity of
metals.
(g) The contact potential between two metals is proportional to the difference in
the work functions of the two metals.

(a) True

(b) True

(c) False. The Fermi energy is the energy of the last filled (or half-filled) level at
T =0.

(d) True

(e) False

(f) False. The classical free-electron theory predicts heat capacities for metals that
are not observed experimentally.

(g) True

9 Which of the following elements are most likely to act as acceptor
impurities in germanium? (a) bromine (b) gallium (c) silicon (d) phosphorus
(e) magnesium

Determine the Concept Because a gallium atom can accept electrons from the
valence band of germanium to complete its four covalent bonds, ( ) b is correct.

10 Which of the following elements are most likely to serve as donor
impurities in germanium? (a) bromine (b) gallium (c) silicon (d) phosphorus
(e) magnesium

Determine the Concept Because phosphorus has 3 electrons that it can donate to
the conduction band of germanium without leaving holes in the valence
band, ( ) d is correct.

Chapter 38

196
11 An electron hole is created when a photon is absorbed by a
semiconductor. How does this hole enable the semiconductor to conduct
electricity?

Determine the Concept The excited electron is in the conduction band and can
conduct electricity. The positive hole left in the valence band moves through the
band and also contributes to the current.

12 Examine the positions of phosphorus, boron, thallium, and antimony in
Table 36-1. (a) Which of these elements can be used to dope silicon to create an
n-type semiconductor? (b) Which of these elements can be used to dope silicon to
create a p-type semiconductor?

Determine the Concept
(a) Phosphorus and antimony will make n-type semiconductors since each has one
more valence electron than silicon.

(b) Boron and thallium will make p-type semiconductors since each has one less
valence electron than silicon.

13 When photons of visible light strike the p-type semiconductor in a pn
junction solar cell, (a) only free electrons are created, (b) only positive holes are
created, (c) both electrons and holes are created, (d) protons are created, (e) None
of the above.

Determine the Concept Because a pn junction solar cell has donor impurities on
one side and acceptor impurities on the other, both electrons and holes are created
when photons of visible light strike the p-type semiconductor cell. ( ) c is
correct.

Estimation and Approximation

14 The ratio of the resistivity of the most resistive (least conductive)
material to that of the least resistive material (excluding superconductors) is
approximately 10
24
. You can develop a feeling for how remarkable this range is
by considering what the ratio is of the largest values to smallest values of other
material properties. Choose any three properties of materials, and using tables in
this book or some other resource, calculate the ratio of the largest instance of the
property to the smallest instance of that property (other than zero) and rank these
in decreasing order. Can you find any other property that shows a range as large
as that of electrical resistivity?

Solids

197
Picture the Problem We can use the list of tables on the inside back covers of
volumes 1 and 2 to find tables of material properties. A representative sample is
included in the following table in which all the units are SI:

Table Material
property
Largest
value
Smallest
value
Ratio (order of
magnitude)

13-1 Mass
density

22.510
3
(Osmium)
0.08994
(Hydrogen)

10
5
20-3 Thermal
conductivity

429
(Ag)
0.026
(air)
10
4
20-1 Thermal
expansion
5110
6
(ice)

10
6
(invar)
10
2
12-8 Tensile
Strength

520
(steel)
2
(concrete)
10
2
12-8 Youngs
modulus
200
(steel)

9
(bone)
10
18-1 Heat
capacity
4.18
(water)

0.900
(Al)
1

15 A device is said to be "ohmic" if a graph of current versus applied
voltage is a straight line through the origin. The resistance R of the device is the
reciprocal of the slope of this line. A pn junction is an example of a nonohmic
device, as may be seen from Figure 38-21. For nonohmic devices, it is sometimes
convenient to define the differential resistance as the reciprocal of the slope of the
I versus V curve. Using the curve in Figure 38-21, estimate the differential
resistance of the pn junction at applied voltages of 20 V, +0.2 V, +0.4 V, +0.6 V,
and +0.8 V.

Picture the Problem Figure 38-21 is reproduced below. We can draw tangent
lines at each of the voltages and estimate the slope. The differential resistance is
the reciprocal of the slope.
Chapter 38

198

V (V) 1/slope ()

20

+0.2

40
+0.4

20
+0.6

10
+0.8

5

Remarks: Note that, because of the difficulty in determining the slopes, these
results are only approximations.

The Structure of Solids

16 Calculate the center-to-center separation distance r
0
between the K
+

and the Cl

## ions in KCl. Do this by assuming that each ion occupies a cubic

volume of side r
0
. The molar mass of KCl is 74.55 g/mol and its density is
1.984 g/cm
3
.

Picture the Problem We can use the geometry of the ion to relate the volume per
mole to the length of its side r
0
and the definition of density to express the volume
per mole in terms of its molar mass and density.

Because the cube length/ion is r
0
,
the volume/mole is given by:

3
0 A mol
2 r N V = 3
A
mol
0
2N
V
r =

Solids

199
The volume/mole is given by:

M
V =
mol

where M is the molar mass of KCl.

Substitute for V
mol
in the expression
for r
0
to obtain:

3
A
0
2 N
M
r

=

Substitute numerical values and evaluate r
0
:

( )( )
nm 315 . 0
mol particles/ 10 022 . 6 g/cm 984 . 1 2
g/mol 55 . 74
3
23 3
0
=

= r

17 The center-to-center separation distance between the Li
+
and Cl

ions
in LiCl is 0.257 nm. Use this value and the molar mass of LiCl (42.4 g/mol) to
compute the density of LiCl.

Picture the Problem We can use the definition of density and the geometry of
the ions to compute the density of LiCl.

The density of LiCl is given by:

cell unit
cell unit
V
M
=

Express the volume of the unit cell:

( )
3
0 cell unit
2r V =

Because the unit cell has four
molecules, its mass is given by:

A
cell unit
4
N
M
M =

Substitute for V
unit cell
and M
unit cell

to obtain:

( ) ( )
3
0 A
3
0
A
2
4
2
4
r N
M
r
N
M
= =

Substitute numerical values and evaluate :

( )
( ) ( ) [ ]
3
3
9 23
g/cm 07 . 2
m 10 257 . 0 2 mol particles/ 10 022 . 6
g/mol 4 . 42 4
=

=

18 Find the value of n in Equation 38-6 that gives the measured
dissociation energy of 741 kJ /mol for LiCl, which has the same structure as NaCl
and for which r
0
=0.257 nm.

Picture the Problem We can solve Equation 38-6 for n and then substitute
numerical values to evaluate n.
Chapter 38

200

Equation 38-6 is:

( )

=
n r
ke
r U
1
1
0
2
0

and
( )

=
n r
ke
r U
1
1
0
2
0

Solve for n to obtain:

( )
2
0 0
1
1
ke
r r U
n

=

Substitute numerical values and evaluate n:

( ) ( )
( )( )
4.64
nm eV 44 . 1 7476 . 1
nm 257 . 0
kJ /mol 47 . 96
pair eV/ion 1
kJ /mol 741
1
1
=

= n

19 (a) Use Equation 38-6 and calculate U(r
0
) for calcium oxide, CaO,
where r
0
=0.208 nm. Assume n =8. (b) If n increase from 8 to 10, what is the
fractional change in U(r
0
)?

Picture the Problem We can substitute numerical values in Equation 38-6 to
evaluate U(r
o
) for n =8 and n =10.

(a) Equation 38-6 is:

( )

=
n r
ke
r U
1
1
0
2
0

Substitute numerical values and evaluate U(r
0
):

( )
( )( )( )
( )
eV 6 . 10
8
1
1
1eV
J 10 1.602
m 10 0.208
C 10 1.602 /C m N 10 8.988 1.7476
19
9
2
19 2 2 9
o
=

r U

( )
( )
1
8
10
8
8 10
0
0
=

=
=
=
= =
n
n
n
n n
U
U
U
U U
r U
r U

(b) The fractional change is given by:
Solids

201

Substitute numerical values and evaluate U(r
0
) for n =10:

( )
( ) ( )
( )
eV 9 . 10
10
1
1
eV 1
J 10 1.602
m 10 0.208
C 10 1.602
C
m N
10 8.988 1.7476
19
9
2
19
2
2
9
o 10
=

=
r U
n

Substitute numerical values and evaluate
the fractional change in U(r
0
):
( )
( )
% 83 . 2 1
eV 6 . 10
eV 9 . 10
0
0
=

r U
r U

A Microscopic Picture of Conduction

20 A measure of the density of the free electrons in a metal is the distance
r
s
, which is defined as the radius of the sphere whose volume equals the volume
per conduction electron. (a) Show that r
s
=[3/(4n)]
1/3
, where n is the free-
electron number density. (b) Calculate r
s
for copper in nanometers.

Picture the Problem We can use the expression for the volume occupied by one
electron to show that
3 1
s
4
3

=
n
r

.

