© All Rights Reserved

7 vues

© All Rights Reserved

- Fluke 27 Service Manual (1998)
- discretized PID
- 21 Feedback
- PID_mal
- adc0804-n
- 36 Interfacing Adc0808 With Serial Port Rs232 8051 Microcontroller Using Clock From d Flip Flop
- Pid Tuning
- Theses
- int_Q_vlsi
- FPGA Artigo Fuzzy
- baghli2014
- Ada 2200
- 3_Fuzzy Controller- Design, Evaluation, Parallel and Hierarchical Combination With a PID Controller
- Ad 9252
- 51994A-71642
- Mixed Signal Test
- Controlador Temperatura2
- 05469548
- Develop a Robust Nonlinear Controller
- 16 Bit Digitizer RazorMax ExpressCS PCIe 1 GS s

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 15

3, MARCH 2009

Dual-Mode Multiple-Band Digital Controller

for High-Frequency DCDC Converter

Mukti Barai, Sabyasachi Sengupta, and Jayanta Biswas

AbstractAn integrated digital controller design for dcdc con-

verter is proposed in this paper. The proposal presents a multiple-

band dual-stage (MBDS) delay line A/D converter (ADC) for wide

dynamic range of operation with reduced ripple, chip area, and

power consumption. This proposal also introduces a novel folding

logic for digital error calculation and dual-mode error control PID

for improving transient response. A complete closed-loop experi-

mental prototype is demonstrated on a eld-programmable-gate-

array-basedsetup. The feasibility andfunctionality of the proposed

digital controller is veried with a closed-loop synchronous buck

converter prototype that switches at 1 MHz and regulates over a

wide output voltage range of 1.63.3 V. The proposed MBDS delay

line ADC is fabricated with discrete logic gates and ip-ops. The

integrated digital controller is also implemented using standard

cell-based design methodology in 0.5-m CMOS technology. The

design reduces 33% on-chip area compared to an equivalent of 64

tap delay line ADC. The complete digital controller chip takes less

than 0.7 mm

2

of silicon area and consumes an average current of

92 A at 1-MHz switching frequency. The voltage-mode digital

loop achieves tracking time of less than 10 s for 1-V step change

of the reference voltage and settling time of 20 s. Postlayout sim-

ulation and experimental results are demonstrated.

Index TermsAnalog-to-digital converter, dc-dc converter,

delay line ADC, dynamic voltage scaling, piecewise linear, wide

dynamic range.

I. INTRODUCTION

D

YNAMIC voltage scaling (DVS) [1][4] is a well-known

power management technique in digital systems. In DVS,

the processor supply voltage is scaled down until the processor

can just meet the specic performance requirements as power

consumption is proportional to the square of the supply voltage

V

dd

. DVS-capable digital systems have been used for efcient

energy consumption in new generation mobile computing de-

vices. Popularity of DVS for digital processing ICs in portable

applications, presents a set of technical challenges to the digital

controller design. The technical challenges of a digital controller

design are an A/D Converter (ADC) architecture that provides

high resolution over a wide output voltage range and consumes

lowpower with a small footprint; fast discrete-time computation

Manuscript received February 29, 2008; revised July 2, 2008 and August 29,

2008. First published February 3, 2009; current version published April 8, 2009.

Recommended for publication by Associate Editor F. L. Luo.

M. Barai is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute

of Technology, Kharagpur 721302, India (e-mail: mukti@ee.iitkgp.ernet.in).

S. Sengupta was with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Insti-

tute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302, India. He is now with West Bengal Uni-

versity of Technology, Kolkata 700 017, India (e-mail: ssg@ee.iitkgp.ernet.in).

J. Biswas is with the Research and Development, CEM Solutions, Bengaluru

560001, India (e-mail: jayanta@cem-solutions.net).

Digital Object Identier 10.1109/TPEL.2008.2008391

of ADC output values for sampled input values and generation

of converter control signal.

Recent publications [6][21] in the literature provide ef-

cient, high-frequency digital controllers. These proposals re-

duce power consumption and silicon area and provide compara-

ble transient and efciency performance to the available analog

solution [5]. A new digital control strategy is reported in [6] that

relies on state-space-based feedback approach, but with a more

complex implementation than the analog controller. Efcient

load-line regulation with estimated load current feedforward

approach is introduced in [7] to improve the bandwidth and en-

sure smooth dc regulation. Voltage-mode hysteretic control [8]

achieves fast transient response and is suitable for low-voltage

applications. However, hysteretic control is not suitable for wide

range of regulation to meet the DVS requirement as the com-

plexity increases. The work reported in [9] and [10] uses a

combination of digital and analog approach for the compen-

sator design. Optimal transient response is achieved in digital

controller designs [11], [12] for a given converter topology and

parameters using output capacitor charge balance technique.

Dynamic response of digitally controlled dcdc converters is

improved by using a nonuniform A/D quantization in [13]. The

work reported in [16] improves the dynamic performance of the

digitally controlled dcdc converter by using an analog comput-

ing processor. Amultimode control strategy that allows efcient

operation of the buck converter over a wide load range is devel-

oped in [14] and [15].

There is a tradeoff between high resolution, computation fre-

quency, and digital controller power consumption. Therefore, it

is benecial to develop specialized ADC design that can meet

the tight voltage regulation requirement with low power con-

sumption. Window ADC architecture that provides high reso-

lution around voltage regulation window is introduced in [17].

Ring-oscillator window ADC architecture, as reported in [18],

provides invariant resolution under different reference voltage

levels, but consumes more silicon area with higher resolution.

Most of these proposals provide regulated voltage over a narrow

range. Delay-line-based window ADC is implemented in [19].

The unique advantage of a delay line ADC is that it does not

require any high-precision analog components, consumes low

power, and the design can be implemented with hardware de-

scription languages (HDLs).

There are three challenging design issues of a delay line ADC.

The supply voltage to the delay line should not fall in the range

where worst-case nonlinear characteristics between delay and

voltage are observed. This worst case occurs when the supply

voltage decreases or the total delay increases with the length of

the delay line. Determination of the resolution of delay line ADC

0885-8993/$25.00 2009 IEEE

BARAI et al.: DUAL-MODE MULTIPLE-BAND DIGITAL CONTROLLER FOR HIGH-FREQUENCY DCDC CONVERTER 753

Fig. 1. Digital controller in closed-loop with synchronous buck converter.

is another important system design parameter. A ne step size

needs more taps and results in very low settling, while a coarse

step size can cause hysteretic oscillation. Third, to minimize

the hardware burden for delay line ADC, a low-performance

delay cell is needed to construct the delay line. Delay-

line-based window ADC architectures, reported in [19][21],

are not suitable for tighter regulation over a wide regulated

output voltage range with high resolution since the delay line

ADC requires increased number of delay taps to achieve high

resolution, thus increasing the silicon area. The encoder design

complexity also increases exponentially with more number of

delay taps.

