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HUAWEI NetEngine5000E Core Router

V800R002C01
Configuration Guide - Interface and
Data Link
Issue 01
Date 2011-10-15
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.


Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2011. All rights reserved.
No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written
consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

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and other Huawei trademarks are trademarks of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
All other trademarks and trade names mentioned in this document are the property of their respective holders.

Notice
The purchased products, services and features are stipulated by the contract made between Huawei and the
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purchase scope or the usage scope. Unless otherwise specified in the contract, all statements, information,
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The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Every effort has been made in the
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Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
Address: Huawei Industrial Base
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People's Republic of China
Website: http://www.huawei.com
Email: support@huawei.com
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About This Document
Intended Audience
This document provides the basic concepts, configuration procedures, and configuration
examples in different application scenarios of the Interface Management feature supported by
the NE5000E device.
This document describes how to configure the Basic Configurations feature.
This document is intended for:
l Data configuration engineers
l Commissioning engineers
l Network monitoring engineers
l System maintenance engineers
Related Versions (Optional)
The following table lists the product versions related to this document.
Product Name Version
HUAWEI NetEngine5000E
Core Router
V800R002C01

Symbol Conventions
The symbols that may be found in this document are defined as follows.
Symbol Description
Indicates a hazard with a high level of risk, which if not
avoided, will result in death or serious injury.
Indicates a hazard with a medium or low level of risk, which
if not avoided, could result in minor or moderate injury.
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Symbol Description
Indicates a potentially hazardous situation, which if not
avoided, could result in equipment damage, data loss,
performance degradation, or unexpected results.
Indicates a tip that may help you solve a problem or save time.
Provides additional information to emphasize or supplement
important points of the main text.

Command Conventions (Optional)
The command conventions that may be found in this document are defined as follows.
Convention Description
Boldface The keywords of a command line are in boldface.
Italic Command arguments are in italics.
[ ] Items (keywords or arguments) in brackets [ ] are optional.
{ x | y | ... } Optional items are grouped in braces and separated by
vertical bars. One item is selected.
[ x | y | ... ] Optional items are grouped in brackets and separated by
vertical bars. One item is selected or no item is selected.
{ x | y | ... }
*
Optional items are grouped in braces and separated by
vertical bars. A minimum of one item or a maximum of all
items can be selected.
[ x | y | ... ]
*
Optional items are grouped in brackets and separated by
vertical bars. Several items or no item can be selected.
&<1-n> The parameter before the & sign can be repeated 1 to n times.
# A line starting with the # sign is comments.

Change History
Updates between document issues are cumulative. Therefore, the latest document issue contains
all updates made in previous issues.
Changes in Issue 01 (2011-10-15)
The initial commercial release.
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Contents
About This Document.....................................................................................................................ii
1 Interface Management..................................................................................................................1
1.1 Interface Overview.............................................................................................................................................2
1.2 Interfaces Supported by the NE5000E...............................................................................................................4
1.3 Interface Basic Configuration.............................................................................................................................5
1.3.1 Creating Interfaces.....................................................................................................................................6
1.3.2 Configuring the Interface Description.......................................................................................................7
1.3.3 Configuring the MTU of the Interface......................................................................................................7
1.3.4 (Optional) Configuring the Interval for Collecting the Statistics of Traffic..............................................8
1.3.5 Enabling Interfaces....................................................................................................................................9
1.3.6 Checking the Configuration.......................................................................................................................9
1.4 Configuring the Interface Flapping Control.....................................................................................................10
1.5 Logical Interface Configuration.......................................................................................................................11
1.5.1 Creating a Loopback Interface and Configuring Its IP Address..............................................................11
1.5.2 Entering the Null Interface View.............................................................................................................12
1.5.3 Checking the Configuration.....................................................................................................................12
1.6 Configuration Examples...................................................................................................................................13
1.6.1 Example for Managing Interfaces...........................................................................................................13
2 Ethernet Interface Configuration.............................................................................................16
2.1 Ethernet Interface Overview.............................................................................................................................17
2.2 Ethernet Interface Attributes Supported by the NE5000E...............................................................................19
2.3 Configuring an Ethernet Interface on an LPU..................................................................................................22
2.3.1 Configuring the MTU for an Ethernet Interface......................................................................................22
2.3.2 Configuring the Working Mode for an Ethernet Interface......................................................................24
2.3.3 Configuring the Working Rate for an Ethernet Electrical Interface........................................................25
2.3.4 Configuring the Optical or Electrical Mode for a GE Interface..............................................................26
2.3.5 Configuring the LAN/WAN Transmission Mode for a 10GE Interface.................................................27
2.3.6 Configuring the Overhead Byte for a 10GE WAN Interface..................................................................28
2.3.7 Enabling Flow Control on a GE Interface...............................................................................................29
2.3.8 Configuring the Hold-Time Interval After an Interface Becomes Up/Down..........................................29
2.3.9 Checking the Configuration.....................................................................................................................30
2.4 Configuring an Ethernet Interface on an MPU.................................................................................................31
