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# Supporting Information

## Bhargava et al. 10.1073/pnas.1414764111

Note S1
See www.dolomite-microfluidics.com and www.micronit.com for
two examples of proprietary solutions to standardized jumper-
cable-based interconnects and monolithic microfluidic devices.
Note S2
All resistors in the equivalent circuit model (Fig. 2B) were
approximated by series addition of their contributing element
resistances in the actual component assembly (Eqs. S1S3; see
Table S2 for subscript nomenclature):
R=R
I
+R
T;750
+3R
C;1;000
+R
L;750
+R
SP;750
=R
struct
+R
ref
[S1]
R
s
=R
I
+R
T;750
+3R
C;1;000
+R
L;750
+R
select
=R
struct
+R
select
[S2]
R
o
=R
T;750
+R
C;1;000
+R
I;750
: [S3]
Here R is the resistance on the reference branch, R
s
is the
resistance on the variable branch with the selected resistor,
and R
o
is the outlet resistance. The component reference re-
sistor R
ref
and variable resistor R
select
uniquely control how
much blue and yellow dye enter the outlet T junction by throt-
tling the action of the pressure source differently in their re-
spective branches. This action is analogous to the use of a
current divider in electronic circuit design to deduce an un-
known resistance with respect to known resistance. Nodal
analysis was applied in the T junction to calculate the pressure
where the two dye streams were combined. The contribution
of each dye stream to the outlet streams was then computed
by simple application of Poiseuilles Law to each branch re-
sistor (Eqs. S4 and S5).
Q
y
=P

R
RR
s
+R
o
R
s
+R
o
R

[S4]
Q
b
=P

R
s
RR
s
+R
o
R
s
+R
o
R

: [S5]
Eq. 2 is obtained by dividing Eq. S4 by Eq. S5.
Bhargava et al. www.pnas.org/cgi/content/short/1414764111 1 of 6
Channel
Connector Pin
in Component Port
Pin Port Interface
250 m
Fig. S1. Micrograph of an interface between a connector pin and straight pass element, both of 750-m cross-sectional side length. The tight tolerances
associated with stereolithography manufacturing process allow for virtually no deregistration of channels across the interface relative to their cross-sectional
side length.
Bhargava et al. www.pnas.org/cgi/content/short/1414764111 2 of 6
Reservoir 1 Reservoir 2
Negative Displacement Pump
Collector 2
Collector 1
R
1
R
s1
R
s,n
=R
struct
+R
select,n
R
n
=R
struct
+R
ref,n
R
2
R
s2
Q
o2
Q
o1
R
o
R
o
R
1
R
s1
R
2
R
s2
R
3
R
s3
R
o
Q
o1
Q
o2
Q
o3
R
o
R
o
R
1
R
s1
R
2
R
s2
R
3
R
s3
R
4
R
s4
R
o
Q
o1
R
o
Q
o2
R
o
Q
o3
R
o
Q
o4
Fig. S2. Comparison of equivalent circuit models for (Top) two-, (Middle) three-, and (Bottom) four-outlet parallelized configurations of the tunable mixer
system (appearing left to right in Fig. 4). Each single-outlet subcircuit is appended to the inlet reservoirs such that the mixing ratio m
o,n
of outlet streams Q
o,n
,
where n = 14, is independently controlled by the ratio of R
s,n
/R
n
. The system was constructed with rotational symmetry around a cylindrical axis so that
no additional resistance due to excess components contributed to the branch resistances despite the expansion of operational capabilities, ensuring that the
ratio of select and reference resistors R
select,n
and R
ref,n
remained the only throttles on the distribution of pressures (and thus flow rates) in single-outlet
subcircuit branches.
Bhargava et al. www.pnas.org/cgi/content/short/1414764111 3 of 6
50 k 375 k
Output
+5V
Infrared LED
IR sensitive
phototransistor
Fig. S3. Electrical circuit diagram depicting the operation of the near-infrared droplet measurement element. LED, light-emitting diode.
Fig. S4. Contact angle was measured between a water droplet surrounded by oil and an (A) uncoated and (B) coated channel surface, showing effective
modification of the channel hydrophobicity by initiated chemical vapor deposition.
Bhargava et al. www.pnas.org/cgi/content/short/1414764111 4 of 6
Fig. S5. Potting of joints between components and connectors by direct application of (A) epoxy and (B) silicone pipe sealant. (C) A T-junction emulsification
device was connected to breather tubing and completely encased in poly(dimethylsiloxane).
Table S1. Library of constructed circuit elements and their
designed segment cross-sectional side length h, reference label
for circuit analysis, theoretical hydrodynamic resistance R as due
to designed side length, and expected resistance due to
manufacturing imperfection R
exp
(presented with percentile SD)
Element h, m Label R, MPasm
3
R
exp
, MPasm
3
Connector 1,000 R
C,1000
227.20 223.1 5.5%
Straight pass 500 R
SP,500
2,726.40 2,720.41 3.7%
750 R
SP,750
538.55 525.69 6.2%
1,000 R
SP,1000
170.40 169.67 3.1%
L joint 500 R
L,500
2,726.40 2,720.41 3.7%
750 R
L,750
538.55 525.69 6.2%
1,000 R
L,1000
170.40 169.67 3.1%
Mixer 635 R
M,635
16,227.00 17,708.04 4.2%
750 R
L,750
6,395.30 6218.5 7.2%
1,000 R
L,1000
1,846.00 1838.1 3.1%
T junction 500 R
(T),500
1,363.20 1,360.21 3.7%
750 R
(T),750
269.28 262.85 6.2%
1,000 R
(T),1000
85.20 84.835 3.1%
X junction 500 R
(X),500
1,363.20 1,360.21 3.7%
750 R
(X),750
269.28 262.85 6.2%
1,000 R
(X),1000
85.20 84.835 3.1%
Interface 750 R
I,750
448.79 438.08 6.2%
XT junction 750 R
(XT),750
269.28 262.85 6.2%
XX junction 750 R
(XX),750
269.28 262.85 6.2%
IR sensor 642.5 R
IR,642.5
999.95 993.57 0.99%
In devices with multiple outlets, R is presented as the internal segment
resistance contributed by the equivalent circuit diagram from that particular
element in Table S3. The labels used during circuit analysis are placeholders
for the numerical averages presented in their corresponding row values
of R
exp
.
Bhargava et al. www.pnas.org/cgi/content/short/1414764111 5 of 6
Table S2. Comparison of intended and measured side length of
segments (h and h
measured
, respectively) with corresponding SD
h, m h
measured
, m n
1,000 1,001 8 75
750 754 12 100
642.5 644 2 12
635 621 7 12
500 500 5 36
The number of samples measured for a particular category of h is given
by n.
Table S3. Catalogue of components and their associated names, CAD drawings, orientation
visual cues, and internal equivalent circuit diagrams
t i u c r i C t n e n o p m o C e u C t n e m e l E
Connector
Straight Pass
L-Joint
Mixer
T-Junction
X-Junction
Interface
XT-Junction
XX-Junction
Bhargava et al. www.pnas.org/cgi/content/short/1414764111 6 of 6

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