In this paper, a multiple-band dual-stage (MBDS) delay line

ADC architecture is proposed, which provides higher resolu-

tion over a wide regulated output voltage and reduces the on-

chip silicon area. A dual-mode error control digital compen-

sator is introduced to improve the dynamic response of the

switching converter. The proposed digital controller architec-

ture consists of an MBDS delay line ADC, a dual-mode digi-

tal proportional, integral, derivative (PID) compensator, and an

edge-triggered hybrid digital pulsewidth modulator (DPWM)

in closed loop with a synchronous buck converter, as shown

in Fig. 1. The design and implementation of the proposed

digital power controller is considered for an adaptive switch-

ing buck converter that is widely used in DVS-enabled digital

systems.

The proposed MBDS delay line ADC design architecture

and implementation are described in Section II. Section III de-

scribes the dual-mode error control of a lookup-table-based digi-

tal PID. Experimental and simulation results are demonstrated in

Section IV. Section V concludes this paper.

II. MBDS DELAY LINE ADC DESIGN ARCHITECTURE

The delay line ADC is based on the principle that the propa-

gation delay of a logic gate increases if the gate supply voltage

is reduced. The propagation delay t

d

is given as a function of

the supply voltage V

dd

t

d

=

KV

dd

(V

dd

V

th

)

(1)

where V

th

is the CMOS device threshold voltage and K is

a constant that depends on the device/process parameters and

the capacitive loading of the gate. The value of (1.52) also

depends on process technology. Propagation delay is approxi-

mately inversely proportional to V

dd

when supply voltage V

dd

is higher than the threshold voltage V

th

. The basic operation

of a delay line ADC is described in [19]. Delay line is a chain

of delay cells. Each delay cell consists of two NOR logic gates.

Initially, a test pulse propagates along the delay line. After a

xed time, delay line taps are sampled to obtain digital output

in thermometer code (sequence of 1s followed by 0s). The sam-

pled values correspond to the supply voltage of the delay line.

The sampled values of the delay line ADC depend on the length

of the delay line and delay versus voltage characteristic of the

delay block. Delay characteristic of a delay line is inherently

nonlinear with respect to supply voltage.

The nonlinear delay characteristic of a delay line is adequately

approximated by piecewise linear segments on a bounded do-

main of regulation window. The width of these segments is

sufciently small. Let us consider that the delay T

d

of a delay

line is approximated in this way, i.e.,

T

d

= mt

d

+k (2)

where t

d

is delay of each delay cell, m is the number of delay

cells in each segment of the delay line, and k represents con-

stant delay for zero regulation window. For each possible value

of m, the piecewise linear approximation matches T

d

within reg-

ulation window and is continuous. Given this piecewise linear

approximation of T

d

, the corresponding piecewise difference of

T

d

simply depends on m, the number of delay cells. The value

of the design parameter m depends implicitly on T

d

in this

formulation. Evaluation of T

d

would then require just one mul-

tiplication with the number of delay cells and one addition for

754 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 24, NO. 3, MARCH 2009

Fig. 2. Delay versus supply voltage characteristic of a delay cell.

initial delay. Hence, approximate evaluation of difference in T

d

value does not require any computation. It is natural to consider

the use of the piecewise linear expressions to estimate delay of

a delay line. Delay of the delay line is considered as piecewise

linear within a small range of voltage change in the presence

of process, voltage, and temperature (PVT) variation. Piecewise

linear characteristics of the delay line provide the opportunity to

employ multiple continuous band concept to increase resolution

of a delay line window ADC. This overcomes the worst-case

nonlinear delay effect. Proposed MBDS delay line ADC oper-

ation is performed in two stages to achieve higher resolution

over wider range of output voltage regulation. Each stage uses

a separate delay line. The delay characteristics of a delay cell of

the proposed MBDS delay line ADCdesign are shown in Fig. 2.

The block diagram of the proposed MBDS delay line ADC is

shown in Fig. 3.

In the rst stage, the regulated window is equally divided into

eight segments for coarse quantization to determine eight con-

tinuous bands of the analog voltage. The rst stage is termed as

Band-ADC. Band-ADC output values (b7b0) are used to scale

the second-stage delay tap length for another eight continuous

segments for ne quantization. The second stage is termed as

Value-ADC. A multiple-band switching scheme, consisting of

eight continuous bands in two stages, achieves higher resolu-

tion with less number of delay taps. Delay lines used in both

the stages are fed by V

ref

and V

out

, and digital self-calibration

method described in [19] is followed in this paper.

The proposed MBDS delay line ADC design is implemented

using eight continuous segments from each of the two 8-tap

delay line. This proposal achieves a higher resolution that is

equivalent to the resolution of a 64-tap delay line ADC for the

voltage range of 1.63.3 V. Active on-chip area is reduced by

33% in comparison with a 64-tap delay line ADC.

Logically M N tap resolution is achieved with M num-

ber of continuous segments in the rst stage and N number of

continuous segments in the second stage, respectively. Two sep-

arate delay lines are used for the dual stages. Length between

two consecutive delay taps in each stage is considered as one

band based on a linear voltage step. Smooth regulation of output

voltage is achieved with multiple continuous band concept. The

critical path delay of the delay line scales linearly with load in

the presence of PVT variation.

The complete switching period is divided into 16 slots. The

switching period is 1 s in this design and the width of each

slot is 62.5 ns. Each one half of a slot is used approximately

for generating digital sampled values of V

ref

or V

out

signal,

respectively. Three slots are used for Band-ADC delay line and

four slots are used for Value-ADC delay line. One slot is used

to stabilize the analog switch output voltage after selecting the

supply voltage, V

ref

or V

out

. The timings of test1, sample1 pulses

for rst-stage ADC operation and test2, sample2 for second-

stage ADC are depicted in Fig. 4. The t

min

denotes the time

taken by the test1 signal to cross the initial constant length of

the Band-ADC delay line at 3.3 V.

In the rst stage of ADC, test1, sample1, pulses are used to

determine the bands of the analog voltage represented by (b7

b0). The regulated window of 1.63.3 V is linearly divided by

8 for a coarse step of 0.2125 V.

In the second stage of ADC, test2, sample2, and the band

output values (b7b0) from the previous stage are used to adjust

the delay tap length and generate the digital value (m7m0) in

the corresponding band with 0.2125/8 = 26.5-mV linear step.

Linear characteristic of multiple continuous bands is shown

in Fig. 5. When select is low, MBDS delay line ADC gives

V

ref

digital value (b7b0 and m7m0) in thermometer code,

and when select goes high, MBDS delay line ADC gives V

out

digital value (b7b0 and m7m0) in thermometer code. Sampled

output for V

ref

and V

out

are stored in a 16-bit register and fed to

a logical subtraction and folding logic module, which provides

a 4-bit digital error signal e[n].

