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[ 374 ]

Si mul t aneous rout e sel ect i on and cel l f ormat i on:


a mi xed-i nt eger programmi ng t i me-cost model
Bhaba R. Sarker
Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Louisiana
State University, Baton Rouge, USA
Kun Li
Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Louisiana
State University, Baton Rouge, USA
Presents a mixed-integer
programme to simultaneously
select part routeings and
form machine cells in the
presence of alternate process
plans so that the total cost of
operating and intercell mater-
ial handling is minimized.
Demand for parts, machine
capacities, number of cells to
be formed, and number of
machines in a cell are
included in the model.
Includes an example to illus-
trate the solution technique
of the problem of practical
instance.
The authors are grateful to
the anonymous reviewers for
their comments and critical
suggestions. This research
was partly supported by the
National Science Foundation
Grant No. DMI 96-22306.
Integrated Manufacturing
Systems
8/ 6 [1997] 374377
MCB University Press
[I SSN 0957-6061]
Int roduct i on
Cellular manufacturi ng has been consi dered
an effective way to i ncrease manufacturi ng
productivi ty and competi tiveness. A number
of si gni cant benets can be achi eved as a
result of i mplementi ng a cellular manufac-
turi ng system (CMS). The mai n objective i n
the desi gn of CMS i s to group together parts
wi th si mi lar processi ng requi rements usi ng
dedi cated cells of di ssi mi lar machi nes so that
the i nter-cellular movement of parts of part-
fami li es i s mi ni mi zed. Si gni cant research
has been conducted to solve thi s cell for ma-
ti on i ssue i n a manufacturi ng set-up
(Wemmerlv and Hyer, 1989), but most of i t,
however, focused pri mari ly on clusteri ng
techni ques that mani pulate rows and
columns of the machi ne component i nci dence
matri x to for m a block di agonal structure
(Bhat and Haupt, 1976; Heragu, 1994; Ki ng and
Nakor nchai , 1992; Kusi ak et al., 1993; Logren-
dran, 1993). I n most cases, practi cal desi gn
constrai nts such as machi ne capaci ty,
machi ne purchase cost, work-i n-process
(WI P) cost, operati ng cost, materi al handli ng
cost, machi ne uti li zati on, etc. were not con-
si dered (Heragu, 1994).
I n recent years, several researchers
reported cell desi gn wi th consi derati on of
some operati onal vari ables and wi th speci c
desi gn goals such as maxi mi zi ng resource
uti li zati on, mi ni mi zi ng capi tal i nvestment or
mi ni mi zi ng materi al handli ng (Rajamani et
al., 1990; Sarker and Balan, 1996; Sarker and
Yu, 1994). Aski n and Chi u (1990) developed a
cost model that consi ders machi ne depreci a-
ti on, i nventory, materi al handli ng and set-up
costs. The model i s divi ded i nto two sub-prob-
lems and solved sub-opti mally usi ng graph
parti ti oni ng techni que. The rst sub-problem
assi gns parts to machi nes, and the second one
assi gns machi nes to cells. Choobi neh (1988)
presented a two-stage procedure to mi ni mi ze
the equi pment purchase, part producti on,
WI P, and set-up costs wi th consi derati on of
machi ne capaci ty constrai nts. Part fami li es
are deter mi ned rst and then a mathemati cal
model i s used to i denti fy the machi ne cells.
Rajamani et al. (1990) used three mi xed-i nte-
ger programmi ng models to study the effect
of alter nate process plans on resource
uti li zati on wi th the objective of mi ni mi zi ng
capi tal i nvestment.
Song and Hi tomi (1992) descri bed the cell
for mati on problem i n a graph usi ng the quan-
ti ti es to be produced i n the speci ed ti me
peri od and the process routes for produci ng
the products wi th the objective of mi ni mi zi ng
the total number of parts produced i n more
than one cell. For mulated as a quadrati c
assi gnment problem (QAP), the problem i s
solved usi ng both Lagrangi an relaxati on and
the opti mali ty condi ti ons of quadrati c pro-
gramme.
Li ao (1994) and Li aoet al.(1996) proposed a
procedure to desi gn a li ne type CMS for mi ni -
mum operati ng and materi al handli ng costs.
Alter nate process plans were consi dered to
deter mi ne the least cost combi nati on of part
routei ngs and the resulti ng bi nary machi ne
component i nci dence matri x was used as the
i nput to a neural network to group machi nes
i nto a speci ed number of cells. STORM was
used at the thi rd stage to deter mi ne the physi -
cal layout wi th mi ni mum materi al handli ng
cost. Thi s paper presents a mi xed-i nteger
programme to si multaneously select part
routei ngs and for m machi ne cells i n the pres-
ence of alter nate process plans so that the
total cost of operati ng and i ntercell materi al
handli ng i s mi ni mi zed. Demands for parts,
machi ne capaci ti es, number of cells to be
for med and number of machi nes i n a cell are
i ncluded i n thi s for mulati on. A mathemati cal
model, followed by a numeri cal example, i s
given i n the next secti ons.
The rout e sel ect i on and cel l
f ormat i on probl em
The proposed mi xed-i nteger programme i s
developed i n the context of a cellular manu-
facturi ng system i n whi ch routei ng of jobs i s
consi dered i n for mi ng the cells, as seen i n the
telephone mother board manufacturi ng
plant. I n thi s system, machi nes have the capa-
bi li ty to perfor m more than one operati on
(e.g. surface mounti ng machi ne i n mother
board manufacturi ng components), and thus
parts can have alter nate sequences of opera-
ti ons (as can be seen i n many manufacturi ng
processes on the shopoor) such as tur ni ng
[ 375 ]
Bhaba R. Sarker and
Kun Li
Simultaneous route selection
and cell formation: a mixed-
integer programming time-
cost model
Integrated Manufacturing
Systems
8/ 6 [1997] 374377
after dri lli ng or dri lli ng after tur ni ng. The
capaci ty of any one of the exi sti ng machi nes
i s assumed to be suffi ci ent to handle the work
load. Procurement of new machi nes or sub-
contracti ng some work i n case of i nsuffi ci ent
capaci ty i s not consi dered i n thi s study.
Wi thi n-cell moves are assumed to be i nsi gni -
cant as compared to between-cell moves.
Not at i on
Indexing sets:
k = 1,2,...,K part type k
m = 1,2,...,M machi ne m
p
k
= 1,2,...,P
k
process plan for part type k,
p
k
o = 1,2,...,O(p
k
) operati on oi n process plan
p
k
of part type k
n = 1,2,...,N machi ne cell, n
Coefficients:
C
mo(p
k
)
operati ng cost on machi ne mto per-
for m operati on o(p
k
) of process plan
p
k
for part type k
T
mo(p
k
)
ti me to perfor m operati on oof the
process plan p
k
of the part type k on
machi ne m.
A
o(p
k
)
=
{
1, i f operati on oi n process plan
p
k
i s perfor med
0, otherwi se

