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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 20, NO. 3, MAY 2012

Converters With Inductor Resistance

Young Ik Son, Member, IEEE, and In Hyuk Kim, Student Member, IEEE

AbstractSince the DC-DC boost converter exhibits highly nonlinear and non-minimum phase properties, it is not an easy task

to design a controller that is robust against load perturbations.

This paper presents a dynamic output feedback controller for a

DC-DC boost converter that has a practical inductor and a series

resistance. In order to maintain its robust output voltage regulation, the proposed controller adopts a simplified parallel-damped

passivity-based controller (PD-PBC). A complementary proportional-integral-differential (PID) controller to the PD-PBC

has been designed for removing the steady state error owing to

the parasitic resistance. We present sufficient conditions for the

asymptotic stability of the augmented system with an additional

dynamic system. Computer simulations and experimental tests

under reference step changes and load perturbations confirm the

improved performance of the proposed approach.

Index TermsBoost converter, load variation, output feedback

control, parasitic resistance, passivity-based control.

I. INTRODUCTION

ECAUSE the DC voltage generated by fuel cells or photovoltaic systems varies widely in magnitude and unexpected transient states often result from uncertain load variations, a reliable DC-DC boost (step-up) conversion stage is essential to provide a highly regulated DC voltage. This motivates the development of various control algorithms for boost

converters, along with the study of renewable energy sources

[1][5].

Since the DC-DC boost converter has nonlinear characteristics and it is modeled as a non-minimum phase system with

a right-half-plane (RHP) zero, the output voltage regulation

problem of the boost converter has attracted the attention of

many control system researchers as well as power electronics

engineers. Although the controllers based on classical linear

control techniques are simple to implement, it is difficult to deal

with the variation of system parameters. Hence, there have been

continuous efforts to design control strategies for improving the

performance of the power converter (see [6][18] and therein).

For example, Sira-Ramirez and Rios-Bolivar [6] presented a

new sliding mode controller (SMC) to obtain a self-scheduling

Manuscript received December 28, 2010; accepted March 13, 2011. Date

of publication April 21, 2011; date of current version April 11, 2012. This

work was supported in part by the 2nd Brain Korea 21 Project and by the Advanced Human Resource Development Program of Ministry of Knowledge and

Economy (MKE) through the Research Center for Intelligent Microgrid, Myongji University.

Y. I. Son is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Myongji University, Kyunggi-do 449-728, Korea (e-mail: sonyi@mju.ac.kr).

I. H. Kim is with the Electric Development Team, Mitsubishi Elevator Korea

Co., Ltd, Incheon 404-812, Korea (e-mail: ihkim@k-mec.co.kr).

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TCST.2011.2134099

property under the change in operating conditions. In [7], a modified current-mode control (CMC) algorithm was proposed to

reduce the sensitivity to resistive loads, particularly the constant

control was applied to overcome restrictions of

power load.

the frequency-domain approach in [8]. The bifurcation behavior

of the boost converter using CMC was studied in [9]. The authors of [10] tested the performance of several different control

schemes with experimental comparisons. In [11], the operation

of interleaved boost converters under SMC was analyzed to reduce the ripple voltage amplitude. The effect of RHP zero on

the stability of the system was investigated in [12]. A synergetic

control approach was attempted in [13] to improve the previous

controllers, e.g., SMC. In [14], the need of the inductor current

sensor was removed by a generalized PI SMC. An adaptive controller was proposed in [15] to reduce the output voltage ripple

caused by harmonic disturbances in the input voltage. In [16], a

nonlinear control of the exponential form was proposed to add

an additional tuning parameter to the existing multi-loop CMC.

A tri-state boost converter with an additional switch to remove

the RHP zero was studied in [17]. A different type of a boost

converter with synchronous rectification was dealt with in [18]

using a linear-to-nonlinear translator. Most of the above results,

with the exception of the results of [14] and [18], require both

the input current and the output voltage measurements to implement the control algorithms.

A passivity-based controller (PBC) as one of the robust control algorithms has been applied to many practical control applications including DC-DC power converters [19]. Several authors have considered PBCs to solve the regulation problem

of the boost converter [19][23]. Among them, the paralleldamped PBC (PD-PBC) presented in [21] and [22] has achieved

outstanding performance under reference step changes as well

as load variations. The advantage of the parallel damping approach over the series damping injection is that it is insensitive

to varying loads and uses only voltage measurements [21], [22].