1) Design of Band-ADC delay line: The Band-ADC delay

line architecture is based on piecewise linear characteris-

tic of the delay line with respect to small change in the

supply voltage. b7b0 are the sampled digital output val-

ues of delay line taps that correspond to eight continuous

segments of the Band-ADC delay line ADC. All the eight

segments and their corresponding voltage ranges are de-

picted in Table I for the regulation window of 1.63.3 V.

The lowest band is represented by B0 corresponding to the

range of 1.61.8124 V, and is dened by the values of (b7

b0 = 00000000). The next band for the 1.81252.0249-V

range is B1. Band-ADC output values are represented in

thermometer code. Thermometer code is a sequence of 1s

followed by sequence of 0s, and hence, B1 is represented

by (b7b0 = 10000000). Value of b7 is 1 for an input

voltage of 1.8125 V or more. If the input voltage is less

than 1.8125 V, value of b7 is 0. B2 represents voltage

range of 2.0252.2374 V, and is represented by (b7b0 =

11000000). The same logic is extended upto the last

segment B7. B7 represents the highest band that spans

3.08753.3 V.

2) Design of Value-ADC delay line: The Value-ADC delay

line architecture based on piecewise linear characteristic

is shown in Fig. 6. Each delay block, D consists of two

BARAI et al.: DUAL-MODE MULTIPLE-BAND DIGITAL CONTROLLER FOR HIGH-FREQUENCY DCDC CONVERTER 755

Fig. 3. Block diagram of MBDS delay line ADC.

Fig. 4. Timing waveforms for MBDS delay line ADC.

NOR gates. Mux denotes a multiplexer block and b7b1

are connected to the control inputs of the multiplexer. The

Band-ADC output values (b7b1) are used to select the

Fig. 5. Multiple overlapped band versus regulation window of MBDS delay

line ADC.

multiplexers to scale the effective length for the Value-

ADC delay line. Value-ADC delay line length is adjusted

in such a way that the output of the Value-ADC reaches

756 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 24, NO. 3, MARCH 2009

TABLE I

EIGHT BANDS AND THE VOLTAGE RANGE

within m7m0 at the sampling instant. In Fig. 6, 60D

indicates that 60 delay cells (D) are connected in cascade

for the corresponding band. For the lowest band, none of

the multiplexers gets selected and the last portion of the

delay line is the effective length of the delay line. For

the next band, b7 is high, and one multiplexer is selected

and the effective length of the delay line is increased. A

constant delay of 2 ns is incurred at each multiplexer for

all bands and the same amount is adjusted from the initial

delay line length of the Value-ADC delay line. All the

multiplexers are connected to a xed voltage of 3.3 V.

m7m0 are the sampled digital output values of Value-

ADC and these values are associated with a specic band.

All possible eight values and their corresponding voltages

for the lowest band is shown in Table II. Delay tap outputs

are linear within each band for a small change in sensed

voltage, and the piecewise linearity is achieved by scaling

the initial length of the delay line for each band in the

proposed MBDS delay line ADC design. The length of

the delay line attached to the corresponding multiplexer,

as shown in Fig. 6, varies for each band to incorporate

nonlinear delay characteristics of the delay cells over the

range of the supply voltage. The delay characteristics of

the delay cells, as shown in Fig. 2, is nonlinear over the

range of the supply voltage.

A. Digital Error Calculation

The actual value of the digital error is computed logically

without any discontinuity. Optimization has been carried out

based on the fact that the digital value produced by the delay line

ADC is in thermometer code and is a sequence of 1s followed

by a sequence of 0s.

The band mismatch bm signal is generated at every switching

cycle to detect the difference between V

ref

and converter output

voltage V

out

. When V

ref

and V

out

fall in consecutive band or

within the same band value, the bm signal is set to 0 and when

the difference is out of consecutive band the bm signal is set

to 1. Consecutive band cb mismatch signal determines whether

V

ref

and V

out

fall in consecutive band. When V

ref

and V

out

fall

in consecutive band, cb is set to 1.

A digital folding logic is introduced to replace encoder and

subtraction block. The block diagram of the logical subtraction

module is shown in Fig. 7 and described shortly. The logical sub-

traction module consists of error direction calculation module,

consecutive band detection module, error calculation for same

band module, error calculation for consecutive bands module,

and nal glue logic module. The required number of logic gates

is much less than the case with using encoder and subtraction

module.

1) Error direction calculation module: If the band mismatch

signal is high, error direction calculation module takes

the corresponding Band-ADC output values of V

out

and

V

ref

as input. The corresponding Value-ADCoutput values

of V

out

and V

ref

are taken as input if the band mismatch

signal is low. Band-ADC and Value-ADC produce digital

output values in thermometer code that is a sequence of

1s followed by sequence of 0s. We look for a zero to one

transition in any of the corresponding bit position between

the two 8-bit values in thermometer code to nd the bigger

value. If a transition is found, the variable containing 1

value for the corresponding transition is the larger value.

The same logic is followed to compute direction bit from

two 8-bit values in thermometer code.

2) Consecutive band detection module: Input to this module

is the corresponding 8-bit Band-ADC output values (b7

b0) for V

out

and V

ref

. Each of the corresponding bit is

XORed and the XOR output values are ORed to generate

the consecutive band (cb) mismatch signal. Alternate XOR

outputs are ORed and two intermediate signals i1 and i2

are generated. cb is generated by XORing these two inter-

mediate signals. cb is set to 1 if the number of 1s in the

XOR output value is equal to 1. This is shown in Fig. 8.

3) Error calculation for same band module: XOR output of

two thermometer-coded bitstreams is a sequence of 0s

(optional) and a sequence of 1s and a sequence of 0s. The

number of 1s present in the XOR output value corresponds

to the amount of the digital error between the two bit-

streams represented by thermometer code. For example,

XOR (11100000, 11111000) = 00011000. In this case, the

digital error is 2 (decimal) and the number of 1s present in

the XOR output is also 2. Removal of variable number of

trailing zeros is a very challenging logic in digital domain.

To address this challenge of removing the variable num-

ber of trailing zeros, a novel folding logic is proposed. The

folding logic is shown in Fig. 9. The hardware logic imple-

mentation is presented in Fig. 10. XOR output values of the

thermometer code are passed through multiple stages of

folding logic. In the context of digital controller, the error

value is windowed by a maximum value and the proposed

algorithm is optimized based on this observation. In our

design, the maximum error value in the same band is four

and can be represented with 4 bits.

The corresponding bits of the two sets of thermometer-

coded digital values are XORed and all XOR output values

(p7, p6, p5, p4, p3, p2, p1, p0), as shown in Fig. 10, are

BARAI et al.: DUAL-MODE MULTIPLE-BAND DIGITAL CONTROLLER FOR HIGH-FREQUENCY DCDC CONVERTER 757

Fig. 6. Value-ADC delay line architecture.

