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IOSR Journal of Sports and Physical Education (IOSR-JSPE)

e-ISSN: 2347-6737, p-ISSN: 2347-6745, Volume 1, Issue 6 (Jul-Aug. 2014), PP 37-40


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Knowledge of Premarital Sex and its influence on Sexual
Behaviour of Adolescents in Federal Government Senior
Secondary Schools in Nigeria.

Badaki Olusegun Lasisi (Ph.D)
Department of Physical and Health Education
University Of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

Abstract: This study investigatedthe knowledge of premarital sex and its influence on the sexual behaviour of
adolescents in Federal Government senior secondary schools in Nigeria.An ex-post facto research design was
used for this study. The population for this study consisted of students in Federal Government Senior Secondary
Schools in Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data for this study in thirteen Federal
Government senior secondary schools selected from the six geo-political zones in Nigeria through stratified and
purposive sampling techniques. A total of 576 copies of questionnaire were administered to respondents in SS1,
SS2 and SS3 in Federal Government Senior Secondary Schools in Nigeria. The data collected were statistically
analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) at 0.05 level of
significance. It was found that, the influence of knowledge of premarital sex of adolescents was found to be
significantly related. It was recommended that; there is the need for the relevant educational authorities to
increase knowledge of reproductive health in secondary schools in Nigeria through symposiums, workshops and
seminar presentation in which emphasis could be on the influence of premarital sex on adolescent development.

I. Introduction
In many African societies, young men and women have different interest, motivations and strategies for
engaging in premarital sexual relationships for various reasons, including the enhancement of their marriage
prospects, proving their fertility to their future husbands, and for financial benefits, (Meekers, 1994). Men on the
other hand are more likely to engage in sexual relationships before marriage, for sexual experience and sexual
satisfaction. Having multiple partners is often a means for a male adolescent to gain social status and respect
among his peers. Because of these differences, adolescent boys and girls have different patterns of sexual
behaviour and hence, they are exposed to different reproductive health risks, (Aderibigbe & Araoye, 2008). In
most of Asia, including the Arab states of West Asia premarital sexual activity is uncommon, but marriage and
childbearing start early and adolescent pregnancy rates are high. Some communities in Sub-Saharan Africa also
follow this tradition, though in general the experience of premarital sex in Africa is more common (UNESCO &
UNFPA, 1998). Early sexual activity usually exposes adolescents to risks of pregnancy and disease. The large
proportion of the young aged population and the increasing incidence of unsafe sex among them, in many
developing countries, expose them to greater social, economic and health-related problems, as this increases the
threats of HIV and other STD, which can cause serious morbidity and even mortality. On the other hand, in
countries with a well-organized sex education program, as in North America and Northern Europe, there exist
lower rates of adolescent pregnancy and abortion and more widespread use of modern contraceptive methods
among adolescents (UNFPA, 1998).
In Nigeria, adolescents aged 10 19 constitute 31.7% of the total population of 151.87 million in 2009,
with nearly equal proportion of males and females (50.1% males versus 49.9% females). The population of
males tends to be higher in the younger age groups, (Olokor, 2012). While in 2003, adolescents constitute 18%
of the total population of 126 million, (FMOH, 2003). But as many as 50% of these adolescents most especially
those in school have initiated sexual activity with age at first sexual intercourse ranging from 14-18years across
the geographical zones in Nigeria, (FMOH, 2003).

Research Question:Does knowledge of premarital sex influence adolescents sexual behaviour in Federal
Government senior secondary schools in Nigeria?
Hypothesis:There is no significant relationship between the knowledge of premarital sex and its influence on
the sexual behaviour of adolescents in Federal Government senior secondary schools in Nigeria.