mo
=
{
1, i f machi ne mcan perfor m
operati on 0(p
k
)
0, otherwi se
T
m
ti me avai lable on machi ne m
D
k
demand for part type k
H
k
i ntercell materi al handli ng cost for
one uni t of part type k
M
c
maxi mum number of machi nes
allowed i n a machi ne cell.
Decision variables:
Y
p
k
=
{
1, i f part type k i s produced
usi ng process plan p
k
0, otherwi se
X
mo(p
k
)
=
{
1, i f machi ne mi s used to per-
for m operati on o for p
k
0, otherwi se
Z
mn
=
{
1, i f machi ne mi s assi gned to
cell n
0, otherwi se
W
kn
=
{
1, i f part type k i s produced by
machi ne(s) i n cell n
0, otherwi se
Mi xed-i nt eger programmi ng model
The total cost that needs to be consi dered i n
thi s model compri ses operati ng costs for
processi ng the parts and the materi al
handli ng cost. The total operati ng cost for
produci ng all the products on the selected
machi nes by the selected process plans i s

p
k

o
D
k
C
mo(p
k
)
X
mo(p
k
)
. No i ntercell
materi al handli ng cost wi ll i ncur when a part
type i s manufactured i n only one cell. The
total cost for i ntercell materi al handli ng can
be calculated as
k
D
k
H
k
(
n
W
kn
1). I f
machi ne mi s selected, i .e.
k