TABLE II

EIGHT VALUE-ADC OUTPUT AND THEIR CORRESPONDING VOLTAGE FOR

BAND 0

fed to the folding logic as input. The M1, M2, M3, and

M4 are the 4-bit outputs of error trunk block of folding

logic, as shown in Fig. 9. The S1, S2, S3, and S4 are the

output signals of the intermediate folding stages, as shown

in Fig. 10. It is observed that there are three exceptions

in the multiple stages of folding logic for M1, M2, M3,

and M4 values, and they are shown in Table III. The

corresponding S1, S2, S3, and S4 values for M1, M2,

M3, and M4 values are also shown in Table III. To lter

out these three exceptions, a 1-bit special check signal, S

is generated. The logical expression of the special check

signal S is given by

S = S1(S4 (S2S3)). (3)

When S is high, the 4-bit output of the folding logic

block is set to 0111. Otherwise, folding logic stops when

the value of the two LSB bits is 11 (binary) or all the

folding stages are completed. 4-bit output of the folding

logic block is passed to the encoder block. The output

of the folding logic is a sequence of zeros followed by a

sequence of ones. The number of 1s in the output corre-

sponds to the digital error. The output of the folding logic

is passed to a 3-bit binary encoder that provides 3-bit bi-

nary error amount value. 3-bit binary error is represented

by (e2 e1 e0) in Fig. 9. The complete error calculation

block requires very less logic, and thus reduces the overall

ADC area. In this design implementation, the maximum

error value within the same coarse band is 7 and can be

represented by 3 bits.

4) Error calculation for consecutive bands module: The max-

imum error amount is limited by value 4 for consecutive

bands. The rst valid digital thermometer code for a band

is all zero. Error is calculated fromthe Value-ADCsamples

for V

ref

and V

out

. Let us assume that {m7 m6 m5 m4 m3

m2 m1 m0} represents the higher variable in thermome-

ter code and {pm7 pm6 pm5 pm4 pm3 pm2 pm1 pm0}

represents the lower variable. The error amount between

two bitstreams in thermometer code for the corresponding

consecutive bands is 001 (binary), if the last but one bit

(pm1) of the lower variable is set to one and the rst bit

(m7) of the higher variable is set to zero. This is shown

in Table IV. Two sets of values are calculated and the

correct set of values is selected by the dir bit. In the ex-

ample, {m7m0} corresponds to the Value-ADC output

758 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 24, NO. 3, MARCH 2009

Fig. 7. Proposed logical subtraction block diagram.

Fig. 8. Consecutive band detection block diagram.

for V

ref

and {pm7-pm0} corresponds to the Value-ADC

value for V

out

. The error amount is 010 (binary) for the

two conditions specied as follows.

a) First bit of the higher variable (m7) is set to 0, and

three LSB bits {pm2 pm1 pm0} of the lower variable

are 100.

b) Two MSBbits (m7 m6) of the higher variable are set to

10, and three LSB {pm2 pm1 pm0} bits of the lower

variable to 110. This is also shown in Table V.

5) Final glue logic module: The MSB of the 4-bit error out-

put is the direction bit. The three LSB bits represent the

amount of error in binary notation. If bm is high and cb

is low, the amount of error is set to 111. This represents

tracking mode. In case of regulation mode, if bm is low

and cb is high, error amount is set to the output of the error

calculation for consecutive bands module. The amount of

error for consecutive bands is in the range (+4)(4). If

V

out

and V

ref

fall in the same band, bm is zero and the

error amount is set to the output of error calculation for

same band module.

III. DUAL-MODE ERROR CONTROL

Two operating modes are introduced for the digital PID

controller to achieve fast stable response for voltage-mode-

controlled buck converter. Regulation mode is dened while

BARAI et al.: DUAL-MODE MULTIPLE-BAND DIGITAL CONTROLLER FOR HIGH-FREQUENCY DCDC CONVERTER 759

Fig. 9. Folding logic block diagram.

Fig. 10. XOROR block details.

TABLE III

SPECIAL CHECK SIGNAL GENERATION

the converter output voltage falls within the consecutive band

of reference voltage, and the tracking mode is dened while the

converter output voltage falls out of the consecutive bands with

large reference voltage change or load transient. Digital error

value is generated in {+4, +3, +2, +1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4}

when bm is 0, which represents regulation-mode error control.

TABLE IV

TRUTH TABLE FOR ERROR VALUE 1 FOR CONSECUTIVE BANDS

TABLE V

TRUTH TABLE FOR ERROR VALUE 2 FOR CONSECUTIVE BANDS

When bm is set to 1, digital error value is assigned to +7 or

7, and this corresponds to tracking-mode error control. In all,

4-bits are sufcient to represent 11 different possible digital

error values for dual-mode error control. When the difference

between V

ref

and V

out

is larger than 0.2125 V, the generated

digital error value is +7 or 7 for tracking-mode control. In

regulation mode, digital PID follows linear error control mode

with digital error in +44 range. In tracking mode, PID pro-

vides a nonlinear-error control mode with digital error as +7

or 7. Dual-mode error control improves both dynamic and

steady-state performance of the voltage-mode buck converter.

The digital PID accepts 4-bit digital error value e[n] from

MBDS delay line ADC and produces 8-bit digital command

d[n] for duty signal in each switching period. The lookup-table-

based digital PID controller [22] is designed by digital redesign

method [23][27], starting from a continuous-time controller

design and the equation of the digital PIDcontroller is expressed

as

d[n] = d[n 1] +ae[n] +be[n 1] +ce[n 2]. (4)

The minimal requirement for digital PID controller is to make

the system stable. The main features of PID controller are the

capacity to eliminate steady-state error of the response to a step

reference signal (because of integral action) and the ability to

anticipate output changes (when derivative action is employed).

The open-loop transfer function of digital PID has two zeros

and one pole. Stability analysis of PID controllers is described

in [13], and [28][30]. The open-loop pole is located at +1 on

the unit circle and the gain of the transfer function is unbounded.

However, the closed-loop transfer function of the digitally con-

trolled buck converter does not have any pole located at +1 on

the unit circle because the values of the constants a, b, and c are

chosen to provide a stable closed-loop system. The values of the

constants for PIDdifference equation are obtained directly from

the discrete model of the buck converter. We choose pole-zero

cancellation method [31] that offers performance benet with

minimum voltage overshoot. The PID controller designed using

pole-zero cancellation method forces the two zeros resulting

from PID controller to cancel the dynamic behavior of the two

poles of the buck converter.

The exact pole-zero cancellation is not practical. However,

the corner frequency 1/2

760 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 24, NO. 3, MARCH 2009

less than the PID controller sampling frequency (which equals

to switching frequency), and the effect of nonexact pole-zero

cancellation is not detrimental as the two frequencies are well

separated. The cancellation method provides an extremely stable

system with a very minimum voltage overshoot.

The values of the constants are a = 25.42; b = 48.62; and

c = 24.2. This set of a, b, and c values provides a stable close-

loop system and improves dynamic performance of the system.