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2.4.1 Configuring the Working Mode for an Ethernet Interface......................................................................31
2.4.2 Configuring the Working Rate for an Ethernet Electrical Interface........................................................32
2.4.3 Configuring the Promiscuity Mode.........................................................................................................33
2.4.4 Checking the Configuration.....................................................................................................................33
2.5 Configuring Ethernet Sub-interfaces to Support Communication Between VLANs.......................................34
2.5.1 Creating a Sub-interface..........................................................................................................................36
2.5.2 Configuring an IP address.......................................................................................................................37
2.5.3 Configuring 802.1Q Encapsulation.........................................................................................................37
2.5.4 Checking the Configuration.....................................................................................................................38
2.6 Configuration Examples...................................................................................................................................39
2.6.1 Example for Configuring Ethernet Interface Parameters........................................................................39
2.6.2 Example for Configuring Ethernet Sub-interfaces to Support Communication Between VLANs.........42
2.6.3 Example for Configuring Ethernet Sub-interfaces for Communication Between VLAN Users and Non-
VLAN Users.....................................................................................................................................................45
3 Eth-Trunk Interface Configuration..........................................................................................48
3.1 Eth-Trunk Overview.........................................................................................................................................50
3.2 Eth-Trunk Features Supported by the NE5000E..............................................................................................56
3.3 Configuring the Link Aggregation Mode of an Eth-Trunk Interface...............................................................59
3.3.1 Creating an Eth-Trunk Interface..............................................................................................................61
3.3.2 Setting the Link Aggregation Mode of an Eth-Trunk Interface..............................................................61
3.3.3 Adding Interfaces to an Eth-Trunk Interface...........................................................................................62
3.3.4 Checking the Configuration.....................................................................................................................63
3.4 Configuring Eth-Trunk Interface Parameters...................................................................................................65
3.4.1 Configuring Public Parameters of an Eth-Trunk Interface......................................................................66
3.4.2 Configuring Parameters of an Eth-Trunk Interface in Static LACP Mode.............................................67
3.4.3 Checking the Configuration.....................................................................................................................69
3.5 Configuring Parameters of an Eth-Trunk Member Interface...........................................................................70
3.6 Configuring Eth-Trunk Sub-interfaces to Support Communication Between VLANs....................................72
3.6.1 Creating a Sub-interface..........................................................................................................................74
3.6.2 Assigning an IP Address..........................................................................................................................74
3.6.3 Configuring 802.1Q Encapsulation.........................................................................................................75
3.6.4 Checking the Configuration.....................................................................................................................75
3.7 Maintenance......................................................................................................................................................76
3.7.1 Clearing the Statistics on Eth-Trunk Interfaces.......................................................................................76
3.8 Configuration Examples...................................................................................................................................77
3.8.1 Example for Configuring Eth-Trunk Interfaces to Work in Manual Load Balancing Mode..................77
3.8.2 Example for Configuring an Eth-Trunk Interface to Work in Static LACP Mode.................................80
3.8.3 Example for Configuring Eth-Trunk Sub-interfaces to Support Communication Between VLANs......86
4 POS Interface Configuration.....................................................................................................89
4.1 Overview of POS Interfaces.............................................................................................................................90
4.2 Features of POS Interfaces in the NE5000E....................................................................................................93
4.3 Configuring POS Interfaces..............................................................................................................................93
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4.3.1 Configuring the Link Layer Protocol......................................................................................................94
4.3.2 Configuring Clock Mode.........................................................................................................................94
4.3.3 Configuring Overhead Bytes...................................................................................................................95
4.3.4 Configuring Frame Format......................................................................................................................97
4.3.5 Configuring the Scramble Function........................................................................................................97
4.3.6 Configuring the Length of the CRC Check Character............................................................................98
4.3.7 Configuring the MTU..............................................................................................................................99
4.3.8 Configuring the Loopback Function on a POS Interface......................................................................100
4.3.9 Checking the Configuration...................................................................................................................101
5 WDM Interface Configuration................................................................................................103
5.1 Overview of WDM Interfaces........................................................................................................................104
5.2 WDM Interface Features Supported by the NE5000E...................................................................................104
5.3 Configuring WDM Interfaces.........................................................................................................................105
5.3.1 Configuring the Operating Mode..........................................................................................................106
5.3.2 Configuring Optical Parameters............................................................................................................107
5.3.3 Configuring Service Parameters............................................................................................................108
5.3.4 Checking the Configuration...................................................................................................................108
6 Configurations of HDLC and IP-Trunk................................................................................110