p
k

o
X
mo(p
k
)
1,
then machi ne mcan be assi gned to one of the
machi ne cells, i .e.
n
Z
mn
= 1; i f machi ne mi s
not selected, then machi ne mcannot be
assi gned to any machi ne cell. I f any machi ne
associ ated wi th part type k i s assi gned to
machi ne cell n, i .e.
n
Z
mn
X
mo(p
k
)
1, then
part type k i s to be produced by machi ne(s) i n
cell n, i .e. W
kn
= 1; i f none of these related
machi nes i s assi gned to cell n, then
n
W
kn
= 0.
Therefore, a mi xed-i nteger programmi ng
problem can be for mulated to solve thi s
si multaneous part routei ng and cell for ma-
ti on as follows:
RCF: routeing and cell formation problem:
Fi nd:
Y
p
k
, X
mo(p
k
)
, Z
mn
, and W
kn
so as to
mi ni mi ze
k

p
k

o
D
k
C
mo(p
k
)
X
mo(p
k
)
+
k
D
k
H
k
(
n
W
kn
1) (1)
subject to:
The rst ter m i n the objective functi on i s the
total operati ng cost and the second one the
total i ntercell materi al handli ng cost. The
constrai nt set (2) guarantees that only one
process plan i s to be selected for one part
type. The constrai nt set (3) ensures that all
the operati ons i n the selected process plans
are to be perfor med on one of the avai lable
machi nes. The constrai nt set (4) ensures that
the capaci ty constrai nt of each machi ne i s
sati sed. I n constrai nt set (5), i f machi ne mi s
selected, i .e.,
k

p
k

o
X
mo(p
k
)
1, then only
[ 376 ]
Bhaba R. Sarker and
Kun Li
Simultaneous route selection
and cell formation: a mixed-
integer programming time-
cost model
Integrated Manufacturing
Systems
8/ 6 [1997] 374377

mn
= 1 can sati sfy both the left and the
ri ght si des of thi s i nequali ty; i f
k