Smaller values of a, b, and c reduces external memory storage

requirement.

Digital PID controller is implemented using a lookup table

that stores precomputed products of ae[n], be[n1], ce[n2]

for a total of 11 different values of the error signal [+7, 7

and in the range of (+4)(4)] for each variable in an external

memory. The product values are rounded to the closest integer.

The highest value of the error signal is 7, and 9 bits are required

to store each signed b-product value. Each a-product and c-

product value takes 8 bits. Hence, 25 bits are required for storing

a-product, b-product, and c-product values in external memory

corresponding to each error value. A total of 275 bits of external

memory is required to store precomputed product values for 11

possible error values.

PID uses an 8-MHz clock for processing the d[n] value com-

putation whereas the switching frequency of the converter is 1

MHz. Asingle memory block is used to store precomputed prod-

ucts of ae[n], be[n1], and ce[n2] and access these product

values to the external memory during actual computation. The

external memory is accessed three times per switching cycle of

1 s. An index value 2-bit is used to identify external memory

access for a-product, b-product, and c-product values. In this

design, PID area is optimized and data from external memory

is accessed while computing d[n] values. We consider a uni-

form 9-bit storage for all product values in external memory to

simplify the access logic.

IV. DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION AND RESULTS

Proposed digital controller architecture, as shown in Fig. 1, is

implemented on an experimental prototype. A prototype digital

controller experimental setup consists of Altera DE2 cyclone-II

eld-programmable gate array (FPGA) platform, MBDS delay

line ADC fabricated with discrete components and ip-ops.

The closed-loop operation is tested with 1-W, 1-MHz, syn-

chronous buck converter with input voltage range 46 V and

output LC lter of 4.7 H and 22 F, respectively. Novel fold-

ing logic, encoder, dual-mode error control, lookup-table-based

PID, and an 8-bit edge-triggered hybrid DPWM designs are

implemented on the Altera DE2 cyclone II FPGA. An 8-bit

edge-triggered hybrid DPWM design is implemented from our

previous work, as reported in [32].

A. Simulation Results

The feasibility of the proposed integrated digital controller

design presented in this paper is also implemented in a standard

0.5-mCMOS technology [34]. The complete digital controller

design reduces chip area and power consumption while deliv-

ering very good dynamic performance by introducing MBDS

Fig. 11. Timing diagram for dual-stage ADC control signals.

delay line ADC, dual-mode error control PID, and an edge-

triggered hybrid DPWM. Each block of the digital controller is

designed based on HDL verilog code. Synopsis [33] synthesis

(Design Vision), timing verication (Prime Time), chip layout

(Astro), and postlayout chip simulation (Nanosim) tools are

used to implement the complete digital controller chip design in

0.5-m CMOS technology library of National Semiconductor

[34]. Transistor-level postlayout simulation results are shown for

the proposed digital controller in a closed-loop operation with

synchronous buck converter of 1-MHz switching frequency.

Active chip area of the proposed MBDS delay line ADC is

0.28 mm

2

. Lookup-table-based PID takes 0.24 mm

2

and edge-

triggered hybrid DPWM occupies 0.07 mm

2

on-chip area only.

The total silicon area of the complete digital controller is less

than 0.7 mm

2

in 0.5-m CMOS technology. The proposed de-

sign of ADC consumes average current of 66 A at 3.3 V with

sampling frequency of 1 MHz. It reduces 33% on-chip area

compared to an equivalent 64-tap delay line ADC. The com-

plete digital controller consumes an average current of 92 A.

The voltage-mode digital loop achieves tracking time of less

than 10 s for 1-V step change of the reference voltage and

settling time of 20 s.

Figs. 1116 illustrate the results obtained from postlayout

simulation. Fig. 11 depicts timing signals of the proposed MBDS

delay line ADC. Timing signals are generated as described in

Section II. Fig. 12 demonstrates the sampled output obtained

from Band-ADC. It is observed that the sampled output values

(b7b2) change from low to high linearly with the increase in

converter output voltage. Linear characteristics and continuous

smooth tracking are achieved from multiple continuous band of

the proposed MBDSdelay line ADC. In a closed-loop operation,

band value of V

out

tracks the band value of V

ref

of the proposed

integrated digital controller design.

Fig. 13 shows the closed-loop operation results during a step

change in V

ref

from2.0 to 3.0 V. The corresponding digital error

output from MBDS delay line ADC is shown in Fig. 14. The

digital loop takes less than 10 s to track the 1-Vstep change and

BARAI et al.: DUAL-MODE MULTIPLE-BAND DIGITAL CONTROLLER FOR HIGH-FREQUENCY DCDC CONVERTER 761

Fig. 12. Linear characteristics output of Band-ADC for V

ref

2.7 V.

Fig. 13. Converter output voltage during reference voltage transient from 2 to

3 V.

Fig. 14. Error output from MBDS delay line ADC during reference voltage

transient from 2 to 3 V.

Fig. 15. Converter output voltage during load current transient from 220 to

320 mA at V

ref

= 3.3 V.

settles within 20 s in steady state. This proves that the proposal

provides fast response to the change in reference voltage over a

wide range.

Fig. 15 depicts the load current transient from 220 to 320 mA

at regulated output voltage V

out

= 3.3 V. The corresponding

digital error output and supply voltage transient in MBDS delay

line ADC are shown in Fig. 16, where e3 is the direction bit, e2

is the MSB bit for error value, and e0 is the LSB bit for error

762 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 24, NO. 3, MARCH 2009

Fig. 16. Error output from MBDS delay line ADC during load transient from

220 to 320 mA at V

ref

= 3.3 V.

Fig. 17. Timing signals for the proposed MBDS delay line ADC.

value. Postlayout simulation results verify that the proposed

digital controller provides fast load transient response.

B. Experimental Results

Closed-loop operation of the proposed multiple-band dual-

mode digital controller is also carried out in an experimental

setup. All the demonstrated postlayout simulation results are

validated experimentally over a wide output voltage range (1.6

3.3 V). Figs. 1726 demonstrate the experimental results.

Fig. 17 depicts the timing signals for MBDS delay line ADC

operation obtained from experimental setup. These generated

Fig. 18. Linear characteristics output of Band-ADC.

Fig. 19. Closed-loop operation in steady state. Ch1: regulated output voltage;

Ch3: analog switch output; Ch2: gate drive signal to main switch.

signals match the timing requirements as described in this

proposal.

Fig. 18 demonstrates the sampled output obtained fromBand-

ADC. It is observed that the sampled output values (b7b2)

change from low to high linearly with the increase in converter

output voltage. Figs. 19 and 20 illustrate the closed-loop opera-

tion of the proposed digital controller in steady state for two dif-

ferent V

ref

values. These results prove that the proposal achieves

smooth steady-state output voltage regulation. The analog sup-

ply voltages (V

ref

, V

out

) fed to the proposed MBDS delay line

are nearly equal to the corresponding phase of the analog switch

output voltage.