6.1 Overview of HDLC and IP-Trunk..................................................................................................................111
6.2 HDLC and IP-Trunk Supported by the NE5000E..........................................................................................111
6.3 Configuring Basic HDLC Functions..............................................................................................................112
6.3.1 Configuring HDLC as the Link Layer Protocol of an Interface............................................................112
6.3.2 Assigning an IP Address to an Interface...............................................................................................113
6.3.3 (Optional) Configuring the Polling Interval..........................................................................................114
6.3.4 Checking the Configuration...................................................................................................................115
6.4 Configuring IP-Trunk Interfaces....................................................................................................................115
6.4.1 Creating an IP-Trunk Interface and Adding Interfaces to the IP-Trunk Interface................................116
6.4.2 Assigning an IP Address to an IP-Trunk Interface................................................................................118
6.4.3 (Optional) Configuring the Lower Threshold of Up Links...................................................................119
6.4.4 (Optional) Configuring the Load Balancing Mode for an IP-Trunk Interface......................................119
6.4.5 (Optional) Configuring the Weight for a Member Link........................................................................120
6.4.6 Checking the Configuration...................................................................................................................120
6.5 Maintaining HDLC and IP-Trunk..................................................................................................................122
6.5.1 Clearing Statistics About HDLC and IP-Trunk Interfaces....................................................................122
6.6 Configuration Examples.................................................................................................................................122
6.6.1 Example for Configuring Basic HDLC Functions................................................................................122
6.6.2 Example for Configuring IP Unnumbered............................................................................................125
6.6.3 Example for Configuring IP-Trunk.......................................................................................................127
7 PPP Configuration.....................................................................................................................131
7.1 PPP Overview.................................................................................................................................................132
7.2 PPP Supported by the NE5000E....................................................................................................................132
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7.3 Configure an interface to support PPP...........................................................................................................132
7.3.1 Configuring PPP as the Link Layer Protocol on an Interface...............................................................134
7.3.2 (Optional) Enabling the PPP MRU Negotiation....................................................................................134
7.3.3 (Optional) Configuring the Negotiation Timeout Period......................................................................135
7.3.4 (Optional) Configuring the Polling Interval..........................................................................................136
7.3.5 (Optional) Configuring the DNS Server Address Negotiation..............................................................137
7.3.6 (Optional) Preventing the Peer Host Route from Being Added to the Local Routing Table of Direct Routes
........................................................................................................................................................................138
7.3.7 Checking the Configuration...................................................................................................................139
7.4 Configuring Unidirectional PAP Authentication...........................................................................................140
7.4.1 Configuring the Authenticator to Authenticate Its Peer in PAP Mode.................................................141
7.4.2 Configuring the Authenticatee to be Authenticated in PAP Mode........................................................142
7.4.3 Checking the Configuration...................................................................................................................143
7.5 Configuring Unidirectional CHAP Authentication........................................................................................143
7.5.1 Configuring the Authenticator with a User Name to Authenticate Its Peer in CHAP Mode................144
7.5.2 Configuring the Authenticator Without a User Name to Authenticate Its Peer in CHAP Mode..........146
7.5.3 Checking the Configuration...................................................................................................................148
7.6 Configuration Examples.................................................................................................................................149
7.6.1 Example for Configuring PAP Authentication......................................................................................149
7.6.2 Example for Configuring Unidirectional CHAP Authentication..........................................................152
7.6.3 Example for Configuring Bidirectional CHAP Authentication............................................................154
8 Configuring Transmission Alarm Customization and Suppression..............................158
8.1 Overview of Transmission Alarm Customization and Suppression ..............................................................159
8.2 Transmission Alarm Customization and Suppression Supported by the NE5000E.......................................160
8.3 Configuring Transmission Alarm Customization...........................................................................................160
8.3.1 Configuring the Types of Alarms that Impact the Physical Status of Interfaces...................................161
8.3.2 (Optional) Configuring b3tca, sdbere, and sfbere Alarm Thresholds...................................................162
8.3.3 Checking the Configuration...................................................................................................................163
8.4 Configuring an Interval for Filtering Transmission Alarms...........................................................................164
8.5 Configuring Transmission Alarm Suppression..............................................................................................166
8.6 Maintaining Transmission Alarm Customization and Suppression...............................................................167
8.6.1 Clearing the Information About Transmission Alarms.........................................................................168
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1 Interface Management
About This Chapter
You can create interfaces, and then configure the description and MTU for the interfaces.
1.1 Interface Overview
By reading this section, you can know physical and logical interfaces supported by the
NE5000E, interface views and prompts, and common link protocols and access technologies.
1.2 Interfaces Supported by the NE5000E
You can know what physical and logical interfaces that the NE5000E supports.
1.3 Interface Basic Configuration
You can manage interfaces by familiarizing yourself with interface types, viewing interface
configuration, and setting an interval at which interface traffic statistics are collected.
1.4 Configuring the Interface Flapping Control
Describes how to configure the interface flapping control.
1.5 Logical Interface Configuration
By understanding types, configuration procedures, and configuration examples of logical
interfaces, you can configure logical interfaces as needed to maximize device performance.