However, the nonlinear controller does not take into consideration the parasitic resistance such as the resistance in the inductor. Although the parasitic resistance is relatively very small,

it cannot be ignored in the practical DC-DC boost converter

because it increases the model uncertainty. Owing to the parasitic resistance, the PD-PBC cannot maintain robust performance under load variations.

The objective of this paper is to provide a robust output feedback controller for the DC-DC boost converter that has two parasitic resistors including the inductor resistance. Based on the

fact that the PD-PBC exhibits robust performances for the ideal

boost converter, this paper extends the application of the approach to the boost converter with a practical inductor. A new

control algorithm that combines a proportional-integral-differential (PID) controller with the PD-PBC is proposed to achieve

SON AND KIM: COMPLEMENTARY PID CONTROLLER TO PASSIVITY-BASED NONLINEAR CONTROL OF BOOST CONVERTERS

Replacing

827

(4)

If

, the value of

as shown in [22]

(5)

conditions for the asymptotic stability of the augmented system

with the additional system are presented. In the proposed approach, the PID controller uses an additional system state variable instead of a constant reference value for generating an error

signal. This is the main difference between the proposed controller and conventional PID controllers.

This paper is organized as follows. Section II introduces the

mathematical model of the DC-DC boost converter. Section III

summarizes the simplified PD-PBC and describes the design of

the proposed controller for the system considered in this paper.

In Section IV, computer simulations and experimental results

show the performance of the proposed controller in the presence

of reference step changes and load perturbations. In the simulations, we have compared the closed-loop performance with four

different controllers, which were designed using: 1) a generalized PI sliding mode controller (GPI SMC) [14]; 2) a simplified

PD-PBC [22]; 3) a conventional PI controller; and 4) the proposed controller. Finally, Section V presents the conclusions.

The control input

.

resistance

On the other hand, the solutions of (4) are given by

(6)

(7)

In the above equations, owing to

and

, the variation of

makes deviations from the nominal equilibrium values. It is

and

when

.

noted that

Section III first reviews a simplified PD-PBC using (5). A

complementary PID controller and its stability analysis are provided.

III. PID CONTROLLER COMBINED WITH SIMPLIFIED PBC

A. Drawback of a Previous PD-PBC

Recently, a simplified PD-PBC has been proposed in [22] for

the case, where

This paper deals with the output voltage regulation problem

of the DC-DC boost converter shown in Fig. 1. Unlike the inductor considered in [12][14] and [22], we consider a practical

inductor with a parasitic resistance . This model also includes

to represent unavoidable voltage drops and a cura resistor

rent-sensing resistor [24]. The nominal values of the resistors

are assumed to be known.

By using an average switching method, the mathematical

model of Fig. 1 is described by

(1)

(8)

(9)

Replacing

in (5) with

yields a controller, described

in (8), that is independent of the circuit parameters. Hence, the

controller exhibits robust performances under reference step

changes and load variations without a steady state error [22].

or

, (5) is no longer valid, and

However, when

the controller described in (8) leads to a steady-state error.

Instead of using (5) to deal with the non-ideal case, we first

in

consider the equilibrium value shown in (6). By replacing

, we can obtain

(4) and (6) with

(10)

where

is the inductor current;

is the output voltage;

is the DC source voltage; the control input is the duty ratio

; and , , and

denote the inductance, the

capacitance, and the load resistance, respectively.

be the desired output voltage. Then, the equilibrium

Let

,

, and

values

satisfy the following equations:

(11)

The rest of this section proves the feasibility of the controller

in (11) when

and the stability of

as in [22].

The time derivative of (10) yields

(2)

(3)

(12)

828

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 20, NO. 3, MAY 2012

(18)

The equilibrium values of (18) are

coincide with its desired value

(12) and (9), we can obtain

and

, where

in

(13)

(19)

Let us define

. Jacobian linearization of (18) at the

above equilibrium point yields

(20)

where

(14)

Since the denominator of (14) is positive, the phase-plane diagram (see Fig. 2) can be described by (13) and (14) with positive

,

and

. This figure proves the feaconstants

sibility of the controller described by (11) and the asymptotic

[22].

stability of

A main drawback of (11) is that load variations will cause a

steady state error in the regulated output. This drawback comes

and . Hence, the values of

from the change of (6) owing to

and

as well as

should be precisely known to achieve

the control objective.