BARAI et al.: DUAL-MODE MULTIPLE-BAND DIGITAL CONTROLLER FOR HIGH-FREQUENCY DCDC CONVERTER 763

Fig. 20. Closed-loop operation in steady state. Ch1: regulated output voltage;

Ch3: analog switch output; Ch2: gate drive signal to main switch.

Fig. 21. Closed-loop operation from startup. Ch1: regulated output voltage;

Ch3: analog switch output.

Fig. 22. Closed-loop operation during reference step change. Ch1: regulated

output voltage; Ch3: analog switch output; Ch2: instant of applied V

ref

.

Figs. 21 and 22 demonstrate the converter output voltage build

up from initial start and from an arbitrary instant of applied

V

ref

, respectively. Converter output voltage smoothly tracks the

applied reference voltages of 2.5 and 2.8 V within 20 and 28 s,

respectively. These output values prove that multiple continuous

band switching is continuous in nature for the proposed MBDS

Fig. 23. Closed-loop operation during reference voltage change from 1.6 V

to 2. 0 V. Ch1: regulated output voltage; Ch2: instant of step change in V

ref

.

Fig. 24. 4-bit digital error output from the proposed MBDS delay line ADC

Ch1: e2-MSB of error; Ch2: e1; Ch3: e0-LSB of error; Ch4: e3-direction bit.

Fig. 25. Closed-loop operation during load transient from 315 to 630 mA

Ch1: regulated output voltage; Ch4: instant of load transient.

delay line ADC. The introduction of the multiple-band concept

improves steady-state regulation over a wide regulated voltage

range.

Fig. 23 shows the closed-loop operation during a step change

in V

ref

from 1.6 to 2.0 V. The proposed digital loop achieves a

fast transition time of 6.4 s for the voltage step change from

764 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 24, NO. 3, MARCH 2009

Fig. 26. Closed-loop operation during load transient from 660 to 330 mA.

Ch2: regulated output voltage; Ch3: analog switch output; Ch4: instant of load

transient.

Fig. 27. MBDS delay line ADC chip layout.

1.6 to 2.0 V. The corresponding digital error output obtained

from MBDS delay line ADC is shown in Fig. 24.

Fig. 25 depicts the closed-loop operation during a load current

transient from 315 to 630 mA at regulated output voltage V

out

= 3.15 V. Fig. 26 shows the closed-loop operation during a load

current transient from660 to 330 mAat regulated output voltage

V

out

=3.3 V. The converter regulated output voltage comes back

to steady-state value in less than 28 and 10 s, respectively,

during load transients. These results prove the stability of the

proposed digital loop as well as fast load transient response.

The proposed controller achieves fast dynamic response and

better steady-state voltage regulation over a wide voltage range.

It is observed that the experimental results closely match the

simulation results for the proposed digital controller architec-

ture. Prototype digital controller experimental setup is shown in

Fig. 28. The on-chip layout for MBDS delay line ADC is shown

in Fig. 27. I/O pads are not included in the ADC chip layout.

Synopsys Astro tool is used for generating the chip layout.

Table VI compares the performance of MBDS delay line

ADC architecture with the basic delay line ADC architecture

reported in [19], an extended delay line ADC that refers to 64-

tap ADC designed using the method described in [19] and [21].

The work [21] demonstrates closed-loop operation at 1.6-MHz

switching frequency. The area requirement of [21] is compa-

rable to the proposed MBDS delay line ADC, assuming linear

relationship between shrinking feature size as [21] implements

16-tap delay line ADC in 0.18-s CMOS technology. However,

Fig. 28. Experimental setup with the proposed MBDS delay line ADC.

TABLE VI

DELAYLINE ADC PERFORMANCE COMPARISON

BARAI et al.: DUAL-MODE MULTIPLE-BAND DIGITAL CONTROLLER FOR HIGH-FREQUENCY DCDC CONVERTER 765

TABLE VII

COMPARISON WITH OTHER DIGITAL CONTROLLERS

the architecture [21] uses a mix of analog and digital compo-

nents in designing the delay line ADC.

Table VII summarizes the performance of the proposed digi-

tal controller with prior arts [16], [19], [21], and [31]. The work

reported in [16] provides very less settling time. However, [16]

consumes large chip area and the estimate has not been pro-

vided. Analog and digital components in the controller design

were used in [16]. The proposed dual-mode multiple-band dig-

ital controller uses only digital hardware logic and provides

comparable performance to the best proposals available in the

literature with respect to transition time and settling time.

These results prove that the proposed digital control architec-

ture provides effective digital control solution for DVS-enabled

systems.

V. CONCLUSION

A new architecture of the delay-line-based window ADC is

proposed to meet wide output voltage range. The prototype de-

sign achieves wide output voltage range of 1.63.3-Vregulation

with higher resolution. It reduces 33% on-chip area compared

to an equivalent 64-tap delay line ADC. Dual-mode error con-

trol achieves fast dynamic response for a voltage-mode digitally

controlled synchronous buck converter.

REFERENCES

[1] O. Trescases and W. T. Ng, Variable output, soft-switching DC/DC con-

verter for VLSI dynamic voltage scaling power supply applications, in

Proc. IEEE Power Electron. Spec. Conf., Jun. 2004, pp. 41494155.

[2] T. D. Burd, T. A. Pering, A. J. Stratakos, and R. W. Brodersen, Adynamic

voltage scaled microprocessor system, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits,

vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 15711580, Nov. 2000.

[3] A. J. Stratakos, S. R. Sanders, and R. W. Brodersen, A low-voltage cmos

DCDC converter for a portable battery-operated systems, in Proc. IEEE

Power Electron. Spec. Conf., Jun. 1994, vol. 1, pp. 619626.

[4] Transmeta. Crusoe processor. (2000). [Online]. Available: http://www.

transmeta.com

[5] TI. Inc. Adjustable, 800-mA3-MHz Synchronous Step-Down converter,

Texas Instruments, Texas, Austin, Data Sheet TPS62352, 2007.

[6] A. R. Oliva, S. S. Ang, and G. E. Bortolotto, Digital control of a voltage

mode synchronous buck converter, IEEETrans. Power Electron., vol. 21,

no. 1, pp. 157163, Jan. 2006.

[7] A. Peterchev and S. R. Sanders, Load-Line regulation with estimated

load-current feedforward: Application to microprocessor voltage regula-

tors, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 17041717, Nov.

2006.

[8] M. Castilla, L. G. Vicuna, J. M. Guerrero, J. Miret, and N. Berbel, Simple

low-cost hysteretic controller for single phase synchronous buck convert-

ers, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 12321241, Jul.

2007.

[9] S. Saggini, D. Trevisan, P. Mattavelli, and M. Ghioni, Synchronous

asynchronous digital voltage-mode control for DCDCconverters, IEEE

Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 12611268, Jul. 2007.

