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Sociology Ch 1 & 2 Notes

_____ is a way of understanding the world based on science. Positivism

__________ are rules about every day, casual living; __________ are rules with great moral significance.
Folkways; mores
"A statement of a possible relationship between two or more variables" is the definition of which
concept? Hypothesis
A criticism of the symbolic-interaction approach is that it ignores the influence of factors such as culture,
class, gender, and race.
A false correlation between two variables caused by a third factor is described as a "spurious"
A global perspective has little in common with a sociological perspective.
A researcher doing participant observation may often "break in" to a setting more easily with the help of
a key informant.
A small number of people that are used to represent a much larger population is called a sample.
A statement that explains how and why specific facts are related is called a theory.
A survey is a research method in which subjects respond to a series of statements or questions.
A theory states that increasing a person's formal higher education leads to increased earnings over the
individual's lifetime. In this theory, "higher education" is the independent variable.
A variable that causes change in another variable is called the "dependent variable."
A variable that is changed by another variable is called the "independent variable."
According to Emile Durkheim, people with a higher suicide rate typically have a lower level of social
According to sociologists, human behavior reflects our personal "free will."
An act of kindness, such as opening the door for an elderly man, illustrates conforming to folkways.
An apparent, although false, association between two variables that is caused by a third variable is
called a _________ correlation. spurious
An example of nonmaterial culture would be the types of vehicles people use to get around. FALSE
As a part of human culture, religion is an example of nonmaterial culture.
Auguste Comte was a positivist who believed that there were laws of society in the same way that there
are laws of physics that describe the operation of the natural world.
b. A person in retail sales knows how to exceed the monthly sales target.
b. are based on all available facts.
b. assess the opportunities and constraints in our lives
b. guilt.
b. medicine, understanding patterns of health in a community.
b. patterns of social inequality
b. the flow of information around the world
b. there are many ways to use symbols to communicate.
Building social relationships and creating jobs are two of the ____ of sports. latent functions
By stating that the sociological perspective shows us "the strange in the familiar," the text argues that
sociologists reject the familiar idea that people simply decide how to act in favor of the initially strange
idea that society shapes our lives.
c. A police officer understands which categories of people are at high risk of becoming crime victims.
c. are offered fair-mindedly with an interest in the truth.
c. be more active participants in society
c. business, dealing with different categories of people.
c. culture changes over time.
c. sanctions, including the response of other people.
c. the flow of people from country to country
Cars, computers, and iPhones are all examples of which of the following? material culture
Compared to cultures around the world, the way of life in the United States emphasizes individualism.
Comte described the earliest human societies as being at which stage of historical development?
theological stage
Counterculture refers to cultural patterns that oppose those that are widely held.
Cultural change is set in motion in three general ways. What are they? invention, discovery, and
Cultural change results from invention, discovery, and diffusion. TRUE
Cultural integration refers to the fact that change in one dimension of a cultural system usually causes
changes in others.
Cultural lag refers to the fact that some cultural elements change more quickly than others. TRUE
Cultural patterns that are widespread among a society's population are referred to as popular culture.
Cultural relativism means using your own cultural standards to evaluate another culture. FALSE
Cultural transmission refers to the process of passing cultural patterns from one generation to another.
Cultural universals are elements of culture that are part of every known culture.
Culture is the ways of thinking, ways of acting, and material objects that together form a people's way of
life. TRUE
culture, while the fact that most adults say they support the idea of sexual fidelity is an example of
_____ culture. real; ideal
d. A financial services worker devises a new type of hedge fund.
d. ways in which each person differs from all others
decoration. FALSE
Durkheim documented that categories of people with weaker social ties have lower suicide rates.
Elements of social control in everyday life include a. shame.
Empirical evidence refers to what we can verify with our senses.
Ethnocentrism refers to judging another culture using the standards of your own culture.
Examples of people applying their knowledge of sociology at work include people in a. law enforcement,
understanding which categories of people are at high risk of becoming victims of crime.
Experiencing an unfamiliar culture can generate culture shock. TRUE
Following the thinking of C. Wright Mills, we would expect the sociological imagination to be more
widespread in a population among the very rich.
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Identify the three sociologists who played a part in the development of sociology's structural-functional
approach. Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer, Emile Durkheim
If marginality encourages sociological thinking, we would expect people in which category listed below
to make the most use of the sociological perspective? disabled persons or people who are a racial
If we state that children raised in single-parent families are at high risk of being single parents
themselves, we have constructed a _____ of family life. theory
If you have been criticized for "androcentricity" in your research, you are being criticized for doing the
research from a male perspective.