1.6 Configuration Examples
Through the following examples, you can know the basic usage of interface management.
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1.1 Interface Overview
By reading this section, you can know physical and logical interfaces supported by the
NE5000E, interface views and prompts, and common link protocols and access technologies.
Interface Types
The router exchanges data and interacts with other devices on a network through interfaces.
They are classified into two types: physical interfaces and logical interfaces.
l Physical Interfaces
Physical interfaces physically exist on boards. They are divided into the following types:
LAN interfaces: interfaces through which the router can exchange data with the devices
on a LAN.
WAN interfaces: interfaces through which the router can exchange data with remote
devices on a WAN.
l Logical Interfaces
Logical interfaces do not physically exist and need to be configured, but data can be
exchanged through these interfaces.
Interface Views and Prompts
The NE5000E supports the command views and prompts of physical interfaces in Table 1-1
and the command views and prompts of logical interfaces in Table 1-2.
Table 1-1 Command views and prompts of physical interfaces supported by the NE5000E
Interface Name Command
View
Accessing
Command
Prompt
GE interface GE interface view Using the interface
gigabitethernet
1/0/0 command in
the system view
[HUAWEI-
GigabitEthernet1/0/0]
POS interface POS interface
view
Using the interface
pos 3/0/0 command
in the system view
[HUAWEI-Pos3/0/0]

Table 1-2 Command views and prompts of logical interfaces
Interface
Name
Command
View
Accessing
Command
Prompt
Sub-interface Sub-interface
view
Using the interface
gigabitethernet
1/0/0.1 command in the
system view
[HUAWEI-
GigabitEthernet1/0/0.1]
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Interface
Name
Command
View
Accessing
Command
Prompt
Eth-Trunk
interface
Eth-Trunk
interface view
Using the interface
eth-trunk 0 command
in the system view
[HUAWEI-Eth-Trunk0]
Loopback
interface
Loopback
interface view
Using the interface
loopback 2 command
in the system view
[HUAWEI-LoopBack2]
Null interface Null interface
view
Using the interface
null 0 command in the
system view
[HUAWEI-NULL0]
IP-Trunk
interface
IP-Trunk
interface view
Using the interface ip-
trunk 0 command in
the system view
[HUAWEI-Ip-Trunk0]
Tunnel
interface
Tunnel
interface view
Using the interface
tunnel 1/0/6 command
in the system view
[HUAWEI-Tunnel1/0/6]

Commonly-used Link Protocols and Access Technologies
The link layer is responsible for accurately sending data from a node to the neighboring node.
It receives packets from the network layer, encapsulates the packets in frames, and then sends
the frames to the physical layer.
Major link layer protocols supported by the NE5000E are listed as follows:
l Ethernet
Currently, the LAN mostly refers to the Ethernet. The Ethernet is a broadcast network,
which is flexible, simple, and easy to expand, and thus widely used.
l Trunk
Trunk can be classified into Eth-Trunk and IP-Trunk. Eth-Trunk must be composed of
Ethernet links, and IP-Trunk must be composed of POS links.
The trunk technology has the following advantages:
Increased bandwidth: The bandwidth of an IP-Trunk is the total bandwidth of all
member interfaces.
Improved reliability: When a link fails, traffic is automatically switched to other
available links. This ensures reliability of the trunk link.
l PPP
The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is used to encapsulate IP packets on serial links. It
supports both the asynchronous transmission of 8-bit data without the parity check and the
bit-oriented synchronous connection.
PPP consists of the Link Control Protocol (LCP) and the Network Control Protocol (NCP).
LCP is used to create, configure, and test links; NCP is used to control different network
layer protocols.
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l HDLC
The High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) is a suite of protocols that are used to transmit
data between network nodes. HDLC is widely used at the data link layer.
In HDLC, the receiver responds with an acknowledgement when it receives frames
transmitted over the network. In addition, HDLC manages data flows and the data-sending
interval.
1.2 Interfaces Supported by the NE5000E
You can know what physical and logical interfaces that the NE5000E supports.
Interfaces Supported by the NE5000E
Currently, physical interfaces supported by the NE5000E are GE interfaces, 10GE interfaces,
and POS interfaces.
CAUTION
Forwarding service is not supported on the management interface of the MPU.
Currently, logical interfaces supported by the NE5000E are sub-interfaces, Eth-Trunk interfaces,
loopback interfaces, null interfaces, Eth-Trunk interfaces, IP-Trunk interfaces, and tunnel
interfaces.
Interface Flapping Control Supported by the NE5000E
Physical signal interference or link layer configuration errors on a network may cause interfaces
to alternate between Up and Down, resulting in routing protocol flapping. This may seriously
affect devices and networks, or even cause some devices to break down.
The flap control function can control the interface Up and Down events, reducing the impact on
device or network stability.
