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Developing a Smart City Model that Ensures the Optimum Utilization

of Existing Resources in Cities of All Sizes



Sugeeswari Lekamge
Dept. of Management and Information Systems
Engineering
Nagaoka University of Technology
Nagaoka, Japan
e-mail: sugeeswarilekamge@gmail.com
Ashu Marasinghe
Dept. of Management and Information Systems
Engineering
Nagaoka University of Technology
Nagaoka, Japan
e-mail: ashu@kjs.nagaokaut.ac.jp


AbstractThe concept of Smart Cities is currently gaining
high popularity among city authorities around the world while
attracting leading companies to collaborate with government
bodies as it is now moving from pilot projects and towards
creating high business value. Though the existing literature
provides evidence for various attempts made in defining the
term Smart City and in developing models for the realization
of Smart Cities, they are largely focusing on heavily digitized
cities with well-established infrastructure. Therefore this paper
attempts to address the unattended need of developing a Smart
City model that could equally be applied to small and
emerging cities especially in developing countries, with the aim
of optimizing the utilization of existing city resources.
Maslows hierarchy of needs serves as the base on which the
model is developed and the associated cyclic behavior is due to
the emphasis placed on the participation of citizens in city
governance through their feedback which is further inspired
by the advent of new technologies including web 2.0
technologies. Universal design is integrated to the model
further making the cities accessible and livable for all.
Keywords-Smart City; needs hierarchy; participatory
governance; resource optimization; universal design
I. INTRODUCTION
What actually is a Smart City? What is the vision of a
Smart City? The emerging concept is viewed through a
number of perspectives making the task of answering the
above questions far more challenging. Amidst, the city
authorities around the world are now transforming their cities
towards Smart Cities further accelerated by the growing
interest of the private sector in investing in Smart City
initiatives. A city can be defined as smart when
investments in human and social capital and modern
transport and communication infrastructure fuel sustainable
economic growth and a high quality of life, with a wise
management of natural resources, through participatory
governance [1]. Further reflecting the above definition, Boyd
Cohen in his Smart Cities Wheel model identifies six key
dimensions namely smart economy, smart environment,
smart governance, smart living, smart mobility and smart
people along which cities can be identified or ranked[2].

Hitachi which can be regarded as one of the leading
providers of Smart City solutions views a Smart City as one
that establishes a well-balanced relationship between people
and the earth [3].

According to Hitachis view, the interests
of different stakeholder groups namely the consumers, city
managers and the world community are conflicting and
therefore the requirement in realizing a Smart City is to
adopt a sustainable approach that achieves a balance between
the many conflicting demands of each group of stakeholders,
without compelling any of them to endure more than their
fair share.

II. WHY CITIES ARE MOVING TOWARDS BECOMING
SMART?
A number of factors have been identified as major
driving forces behind the transition towards Smart Cities.
Changes taking place in the global environment and the
changing life styles of people are viewed to be the two major
motivations behind this transformation. Currently an
international consensus is emerging on the creation of a low-
carbon society and the world is experiencing problems such
as resource depletion and imbalances between supply and
demand as a result of the rapid population increase and
economic progress. Cities around the world are facing the
challenge of addressing the emerging urban issues with the
expected massive influx of people. In addition to the above
global environmental changes, the lifestyles of people are
also rapidly changing. With the shifting of consumption from
products and towards services a growing importance of
intangibles can be viewed and people are now placing a
higher value on non-monetary terms. Similarly, the
demographic changes are increasing the diversity of new
opportunities made possible by advances in information and
communication technology.
In addition to the above major trends in todays urban
society, an increased involvement of IT sector in urban
development activities is currently being experienced. A
huge volume of data is generated daily as a result of urban
activities and through the collection and analysis of this data
IT sector aims to achieve an improved efficiency and
enhanced quality in urban life. At the same time a higher
attention is paid in fusing the demand side and supply side
data related to city infrastructure in order to enhance the
efficiency and achieve optimization in infrastructure
operations.
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Despite all the above facts, some scholars view the desire
of cities to achieve economic development as the core
motivation for Smart Cities [4]. Theres a huge competition
not only among the neighboring cities but also in the
international context in achieving economic development.
The cities are trying to achieve excellence in the sectors of
investments and jobs and also strive to attract the creative
class the younger generation whom they believe as the
developers of the economic strength. Therefore in order to
attract and retain the creative class the new generation,
who are highly mobile, it is viewed that the cities need to
become heavily digital and be smart in a number of ways.
The Japan Times forum on Smart Cities reveals that the
Smart City concept has emerged as a possible solution for
the two pressing questions ahead of Japan; the global
warming and the rapidly aging society in Japan[5].