If you read a study that draws conclusions about all of humanity based on research using only males as
subjects, you would correctly point to the problem called overgeneralization.
If you were to conduct sociological research that closely follows the logic of science, which research
method would you MOST likely use? the experiment
If you were trying to measure the "social class" of various people, you would have to keep in mind that it
is necessary to specify exactly what you are measuring.
Imagine that you were going to measure the age of a number of respondents taking part in a survey. As
you record the data, you are using the concept "age" as a variable.
In the process of measurement, reliability refers to whether repeating the measurement yields
consistent results.
Interpretive sociology is sociology that focuses on the meaning people attach to behavior.
Karl Marx, speaking for the social-conflict approach, argued that the point of studying society should be
to bring about greater social justice.
Knowledge that people use to make a way of life in their surroundings is called technology.
Learning more sociology can help you to do all of the following EXCEPT a. assess the truth of "common
Making use of the sociological perspective encourages challenging commonly held beliefs.
Mores are norms that have great moral significance. TRUE
Most of today's sociologists agree with Auguste Comte's claim that science has an important place in
Multiculturalism is defined as a perspective recognizing the cultural diversity of the United States and
promoting equality of all cultural
Participant observation is a research method by which researchers stand back from a setting, watch
from a distance, and then carefully record the behavior of others.
People around the world have much the same outward appearance and wear the same clothing and
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Qualitative research has special appeal to investigators who favor the _________ approach. symbolic-
Reliability refers to the quality of consistency in measurement.
Robert Merton explained that what is functional for one category of a society's population may be
dysfunctional for another category
Sarah is spending a summer living in another country where people have a way of life that differs from
her own. A sociologist might expect that this experience would lead her to end up with a greater
understanding of both a new way of life and her own way of life.
social consequences of doing so
Sociological research may be interesting, but it is of little use in shaping public policy, including
Sociologists define a symbol as anything that carries meaning to people who share a culture.
Sociologists use the term "empirical evidence" to refer to information we can verify with our senses.
Sociologists use the term "social marginality" to refer to people who are defined by others as an
Sociology differs from the older discipline of philosophy by focusing on how society actually operates.
Standards by which people who share culture define what is desirable, good, and beautiful are called
Star this term
Subculture is more at odds with dominant culture than counterculture. FALSE
Subculture refers to cultural patterns that set off a part of a society's population.
Symbols refer to anything that carries meaning that is recognized by people who share a culture.T/F
Technology refers to knowledge people use to make a way of life in their surroundings.T/F TRUE
The _____ approaches are macro-level, describing societies in broad terms. structural-functional and
The "framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict
and change" is the social-conflict approach.
The ancient Romans saw the stars as being gods. Auguste Comte would classify Roman society as which
of the following stages of history? theological stage
The chapter's sociological analysis of childbearing around the world suggests that the number of
children born to a woman reflects whether she lives in a poor or a rich society.
The concept "sociology" was coined in 1838 by Auguste Comte.
The distinction between high culture and popular culture is based mostly on the social standing of the
people who display the cultural pattern.
The dominant values of U.S. culture include which of the following? a belief in individualism
The fact that some married men and married women are sexually unfaithful to their spouses is an
example of _____
The fact that text messaging is based on a new set of symbols shows us that a. today's young people are
creating new symbols.
The focus of the symbolic-interaction approach is how society is divided by class, race, and gender.
The gesture we commonly call "thumbs up" is used in most of the world's societies to signify that
something is
The goal of the structural-functional approach is no so much to understand how society operates as it is
to reduce social inequality.
The ideal of objectivity means that a researcher must try to adopt a stance of personal neutrality toward
the outcome of the research.
The intangible world of ideas created by members of a society is referred to as nonmaterial culture.
The last of Comte's three stages is the metaphysical stage, in which people know the world in terms of
God's will.
The main characteristic of the _____ approach is its view of society as being orderly and stable
The major goal of Auguste Comte and Emile Durkheim was to develop sociology to discover how society
actually operates.
The pioneering sociologist who studied patterns of suicide in Europe was Emile Durkheim.
The practice of understanding another culture on its own terms and using its own standards is called
cultural relativism.
The recognized and intended consequences of a social pattern are referred to as manifest functions.
The Sapir-Whorf thesis states that the language we use shapes the reality we perceive. TRUE
The social-conflict approach sometimes receives criticism for being openly political.
The sociological perspective helps us assess the truth of the "common sense" beliefs we tend to take for
The spread of cultural traits from one society to another is called diffusion.