II. Methodology
This study adopted Ex-Post Facto research design. This is in view of the fact that the study does not
necessarily require experimentation, in which manipulation and treatment of control groups are involved. One of
Knowledge of Premarital Sex and its influence on Sexual Behaviour of Adolescents in .
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the conditions that call for the use of this research design is that the information required already exists naturally
(Gay, 1992). The population for this study consists of adolescents in the one hundred and four (104) Federal
Government secondary schools in Nigeria. The schools are Federal Government Colleges, Federal Science
Technical Colleges, Federal Government Girls Colleges and Federal Government Academy.
For the purpose of this study, stratified random sampling technique was used to group the one hundred
and four (104) Federal Government secondary schools in Nigeria into six (6) zones. In this technique, the
Federal Government secondary schools were stratified using the existing six geo-political zones in Nigeria,
which are; North-East (NE), North-West (NW), North-Central(NC), South-West(SW), South-East(SE) and
South-South(SS). The Federal Capital Territory was added to the North-Central zone for the purpose of this
study. The States were grouped into each zone. This means that NE had 6 States, the NW had 7 States, NC had
7 States, SW had 6 States, and SS had 6 States. Also, the schools in were grouped under each of the zones.
Thus, NE had 15 schools, NW had 19 schools, NC had 24 schools, SE had 12 schools, and SW had 18 schools
while SS had 16 schools. To select the sample of schools from the schools which were proportionally
distributed, twelve percent of the sample population was proportionately drawn to give equal representation to
the entire population. In this technique, (Gay, 1992, Ejifugha, 1998) suggested 10 to12 percent of the samples to
be drawn in a population that is not too large. Thus, the researcher opted for the twelve percent (12%). Also,
Castillo, (2009) opined that, stratified sample is a probability sampling technique in which the researcher
divided the entire target population into different subgroups, or strata, and then randomly selected the final
subjects proportionally from the different strata.Thus,in the North East, 2 schools were selected, North West,
two (2) schools were selected, North Central, had (3) schools selected, South East, had (2) schools selected,
South West, had (2) schools selected, and South-South, had (2) schools selected. A simple random sampling
technique using dip and pick method was used to select the specified number of schools that were mixed from
each of the zone. To select the States, a purposive sampling technique was used to select the specified number of
States that were in line with the schools selected in each zone (Nworgu, 1991, Araoye, 2003). Thus, in North
East, two (2) schools with two (2) States were selected for the study. Also, the North West had two (2) schools
and two (2) States, North Central, three (3) schools and three (3) States, South East, two (2) schools and two (2)
States, South West, two (2) schools and two (2) States and South - South had two (2) schools and two (2) States
were selected as showed in Table 1. This therefore, showed that, a total of 13 Schools and 13 States were used
for the study. 12% of the population of Federal Government senior secondary schools in each of the zone was
the subjects selected for the study. Thus, the thirteen schools selected were from the population of 4,792
students in Federal Government senior secondary schools in Nigeria. A total of 576 subjects formed the twelve
percent of the study population studied.

Table 1: Sample of States and Schools selected in each Zone
Zone No. Of States In
Each Zone
No. Of Schools In
Each Zone
12% Of Schools
Selected
States Purposively
Selected
NE 6 15 2 2
NW 7 19 2 2
NC 7 25 3 3
SE 5 12 2 2
SW 6 18 2 2
SS 6 16 2 2

Instrument for Data Collection
A self - developed questionnaire by the researcher which was vetted by jurors on knowledge of
premarital sex and its influence on the sexual behaviour of adolescents in Federal Government senior secondary
schools in Nigeria was used for the study.

III. Results
The demographic analysis of the respondents is as follow.
Table 2: Demographic characteristics of the respondents
Variables Items Frequency Percentage
Class SS I 213 37.0
SS II 182 31.6
SS III 181 31.4
TOTAL 576 100
Gender Male 290 50.3
Female 286 49.7
TOTAL 576 100
Age Below 15 years 176 30.6
15-17 years 356 61.8
18 years & above 44 7.6
TOTAL 576 100
Knowledge of Premarital Sex and its influence on Sexual Behaviour of Adolescents in .
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Table 2 indicated the respondents class classification of 213 (37.0 %) were SSI,182 (31.6%)were SSII
and 181 (31.4 %) were SSIII. Furthermore, 290 (50.3%) were males and 286 (49.7%) were females. Most of the
respondents 356 (61.8 %) were between age 15-17 years, 176 (30.6 %) were below 15 years and the remaining
44 (7.6 %) were 18 years and above.