The
March 11 Great East Japan earthquake and the subsequent
accidents at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant have
led to increased momentum towards review of energy
utilization and have focused attention on Smart Cities. Four
Japanese cities are currently participating in an experimental
program called Next-Generation Energy and Social Systems
Verification Experiment, also known as Japan Smart Cities,
which traces its roots back to 2010[6]. The cities are
Yokohama, Toyota City, Keihanna Science City (Kyoto
prefecture), and the City of Kitakyushu. According to the
Japan Smart City portal, Smart Cities are a new style of city
providing sustainable growth and designed to encourage
healthy economic activities that reduce the burden on the
environment while improving the QoL (Quality of Life) of
their residents [7]. This definition seems to cover all three
legs of the triple bottom line namely people, planet, and
profit [6]. The above initiatives, beyond simply being limited
to pilot projects, are now attracting leading Japanese
companies to collaborate with government authorities and
Japan is now selling Smart Cities to the world making Smart
City solutions one of their major exports.
III. REVIEWING THE EXISTING MODELS
The existing literature provides evidence for various
attempts made by academic scholars, Smart City
professionals as well as by leading business companies in
developing frameworks for realizing Smart Cities. Leading
Cities around the world are now reaching new heights
proving the fact that the above efforts are being paid off. But
still a void can be seen in attempts towards introducing and
promoting the concept of Smart Cities to small and emerging
cities especially in the developing countries. Once the
existing models are thoroughly examined it can be identified
that some features are in common though different
approaches have been used, where there are certain key
concerns unique for each model. In developing a Smart City
model that is applicable to cities of different scales with
varying economic, social, demographic and geographic
features, a comprehensive study of the past endeavors and
success stories can be regarded as fundamental. Therefore
some selected models are reviewed in this paper identifying
the possibilities for introducing the concept to cities of
varying scales.
A. Smart Cities Wheel Model Proposed by Boyd Cohen
Boyd Cohen in his Smart Cities Wheel model identifies
six key dimensions along which a city can be identified or
ranked namely smart economy, smart environment, smart
governance, smart living, smart mobility, and smart people
which can also be regarded as the six key components that
constitute a Smart City. In realizing each of the above six,
three key drivers have been introduced for each component
whereas over 100 indicators help the cities in tracking their
performance.
Factors all around economic competitiveness such as
entrepreneurship, innovation, productivity and the
integration in the (inter-)national market are identified as the
driving forces in realizing a smart economy. Smart
Environment is aimed to be established through the efforts
towards environmental protection such as green buildings,
green energy and green urban planning. Smart Governance
comprises the aspects of enabling supply and demand side
policy, transparency and open data, ICT and eGovernance.
Building up a culturally vibrant community and enhancing
the quality of life of citizens in the aspects of health, safety
and happiness are envisioned through smart living.
Availability of integrated Information and Communication
Technologies along with transportation systems that
encourage mixed-modal access and clean, non-motorized
options are identified as the drivers towards achieving smart
mobility. People empowered by 21
st
century education who
are also enriched with creativity are among the aspects of
smart people. It also promotes the concept of inclusive
society.