[10] S. Saggini, P. Mattavelli, M. Ghioni, and M. Redaelli, Mixed signal volt-

age mode control for DCDC converters with inherent analog derivative

action, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 14851493, May

2008.

[11] G. Feng, E. Meyer, and Y. Liu, Anewdigital control algorithmto achieve

optimal dynamic performance in DCDCconverters, IEEETrans. Power

Electron., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 14891498, Jul. 2007.

[12] E. Meyer, Z. Zhang, and Y. Liu, An optimal control method for

buck converters using a prctical capacitor charge balance technique,

IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 18021812, Jul.

2007.

[13] H. Hu, V. Yousefzadeh, and D. Maksimovic, Nonuniform A/D quanti-

zation for improved dynamic responses of digitally controlled DCDC

converters, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 19982005,

Jul. 2008.

[14] A. V. Peterchev and S. Sanders, Digital multimode buck converter con-

trol with loss-minimizing synchronous rectier adaptation, IEEE Trans.

Power Electron., vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 15881599, Nov. 2006.

[15] W. Liou, M. Yeh, and Y. L. Kuo, A high efciency dual-mode buck

converter IC for portable applications, IEEE Trans. Power Electron.,

vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 667677, Mar. 2008.

[16] Z. Zhao and A. Prodic, Continuous-time digital controllers for high-

frequency DCDC converters, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 23,

no. 2, pp. 564573, Mar. 2008.

[17] J. Xiao, A. Peterchev, and S. R. Sanders, Architecture and IC implemen-

tation of a digital VRM controller, in Proc. IEEE Power Electron. Spec.

Conf., Jun. 2001, pp. 3847.

[18] J. Xiao, A. Peterchev, J. Zhang, and S. R. Sanders, An ultra-low-power

digitally-controlled buck converter IC for cellular phone applications, in

Proc. IEEE Appl. Power Electron. Conf., Feb. 2004, pp. 383391.

[19] B. J. Patella, A. Prodic, A. Zirger, and D. Maksimovic, High-frequency

digital PWM controller IC for DCDC converters, IEEE Trans. Power

Electron., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 438446, Jan. 2003.

[20] Z. Lukic, N. Rahman, and A. Prodic, Multibit

troller IC for DCDC converters operating at switching frequencies be-

yond 10 MHz, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 1693

1707, Sep. 2007.

[21] A. Parayandeh and A. Prodic, Programmable analog-to-digital converter

for low power DCDC SMPS, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 23,

no. 1, pp. 500505, Jan. 2008.

[22] A. Prodic and D. Maksimovic, Design of a digital PID regulator based

on look-up tables for control of high-frequency DCDC converters, in

Proc. IEEE Comput. Power Electron. Conf., Jun. 2002, pp. 1822.

[23] G. F. Franklin, J. D. Powell, and A. Emami-Naeini, Feedback Control of

Dynamic Systems, 3rd ed. Reading, MA: Addision-Wesley, 1994.

[24] J. L. Tong and J. P. Bobis, Amodel for designing digital PIDcontrollers,

in Proc. Int. Conf. Power Electron. Motion Control, Nov. 1992, pp. 1157

1162.

[25] Y. Y. Li, A. D. Sheng, and Y. G. Wang, Synthesis of PID controllers with

regional pole constraints, in Proc. Int. Conf. Control, Autom., Robot. Vis.,

Dec. 2004, pp. 18421846.

766 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 24, NO. 3, MARCH 2009

[26] J. C. Basilio and S. R. Matos, Design of PI and PID controllers with

transient performance specication, IEEE Trans. Educ., vol. 45, no. 4,

pp. 364370, Nov. 2002.

[27] L. Guo, J. Y. Hung, and R. M. Nelms, Digital controller design for buck

and boost converters using root locus techniques, in Proc. IEEE Ind.

Electron. Conf., Nov. 2003, pp. 18641869.

[28] O. Linlin, T. Youchun, G. Danying, and Z. Weidong, Stability analysis

of PID controllers for integral processes with time delay, in Proc. Amer.

Control Conf., Jun. 2005, pp. 42474252.

[29] A. Karimi, D. Garcia, and R. Longchamp, PID controller tuning using

Bodes integrals, IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., vol. 11, no. 6,

pp. 812821, Nov. 2003.

[30] L. H. Keel and S. P. Bhattacharyya, Stability margins and digital im-

plementation of controllers, in Proc. Amer. Control Conf., Jun. 1998,

pp. 28522856.

[31] M. Y. Chui, W. Ki, and C. Tsui, A programmable integrated digital

controller for switching converters with dual-band switching and complex

pole-zero compensation, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 40, no. 3,

pp. 772780, Mar. 2005.

[32] M. Barai, S. SenGupta, and J. Biswas, Optimized design of a delay line

based analog to digital converter for digital power management applica-

tions, in Proc. IEEE Power Electron. Spec. Conf., Jun. 2008, pp. 1801

1807.

[33] Synopsys. (2007). Synopsys eda tools [Online]. Available: http://www.

synopsys.com

[34] National Semiconductor. (2006). National semiconductor 0.5 m cmos

library [Online]. Available: http://www.national.com

Mukti Barai received the B.E. degree in electrical en-

gineering fromBengal Engineering College, Calcutta

University, Kolkata, India, in 1992, and the M.Tech.

degree in 1994 from the Indian Institute of Technol-

ogy, Kharagpur, India, where she is currently working

toward the Ph.D. degree at the Department of Elec-

trical Engineering.

From 1994 to 2000, she was a Senior Engineer

(Design and Development) in the Electronics Divi-

sion, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Bengaluru,

India. From 2002 to 2002, she was a Principal Soft-

ware Development Engineer at Alcatel Internetworking, Inc. From 2003 to

2004, she was at ST Microelectronics Research Laboratory, Computer Aided

Design Laboratory (CADL), Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bengaluru. Her

current research interests include power electronics converter and digital con-

troller architecture for power management application ICs.

Sabyasachi Sengupta received the B.E. degree

in electrical engineering from Calcutta University,

Kolkata, India, in 1973, and the M.Tech. and Ph.D.

degrees fromthe Indian Institute of Technology (IIT),

Kharagpur, India, in 1976, and 1998, respectively.

He was a Professor in the Department of Electrical

Engineering, IIT, Kharagpur. In June 2008, he joined

West Bengal University of Technology, Kolkata, as

the Vice Chancellor. He was involved in a number

of consultancy jobs with industrial houses and is a

partner in a faculty entrepreneurial organization. His

current research interests include the elds of switch-mode power supplies,

modeling, and simulation of electrical drives.

Prof. Sengupta is a Life Member of the System Society of India.

Jayanta Biswas received the B.E. degree in computer

science from Bengal Engineering College, Kolkata,

India, in 1993, and the M.E. degree in system science

and automation and the Ph.D. degree from the Indian

Institute of Science, Bengaluru, India, in 1995 and

2005, respectively.