The following concepts are important in interface flapping control:
l The suppress penalty value of interfaces (penalty value): This value is calculated by
suppress algorithm according to the status of the interface. The core of the algorithm is that
the suppress penalty value increases with the changing times of the status of the interface
and decays by exponential.
l The suppress threshold of interfaces (suppress): When this value is less than the suppress
penalty value, the interface is suppressed. This value must be greater than the reuse
threshold and less than the maximum suppress penalty value.
l The reuse threshold value of interfaces (reuse): When this value is greater than the suppress
penalty value, the interface is not suppressed. This value must be less than the suppress
threshold.
l The maximum suppress penalty value of interfaces (ceiling): This value does not increase
when the maximum suppress penalty value reaches the maximum. This value must be
greater than the suppress threshold.
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In the NE5000E, these parameters can be set to control the event that the interface becomes Up
or Down.
The relationships among them are shown in Figure 1-1.
Figure 1-1 Diagram of the interface flapping control
t1 t2 t3 t4 t5
Penalty Value
ceiling
suppress
reuse
time
t6

1.3 Interface Basic Configuration
You can manage interfaces by familiarizing yourself with interface types, viewing interface
configuration, and setting an interval at which interface traffic statistics are collected.
Applicable Environment
In the case that many interfaces need to be maintained, you can configure the interface
description to rapidly and accurately identify interfaces.
l To maintain many interfaces, you need to describe these interfaces to accurately and rapidly
recognize the interfaces.
l A router reassembles and fragments the sent and received packets according to the MTU.
Pre-configuration Tasks
Before managing interfaces, complete the following task:
l Powering on the router and ensuring that the router starts normally
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Configuration Procedures
Figure 1-2 Configuration flowchart of interface basic configuration
Create an interface
Configure the interface description
Configure the MTU of the interface
Enable the interface
Mandatory procedure
Optional procedure
Related Tasks
1.6.1 Example for Managing Interfaces
1.3.1 Creating Interfaces
You need to use different commands to create interfaces according to their physical attributes.
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface interface-type interface-number
The interface is created.
In the commands, interface-type specifies the interface type and interface-number specifies the
interface number.
NOTE
If the interface exists, the command is used to enter the interface view.
Step 3 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
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1.3.2 Configuring the Interface Description
In the case that many interfaces need to be maintained, you can configure the interface
description to rapidly and accurately identify interfaces.
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface interface-type interface-number
The interface view is displayed.
In the commands, interface-type specifies the interface type and interface-number specifies the
interface number.
Step 3 Run:
description regular-expression
The interface description is configured.
You can run the display interface description command to view the interface description.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
1.3.3 Configuring the MTU of the Interface
The NE5000E disassembles and reassembles packets that are received and sent on an interface
according to the MTU of the interface.
Context
NOTE
l After changing the MTU of a POS interface by using the mtu command, you need to restart the interface
to validate the new MTU. To restart the interface, you can run the shutdown and the undo
shutdown commands or only run the restart command in succession in the interface view.
l Loopback interface and NULL interface cannot be configured with the MTU.
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface interface-type interface-number
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The interface view is displayed.
Step 3 Run:
mtu mtu or ipv6 mtu mtu
The MTU of the interface is configured.
NOTE
l If IPv4 attributes have been configured on the interface, run the mtu command to set the MTU of the
IPv4 packets to be sent by the interface.
l If IPv6 attributes have been configured on the interface, run the ipv6 mtu command to set the MTU
of the IPv6 packets to be sent by the interface.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
1.3.4 (Optional) Configuring the Interval for Collecting the
Statistics of Traffic
The global interval for collecting traffic statistics takes effect on all the interfaces that are not
configured with an interval for collecting traffic statistics.
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 (Optional) Run:
interface interface-type interface-number
The interface view is displayed.
NOTE
This step is needed only when you perform configurations on an interface. If you perform configurations
in the system view, skip this step. The global interval for collecting traffic statistics takes effect on all the
interfaces that are not configured with an interval for collecting traffic statistics. This helps you configure
the interval for collecting traffic statistics for multiple interfaces at a time.
On a main control board, the Ethernet interfaces that are used to connect the network management station
or the multi-frame cannot be configured with the interval for collecting traffic statistics.
Step 3 Run:
set flow-stat interval interval
The global interval for collecting traffic statistics is configured.
NOTE
The new interval takes effect after the original interval expires. Traffic statistics on logical interfaces are
displayed in the second periodical update after the new interval takes effect. Traffic statistics on physical
interfaces are displayed when the new interval takes effect.
Step 4 Run:
commit
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The configuration is committed.
----End
1.3.5 Enabling Interfaces
Generally, physical interfaces are initialized and enabled when the router is powered on.
Procedure
l By default, the interface is enabled.
l If the interface is disabled, you can run the command below to enable it.
1. Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
2. Run:
interface interface-type interface-number
The interface view is displayed.
3. Run:
undo shutdown
The interface is enabled.
4. Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
1.3.6 Checking the Configuration
After the configuration is complete, you can run the following commands to view the status of
the interface and statistics on the interface.
Procedure
l Run the display interface [ interface-type interface-number ] command to view the status
of the interface and statistics on the interface.
----End
Example
Run the display interface command, and you can view the status of interfaces on the router.
<HUAWEI> display interface gigabitethernet 2/0/0
GigabitEthernet2/0/0 current state : UP
Line protocol current state : UP
Description: HUAWEI, GigabitEthernet2/0/0 Interface (ifindex:4, vr: 0)
Route Port,The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1500
IP Sending Frames' Format is PKTFMT_ETHNT_2, Hardware address is 0018-82fb-5e03
Last physical up time : 2010-07-14 12:09:15
Last physical down time : 2010-07-14 12:04:18
Current system time: 2010-07-15 15:46:19
The Vendor PN is HFBR-5710L
The Vendor Name is AVAGO
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Port BW: 1G, Transceiver max BW: 1G, Transceiver Mode: MultiMode
WaveLength: 850nm, Transmission Distance: 550m
Loopback:none, full-duplex mode, negotiation: disable, Pause Flowcontrol:Receive
Enable and Send Enable
Statistics last cleared:2010-07-15 09:16:19
Last 300 seconds input rate 24035208 bits/sec, 5961 packets/sec
Last 300 seconds output rate 24685768 bits/sec, 2051 packets/sec
Input: 70263847584 bytes, 139412396 packets
Output: 72165571712 bytes, 47982428 packets
Input:
Unicast: 139412396 packets, Multicast: 0 packets
Broadcast: 0 packets, JumboOctets: 0 packets
CRC: 0 packets, Symbol: 0 packets
Overrun: 0 packets, InRangeLength: 0 packets
LongPacket: 0 packets, Jabber: 0 packets, Alignment: 0 packets
Fragment: 0 packets, Undersized Frame: 0 packets
RxPause: 0 packets
Output:
Unicast: 47982428 packets, Multicast: 0 packets
Broadcast: 0 packets, JumboOctets: 0 packets
Lost: 0 packets, Overflow: 0 packets, Underrun: 0 packets
System: 0 packets, Overruns: 0 packets
TxPause: 0 packets
1.4 Configuring the Interface Flapping Control
Describes how to configure the interface flapping control.
Applicable Environment
The flapping of routing protocols, MPLS and other protocols caused by the frequent change of
the interface status may influence the stability of the whole network. To avoid this, you can
configure the flapping control feature.
Pre-configuration Tasks
Before configuring the flapping control feature, you need to configure the physical attributes for
the router interfaces.
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface interface-type interface-number
The interface view is displayed.
NOTE
The null interface and loopback interface do not support flapping control.
Step 3 Run:
control-flap [ suppress reuse ceiling decay-ok decay-ng ]
The flapping control feature on the interface is enabled.
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The value of suppress is 1000 times the suppress threshold of the interface. It ranges from 1 to
20000. The default value is 2000. The value of suppress must be greater than the value of
reuse and smaller than the value of ceiling.
The value of reuse is 1000 times the reuse threshold of the interface. It ranges from 1 to 20000.
The default value is 750. The value of reuse must be smaller than the value of suppress.
The value of ceiling is 1000 times the suppress penalty value of the interface. It ranges from
1001 to 20000. The default value is 6000. The value of ceiling must be greater than the value of
suppress.
The value of decay-ok is the time taken to decay the penalty value to half when the interface is
Up. It ranges from 1 to 900 seconds. The default value is 54 seconds.
The value of decay-ng is the time taken to decay the penalty value to half when the interface is
Down. It ranges from 1 to 900 seconds. The default value is 54 seconds.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
Checking the Configuration
Run the display control-flap interface interface-type interface-number command to check the
previous configuration.
Running the display control-flap command, you can view the interface flapping control features
configured on the interface.
<HUAWEI> display control-flap
Interface GigabitEthernet1/0/1
Control flap status: unsuppressed
Flap count: 0
Current penalty: 0.000
Control flap parameter: suppress reuse decay-ok decay-ng ceiling
2.000 0.750 15 15 16.000
1.5 Logical Interface Configuration
By understanding types, configuration procedures, and configuration examples of logical
interfaces, you can configure logical interfaces as needed to maximize device performance.
1.5.1 Creating a Loopback Interface and Configuring Its IP Address
In most cases, you need to assign IP addresses to loopback interfaces, and then use the loopback
interfaces that are always Up to communicate with other devices.
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
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Step 2 Run:
interface loopback loopback-number
A loopback interface is created.
You can create or delete loopback interface dynamically. Once a loopback interface is created,
it keeps Up all the time until it is deleted.
Step 3 Run:
ip address ip-address [ mask | mask-length ]
The IP address of the loopback interface is configured.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
1.5.2 Entering the Null Interface View
The system automatically creates a Null interface NULL0.