(a) The volume occupied by one
electron is:

3
s
3
4 1
r
n
=
3 1
s
4
3

=
n
r

(b) From Table 38-1:
3 28
Cu
m 10 47 . 8

= n

Substitute numerical values and
evaluate r
s
for copper:
( )
nm 141 . 0
m 10 47 . 8 4
3
3
3 28 s
=

r

21 (a) Given a mean free path =0.400 nm and a mean speed
v
av
=1.17 10
5
m/s for the charge flow in copper at a temperature of 300 K,
calculate the classical value for the resistivity of copper. (b) The classical model
suggests that the mean free path is temperature independent and that v
av
depends
on temperature. According to this model, what would be at 100 K?

Chapter 38

202
Picture the Problem (a) We can use the expression for the resistivity of the
copper in terms of v
av
and to find the classical value for the resistivity of
copper. In Part (b) we can use
e
av
3
m
kT
v = to relate the average speed to the
temperature.

(a) In terms of the mean free path
and the mean speed, the resistivity is:

2
e
av e
e n
v m
=

Substitute numerical values and evaluate (see Table 38-1 for the free-electron
number density of copper):

( )( )
( )( ) ( )
m 123 . 0
nm 400 . 0 C 10 602 . 1 m 10 8.47
m/s 10 17 . 1 kg 10 109 . 9
2
19 3 28
5 31
=

=

(b) Relate the average speed of the
electrons to the temperature:

e
av
3
m
kT
v =

Substitute for v
av
in the expression
for to obtain:
kT m
e n m
kT
e n
m
e 2
e e
2
e
e
3
1 3

= =

Substitute numerical values and evaluate :

( )( )( )
( )( ) ( )
m n 7 . 70
nm 400 . 0 C 10 602 . 1 m 10 47 . 8
K 100 J /K 10 381 . 1 kg 10 109 . 9 3
2
19 3 28
23 31
=

=

Free Electrons in a Solid

22 Silicon has a molar mass of 28.09 g/mol and a density of
2.41 10
3
kg/m
3
. Each atom of silicon has four valence electrons and the Fermi
energy of the material is 4.88 eV. (a) Given that the electron mean free path at
room temperature is l =27.0 nm, estimate the resistivity. (b) The accepted value
for the resistivity of silicon is 640 m (at room temperature). How does this
accepted value compare to the value calculated in Part (a)?

Picture the Problem We can use Equation 38-14 to estimate the resistivity of
silicon.

(a) From Equation 38-14:

2
e
av e
e n
v m
=
Solids

203
The speed of the electrons is given
by:
e
F
F av
2
m
E
u v = =

Substituting for v
av
yields:

2
e
F e
2
e
e
F
e
2
2
e n
E m
e n
m
E
m
= =

The electron density of Si is given
by:

atom A e
N MN n =
where N
atom
is the number of electrons
per atom.

Substitute for n
e
to obtain:

2
atom A
F e
2
e N MN
E m
=

Substitute numerical values and evaluate :

( )( )
( ) ( )
m n 3 . 8
m 10 27.0 C 10 1.602
atom
e 4
kg 0.02809
atoms 10 6.022
m
kg
10 2.41
eV 1
J 10 1.602
eV 4.88 kg 10 9.109 2
9
2
19
23
3
3
19
31
=

(b) The accepted resistivity of 640 m is much greater than the calculated value.
We assume that valence electrons will produce conduction in the material. Silicon
is a semiconductor and a gap between the valence band and conduction band
exists. Only electrons with sufficient energies will be found in the conduction
band.

23 Calculate the number density of free electrons in (a) Ag
( =10.5 g/cm
3
) and (b) Au ( =19.3 g/cm
3
), assuming one free electron per
atom, and compare your results with the values listed in Table 38-1.

Picture the Problem The number density of free electrons is given by
, M N n
A
= where N
A
is Avogadros number, is the density of the element,
and M is its molar mass.

Relate the number density of free
electrons to the density and
molar mass M of the element:

M N
n
=
A

M
N
n
A

=

Chapter 38

204
(a) For Ag:

( )( )
3 22
23 3
Ag
cm electrons/ 10 86 . 5
g/mol 87 . 107
mol electrons/ 10 022 . 6 g/cm 5 . 10
=

= n

(b) For Au:

( )( )
3 22
23 3
Ag
cm electrons/ 10 90 . 5
g/mol 97 . 196
mol electrons/ 10 022 . 6 g/cm 3 . 19
=

= n

Both these results agree with the values in Table 38-1.

24 The density of aluminum is 2.7 g/cm
3
. How many free electrons are
present per aluminum atom?

Picture the Problem The number of free electrons per atom n
e
is given by
, N nM n
A e
= where N
A
is Avogadros number, is the density of the element,
M is its molar mass, and n is the free electron number density for the element.

The number of free electrons per
atom is given by:

A
e
N
nM
n

=
Substitute numerical values and evaluate n
e
:

( )( )
( )( )
0 . 3
mol electrons/ 10 022 . 6 g/cm 7 . 2
g/mol 98 . 26 cm electrons/ 10 1 . 18
23 3
3 22
e
=

= n

25 The density of tin is 7.3 g/cm
3
. How many free electrons are present
per tin atom?

Picture the Problem The number of free electrons per atom n
e
is given by
, N nM n
A e
= where N
A
is Avogadros number, is the density of the element,
M is its molar mass, and n is the free electron number density for the element.

The number of free electrons per
atom is given by:

A
e
N
nM
n

=
Solids

205

Substitute numerical values and evaluate n
e
:

( )( )
( )( )
0 . 4
mol electrons/ 10 022 . 6 g/cm 3 . 7
g/mol 69 . 118 cm electrons/ 10 8 . 14
23 3
3 22
e
=

= n

26 Calculate the Fermi temperature for (a) Mg, (b) Mn, and (c) Zn.

Picture the Problem The Fermi temperature T
F
is defined by kT
F
=E
F
, where E
F

is the Fermi energy. See Table 38-1 for Fermi energies at T =0.

k
E
T
F
F
=

The Fermi temperature is given
by:
(a) For Mg:

K 10 25 . 8
eV/K 10 617 . 8
eV 11 . 7
4
5
F
=

=

T

(b) For Mn:

K 10 28 . 1
eV/K 10 617 . 8
eV 0 . 11
5
5
F
=

=

T

(c) For Zn:

K 10 10 . 1
eV/K 10 617 . 8
eV 46 . 9
5
5
F
=

=

T

27 What is the speed of a conduction electron whose energy is equal to
the Fermi energy E
F
for (a) Na, (b) Au, and (c) Sn?

Picture the Problem We can solve the expression for the Fermi energy for the
speed of a conduction electron.

Express the Fermi energy in terms of
the Fermi speed of a conduction
electron:

2
F e 2
1
F
u m E =
e
F
F
2
m
E
u =
(a) Substitute numerical values (see
Table 38-1 for E
F
) and evaluate u
F

for Na:

( )( )
m/s 10 07 . 1
kg 10 109 . 9
J /eV 10 602 . 1 eV 24 . 3 2
6
31
19
F
=

=

u

Chapter 38

206
(b) Substitute numerical values and
evaluate u
F
for Au:

( )( )
m/s 10 39 . 1
kg 10 109 . 9
J /eV 10 602 . 1 eV 53 . 5 2
6
31
19
F
=

=

u

(c) Substitute numerical values and
evaluate u
F
for Sn:

( )( )
m/s 10 89 . 1
kg 10 109 . 9
J /eV 10 602 . 1 eV 2 . 10 2
6
31
19
F
=

=

u

28 Calculate the Fermi energy for (a) Al, (b) K, and (c) Sn using the
number densities given in Table 38-1.

Picture the Problem The Fermi energy at T =0 depends on the number of
electrons per unit volume (the number density) according to
( )( ) . nm eV 365 . 0
3 2 2
F
V N E =

The Fermi energy at T =0 is given
by:

( )
3 2
2
F
nm eV 365 . 0

=
V
N
E
(a) For Al, N/V =18.110
22
electrons/cm
3
(see Table 38-1) and:

( )( ) eV 7 . 11 cm electrons/ 10 1 . 18 nm eV 365 . 0
3 2
3 22 2
F
= = E

(b) For K, N/V =1.40 10
22
electrons/cm
3
and:

( )( ) eV 12 . 2 cm electrons/ 10 40 . 1 nm eV 365 . 0
3 2
3 22 2
F
= = E

(c) For Sn, N/V =14.810
22
electrons/cm
3
and:

( )( ) eV 2 . 10 cm electrons/ 10 8 . 14 nm eV 365 . 0
3 2
3 22 2
F
= = E

29 Find the average energy of the conduction electrons at T =0 in
(a) copper and (b) lithium.

Picture the Problem The average energy of electrons in a Fermi gas at T =0 is
three-fifths of the Fermi energy.