Testing of Hypothesis
There is no significant relationship between knowledge of premarital sex and sexual behaviour of
adolescents in Federal Government senior secondary schools in Nigeria.
In the test of this hypothesis, the mean scores were subjected to a Pearson Product Moment Correlation
Coefficient in order to determine the relationship between knowledge of premarital sex of adolescents and their
sexual behaviour. The result of the test is summarized in Table 3.

Table 3: Relationship between knowledge of premarital sexand sexual behaviour of respondents
Variable X SD SE r DF P
Knowledge of premarital 3.9380 0.59528 0.02480 0.426 574 0.000
Sexual Behaviour 4.1876 0.42784 0.01789
r (574) = 0.088, P=0.05
Table 3 revealed that, the knowledge of premarital sex of adolescents and their sexual behaviour was
significantly related. This was because; the calculated r (0.426) in the test was higher than the critical value
(0.088) at the significant level of 0.05. This means that, the null hypothesis which states that, there is no
significant relationship between knowledge of premarital sex and the sexual behaviour of adolescents in Federal
Government senior secondary schools in Nigeria was rejected.

IV. Discussions
This study revealed that the knowledge of premarital sex was significantly related to influence sexual
behaviour of adolescents. The study of Rayburn, (2007) was in support of her explanation that premarital sexual
behaviour of various types that involves intentional stimulation of the genital areas often occurs before marriage
in adolescents. Such behaviour includes vaginal intercourse, kissing or touching private parts, hugging and
holding hands. UNFPA, (1998) also concurred, that early sexual activity usually exposes adolescents to risks of
pregnancy and disease. It has also been noticed that most behavioural responses of young people habitually
revolve around sexual activities, the practice that Inyang (2007) viewed as the usual aftermath of intimacy in
emotion-laden romantic relationships. Since one thing will always lead to another, engagement in the pleasure
of romantic intimacy, more often than not, usually ends up in sexual intercourse between the youngsters. And
because sexual relations proffer the most passionate pleasure, young people are not usually emotionally
balanced to control the urge for the fun. While Ogunmola, (2012) was of the view that the last half of the 20th
century witnessed substantial changes in the practice of premarital partnership among the adolescents due, in
part, to the influx of the western culture on the continent of Africa. Olayiwola, (2010) was of the view that
pregnancy could occur when a girl-child who has attained the age of puberty has sexual intercourse with a
biologically mature boy. Most of the adolescents of today see sex as fun, cool and hype. Most of them go into
romantic relationships very early in life. The male adults have not helped the situation as they pressurize most of
these teenage girls into having sex. As a result of pre-marital sex or promiscuity, adolescent girls become
pregnant prematurely. Obiekezie-Ali (2003) asserts that this stance that many Nigerian girls are known to start
involvement in active sex at the early age of thirteen years. Okonkwo and Eze (2000) observed that todays
situation shows a sharp contrast to the traditional Nigerian societal context in which girls avoided pre-marital
sexual experiences for fear of social punishments usually meted out to girls who lost their virginity before
marriage. Ariba (2000) was of the view that, mans sexuality is integrated into his total life development as a
health entity and a source of creative energy. Religious teaching condemned vehemently premarital sex and the
use of contraceptives. It is common to listen to these religious organizations sermons on television and radio
condemning the indecency and moral laxity and obscenity of the youths today. They opposed the realization of
premarital sex without really giving the children alternatives to think about. While, Casey, (2001) said experts
estimate that, more than 600,000 Nigerian women obtain abortions each year. One-third of those women
obtaining abortions were adolescents. Hospital-based studies showed that up to 80 percent of Nigerian patients
with abortion-related complications were adolescents. Thus, much need to be done by the Ministry of Education
and the parents to curb this scourge of premarital sex in secondary schools in Nigeria.

V. Conclusion
Based on research findings, it was concluded that, the knowledge of premarital sex of adolescents in
Federal Government senior secondary schools in Nigeria could influence their sexual behaviour. The
respondents were able to establish strong link between the knowledge of premarital sex and their sexual
behaviour.
Knowledge of Premarital Sex and its influence on Sexual Behaviour of Adolescents in .
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VI. Recommendations
There is the need for the relevant educational authorities to increase knowledge of reproductive health
in secondary schools in Nigeria through symposiums, workshops and seminar presentations in which emphasis
could be on the influenceof premarital sexon adolescent development.

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