p
k

o
X
mo(p
k
)
=0, then the left si de gives
n

mn
= 0
and the ri ght si de becomes redundant. I n
constrai nt set (6),
k

p
k

o
X
mo(p
k
)
i s the total
number of machi nes selected to produce the
part type k. I f any of these machi nes i s
assi gned to cell n, i .e.
m
Z
m
X
mo(p
k
)
1, then
thi s quanti ty i s never greater than the total
number of machi nes selected to produce part
type k, the left and ri ght si des of thi s i nequal-
i ty forces W
kn
to be 1. I f
n
Z
mn
X
mo(p
k
)
= 0,
then W
kn
= 0 wi ll sati sfy the left si de and the
ri ght si de becomes redundant. The constrai nt
set (7) ensures that the number of machi nes
i n a machi ne cell does not exceed the speci -
ed maxi mum value. The constrai nt set (8)
ensures i ntegrali ty.
A numeri cal i l l ust rat i on
The example consi dered here uses the data
from Li ao (1994) to i llustrate the model. The
demand for ve di fferent part types together
wi th thei r alter nate process plans are given
i n Table I . Four machi nes (say lathe, mi lli ng,
planner, and dri ll) wi th known capaci ti es,
and thei r capabi li ti es to perfor m an opera-
ti on are given i n Table I I . The same operati on
can be done on a di fferent machi ne. For exam-
ple, a dri lli ng on a product can be done on any
of the lathe, dri ll or mi lli ng machi nes. To be
more speci c, product 1 requi res two opera-
ti ons: operati ons 1 and 3. Operati on 1 can be
done on machi nes 1 and 4 whi le operati on 3
can be done on machi nes 1 and 3. The ti me
requi red and the cost of each operati on on a
machi ne may be di fferent from those on
another machi ne. The ti me and cost i nforma-
ti on for a machi ne to perform an operati on on
a part type by a certai n routei ng are given i n
Table III. Two machi ne cells are to be formed
and the maxi mum allowable number of
machi nes i n a cell i s three. The average i nter-
cell materi al handli ng cost for one uni t of any
part type i s assumed to be $3 for all part
types k.
Obvi ously, some of the constrai nts i n the
proposed model have cross-product ter ms.
Solvi ng a large i nstance of thi s problem i s not
a trivi al task. Several approaches are avai l-
able to transfor m a 0-1 polynomi al program-
mi ng problem i nto a 0-1 li near programme
(Glover and Woolsey, 1974; Li , 1994; Watters
1967). A procedure descri bed i n Glover and
Woolsey (1974) i s adopted i n thi s study. Sup-
pose that x
1
, x
2
and x
3
are bi nary vari ables
and the cross-product ter ms are x
1
x
2
, x
1
x
3
,
and x
2
, x
3
. These cross-product ter ms can be
replaced by conti nuous vari ables x
12
, x
13
, and
x
23
. The followi ng new constrai nts are to be
added for such a problem:
x
1
+ x
2
x
12
1
x
1
+ x
3
x
13
1
x
2
+ x
3
x
23
1
2x
1
x
12
+ x
13
2x
2
x
12
+ x
23
2x
3
x
13
+ x
23
Usi ng the above transfor mati on procedure, 98
new conti nuous vari ables and 138 new con-
strai nts resulted i n addi ti on to the ori gi nal 48
bi nary vari ables and 47 constrai nts for the
data i n Tables I , I I , and I I I .
Thi s mi xed 0-1 programme was solved
usi ng LI NDO and the results are reported i n
Table I V. The correspondi ng bi nary machi ne-
component matri x i s given i n Table V. I t may
be observed that two mutually separable
machi ne cells and part fami li es have been
for med. No i ntercell moves exi st i n thi s case.
The CPU ti me for thi s numeri cal example
was 46.20 seconds. The capaci ty of LI NDO on
a VAX 8800 i s around 7,000 vari ables and 5,000
li near constrai nts (Scharge, 1982); thi s means
i t i s manageable for a mai nframe computer to
handle a problem of consi derable si ze.
Concl usi ons
The successful i mplementati on of CMS i s
dependent on many desi gn and operati on
constrai nts. The model proposed i n thi s study
can si multaneously select machi nes and for m
machi ne cells i n the presence of alter nate
process plans for mi ni mi zi ng the combi ned
cost of operati ng and i ntercell materi al han-
dli ng. Because of the 0-1 and general i nteger
programmi ng nature of the model for mula-
ti on, thi s model cannot be i mplemented for
Tabl e I
Demands and process plans for parts
A
o(k,p
k
)
k = 1 k = 2 k = 3 k = 4 k = 5
Operat i on p = 1 p = 1 p = 2 p = 1 p = 1 p = 2 p = 1 p = 2
o = 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
o = 2 1 1 1
o = 3 1 1 1
Demand, D
k
5 10 10 5 5 5 10 10
Tabl e II
Capability and capacity of machines

mo
Operat i on m = 1 m = 2 m = 3 m = 4
o = 1 1 1
o = 2 1 1
o = 3 1 1
T
m
100 100 100 100
[ 377 ]
Bhaba R. Sarker and
Kun Li
Simultaneous route selection
and cell formation: a mixed-
integer programming time-
cost model
Integrated Manufacturing
Systems
8/ 6 [1997] 374377
very large problems. Heuri sti c or approxi -
mate procedures are needed to resolve thi s
di ffi culty. Also, i ntra-cell moves could some-
ti mes i ncur consi derable materi al handli ng
cost and for mulati ons of i ntra-cell costs
would i mprove the soluti on for total materi al
handli ng cost.
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Tabl e III
Operation time and cost
T
mo(p
k
)
; C
mo(p
k
)
Operat i on k = 1 k = 2 k = 3 k = 4 k = 5
and machi ne p = 1 p = 1 p = 2 p = 1 p = 1 p = 2 p = 1 p = 2
o = 1 m = 1 5; 3 4; 5 4; 4 5; 5 10; 9 7; 6
m = 4 6; 4 3; 4 3; 3 6; 3 9; 8 6; 6
o = 2 m = 2 5; 5 2; 4 5; 7
m = 4 2; 4 3; 3 4; 6
o = 3 m = 1 3; 5 4; 4 3; 2
m = 3 4; 4 2; 3 4; 3
Tabl e IV
Solution for minimum cost $275
Machi ne, m
Operat i on k = 1 k = 2 k = 3 k = 4 k = 5
o p
k
= 1 p
k
= 1 p
k
= 1 p
k
= 2 p
k
= 2
o = 1 1 1 2
o = 2 4 4
o = 3 3 3 1
Tabl e V
Machine-component matrix
m
k
k = 1 k = 2 k = 3 k = 4 k = 5
m = 1 1 1 1
m = 3 1 1
m = 2 1
m = 4 1 1