Solids

207
The average energy at T =0 is given
by:

F 5
3
av
E E =
(a) For copper, E
F
=7.04 eV (see
Table 38-1) and:

( ) eV 22 . 4 eV 04 . 7
5
3
av
= = E

(b) For lithium, E
F
=4.75 eV and:

( ) eV 85 . 2 eV 75 . 4
5
3
av
= = E

30 Calculate (a) the Fermi temperature and (b) the Fermi energy at T =0
for iron.

Picture the Problem The Fermi energy at T =0 is given by
( )( )
2 3 2
F
nm eV 365 . 0 V N E = , where N/V is the free-electron number density and
the Fermi temperature is related to the Fermi energy according to .
F F
E kT =

(a) The Fermi temperature for iron is
given by: k
E
T
F
F
=

Substitute numerical values (see
Table 38-1) and evaluate T
F
:

K 10 30 . 1
eV/K 10 8.617
eV 2 . 11
5
5 F
=

=

T
(b) The Fermi energy at T =0 is
given by:

( )
2 3
2
F
nm eV 365 . 0

=
V
N
E
Substitute numerical values (see Table 38-1) and evaluate E
F
:

( )( ) eV 2 . 11 cm electrons/ 10 0 . 17 nm eV 365 . 0
3 2
3 22 2
F
= = E

31 [SSM] (a) Assuming that each gold atom in a sample of gold metal
contributes one free electron, calculate the free-electron density in gold knowing
that its atomic mass is 196.97 g/mol and its density is 19.3 10
3
kg/m
3
. (b) If the
Fermi speed for gold is 1.39 10
6
m/s, what is the Fermi energy in electron volts?
(c) By what factor is the Fermi energy higher than the kT energy at room
temperature? (d) Explain the difference between the Fermi energy and the kT
energy.

Picture the Problem We can use
m
N N
V n
atom A
e

= = , where N
atom
is the
number of electrons per atom, to calculate the electron density of gold. The Fermi
energy is given by
2
F e 2
1
F
u m E = .

Chapter 38

208
(a) The electron density of gold is
given by:

m
N N
V n
atom A
e

= =

Substitute numerical values and evaluate n
e
:

( )
3 28
23
3
3
e
e/m 10 90 . 5
kg 0.197
atom 1
1e
atoms 10 6.022
m
kg
10 19.3
=

= n

(b) The Fermi energy is given by:

2
F e 2
1
F
u m E =

Substitute numerical values and evaluate E
F
:

( )( ) eV 50 . 5
J 10 1.602
eV 1
m/s 10 1.39 kg 10 9.109
2
1
19
2
6 31
F
=

E

(c) The factor by which the Fermi
energy is higher than the kT energy
at room temperature is:

kT
E
f
F
=
At room temperature
kT =0.026 eV. Substitute
numerical values and evaluate f:

212
eV 0.026
eV 5.50
= = f
(d) The ratio E
F
/kT is equal to 212 T =300 K. The Fermi energy is the energy of
the most energetic conduction electron when the crystal is at absolute zero.
Because no two conduction electrons can occupy the same state, the Fermi energy
is quite high compared with kT. The kT energy is the energy the average
conduction electron would have when the crystal is at temperature T if the
electrons did not obey the exclusion principle.

32 The bulk modulus B of a material can be defined by B = V P V .
(a) Use the monatomic ideal-gas relation PV =
2
3
NE
av
, where E
av
is the average
kinetic energy, Equation 38-22 and Equation 38-23 to show that

P =
2
5
NE
F
V = CV
5/ 3
, where C is a constant independent of V. (b) Show that the
bulk modulus of the free electrons in a solid metal is therefore
V NE P B
F 3
2
3
5
= = . (c) Compute the bulk modulus in newtons per square meter
for the free electrons in a sample of copper and compare your result with the
measured value of 140 10
9
N/m
2
.

Picture the Problem We can follow the procedure given in the problem
statement to show that
3 5 F
5
2

= = CV
V
NE
P and
V
NE
P B
3
2
3
5
F
= = .
Solids

209

(a) Were given that, for a
monatomic ideal-gas:

av 3
2
NE PV =

Because :
F 5
3
av
E E =
F F
5
2
5
3
3
2
E
V
N
E
V
N
P

= (1)

The Fermi energy is given by:

3 2
3 2
e
2
3 2
e
2
F
3
8
3
8

= V
N
m
h
V
N
m
h
E

Substitute to obtain:

3 5 3 5
3 2
e
2 3 5
3 2
3 2
e
2
3
20
3
8 5
2

=
CV V
m
h N
V
N
m
h
V
N
P

where
3 2
e
2 3 5
3
20

=
m
h N
C is a constant.

(b) The bulk modulus is given
by:
[ ]
P
CV V CV
CV
dV
d
V
dV
dP
V B
3
5
3
5
3
5
3 5 3 8
3 5
=
=

=
= =

Substitute for P from equation (1) to
obtain:
V NE E
V
N
B
F 3
2
F
5
2
3
5
=

=

(c) Substitute numerical values and evaluate B for copper:

( )( )( )
2 19 3 22
GN/m 6 . 63 J /eV 10 602 . 1 eV 04 . 7 cm electrons/ 10 47 . 8
3
2
= =

B

From Table 13-2: BB
Cu
=140 GN/m
2

Divide the calculated value for B by
the value from Table 13-2 to obtain:
454 . 0
GN/m 140
GN/m 6 . 63
2
2
Cu
= =
B
B

or
Cu
454 . 0 B B =
Chapter 38

210
33 [SSM] The pressure of a monatomic ideal gas is related to the
average kinetic energy of the gas particles byPV =
2
3
NE
av
, where N is the number
of particles and E
av
is the average kinetic energy. Use this information to calculate
the pressure of the free electrons in a sample of copper in newtons per square
meter, and compare your result with atmospheric pressure, which is about
10
5
N/m
2
. (Note: The units are most easily handled by using the conversion
factors 1 N/m
2
=1 J /m
3
and 1 eV =1.602 10
19
J .)

Picture the Problem We can solve
av 3
2
NE PV = for P and substitute for E
av
in
order to express P in terms of N/V and E
F
.

Solve
av 3
2
NE PV = for P:

av
3
2
E
V
N
P

=

Because :
F 5
3
av
E E =
F F
5
2
5
3
3
2
E
V
N
E
V
N
P

=

Substitute numerical values (see Table 38-1) and evaluate P:

( )( )( )
atm 10 77 . 3
N/m 10 101.325
atm 1
N/m 10 82 . 3 N/m 10 82 . 3
J /eV 10 602 . 1 eV 04 . 7 cm electrons/ 10 47 . 8
5
2
5
2 3
2 10 2 10
19 3 22
=

= =
=

P

34 Calculate the contact potential between (a) Ag and Cu, (b) Ag and Ni,
and (c) Ca and Cu.

Picture the Problem The contact potential is given by
e
V
2 1
contact

= , where
1

and
2
are the work functions of the two different metals in contact with each
other.

The contact potential is given by:
e
V
2 1
contact

=

(a) For Ag and Cu (see Table 38-1):

V 6 . 0
eV 1 . 4 eV 7 . 4
contact
=

=
e
V

(b) For Ag and Ni:

V 5 . 0
eV 7 . 4 eV 2 . 5
contact
=

=
e
V
Solids

211
(c) For Ca and Cu (see Table 38-1):

V 9 . 0
eV 2 . 3 eV 1 . 4
contact
=

=
e
V

Heat Capacity Due to Electrons in a Metal

35 [SSM] Gold has a Fermi energy of 5.53 eV. Determine the molar
specific heat at constant volume at room temperature for gold.

Picture the Problem We can use Equation 38-29 to find the molar specific heat
of gold at constant volume and room temperature.

The molar specific heat is given by
Equation 38-29:
F
2
V
2T
RT
c'

=

The Fermi energy is given by:

F F
kT E =
k
E
T
F
F
=

Substitute for T
F
to obtain:

F
2
V
2E
RkT
c'

=

Substitute numerical values and evaluate :
V
c'

( )( ) ( )
( )
K J /mol 192 . 0
eV 5.53 2
K 300
J 10 1.602
eV 1
J /mol 10 381 . 1 K J /mol 8.314
19
23 2
V
=

c'

Remarks: The value 0.192 J/mol K is for a mole of gold atoms. Because each
gold atom contributes one electron to the metal, a mole of gold corresponds
to a mole of electrons.

Quantum Theory of Electrical Conduction

36 The resistivities and Fermi speeds of Na, Au, and Sn at T =273 K are
4.2 cm, 2.04 cm and 10.6 cm, and 1.0710
6
m/s, 1.3910
6
m/s and
1.8910
6
m/s respectively. Use these values to find the mean free paths for the
conduction electrons in these elements.