As a way of making the best use of the robust performance

of the PD-PBC by removing the steady-state error, this paper

presents a new PID controller combined with the dynamics in

(9).

,

,

, ,

consists of two steps.

and

and

are determined from the

In the first step, gains

Laplace transform of . When

and

,

is represented by

(21)

where

The proposed controller is represented by

,

(15)

(16)

where

and the conventional PID controller is that the additional state

is employed instead of a constant reference

for

variable

generating the error signal .

In order to determine the parameters of (9) and (16), we first

define error variables as

(17)

, and

In the derivation

.

, we used (21) and the following equation:

(22)

(

0, 1, 2) and

. When

,

and the

are positive because

) are that

and

(23)

SON AND KIM: COMPLEMENTARY PID CONTROLLER TO PASSIVITY-BASED NONLINEAR CONTROL OF BOOST CONVERTERS

When

, an additional condition is necessary to obtain

a positive value for

829

TABLE I

NOMINAL PARAMETERS OF DC-DC BOOST CONVERTER

(24)

is satIt can also be shown that the inequality

isfied when the values of

and

are positive. This implies

is stable for all (positive) system pathat the system matrix

if the positive constants

rameters , , , , , , and

and

satisfy inequality (24).

Remark 1: It is not difficult to determine

and

that

satisfy inequality (24)

(25)

and

are relatively small as comBecause the values of

pared to that of , the resulting value of (25) is typically very

small, as in the example of Section IV. In the appendix, a necessary and sufficient condition is also provided to obtain a positive

value of .

We determine the positive constants

and

such that the

denominator of (21) becomes

(26)

In the second step, the PID controller described in (16) is

designed for system (20). Since the system is already stable with

the above values for

and

, the complementary controller

can be designed by various design techniques, including the root

locus method. This paper adopts both the pole-zero cancellation

and the root locus method.

If a dominant pole of system (20) is much smaller than the

other two poles, the PI controller can be designed without using

The performance of the proposed controller is tested by two

examples in Section IV.

IV. DESIGN EXAMPLES

This section includes two examples for computer simulations

and experimental tests. All the computer simulations have been

performed with Matlab/Simulink. The nominal system parameters are listed in Table I.

A. Example 1 [22]: Computer Simulations

We first test whether the proposed controller can be successfully combined with the previous PD-PBC [22] to maintain the

performance without the steady-state error. Hence, the example

provided by [22] (except

) has been considered under

the same reference and load perturbations.

, gains

and

Through the pole-zero cancellation of

are chosen as 0.4204 and 0.7645, respectively. The transfer

function of system (20) is then obtained by

(28)

is much smaller than

Because the dominant pole

the other poles, a PI controller is used to cancel the smallest

pole. With the controller described by

(29)

(27)

Otherwise, the numerator of (16) is designed to remove two

dominant poles of system (20). After the pole-zero cancellain (27) or

in (16) is adjusted in order for the

tion, gain

closed-loop system to remain stable by using the root locus.

The next proposition summarizes the result of this section.

or

the error system

Proposition 1: In the presence of

is Hurwitz when the values of

and

in (9) satmatrix

isfy the condition of (24) with positive values. In this case, the

closed-loop system [see (1), (9), and (15)] is locally asymptotically stabilized and the regulation problem can be solved

without the steady state error by using the complementary controller described by (16). The approach results in a dynamic

gain

is selected as 0.014 through the root locus method, and

.

gain

Comparative simulations were performed with the generalized PI sliding mode controller (GPI SMC) [14], the simplified PD-PBC [22], and a conventional PI controller. The de5 V is changed to 3.5 V at

;

sired voltage

it is then changed from 3.5 to 6 V at

5 ms and finally

9 ms. The load resistance varies from

from 6 to 5 V at

to

at

12 ms. The initial conditions

, and

.

are

Because the SMC is well known for its robustness against

model uncertainties, several authors have presented SMCs for

boost converters (see, e.g., [6], [10], [13], [14]). In [14] the need

of the inductor current sensor was removed by a generalized PI

830

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 20, NO. 3, MAY 2012

(b) output voltage.