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface null 0
The null interface view is displayed.
The null interface remains in the Up state all the time. It cannot forward data packet. You can
neither configure an IP address for it nor encapsulate it with protocols.
----End
1.5.3 Checking the Configuration
After the configuration on the interface is completed, you can run the following commands to
view the status of the interface and statistics on the interface.
Prerequisite
Configuration of the Loopback interface or NULL interface is completed.
Procedure
Step 1 Run the display interface loopback [ loopback-number ] command to view the status of the
Loopback interface.
Step 2 Run the display interface null [ 0 ] command to view the status of the NULL interface.
----End
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Example
Run the display interface loopback command, and you can view the status of the link protocol
on the Loopback interface is UP.
<HUAWEI> display interface loopback 1
LoopBack0 current state : UP
Line protocol current state : UP (spoofing)
Description: HUAWEI, LoopBack0 Interface (ifindex: 39, vr: 0)
Route Port,The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1500
Internet protocol processing : disabled
Current system time: 2010-07-15 16:58:21
Physical is Loopback
Last 300 seconds input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Last 300 seconds output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Realtime 0 seconds input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Realtime 0 seconds output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Input: 0 packets,0 bytes,
0 unicast,0 broadcast,0 multicast
0 errors,0 drops,0 unknownprotocol
Output:0 packets,0 bytes,
0 unicast,0 broadcast,0 multicast
0 errors,0 drops
Run the display interface null command, and you can view the status of the NULL interface is
UP.
<HUAWEI> display interface null 0
NULL0 current state : UP
Line protocol current state : UP (spoofing)
Description: HUAWEI, NULL0 Interface (ifindex: 1, vr: 0)
Route Port,The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1500
Internet protocol processing : disabled
Current system time: 2010-07-15 16:59:03
Physical is NULL DEV
Last 300 seconds input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Last 300 seconds output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Realtime 0 seconds input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Realtime 0 seconds output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Input: 0 packets,0 bytes,
0 unicast,0 broadcast,0 multicast
0 errors,0 drops,0 unknownprotocol
Output:0 packets,0 bytes,
0 unicast,0 broadcast,0 multicast
0 errors,0 drops
1.6 Configuration Examples
Through the following examples, you can know the basic usage of interface management.
1.6.1 Example for Managing Interfaces
In this example, you can know how to configure the description, MTU, and alarm function on
an interface.
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Networking Requirements
CAUTION
For the NE5000E, the interface is numbered as slot number/card number/interface number. For
the NE5000E cluster, the interface is numbered as chassis ID/slot number/card number/interface
number. The slot number is chassis ID/slot ID.
You need to manage the interface if it is to be used.
Configuration Notes
Only certain interfaces support traffic statistics. On the main board, the Ethernet interfaces that
are used to connect to the NMS or interconnect with multi-chassis cannot be configured with
traffic statistics.
Configuration Roadmap
The configuration roadmap is as follows:
1. Configure the interface description.
2. Configure the MTU of the interface.
3. Configure the interval for collecting interface-based traffic statistics.
Data Preparation
To complete the configuration, you need the following data:
l Name of an interface
l MTU of the interface
Procedure
Step 1 Configure the description of an interface on the router.
<HUAWEI> system-view
[~HUAWEI] interface gigabitethernet 2/0/0
[~HUAWEI-GigabitEthernet2/0/0] description for IFM
Step 2 Configure the MTU of the interface.
[~HUAWEI-GigabitEthernet2/0/0] mtu 1000
[~HUAWEI-GigabitEthernet2/0/0] commit
[~HUAWEI-GigabitEthernet2/0/0] quit
Step 3 Configure the interval for collecting traffic statistics on the interface.
[~HUAWEI] subinterface traffic-statistics enable
[~HUAWEI] commit
Step 4 Create a subinterface
[~HUAWEI] interface gigabitethernet 2/0/0.1
[~HUAWEI] commit
----End
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Configuration Files
The following lists the configuration file of the router.
#
sysname HUAWEI
#
set flow-stat interval 100
#
interface gigabitethernet2/0/0
description for IFM
mtu 1000
#
interface gigabitethernet2/0/0.1
statistic enable
#
return
Related Tasks
1.3 Interface Basic Configuration
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2 Ethernet Interface Configuration
About This Chapter
The Ethernet becomes the most important local area network (LAN) networking technology
because it is flexible, simple, and easy to implement.
2.1 Ethernet Interface Overview
Ethernet interfaces include conventional Ethernet interfaces, Fast Ethernet (FE) interfaces, and
Gigabit Ethernet (GE) interfaces.
2.2 Ethernet Interface Attributes Supported by the NE5000E
This section describes Ethernet interface features supported by the NE5000E in light of better
understanding the process of configuring Ethernet interfaces.
2.3 Configuring an Ethernet Interface on an LPU
You can configure Ethernet interfaces on LPUs to ensure correct physical connections between
devices.