Picture the Problem We can solve the equation giving the resistivity of a
conductor in terms of the mean free path and the mean speed for the mean free
path and use the Fermi speeds as the mean speeds.
Chapter 38

212

In terms of the mean free path and
the mean speed, the resistivity is:

2
av e
ne
v m
=

2
av e
ne
v m
=

Using the Fermi speeds as the average speeds, substitute numerical values
and evaluate the mean free path of Na:

( )( )
( )( ) ( )
nm 34
cm 2 . 4 C 10 602 . 1 cm electrons/ 10 65 . 2
m/s 10 07 . 1 kg 10 109 . 9
2
19 3 22
6 31
Na
=

=

Proceed as above for Au:

( )( )
( )( ) ( )
nm 1 . 41
cm 04 . 2 C 10 602 . 1 cm electrons/ 10 90 . 5
m/s 10 39 . 1 kg 10 109 . 9
2
19 3 22
6 31
Au
=

=

Proceed as above for Sn:

( )( )
( )( ) ( )
nm 29 . 4
cm 6 . 10 C 10 602 . 1 cm electrons/ 10 8 . 14
m/s 10 89 . 1 kg 10 109 . 9
2
19 3 22
6 31
Sn
=

=

37 [SSM] The resistivity of pure copper increases by approximately
1.0 10
8
m with the addition of 1.0 percent (by number of atoms) of an
impurity distributed throughout the metal. The mean free path depends on both
the impurity and the oscillations of the lattice ions according to the equation
1/ =1/
t
+1/
i
, where
t
is the mean free path associated with the thermal
vibrations of the ions and
i
is the mean free path associated with the impurities.
(a) Estimate
i
using Equation 38-14 and the data given in Table 38-1. (b) If r is
the effective radius of an impurity lattice ion seen by an electron, the scattering
cross section is r
2
. Estimate this area, using the fact that r is related to
i
by
Equation 38-16.

Picture the Problem We can solve the resistivity equation for the mean free path
and then substitute the Fermi speed for the average speed to express the mean free
path as a function of the Fermi energy.

(a) In terms of the mean free path
and the mean speed, the resistivity
is:

i
2
F e
i
2
av e
i

ne
u m
ne
v m
= =
i
2
F e
i

ne
u m
=
Solids

213
Express the Fermi speed u
F
in terms
of the Fermi energy E
F
:
e
F
F
2
m
E
u =

Substitute for u
F
and simplify to
obtain:
i
2
F e
i
2

ne
E m
=

Substitute numerical values (see Table 38-1) and evaluate
i
:

( )( )( )
( )( ) ( )
nm 66
nm 1 . 66
m 10 0 . 1 C 10 602 . 1 m electrons/ 10 47 . 8
J /eV 10 602 . 1 eV 04 . 7 kg 10 109 . 9 2
8
2
19 3 28
19 31
i
=
=

=

(b) From Equation 38-16 we have:

2
1
r n
=

n
r
1
2
=

Substitute numerical values and
evaluate r
2
: ( )( )
2 4
3 28
2
nm 10 8 . 1
nm 1 . 66 m 10 47 . 8
1

=

= r

Band Theory of Solids

38 Electromagnetic radiation is incident on the surface of a
semiconductor. The maximum wavelength of this light that is required if
electrons are to cross the energy gap between the valence band and the conduction
band is 380.0 nm. What is the energy gap, in electron volts, for this
semiconductor?

Picture the Problem We can use hc E =
g
to calculate the energy gap for this
semiconductor.

The lowest photon energy to increase
conductivity is given by:

hc
E =
g

Substitute numerical values and
evaluate E
g
:

( )( )
( )( )
eV 26 . 3
J /eV 10 1.602 m 10 380.0
m/s 10 998 . 2 s J 10 6.626
19 9
8 34
g
=

=

E

Chapter 38

214
39 [SSM] An electron occupies the highest energy level of the valence
band in a silicon sample. What is the maximum photon wavelength that will
excite the electron across the energy gap if the gap is 1.14 eV?

Picture the Problem We can relate the maximum photon wavelength to the
energy gag using . hc hf E = =

Express the energy gap as a function
of the wavelength of the photon:

hc
hf E = =
E
hc

=
Substitute numerical values and
evaluate :
m 09 . 1
eV 14 . 1
nm eV 1240
=

=

40 An electron occupies the highest energy level of the valence band in a
germanium sample. What is the maximum photon wavelength that will excite the
electron into the conduction band? In germanium, the energy gap between the
valence and conduction bands is 0.74 eV.

Picture the Problem We can relate the maximum photon wavelength to the
energy gag using . hc hf E = =

Express the energy gap as a function
of the wavelength of the photon:

hc
hf E = =
E
hc

=
Substitute numerical values and
evaluate :
m 7 . 1
eV 74 . 0
nm eV 1240
=

=

41 An electron occupies the highest energy level of the valence band in a
diamond sample. What is the maximum photon wavelength that will excite the
electron into the conduction band? In diamond, the energy gap between the
valence and conduction bands is 7.0 eV.

Picture the Problem We can relate the maximum photon wavelength to the
energy gag using . hc hf E = =

Express the energy gap as a function
of the wavelength of the photon:

hc
hf E = =
E
hc

=
Substitute numerical values and
evaluate :
nm 180
eV 0 . 7
nm eV 1240
=

=

Solids

215
42 A photon of wavelength 3.35 m has just enough energy to raise an
electron from the valence band to the conduction band in a lead sulfide sample.
(a) Find the energy gap between these bands in lead sulfide. (b) Find the
temperature T for which kT equals this energy gap.

Picture the Problem We can use hc hf E = = to find the energy gap between
these bands and T =E
g
/k to find the temperature for which kT equals this energy
gap.

(a) Express the energy gap as a
function of the wavelength of the
photon:

hc
E =
Substitute numerical values and
evaluate E:
eV 370 . 0
eV 3701 . 0
m 35 . 3
nm eV 1240
=
=

E

(b) The temperature is related to the
energy gap E
g
according to:

k
E
T
g
=
Substitute numerical values and
evaluate T:
K 10 29 . 4
eV/K 10 617 . 8
eV 3701 . 0
3
5
=

=

T

Semiconductors

43 The donor energy levels in an n-type semiconductor are 0.0100 eV
below the conduction band. Find the temperature for which kT =0.0100 eV.

Picture the Problem We can use E =kT to find the temperature for which
kT =0.0100 eV

Express the temperature T in terms
of the energy gap E:

k
E
T

=

Substitute numerical values and
evaluate T:
K 116
J 10 1.602
eV 1
J /K 10 381 . 1
eV 0100 . 0
19
23
=

=

T

Chapter 38

216
44 When a thin slab of semiconducting material is illuminated with
monochromatic electromagnetic radiation, most of the radiation is transmitted
through the slab if the wavelength is greater than 1.85 mm. For wavelengths less
than 1.85 mm, most of the incident radiation is absorbed. Determine the energy
gap of this semiconductor.

Picture the Problem We can use hf E = to find the energy gap of this
semiconductor.

The energy gap of the semiconductor
is given by:
hc
hf E = =
g
where hc =1240 eVnm
Substitute numerical values and
evaluate E
g
:
eV 670 . 0
m 85 . 1
nm eV 1240
g
=

E

45 The relative binding of the extra electron in the arsenic atom that
replaces an atom in silicon or germanium can be understood from a calculation of
the first Bohr radius of this electron in these materials. Four of arsenics valence
electrons form covalent bonds, so the fifth electron sees a center of attraction with
a charge of +e. This model is a modified hydrogen atom. In the Bohr model of the
hydrogen atom, the electron moves in free space at a radius a
0
given by
( )
2
e
2
0 0
4 e m a h = (Equation 36-12). When an electron moves in a crystal,
we can approximate the effect of the other atoms by replacing
0
with
0
and
m
e
with an effective mass for the electron. For silicon, is 12 and the effective
mass is approximately 0.2m
e
. For germanium, is 16 and the effective mass is
approximately 0.1m
e
. Estimate the Bohr radii for the valence electron as it orbits
the impurity arsenic atom in silicon and germanium.

Picture the Problem We can make the indicated substitutions in the expression
for a
0
(=0.0529 nm) to obtain an expression for the Bohr radii for the outer
electron as it orbits the impurity arsenic atom in silicon and germanium.

Make the indicated substitutions in
the expression for a
0
to obtain:

0
eff
e
2
e
2
0
eff
e
2
eff e
2
e 0
2
eff
2
0
B
a
m
m
e m
h
m
m
e m m
h m
e m
h
a

=

For silicon:
( ) nm 3 nm 0529 . 0
2 . 0
12
e
e
Si B,
= =
m
m
a

For germanium:
( ) nm 8 nm 0529 . 0
1 . 0
16
e
e
Ge B,
= =
m
m
a

Solids

217
46 The ground-state energy of the hydrogen atom is given by
( )
2 2
0
4
e 1
8 h e m E = (Equation 36-15 and 36-16 where 4
0
is substituted for
k
1
). Modify this equation using information in Problem 45 by replacing
0
with

0
and m
e
with an effective mass for the electron to estimate the binding energy
of the extra electron of an impurity arsenic atom in (a) silicon and (b) germanium.