Figure 1: Smart Cities Wheel Model proposed by Boyd Cohen. [8]
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Furthermore, Cohen proposes some important steps that
need to be followed in adopting the above framework.
Initially a vision for the city needs to be defined with the
involvement of its citizens. In realizing the set vision, the
cities should first develop a baseline or measurement that can
be used as a starting point before establishing forward
looking, numerical targets. Then they can set target
indicators. The cities must develop their own benchmarks
and target indicators based on their own needs and existing
opportunities while following the best practices of the
leading Smart Cities around the globe. The needs and
challenges based on the population density, topography and
existing infrastructure are heavily varying from one city to
another and defining the citys own vision and the way
towards realizing its vision by their own can be viewed as
indispensable in any attempt made towards developing a
Smart City model that is applicable to a city of any scale.
Another important guideline proposed by Cohen is to go lean.
The cities should follow lean start up principles. They should
identify the targets that can be achieved easily while building
plans for long term actions.
B. IBM Smarter Cities
IBM which is a leading provider of smarter solutions to
more than 2000 cities all over the world views a city as a
tripod - the three pillars being the people, infrastructure and
the operations, which relies on strong support among each of
its pillars. Accordingly, three basic services have been
identified namely human services, infrastructure services and
services pertaining to city planning and management.
Human services include education, healthcare and social
programs whereas energy, water and transportation describe
the infrastructure services. Beyond that, services need to be
provided for the overall management of the city including
city governance, public safety, urban planning and managing
natural resources.
























Figure 2: Three pillars of a city. [9]
The human-centric Smarter City model proposed by IBM
places the citizens in the centre of the ecosystem and lays
emphasis on the need of expanding the cities beyond its
boundaries to cooperate with citizen groups and with
universities all over the world who are producing the skilled
manpower required in making the cities smarter. City leaders
need to collaborate with multiple levels of government
within and outside their own city as well as with the
employers ensuring that the citizens have the capability in
driving the kind of skills that are needed in transforming
their city to a Smarter City. Accordingly, a Smarter City is
viewed as a complex infrastructure of system of systems
connected with each other.
Interactions among different entities are vital in realizing
Smart City objectives as emphasized in IBM Smarter City
model through viewing a city as an integrated whole whereas
the significance of such interrelationships among city
components is not discussed in the Wheel model.
Further, IBM identifies three major characteristics that
need to be present in a city to become smarter. One is
leveraging information to make better decisions. The data on
public safety, social services and how the
transportation/water systems work are of importance and for
the cities of tomorrow this data should be unlocked and
important information should be derived that we can act on.
The second is anticipating problems to resolve them
proactively. Beyond simply deriving information, the future
problems that the cities may face, how to handle the influx of
people and what would be the expectations of the people
should be anticipated based on the available information.
The third is coordinating resources and processes to operate
effectively. Using information, processes should be
optimized and resources should be leveraged collaborating
with one another.
The need of delivering innovative solutions for the
evolving needs of the citizens is another important fact
highlighted by IBM in order to keep the cities smarter at all
times. Initially the city leaders have to provide their citizens
with the basic needs and once they are satisfied the citizens
need to prosper and they demand for convenient and luxury
lifestyles [10]. This needs to be a key consideration in a
Smart City model that is developed with the aim of being
applied to cities of diverse scales.
Cities are dramatically varying in their infrastructural
development, geographic, social and demographic
characteristics and so as the needs and aspirations of its
citizens. Resembling the concept - customer is king in the
competitive marketing world, many of the existing
frameworks for Smart Cities are emphasizing the need of
being citizen centric and highly value the participation of
citizens in the process of city governance. Taking into
consideration all the above aspects, it is suggested to identify
and prioritize the citizens needs and cater the evolving
needs initiating from addressing the very basic needs.
Maslow used the terms Physiological, Safety, Belongingness
and Love, Esteem, Self-Actualization and Self-
Transcendence needs to describe the pattern that human
motivations generally move through [11] and it is believed
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that the incorporation of Maslows hierarchy of needs will be
supportive in successfully executing the above idea.
C. Hitachis Smart City Solutions
In the view of Hitachi, a Smart City is typically defined
as an environmentally conscious city that uses information
technology to utilize energy and other resources efficiently
[3]. In their vision, a Smart City is one that seeks to satisfy
the desires and values of its residents, with the use of
advanced IT to improve energy efficiency and concern for
the global environment as prerequisites, and in doing so
maintains a well-balanced relationship between people and
the Earth[3].
According to the Wheel model the key components that
constitute a Smart City are regarded as smart economy,
smart environment, smart governance, smart living, smart
mobility and smart people. IBM, categorizing the different
city services namely education, healthcare, social programs,
public safety, government and agency administration,
smarter buildings and urban planning, environmental
services, energy, water and transportation under three
broader categories namely human, infrastructure and city
planning/management is employing a services approach in
realizing a Smart City. In a very much similar view towards
a city, Hitachi defines the city as composed of three layers
namely, infrastructure layer, urban services layer and urban
life style layer and they are engaged in providing services
pertaining to each of the above layers.
Generation and distribution of electricity, water supply
and sewage and telecommunication systems come under the
infrastructure layer. Providing building services such as
elevators, escalators and air-conditioning, vehicles and other
associated components for road and rail as well as operations
management systems are described under the urban services
layer. Urban lifestyle layer includes information services
which ensure the convenience and comfort of the citizens
and security systems that help building safety and peace of
mind.
Distributed renewable energy as opposed to centralized
huge power plants are now being regarded as a global trend.
Demand side equipment such as Electric Vehicles (EV) and
Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV), smart grid technologies,
Energy Management Systems (EMS) and automated meter
reading are among Hitachis energy sector solutions in
realizing Smart Cities.