The structural-functional, social-conflict, and symbolic-interaction approaches are three basic
theoretical approaches in sociology.
The symbolic-interaction approach is a micro-level orientation.
The term "cultural lag" refers to the fact that some cultural elements change more quickly than others.
The theoretical approach in sociology that assumes society is a complex system whose parts work
together to promote solidarity and stability is the structural-functional approach.
The United States is multicultural because in this country we find many different languages and ways of
Thomas Hobbes's idea that society reflects a selfish human nature illustrates the thinking common at
which of Comte's historical stages? metaphysical stage
To evaluate a theory using evidence, sociologists gather data or facts.
Understanding symbols allows people to make sense of their surroundings. TRUE
Unlike simple stereotypes, sociological generalizations a. are not applied to all individuals in a category.
Unrecognized and unintended consequences of a social pattern are called latent functions.
Using the sociological perspective, we would conclude that people's lives are mostly a result of what
they decide to do.
Using the structural-functional approach, which of the following questions might you ask about
marriage? What are the consequences of marriage for the operation of society?
Using the symbolic-interaction approach, sports becomes less a system than an ongoing process.
Validity refers to actually measuring what you want to measure.
Values and norms help to define a society's "ideal culture." TRUE
Values are standards that serve as broad guidelines for social living. TRUE
very good. FALSE
W.E.B. Du Bois described African Americans as having a "double consciousness" because they are
American citizens who have a second identity based on skin color.
way of life? culture
We would expect the sociological perspective to be MOST likely to develop in a place that was
experiencing major social changes.
What is the term for the value that occurs most often in a series of numbers? the mode
What is the term for the ways of thinking, ways of acting, and material objects that together form a
What might a sociologist say about people's selection of marriage partners? Typically, a person marries
someone of similar social position.
What process involves deciding exactly what is to be measured when assigning value to a variable?
What term refers to the arithmetic average of a series of numbers? the mean
When two variables are statistically related, a cause-and-effect relationship exists.
Which concept is used to describe relatively stable patterns of social behavior? social structure
Which of the concepts listed below refers to measuring exactly what you intend to measure? validity
Which of the following adds to the creation of a global culture? a. the flow of goods from country to
Which of the following BEST describes the focus of the structural-functional approach? a. the meaning
people attach to their behavior
Which of the following categories contains countries in which average income is typical for the world as
a whole and in which people are as likely to live in a rural area as in an urban area? middle-income
Which of the following examples illustrates a micro-level focus? two people on an airplane getting to
know one another
Which of the following historical changes is among the factors that stimulated the development of
sociology as a discipline? the rise of the industrial economy and growth of cities
Which of the following is a criticism of the structural-functional approach? not critical of inequalities
based on social class, race, ethnicity, and gender
Which of the following is a manifest function of sports? providing recreation and physical conditioning
Which of the following is an accurate criticism of the structural-functional approach? It ignores
inequality that can generate tension and conflict.
Which of the following is the BEST example of a latent function of going to college? keeping young
people out of the labor force, which may not have jobs for them
Which of the following is true about cause-and-effect relationships in the social world? Most patterns of
behavior are caused by many factors.
Which of the following is true about positivist sociology? It favors quantitative data.
Which of the following statements BEST illustrates the career advantage a person gains by studying
Which of the following statements is a good example of cultural lag? gaining the ability to modify
genetic patterns in humans before understanding the possible
Which of the following statements is based on a symbolic-interaction analysis of sports? Each player
understands the game a little differently.
Which of the following statements MOST closely conveys the point of the Sapir-Whorf thesis? People
see the world through the cultural lens of their language.
Which of the following would be the focus of a social-conflict analysis of sports? how sports reflect
social inequality
Which research method asks subjects to respond to a series of items on a questionnaire or in an
interview? a survey
Which sociological research method is MOST likely to produce quantitative data that will identify cause-
and-effect relationships? the experiment
Which theoretical approach claims that it is not so much what people do that matters as much as what
meaning they attach to their behavior? symbolic-interaction approach
Which theoretical approach is linked to the philosophical doctrine of materialism? the social-conflict
Which theoretical approach states that the stability of U.S. society rests on core values shared by most
people? the structural-functional approach
Which theoretical approach was used by the early sociologists Auguste Comte and Emile Durkheim? the
structural-functional approach
Which theoretical approach would highlight the fact that, on average, African American families have
less income than white families? the race-conflict approach
With regard to the process of measurement, which of the following statements is true? For a
measurement to be valid, it must be reliable.
Wrongdoing, such as an adult forcing a child to engage in sexual activity, is an example of violating
cultural mores.