Picture the Problem We can make the same substitutions we made in Problem
45 in the expression for E
1
(=13.6 eV) to obtain an expression that we can use to
estimate the binding energy of the extra electron of an impurity arsenic atom in
silicon and germanium.

Make the indicated substitutions
in the expression for E
1
to obtain:

( )
1
2
0
2
e
eff
2 2
0
e
4
2
0
2
e
eff
2 2
0
2
e
eff e
4
2 2
0
eff
4
binding
8
8 8
E
m
m
h
m e
m
m
h m
m m e
h
m e
E

=

=

(a) For silicon:

( )
( )
eV 02 . 0
eV 6 . 13
12
2 . 0
2
e
e
binding
=
=
m
m
E

(b) For germanium:

( )
( )
eV 05 . 0
eV 6 . 13
16
1 . 0
2
e
e
binding
=
=
m
m
E

47 A doped n-type silicon sample has 1.00 10
16
electrons per cubic
centimeter in the conduction band and has a resistivity of 5.00 10
23
m at
300 K. Find the mean free path of the electrons. Use the effective mass of 0.2m
e

for the mass of the electrons. (See Problem 45.) Compare this mean free path with
that of conduction electrons in copper at 300 K.

Picture the Problem We can use the expression for the resistivity of the sample
as a function of the mean free path of the conduction electrons in conjunction
with the expression for the average speed v
av
of the electrons to derive an
expression that we can use to calculate the mean free path of the electrons.

Express the resistivity of the
sample as a function of the mean
free path of the conduction
electrons:

2
e
av e
e n
v m
=

2
e
av e
e n
v m
= (1)
Chapter 38

218
The average speed v
av
of the
electrons is given by:

e
rms av
3
m
kT
v v =

Substitute for v
av
in the expression
for and simplify to obtain:

2
e
e
e
2
e
e
3 3
e n
T km
m
kT
e n
m
= =

Substitute numerical values and evaluate :

( )( )( )( )
( )( ) ( )
nm 1 . 37
m 10 00 . 5 C 10 602 . 1 cm 10
K 300 kg 10 109 . 9 2 . 0 J /K 10 381 . 1 3
3
2
19 3 16
31 23
=

=

The number density of electrons n
e
is
related to the mass density
m
,
A
, and the
molar mass M.:

M
N
n
A m
e

=
Substitute numerical values (For copper, =8.93 g/cm
3
and M =63.5 g/mol.) and
evaluate n
e
:

( )( )
3 28
23 3
e
m electrons/ 10 47 . 8
g/mol 5 . 63
mol electrons/ 10 022 . 6 g/cm 93 . 8
=

= n

Using equation (1), evaluate
Cu
(see Table 25-1 for the resistivity of copper and
Example 38-5 for u
F
):

( )( )
( )( ) ( )
nm 7 . 38
m 10 70 . 1 C 10 602 . 1 m electrons/ 10 47 . 8
m/s 10 57 . 1 kg 10 109 . 9
8
2
19 3 28
6 31
Cu
=

=

The mean free paths agree to within about 4%.

48 In the Hall effect, the Hall coefficient R
H
is the proportionality
constant between the transverse electric field and the product of the applied
magnetic field and the current density. That is, E
y
= R
H
B
z
J
x
, where the current
density, the transverse electric field and the applied magnetic field are in the +x,
+y and +z directions, respectively. (The Hall effect is presented in Chapter 26.)
The measured Hall coefficient of a doped silicon sample is 0.0400 Vm/(AT) at
room temperature. If all the doping impurities have contributed to the total
number of charge carriers of the sample, find (a) the type of impurity (donor or
acceptor) used to dope the sample and (b) the concentration of these impurities.

Solids

219
Picture the Problem We can use the definition of the Hall electric field in the
slab, the expression for the Hall voltage across it, and the definition of current
density to show that the Hall coefficient is given by 1/(nq). We can use the
expression for the Hall coefficient to determine the type of impurity and the
concentration of these impurities.

(a) The Hall coefficient is:

z x
y
B J
E
R =
where J
x
is x component of the current
density in the material, BB
z
is the z
component of the magnetic field, and
E
y
is the y component resulting Hall
electric field.

Using its definition, express the
Hall electric field in the slab:

w
V
E
y
H
=
d
nqv
wt
I
J
x
= =

The current density in the slab is:
z z
wB nqv
V
B nqv
w
V
R
d
H
d
H
= =

Substitute for E
y
and J
x
and simplify
to obtain:
w B v V
z d H
=

Express the Hall voltage in terms of
v
d
, B, and w:
Substitute for V
H
and simplify to
obtain: nq wB nqv
w B v
R
z
z
1
d
d
= = (1)

Because R >0, q >0 and conduction is by holes and the sample contains acceptor
impurities.

(b) Solve equation (1) for n:

Rq
n
1
=

Substitute numerical values and
evaluate n:
( )( )
3 20
19
m 10 56 . 1
C 10 602 . 1 T m/A V 0400 . 0
1

=

= n

Semiconductor Junctions and Devices

Chapter 38

220
49 Simple theory for the current versus the bias voltage across a pn
junction yields the equation

I = I
0
e
eV
b
/ kT
1 ( ). Sketch I versus V
b
for both positive
and negative values of V
b
using this equation.

Picture the Problem The following graph of I/I
0
versus V
b
was plotted using a
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
-0.10 -0.05 0.00 0.05 0.10
V
b
(V)
I
/
I
0

50 The base current in an npn transistor circuit is 25.0 mA. If 88.0 percent
of the electrons entering the base from the emitter reach the collector, what is the
base current?

Picture the Problem The base current is the difference between the emitter
current and the plate current.

The base current I
B
is given by:
C B
I I I =

B
Were given that:
mA 25.0 0.880
C
= = I I

Solving for I gives:

mA 4 . 28
0.880
mA 25.0
= = I

Substitute numerical values for I and
I
C
and evaluate I
B
:
mA 4 . 3 mA 25.0 mA .4 8 2
B
= = I

Solids

221
51 [SSM] In Figure 38-28 for the pnp-transistor amplifier, suppose
R
b
=2.00 k and R
L
=10.0 k. Suppose further that a 10.0-A ac base current i
b

generates a 0.500-mA ac collector current i
c
. What is the voltage gain of the
amplifier?

Picture the Problem We can use its definition to compute the voltage gain of the
amplifier.

The voltage gain of the amplifier
is given by:

b b
c
gain Voltage
R i
R i
L
=
Substitute numerical values and
evaluate the voltage gain:
( )( )
( )( )
250
k 00 . 2 A 0 . 10
k 0 . 10 mA 500 . 0
gain Voltage
=

52 Germanium can be used to measure the energy of incident photons.
Consider a 660-keV gamma ray emitted from
137
Cs. (a) Given that the band gap
in germanium is 0.72 eV, how many electronhole pairs can be generated as this
gamma ray travels through germanium? (b) The number N of pairs in Part (a) will
have statistical fluctuations given by N . What then is the energy resolution of
this detector in this photon energy region?

Picture the Problem The number of electron-hole pairs N is related to the energy
E of the incident beam and the energy gap E
g
.

(a) The number of electron-hole
pairs N is given by:

g
E
E
N =

Substitute numerical values and
evaluate N:
5 5
10 2 . 9 10 17 . 9
eV 72 . 0
keV 660
= = = N

(b) The energy resolution of the
detector is given by:
N
N
E
E
=

For N =1 and
5
10 17 . 9 = N :
% 10 . 0
10 17 . 9
1
5
=

E
E

53 Make a sketch showing the valence and conduction band edges and
Fermi energy of a pn-junction diode when biased (a) in the forward direction and
(b) in the reverse direction.

Picture the Problem The nearly full valence band is shown shaded in the
Chapter 38

222
diagram to the right. The Fermi level is shown by the dashed line.

(a)

conduction band
valence band
Fermi level
p-side n-side

(b)

54 A good silicon diode has the currentvoltage characteristic given by

I = I
0
e
eV
b
/ kT
1
( )
. Let kT =0.025 eV (room temperature) and the saturation
current I
0
=1.0 nA. (a) Show that for small reverse-bias voltages, the resistance is
25 M. Hint: Do a Taylor-series expansion of the exponential function about
V
b
= 0, or use the expansion for e
x
found in Table M-4 of the Math Tutorial.
(b) Find the dc resistance for a reverse bias of 0.50 V. (c) Find the resistance V/I
for a 0.50-V forward bias. What is the current in this case? (d) Calculate the ac
resistance dV/dI for a 0.50-V forward bias.