Figure 3: Hitachis view Well balanced relationship between
people and earth. [12]
Purification of drinking water, processing of industrial
and domestic waste water, desalination of sea water, use of
geographical information processing in related activities and
use of smart meters in sophisticated water usage
management are identified as some of their Smart City
solutions for water resources. Transportation based on EVs
and HEVs, railways and Intelligent Transportation Systems
(ITS) are examples for horizontal mobility solutions where
as elevators and escalators with high capacity and speed set
examples for vertical mobility solutions.
Further, they have identified three key features that
characterize a Smart City. The first is the integration among
different urban infrastructure and making them smart.
Making the infrastructure intelligent and adding them some
knowledge capabilities and information processing
capabilities resulting in ITS and Intelligent Water Systems
and so forth are implied by the term smart. The second
point is fusing control and information. The intent is the use
of information pertaining to a particular city operation in its
operational control. Further, by interconnecting different
infrastructural information systems and performing
integrated management it is aimed to achieve overall
optimization. The other key feature is the need of equipping
the cities with their own sensory nervous systems enabled by
todays smart meters and sensor networks, replacing the
earlier system in which the information flowed only in one
direction.

IV. IDENTIFIED KEY FEATURES FOR A GLOBAL
SMART CITY MODEL
Placing the major concern on overcoming the limitations
in the existing models that restrict the concept being
promoted to small and emerging cities especially in
developing economies, six key features have been identified
that should be present in a new model that tries to achieve a
sufficient level of flexibility.

a) Government-led initiatives that collaborate with the
private sector
The vision of a Smart City and the models developed in
realizing Smart Cities by different organizations are usually
tailored around the areas of their core competencies. The
efforts of business organizations towards corporate social
responsibility are always highly appreciated and in order to
prosper in realizing Smart City objectives the need of
government collaborations with leading business companies
is viewed as essential. At the same time it should be accepted
that the high profit generations aimed through investments in
Smart City initiatives are the major motivation behind the
private sector involvement in Smart City projects and this
can be viewed as one of the major reasons behind the lag of
introducing and promoting the concept to smaller cities. But
the responsibility of government authorities in creating
environments that allow the citizens to prosper in their lives
can never be relaxed. Therefore the government authorities
need to take the lead in this new transformation supported
and accelerated by the corporation of the private sector.
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b) The hierarchy of needs serves as the basis on which
the model is built upon




















Figure 4: Maslow's hierarchy of needs. [13]

The differently identified city components in the above
discussed models using different approaches need to be
reconsidered. No city will prosper unless the basic needs of
its citizens are met and therefore the cities should identify
and prioritize the criteria the citizens are demanding and
should be catered accordingly. However the task of
identifying the criteria and ranking them appropriately is
truly complex and it is believed that the above challenging
task needs to be assisted by a well established framework.
Therefore it is suggested to build up the model, the needs
hierarchy proposed by Abraham Maslow being the base in
which physiological, safety, belongingness and love, esteem,
self-actualization and self-transcendence needs describe the
pattern that human motivations generally move through.