SMC. The GPI SMC described in [14] has been chosen for comparison because it can be implemented using the voltage measurement only. Fig. 3 shows the effect of the parasitic resistance

on the GPI SMC represented by

for

for

(30)

(31)

(32)

where

,

,

, and

as in [14].

The simulation results with the PD-PBC [see (8)] described

are shown in Fig. 4, where

by [22] when

Input current; (b) output voltage.

and

. The PD-PBC showed better performances

; however, the two controllers

than the GPI SMC when

.

yielded the steady-state error for the small value of

Fig. 5 shows that the proposed algorithm achieves the control

objective without the steady state error. In Fig. 6, the proposed

controller is compared with a conventional PI controller, where

and

. Although the PI controller

has been widely used in practical systems because of its simple

structure and robustness, it is very difficult to find one that leads

to a desirable transient response for the system parameters of

is assumed

[21] and [22]. In Figs. 5 and 6, the real value of

to be larger than its nominal value by 50% to test the robust

performance against the parameter uncertainty.

B. Example 2 [24]: Experimental Tests

This section presents the experimental results obtained by

using a laboratory boost converter [24] (see the parameters

SON AND KIM: COMPLEMENTARY PID CONTROLLER TO PASSIVITY-BASED NONLINEAR CONTROL OF BOOST CONVERTERS

(b) output voltage.

controller can deal with unmodeled dynamics of the converter

system.

, we have chosen gains

By using the zero of

and

. With these gains, (24) is satisfied.

is given by

The transfer function

(33)

As in the first example the smallest pole is cancelled out with

and

a PI controller and the gains are given as

via the root locus method.

Fig. 7 shows the simulation results comparing the performances with a conventional PI controller. It is not difficult to

stabilize this system using a PI controller. The gains of the conand

.

ventional PI controller are

output voltage.

831

to

at

5 ms by connecting two 40 resistors in par18 V is

allel with the nominal load. The desired voltage

10 ms. In the simulation

53.25 m

changed to 15 V at

and

are used as opposed to the nominal values of

35.5 m and

seen in Table I.

The experimental results are shown in Fig. 8 (proposed

controller) and Fig. 9 (PI controller). Since the system does

not have the inductor current sensor, the current response

could not be included. The divisions of the axes are 1 ms/div

for the -axis and 5 V/div for the -axis. The initial values are

and

. The discrete-time controllers

are implemented using a TI DSP TMS320F28335 and the

sampling frequency is 20 kHz. The results ensure that the

proposed controller can deal with unmodeled system dynamics

and parameter uncertainties.

832

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 20, NO. 3, MAY 2012

voltage.

and

V. CONCLUSION

Here, the output feedback control problem of the DC-DC

boost converter with an inductor parasitic resistance is studied,

along with variations in the load. Because the simplified

PD-PBC [22] has successfully achieved the control objective

for the converter with an ideal inductor, this paper has tested a

modification of the previous controller to check whether it can

maintain robust performances for the system with a practical

inductor under load variations. In order to remove the steady

state error owing to the parasitic resistance, this paper designs

a complementary PID controller to the PD-PBC. The proposed

approach resulted in a dynamic output feedback controller

using only the output voltage measurement. The robust asymptotic stability of the augmented system has been proved under

the positive gain conditions. Through comparative computer

simulations and experimental tests, the proposed controller has

been shown to have an improved performance and a robust

stability.

Fig. 8. Experimental results with proposed controller. (a) Voltage step up; (b)

load variation; (c) reference change.

APPENDIX

A. Necessary and Sufficient Condition for

Coefficient

can be represented by

(34)

SON AND KIM: COMPLEMENTARY PID CONTROLLER TO PASSIVITY-BASED NONLINEAR CONTROL OF BOOST CONVERTERS

Let us define

833

such that

(37)

rewritten as

and

are

(38)

For the example in Section IV, parameter is also positive, and

and

the above condition is satisfied for all positive constants

. It should be noted that, unlike (24), the condition in (38) is

.

a necessary and sufficient one for

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for

their valuable comments to improve this manuscript.

REFERENCES

Fig. 9. Experimental results with PI controller. (a) Voltage step up; (b) load

variation; (c) reference change.

If we define

and

such that

(35)

positive:

to be

(36)

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