Picture the Problem We can use Ohms law and the expression for the current
given in the problem statement to find the resistance for small reverse-and-
forward bias voltages.

(a) Use Ohms law to express the
resistance:

I
V
R
b
= (1)

( ) 1
b
0
=
kT eV
e I I (2)

Were given that:
For eV
b
<<kT:
kT
eV
kT
eV
e
kT eV
b b
1 1 1
b
= +

Substitute for 1
b

kT eV
e to obtain:

kT
eV
I I
b
0
=

Substitute for I in equation (1) and
simplify:
0
b
0
b
eI
kT
kT
eV
I
V
R = =

Solids

223
( )( )
( )( )
=

=

M 25
nA 0 . 1 C 10 602 . 1
eV / J 10 602 . 1 eV 025 . 0
19
19
R

Substitute numerical values and
evaluate R:
(b) Substitute equation (2) in
equation (1) to obtain:

( ) 1
b
0
b

=
kT eV
e I
V
R (3)

Evaluate
kT
eV
b
for V
b
= 0.50 V:

( )( )
( )( )
8 . 19
J /eV 10 602 . 1 eV 025 . 0
V 50 . 0 C 10 602 . 1
19
19
b
=

=

kT
eV

Evaluate equation (3) for
V
b
= 0.50 V:
( )( )
10 0 . 5
1 nA 0 . 1
V 50 . 0
8
8 . 19
=

=

e
R

(c) The resistance V/I is given by:

( ) 1
b
0

= =
kT eV
e I
V
I
V
R (4)

Evaluate
kT
eV
b
for V
b
=+0.50 V:

( )( )
( )( )
8 . 19
K 293 J /K 10 1.381
V 50 . 0 C 10 602 . 1
23
19
b
=

kT
eV

Substituting numerical values in
equation (4) gives:
( )( )
=

= 3 . 1
1 nA 0 . 1
V 50 . 0
8 . 19
e
R

From equation (1):
A 38 . 0
1.3
V 50 . 0
=

= I

(d) Evaluate R
ac
= dV/dI to obtain:

( ) [ ]
kT eV kT eV
kT eV
e
eI
kT
e
kT
eI
e I
dV
d
dV
dI
dI
dV
R
b b
b
0
1
0
1
0
1
ac
1

= =

Substitute numerical values and
evaluate R
ac
:
( ) = =

m 63 M 25
8 . 19
ac
e R

Chapter 38

224
55 A differential long slab of silicon of thickness t =1.0 mm and width
w =1.0 cm is placed in a magnetic field B =0.40 T. The slab is in the xy plane
with the length of the slab parallel with the x axis, and the magnetic field points in
the +z direction. When a current of 0.20 A exists in the sample in the +x direction,
a potential difference of 5.0 mV develops across the width of the sample and the
electric field in the sample points in the +y direction. Determine the
semiconductor type (n or p) and the concentration of charge carriers. (The Hall
effect is presented in Chapter 26.)

Picture the Problem We can use the Hall-effect equation to find the
concentration of charge carriers in the slab of silicon. We can determine the
semiconductor type by determining the directions of the magnetic and electric
fields.

Use the expression for the Hall-
effect voltage to relate the
concentration of charge carriers n to
the Hall voltage V
H
:

nte
IB
V =
H

H
teV
IB
n =
( )( )
( )( )( )
3 23
19
m 10 0 . 1
mV 0 . 5 C 10 602 . 1 mm 0 . 1
T 40 . 0 A 20 . 0

=

= n

Substitute numerical values and
evaluate n:
Referring to Figure 26-28, note that B
r
points out of the page. E
r
is in the +y
direction. Therefore, the charge carriers are holes and the semiconductor is p-type.

The BCS Theory

56 (a) Use Equation 38-37 to calculate the superconducting energy gap
for tin, and compare your result with the measured value of 6.00 10
4
eV.
(b) Use the measured value to calculate the minimum value of the wavelength of a
photon that has sufficient energy to break up Cooper pairs in tin (T
c
=3.72 K) at
T =0.

Picture the Problem We can calculate E
g
using
c g
5 . 3 kT E = and find the
minimum value of the wavelength of a photon that has sufficient energy to break
up Cooper pairs in tin at T =0 using .
g
E hc =

(a) From Equation 38-37 we have:

c g
5 . 3 kT E =
Substitute numerical values and
evaluate E
g
:
( )( )
meV 12 . 1
K 72 . 3 eV/K 10 617 . 8 5 . 3
5
g
=
=

E

Solids

225
Express the ratio of E
g
to E
g,measured
:

87 . 1
eV 10 6.0
meV 12 . 1
4
measured g,
g
=

=

E
E

or
measured g, g
2E E

(b) The minimum value of the
wavelength of a photon that has
sufficient energy to break up Cooper
pairs in tin at T =0 is given by:

g
E
hc
=
Substitute numerical values and
evaluate :
mm 07 . 2
eV 10 00 . 6
nm eV 1240
4
=

=

57 [SSM] (a) Use Equation 38-37 to calculate the superconducting
energy gap for lead, and compare your result with the measured value of
2.73 10
3
eV. (b) Use the measured value to calculate the minimum value of the
wavelength of a photon that has sufficient energy to break up Cooper pairs in lead
(T
c
=7.19 K) at T =0.

Picture the Problem We can calculate E
g
using
c g
5 . 3 kT E = and find the
minimum value of the wavelength of a photon that has sufficient energy to break
up Cooper pairs in lead at T =0 using .
g
E hc =

(a) From Equation 38-37 we have:

c g
5 . 3 kT E =
( )( )
meV 17 . 2
K 19 . 7 eV/K 10 62 . 8 5 . 3
5
g
=
=

E

Substitute numerical values and
evaluate E
g
:
Express the ratio of E
g
to E
g,measured
:

795 . 0
eV 10 73 . 2
meV 17 . 2
3
measured g,
g
=

=

E
E

or
measured g, g
8 . 0 E E

Chapter 38

226

(b) The minimum value of the
wavelength of a photon that has
sufficient energy to break up Cooper
pairs in lead at T =0 is given by:

g
E
hc
=
Substitute numerical values and
evaluate :
mm 454 . 0
eV 10 73 . 2
nm eV 1240
3
=

=

The Fermi-Dirac Distribution

58 The number of electrons in the conduction band of an insulator or
intrinsic semiconductor is governed chiefly by the Fermi factor. Because the
valence band in these materials is nearly filled and the conduction band is nearly
empty, the Fermi energy E
F
is generally midway between the top of the valence
band and the bottom of the conduction band; that is, it is at E
g
/2, where E
g
is the
band gap between the two bands and the energy is measured from the top of the
valence band. (a) In silicon, E
g
1.0 eV. Show that in this case the Fermi factor
for electrons at the bottom of the conduction band is given by exp(E
g
/2kT) and
evaluate this factor. Discuss the significance of this result if there are 10
22
valence
electrons per cubic centimeter and the probability of finding an electron in the
conduction band is given by the Fermi factor. (b) Repeat the calculation in Part
(a) for an insulator with a band gap of 6.0 eV.

Picture the Problem We can evaluate the Fermi factor at the bottom of the
conduction band for T near room temperature to show that this factor is given by
exp(E
g
/2kT).

(a) At the bottom of the conduction
band:
( )
1
2
g
F
>>> =

kT E
kT E E
e e for T near room
temperature.

Neglecting the 1 in the denominator
of the Fermi function yields:

( )
kT E
kT E
e
e
E f
2
2 g 2
1
g
g
1
= =
Substitute numerical values and evaluate ( )
g 2
1
E f for T =300 K:

( )
( )( )
9
5 g 2
1
10 0 . 4
K 300 eV/K 10 62 . 8 2
eV 0 . 1
exp

= E f

Solids

227

Given that low a probability of finding an electron in a state near the bottom of
the conduction band, the exclusion principle has no significant impact on the
distribution function. With 10
22
valence electrons per cm
3
, the number of
electrons in the conduction band will be about 4 10
13
per cm
3
.

(b) Evaluate ( )
g 2
1
E f for T =300 K and E
g
=6 eV:

( )
( )( )
51
5
g 2
1
10 2 . 4
K 300 eV/K 10 62 . 8 2
eV 0 . 6
exp

= E f

The probability of finding even one electron in the conduction band is negligibly
small (approximately 4 10
51
).

59 Approximately how many energy states that have energies between
2.00 eV and 2.20 eV are available to electrons in a cube of silver measuring
1.00 mm on a side?

Picture the Problem The number of energy states per unit volume per unit
energy interval N is given by E E g N ) ( , where N is only approximate, because
E is not infinitesimal and ( )
1/2
3
3/2
e
2 8
E
h
V m
E g

= is the density of states.