c) Flexibility of the model in applying for a city of any
scale is achieved through enabling the cities to identify and
define their needs and aspirations by their own
As proposed by Cohen and many others, allowing the
cities to define their own vision and objectives, strategies in
achieving the set objectives as well as the evaluation criteria
on which the cities could identify where they are currently
standing is viewed as of higher importance and further
promoted as a pathway in enhancing the applicability of the
model to a city of any scale.

d) Emphasis is placed on participatory governance
inspired by the advent of new technologies; the stakeholder
feedback generated through continuously evolving needs will
give the model a cyclic behavior
Smart Cities are not something that should be tackled by
just governments and corporations and then presented to
residents. The general public must also be actively involved
in sharing their own ideas and helping to formulate the cities
by throwing their own wisdom into the pot. That is what
Smart Cities are all about [14]. Living labs which can be
regarded as a research concept or a user centered open
innovation eco system often operates in a territorial context
such as a city or a region which integrates concurrent
research and innovation processes[15] is viewed as one of
the most sought ways in achieving the said objective.
Comninos et al. in developing a policy roadmap for Smart
Cities and future internet also have identified the adopting
of the concept of living labs, open innovation and web 2.0
technologies as an effective means of promoting a more
proactive role of users or citizens in service creation which
will lead to an enhanced coordination between the demand
of citizens and supply by the city authorities [16]. The
feedback loop enabled and reinforced by these new
technologies will introduce to the model, the iterative four-
step method - PDCA (plandocheckact or plando
checkadjust) further directing the cities towards achieving
continuous improvement and control.

e) Interconnections among different entities are
encouraged and optimizations are targeted in the utilization
of existing city resources
As emphasized by many scholars, integrations among
different city components are viewed as crucial. Processes
will be optimized and streamlined to enable efficiencies in a
grand scale by integrating intelligence, assuring the right
information to be there in the right hands at all times and
through matching supply side and demand side data.

f) Universal design is integrated so as to make the cities
accessible and livable for all
Focused attention will be paid in integrating the universal
design to the proposed model in order to make the cities of
tomorrow, accessible and livable for everyone in the greatest
possible extent, regardless of their age, ability, or status in
life.

V. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
The existing literature on the concept of Smart Cities,
suggested definitions, proposed models and successful Smart
City implementations were reviewed, identifying the
limitations in existing models that restrict the concept being
promoted to smaller and emerging cities especially in
developing countries. Taking into consideration the major
concerns and key features of existing models, six key
features have been figured out that need to be present in a
Smart City model that is flexible enough to be applied for
cities of varying scales. Maslows hierarchy of needs serves
as the base on which the model is built upon and the model
associates a cyclic behavior. Focused attention is paid in
optimizing the utilization of available city resources and at
the same time universal design is integrated to the model.
Followed by a study of the engineering background and the
strategies used in major Smart City pilot projects in Japan
and in other countries and similar developments of Agent
Based Models of urban systems, it is aimed at developing an
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Agent Based Model that simulates the actions and
interactions among participating entities mapped according
to the above identified key features. The model will then be
validated using an emerging city in Sri Lanka, as the case of
interest.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Foremost, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to
my academic advisor Prof. Ashu Marasinghe for the
continuous support provided in this research and study. His
guidance helped me in all the time of research from the
initiation of the concept to writing of this paper.
Besides, I would like to thank the rest of the academic staff
members of Nagaoka University of Technology for their
valuable guidance. I express my sincere gratitude to the
pioneers of the concept of Smart City and to those who have
enormously contributed towards the development and
promotion of the concept. I am also thankful to all the
members of the Smart City research team for the stimulating
discussions and shared views, and to all the other lab mates
in the Kansei Engineering laboratory, Nagaoka University of
Technology for their motivations and the support provided in
successfully completing this task. Last but not the least I
would like to thank my family; my parents for making me
the person I am.
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