From January 1995 to 1998, he was with NCR,

Dayton, OH. From January 1999 to November 2002,

he was with Alcatel Internetworking, Calabasas, CA,

where from May 2000 to November 2002, he was

the Project Manager at Alcatel Internetworking ATM

(core and edge) switch software development effort, and he was also leading ten

GIGsoftware development effort. He is currently leading embedded product de-

velopment and research activity at CEM Solutions, Bengaluru, as the Technical

Director. His current research interests include digital controller architecture for

power management application ICs, virtual platform development, H.264 codec

development, complex SoC design, edge synthesis, multicasting over mobile ad

hoc network (MANET), high-speed multicast switches, and secure multicast

and application layer multicast for mobile entertainment applications.

- Fluke 27 Service Manual (1998)Transféré parviajerocanario
- discretized PIDTransféré parAustine A. Amani
- 21 FeedbackTransféré parapi-3726520
- PID_malTransféré parapi-19787379
- adc0804-nTransféré parPiyush Jain
- 36 Interfacing Adc0808 With Serial Port Rs232 8051 Microcontroller Using Clock From d Flip FlopTransféré parprajapatiprashant40
- Pid TuningTransféré parAsuh Rifqi Prihandana
- ThesesTransféré parJadur Rahman
- int_Q_vlsiTransféré parసుశీల్ శరత్
- baghli2014Transféré parVienNgocQuang
- Ada 2200Transféré parsunilsheelavant
- 3_Fuzzy Controller- Design, Evaluation, Parallel and Hierarchical Combination With a PID ControllerTransféré parSyazwani Halim
- FPGA Artigo FuzzyTransféré parmicklug
- Ad 9252Transféré parSeunghyun Lee
- 51994A-71642Transféré parDinh Thang Le
- Mixed Signal TestTransféré parperiodo
- Controlador Temperatura2Transféré parCtor Rigel
- 05469548Transféré parAnup Singh
- Develop a Robust Nonlinear ControllerTransféré parschultz
- 16 Bit Digitizer RazorMax ExpressCS PCIe 1 GS sTransféré parFerid Hentati
- 1_level.pdfTransféré parPARVATHY ANIL
- Plaia 1987 Aquacultural-EngineeringTransféré parJorge Rodriguez
- ltangchassaing.pdfTransféré parIvan Kokić
- Process Control Narrative SampleTransféré parfri_13th
- GSM Based Temperature Measurement SystemTransféré parNikhil Dixit
- GSM Based Temperature Measurement System.docTransféré parNikhil Dixit
- Modeling a Multivariable Process Control System using PID OptimizationTransféré parEditor IJTSRD
- A_Low-Noise_Low-Power_EEG_Acquisition_Node_for_Sca.pdfTransféré parpato
- YamTransféré parIjan Dangol
- Quantisation and Coding notesTransféré parravindarsingh

- PID3418051.pdfTransféré parRaveendhra Iitr
- Telephone Directory18062017Transféré parRaveendhra Iitr
- 01355194.pdfTransféré parRaveendhra Iitr
- 05316357.pdfTransféré parRaveendhra Iitr
- 06687531.pdfTransféré parRaveendhra Iitr
- 05356336.pdfTransféré parRaveendhra Iitr
- 01665399.pdfTransféré parRaveendhra Iitr
- IET Power Electronics Volume 6 Issue 1 2013 [Doi 10.1049%2Fiet-Pel.2012.0338] Lin, C.-c.; Wu, G.W.; Yang, L.-s. -- Study of a Non-Isolated Bidirectional DCâ--DC ConverterTransféré parPhạm Văn Tưởng
- 06258987.pdfTransféré parRaveendhra Iitr
- 05137014.pdfTransféré parRaveendhra Iitr
- NeuralTransféré parSai Pranahita Bhaskarapantulu
- 0628-1 Course MinhCTaTransféré parRaveendhra Iitr
- Format PaperTransféré parArief Nur Khoerudin
- 06469214Transféré parRaveendhra Iitr
- 06304785Transféré parRaveendhra Iitr
- 06147403Transféré parRaveendhra Iitr
- 06139542Transféré parRaveendhra Iitr
- 05751233Transféré parRaveendhra Iitr
- 05728086Transféré parRaveendhra Iitr
- Design of Robust Digital PID Controller for H-Bridge Soft-Switching Boost Converter.pdfTransféré parvargil
- 04745294Transféré parRaveendhra Iitr
- 04391045Transféré parRaveendhra Iitr
- 01532706Transféré parRaveendhra Iitr
- 01516816Transféré parRaveendhra Iitr
- 01336616Transféré parRaveendhra Iitr
- 01192301Transféré parRaveendhra Iitr
- 00993245Transféré parRaveendhra Iitr

- Chapter1_MCQ_QuestionsTransféré parkavanst
- 7410Transféré pararvind2180
- GLITCH ANALYSIS AND REDUCTION IN DIGITAL CIRCUITSTransféré parAnonymous e4UpOQEP
- cd4066bcTransféré parcepimasterodro
- A314JTransféré parHeriberto Flores Ampie
- Wunderlich Richard b 200912 MastersTransféré parKedhar Malla
- High Speed Digital Design (An introduction to Black Magic) By Howard Johnson and MartinTransféré parjrobertz34
- Chapter 4Transféré parMookambigai Ece
- HCPL-314JTransféré paronafets
- 7404Transféré parSameer Salam
- Data SheetTransféré parsdsf
- Buffer InsertionTransféré parAkhil Mehta
- Vlsi Interview QnsTransféré parAR
- Dynamic vs Static Timing AnalysisTransféré parmturadagi
- ece428_combTransféré paranjugadu
- TOWARDS TEMPERATURE-INSENSITIVE NANOSCALE CMOS CIRCUITS WITH ADAPTIVELY REGULATED VOLTAGE POWER SUPPLIESTransféré parAnonymous e4UpOQEP
- Dave07Transféré parYermakov Vadim Ivanovich
- CD74HC238Transféré parroozbehxox
- (XOR gate)DM7486.pdfTransféré parSai Kumar
- VLSI Made Easy_ VLSI Interview QuestionsTransféré parAnupam Dubey
- Data sheet 7404Transféré parThorik Achsan
- Delays in ASIC DesignTransféré parMasterbrain Brain
- Delays in ASIC Design pptTransféré parUday Kumar
- 5.ECE 301 - Structural ModelingTransféré parenzuek
- An 11675Transféré parEnéas Barone
- Introduction to Industrial Physical Design FlowTransféré parKesani Venkat Narsimha Reddy
- Delay ChartsTransféré parMona Ali
- 699412fb-TimerBloxTransféré parnevdull
- 7486 XOR.pdfTransféré parkevin
- VHDL Signal and Signal AssignmentTransféré parParul Vadiya