The number of states N is the product
of the density of states and the
energy interval:

E E g N ) ( (1)
The density of states is given by:

( )
1/2
3
3/2
e
2 8
E
h
V m
E g

=

Substitute numerical values and evaluate g(E):

( )
( ) ( )
( )
1 37
1/2
19
3
34
3
3
2 3
31
J 10 15 . 6
eV
J 10 1.602
eV 10 . 2
s J 10 626 . 6
m 10 00 . 1 kg 10 109 . 9 2 8

=

E g

Substitute numerical values in equation (1) and evaluate N:

( )( )
18
19
1 37
10 0 . 2
eV
J 10 602 . 1
eV 2.00 eV 20 . 2 J 10 15 . 6

N

Chapter 38

228
60 Show that at E =E
F
, the expression for the Fermi factor (Equation 38-
24) is equal to 0.5.

Picture the Problem Evaluating f(E
F
) at E =E
F
will show that f(E) =0.5.

The Fermi factor is:
( )
( )
1
1
F
+
=
kT E E
e
E f

Evaluate f(E
F
):
( )
( )
5 . 0
1 1
1
1
1
F F
F
=
+
=
+
=
kT E E
e
E f

61 [SSM] (a) Using the equation E
F
= h
2
8m
e
( )

3N V ( )

2/ 3

(Equation 38-22a), calculate the Fermi energy for silver. (b) Determine the
average kinetic energy of a free electron and (c) find the Fermi speed for silver.

Picture the Problem Equation 38-22a expresses the dependence of the Fermi
energy E
F
on the number density of free electrons. Once weve determined the
Fermi energy for silver, we can find the average kinetic energy of a free electron
from the Fermi energy for silver and then use the average kinetic energy of a free
electron to find the Fermi speed for silver.

(a) From Equation 38-22a we have:
2/3
e
2
F
3
8

=
V
N
m
h
E

Use Table 27-1 to find the free-
electron number density N/V for
silver:

3
28
3
22
m
electrons
5.86x10
cm
electrons
5.86x10
=
=
V
N

Substitute numerical values and evaluate E
F
:

( )
( )
( )
eV 51 . 5
J 10 1.602
1eV m electrons/ 10 5.86 3
kg 10 9.109 8
s J 10 6.626
19
3 2
3 28
31
2
34
F
=

E

(b) The average kinetic energy of a
free electron is given by:

F av
5
3
E E =
Substitute numerical values and
evaluate E
av
:
( ) eV 31 . 3 eV 5.51
5
3
av
= = E

Solids

229
(c) Express the Fermi energy in
terms of the Fermi speed of the
electrons:

2
F e 2
1
F
u m E =
e
F
F
2
m
E
u =
Substitute numerical values and
evaluate u
F
:
( )
m/s 10 08 . 1
1eV
J 10 1.602
kg 10 9.109
3.31eV 2
6
19
31
F
=

u

62 What is the difference between the energies at which the Fermi factor
is 0.9 and 0.1 at 300 K in (a) copper, (b) potassium, and (c) aluminum.

Picture the Problem We can find the difference between the energies at which
the Fermi factor has the given values by solving the expression for Fermi factor
for E and then deriving an expression for E.

(a) The Fermi factor is:
( )
( )
1
1
F
+
=
kT E E
e
E f

Solving for E gives:
( )

+ = 1
1
ln
F
E f
kT E E

The difference between the energies is given by:

( ) ( )
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )
eV 114 . 0
1
9 . 0
1
ln 1
1 . 0
1
ln
J /eV 10 602 . 1
K 300 J /K 10 381 . 1
1
9 . 0
1
ln
J /eV 10 602 . 1
K 300 J /K 10 381 . 1
1
1 . 0
1
ln
J /eV 10 602 . 1
K 300 J /K 10 381 . 1
9 . 0 1 . 0
19
23
19
23
F
19
23
F
=

+ =
=

E
E
E E E

(b) and (c) Because E is independent of E
F
, E is the same as in (a).

63 [SSM] What is the probability that a conduction electron in silver
will have a kinetic energy of 4.90 eV at T =300 K?

Picture the Problem The probability that a conduction electron will have a given
kinetic energy is given by the Fermi factor.
Chapter 38

230

The Fermi factor is:

( )
( )
1
1
F
+
=
kT E E
e
E f

Because E
F
4.90 eV >>300k:

( ) 1
1 0
1
eV 90 . 4 =
+
= f

64 Show that ( )
2 1 2 3 -
F
2
3
E NE E g = (Equation 38-43) follows from
Equation 38-41 for g(E), and from Equation 38-22a for E
F
.

Picture the Problem We can solve Equation 38-22a for V and substitute in
Equation 38-41 to show that ( )
2 1 2 3 -
F
2
3
E NE E g = .

From Equation 38-22a we have:
3 2
e
2
F
3
8

=
V
N
m
h
E

Solving for V yields:

2 3
F e
2
8
3

=
E m
h N
V

The density g(E) is given by
Equation 38-41:

( )
2 1
3
2 3
e
2 8
E
h
V m
E g

=
Substitute for V and simplify to
obtain:
( )
2 1 2 3
F
2 1
2 3
F e
2
3
2 3
e
2
3
8
3 2 8
E NE
E
E m
h N
h
m
E g

65 Carry out the integration ( ) ( )

=
F
0
av
1
E
dE E Eg N E to show that the
average energy at T =0 is

3
5
E
F
.

Picture the Problem We can use the expression for g(E) from Problem 64 to
show that the average energy at T =0 is
F 5
3
E .

( )
2 1 2 3
F
2
3
E NE E g

=

From Problem 64 we have:
Solids

231
Substitute in the expression for E
av

and simplify to obtain:

( )

=
=
F
F
F
0
2 3 2 3
F
0
2 1 2 3
F
0
av
2
3
2
3 1
1
E
E
E
dE E E
dE E E
N
E
N
dE E Eg
N
E

Integrating the expression for E
av

gives:
( )( )
F 5
3
2 5
F 5
2
2 3
F 2
3
0
2 3 2 3
F av
F
2
3
E
E E
dE E E E
E
=
=
=

66 The density of the electron states in a metal can be written
g(E) =AE
1/2
, where A is a constant and E is measured from the bottom of the
conduction band. (a) Show that the total number of states is
2 3
F 3
2
AE .
(b) Approximately what fraction of the conduction electrons are within kT of the
Fermi energy? (c) Evaluate this fraction for copper at T =300 K.

Picture the Problem We can integrate g(E) from 0 to E
F
to show that the total
number of states is
2 3
F 3
2
AE .

(a) Integrate g(E) from 0 to E
F
:

2 3
F 3
2
0
2 1
F
AE dE AE N
E
= =

(b) Express the fraction of N within
kT of E
F
:

( )
F
2 3
F 3
2
2 1
F F
2
3
E
kT
AE
kTAE
N
E kTg
= =

(c) Substitute numerical values and
evaluate the expression obtained in
(b) for copper:
( )( )
( )
3
5
F
10 51 . 5
eV 7.04 2
K 300 eV/K 10 62 . 8 3
2
3

=
E
kT

67 What is the probability that a conduction electron in silver will have a
kinetic energy of 5.49 eV at T =300 K?

Picture the Problem The probability that a conduction electron in metal is the
Fermi factor.

Chapter 38

232
The Fermi factor is:

( )
( )
1
1
F
+
=
kT E E
e
E f

Calculate the dimensionless
exponent in the Fermi factor:

( )( )
387 . 0
K 300 eV/K 10 8.617
eV 5.50 eV 49 . 5
5
F
=

=

kT
E E

Use this result to calculate the Fermi
factor:
( ) 60 . 0
1
1
eV 49 . 5
387 . 0
=
+
=

e
f

68 Using the expression ( ) ( )
2 1 3 2 3
e
2 8 E h V m E g = (Equation38-41) for
the density of states, estimate the fraction of the conduction electrons in copper
that can absorb energy from collisions with the vibrating lattice ions at (a) 77 K
and (b) 300 K.

Picture the Problem We can integrate the density-of-states function, Equation
38-41, to find the number of occupied states N. The fraction of these states that are
within kT of E
F
can then be found from the ratio of kTg(E
F
) to N.

The density of states function is:

( )
2 1
AE E g = where
3
2 3
e
2 8
h
V m
A

=

Integrate g(E) from 0 to E
F
to find
the total number of occupied states:

2 3
3
2
0
2 1
F
F
E
E
AE dE AE N = =

Express the fraction of N within kT
of E
F
:

( )
F
2 3
F 3
2
2 1
F F
2
3
E
kT
AE
kTAE
N
E kTg
= =

(a) Substitute numerical values
and evaluate the expression
obtained above for copper at
T =77 K:
( )( )
( )
3
5
F
10 4 . 1
eV 7.04 2
K 77 eV/K 10 617 . 8 3
2
3

=
E
kT

(b) At T =300 K: ( )( )
( )
3
5
F
10 51 . 5
eV 7.04 2
K 300 eV/K 10 617 . 8 3
2
3

=
E
kT

69 In an intrinsic semiconductor, the Fermi energy is about midway
between the top of the valence band and the bottom of the conduction band. In
germanium, the forbidden energy band has a width of 0.70 eV. Show that at room
Solids

233
temperature the distribution function of electrons in the conduction band is given
by the MaxwellBoltzmann distribution function.

Picture the Problem The distribution function of electrons in the conduction
band is given by ( ) ( ) ( ) E f E g E n = where f(E) is the Fermi factor and g(E) is the
density of states in terms of E
F
.

( ) ( ) ( ) E f E g E n = (1) Express the number of electrons n
with energy E:
where

( )
2 1 2 3
F
2
3
E E
N
E g
E

=
and
( )
( )
1
1
F
+
=
kT E E
e
E f

The dimensionless exponent in the
Fermi factor is:

1
g 2
1
F
>>

kT
E E
kT
E E

and
1 exp
g 2
1
>>

kT
E E

Hence:
( )
( )
kT E
kT E
kT E E
e e
e
E f

=
2
g
g
2
1
1

Substitute in equation (1) and
simplify to obtain:

( ) ( )
kT E
kT E
F
e E e NE E n

=
2 1
2
2 3
2
3 g

There is an additional temperature dependence that arises from the fact that E
F

depends on T. At room temperature,

exp[(E E
g
/2)/kT] exp(0.35 eV/0.0259 eV) =7.410
5
,

so the approximation leading to the Boltzmann distribution is justified.

70 The root-mean-square (rms) value of a variable is obtained by
calculating the average value of the square of that variable and then taking the
square root of the result. Use this procedure to determine the rms energy of a
Fermi distribution. Express your result in terms of E
F
and compare it to the
average energy. Why do E
av
and E
rms
differ?

Chapter 38

234
Picture the Problem We can follow the procedure outlined in the problem
statement to determine the rms energy of a Fermi distribution.

Express the E
rms
in terms of g(E):

( )
2 1
0
2
rms
F
1

=

E
dE E E g
N
E

The density of states g(E) is given
by:

( )
2 1 2 3
F
2
3
E E
N
E g

=
Substitute to obtain:

2 1
0
2 3
2 3
F
rms
F
2
1

=

E
dE E
NE
E

Evaluate the integral and simplify to
obtain:

F F rms
655 . 0
7
3
E E E = =
E
rms
>E
av
because the process of averaging the square of the energy weights
larger energies more heavily.

General Problems

71 The density of potassium is 0.851 g/cm
3
. How many free electrons are
there per potassium atom in a crystal of potassium?

Picture the Problem The number of free electrons per atom n
e
is given by
A e
N nM n = where N
A
is Avogadros number, is the density of the element, M
is its molar mass, and n is the free electron number density for the element.

The number of electrons per atom is
given by:

A
e
N
nM
n

=

From Table 38-1:
3 22
3
cm electrons/ 10 40 . 1
nm electrons/ 0 . 14
=
= n

Substitute numerical values and evaluate n
e
:

( )( )
( )( )
07 . 1
mol electrons/ 10 022 . 6 g/cm 851 . 0
mol / g 098 . 39 cm electrons/ 10 40 . 1
23 3
3 22
e
=

= n

Solids

235
Remarks: Our result of 1.07 free electrons per potassium atom means that,
for every 100 potassium atoms, there are 107 free electrons.

72 Calculate the number density of free electrons for (a) magnesium,
which has a density of 1.74 g/cm
3
, and (b) zinc, which has a density of
7.14 g/cm
3
. For these calculations assume there are two free electrons per atom,
and compare your results with the values listed in Table 38-1.

Picture the Problem The number of free electrons per atom n
e
is related to the
number density of free electrons n by
A e
N nM n = , where N
A
number, is the density of the element, and M is its molar mass.

The number of electrons per atom is
given by:
A
e
N
nM
n

=

Solving for n gives:
M
N n
n
A e

=

(a) Substitute numerical values and evaluate n for Mg:

( )( )( )
3 22
23 3
Mg
cm electrons/ 10 62 . 8
mol / g 31 . 24
mol electrons/ 10 022 . 6 g/cm 74 . 1 2
=

= n

(b) Substitute numerical values and evaluate n for Zn:

( )( )( )
3 23
23 3
Zn
cm electrons/ 10 32 . 1
mol / g 38 . 65
mol electrons/ 10 022 . 6 g/cm 14 . 7 2
=

= n

Both results agree with the values in Table 38-1 to within 1%.

73 Estimate the fraction of free electrons in copper that are in energy
states above the Fermi energy at (a) 300 K (about room temperature) and (b) at
1000 K.

Picture the Problem We can integrate g(E) from 0 to E
F
to show that the total
number of states is
2 3
F 3
2
AE and then use this result to find the fraction of the free
electrons that are above the Fermi energy at the given temperatures.

Integrate g(E) from 0 to E
F
:

2 3
3
2
0
2 1
F
F
E
E
AE dE AE N = =

Chapter 38

236
Express the fraction of N within kT
of E
F
:

( )
F
2 3
F 3
2
2 1
F F
2
3
E
kT
AE
kTAE
N
E kTg
= =
(a) Substitute numerical values and
evaluate this fraction for copper at
300 K:
( )( )
( )
3
5
F
10 51 . 5
eV 7.04 2
K 300 eV/K 10 617 . 8 3
2
3

=
E
kT

(b) Evaluate the same fraction at
1000 K:
( )( )
( )
2
5
F
10 84 . 1
eV 7.04 2
K 1000 eV/K 10 617 . 8 3
2
3

=
E
kT

74 A certain free-electron energy state of manganese has a 10.0 percent
chance of being occupied when the temperature of the manganese is T =1300 K.
What is the energy of this state?

Picture the Problem The Fermi factor gives the probability of an energy state
being occupied as a function of the energy of the state E, the Fermi energy E
F
for
the particular material, and the temperature T.

The Fermi factor is:
( )
( )
1
1
F
+
=
kT E E
e
E f

For 10 percent probability:
( )
1
1
1 . 0
F
+
=
kT E E
e

( )
9
F
=
kT E E
e

Take the natural logarithm of both
sides of
( )
9
F
=
kT E E
e to obtain:

( ) 9 ln
F
=

kT
E E
( ) 9 ln
F
kT E E + =

From Table 37-1, E
F, Mn
=11.0 eV. Substitute numerical values and evaluate E:

( )( ) eV 2 . 11 9 ln
J 10 1.602
eV 1
K 1300 J /K 10 1.381 eV 0 . 11
19
23
=

+ =

E

75 The semiconducting compound CdSe is widely used for light-emitting
diodes (LEDs). The energy gap in CdSe is 1.80 eV. What is the frequency of the
light emitted by a CdSe LED?

Picture the Problem The energy gap for the semiconductor is related to the
wavelength of the emitted light according to .
g
hc E =

Solids

237
The frequency of the emitted light is
related to its wavelength:

c
f =
Express the energy gap in terms
of the wavelength of the emitted
light:
g
E

hc
E =
g

g
E
hc
=
hc
cE
E
hc
c
f
g
g
= =

Substituting for and simplifying
yields:
( )( )
Hz 10 35 . 4
nm eV 1240
eV 80 . 1 m/s 10 998 . 2
14
8
=

= f

Substitute numerical values and
evaluate f:
Remarks: This frequency is in the red portion of the visible spectrum.

76 A 2.00-cm
2
wafer of pure silicon is irradiated with electromagnetic
radiation having a wavelength of 775 nm. The intensity of the radiation is
4.00 W/m
2
and every photon that strikes the sample is absorbed and creates an
electronhole pair. (a) How many electronhole pairs are produced in one
second? (b) If the number of electronhole pairs in the sample is 6.25 10
11
in
the steady state, at what rate do the electronhole pairs recombine? (c) If every
recombination event results in the radiation of one photon, at what rate is energy
radiated by the sample?

Picture the Problem The rate of production of electron-hole pairs is the ratio of
the incident energy to the energy required to produce an electron-hole pair.

(a)The number of electron-hole pairs
N produced in one second is:

hc
IA
hc
IA
N

= =

Substitute numerical values and evaluate N:

( )( )( )
( )( )
1 15
19
2 4 2
s 10 12 . 3
J /eV 10 602 . 1 nm eV 1240
nm 775 m 10 00 . 2 W/m 00 . 4

=

= N

(b) In the steady state, the rate of
recombination equals the rate of
generation. Therefore:

1 15
s 10 12 . 3

= N
Chapter 38

238
(c) The power radiated equals the
power absorbed:
IA P =

Substitute numerical values and
evaluate P