2.4 Configuring an Ethernet Interface on an MPU
After being configured, the Ethernet interface on an MPU can connect a device to the network
management station (NMS) for management.
2.5 Configuring Ethernet Sub-interfaces to Support Communication Between VLANs
To implement communication between hosts in a VLAN and hosts outside the VLAN, you need
to create sub-interfaces on the Ethernet interfaces connecting a Layer 3 device to Layer 2 devices
and then encapsulate the sub-interfaces with 802.1q.
2.6 Configuration Examples
This section provides configuration examples of Ethernet interfaces, including networking
requirements, configuration roadmap, data preparation, and configuration files.
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2.1 Ethernet Interface Overview
Ethernet interfaces include conventional Ethernet interfaces, Fast Ethernet (FE) interfaces, and
Gigabit Ethernet (GE) interfaces.
Introduction to Ethernet Interfaces
Both the Ethernet and token ring networks are typical types of LANs. The Ethernet technology
has become the most important LAN networking technology because it is flexible, simple, and
easy to implement.
The NE5000E supports the following types of Ethernet interfaces:
l GE interfaces comply with 1000Base-TX physical layer specifications and are compatible
with the 10Base-T and 100Base-TX physical layer specifications.
l 10GE interfaces comply with IEEE 802.3ae and are compatible with 10Base-T, 100Base-
TX, and 1000Base-TX physical layer specifications.
l 100GE interfaces comply with IEEE 802.3ba and are compatible with 100GBase-LR4
physical layer specifications.
Electrical Ethernet interfaces can work in either full duplex or half duplex mode. They support
auto-negotiation. In auto-negotiation mode, they negotiate with other network devices for the
most suitable duplex mode and rate. This simplifies system configuration and management.
Basic Concepts of Ethernet Interfaces
l Ethernet interface type
Table 2-1 shows the types of Ethernet interfaces defined on the device. Etherent interfaces
are classified into different types to meet various network requirements.
Table 2-1 Ethernet interface type
Interface type Description
Layer 3 Ethernet
interface
A Layer 3 Ethernet interface is a physical interface that operates at
the network layer. The interface can be configured with an IP
address, supporting Layer 3 protocols and providing routing
functions.
Layer 3 Ethernet
sub-interface
A Layer 3 Ethernet sub-interface is a logical interface that is
configured on a main interface. The main interface can be a physical
interface (such as a Layer 3 Ethernet interface) or a logical
interface. The Layer 3 Ethernet sub-interface shares physical layer
parameters of the main interface and can be configured with
specific link layer and network layer parameters. You can enable
or disable the sub-interface, without affecting the performance of
the main interface. The change of the main interface status,
however, affects the sub-interface. The sub-interface functions
properly only if the main interface is in the Up state.

l Ethernet Interface Rate and Duplex Mode
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NOTE
The description of the Ethernet interface rate and duplex mode are as follows: Ethernet optical
interfaces can enable the auto-negotiation mode, but do not support the setting of interface rates and
duplex modes.
By default, the Ethernet interface rate and duplex mode are automatically negotiated. Auto-
negotiation means that the local device automatically adjusts the interface rate and duplex
mode based on the interface rate and duplex mode of the peer so that both ends can work
in the same duplex mode at the highest possible speed.
It is recommended to configure auto-negotiation in compliance with the automatic
negotiation standard for Ethernet interfaces. If two ends of a link work at unmatched
interface rates or duplex modes, you need to disable auto-negotiation and manually set the
interface rates and duplex modes.
Manually setting interface rate and duplex mode usually complicates network planning and
maintenance, and incorrect settings may affect or even interrupt the communication on a
network.
If the rates of two ends of a link are set to 10 Mbit/s and 100 Mbit/s respectively, the
link goes Down.
If one end of a link works in a duplex mode at a fixed rate (such as 10 Mbit/s or 100
Mbit/s) while the other end works in auto-negotiation mode, the interface working in
auto-negotiation mode can detect the fixed rate of the peer interface but cannot detect
that the peer device works in the duplex mode. In this case, even if negotiation between
the two ends succeeds, the interface working in auto-negotiation mode adopts the default
working mode, 10M half duplex.
That is, if one end works in auto-negotiation mode while the other end works in a fixed
mode, the auto-negotiation mechanism does not take effect. To implement the auto-
negotiation mechanism, both the communicating parties must work in auto-negotiation
mode.
If one end of a link works in full duplex mode while the other end works in half duplex
mode, communication performance of the interfaces is degraded.
It is recommended that manually setting the interface rate and duplex mode be adopted
only when auto-negotiation of an Ethernet link fails or a problem occurs with auto-
negotiation. When there is an auto-negotiation problem, you are recommended to upgrade
software or hardware to support the auto-negotiation mechanism defined in IEEE 802.3u/
z.
NOTE
The poor quality of network cables may also cause auto-negotiation failures.
l Maximum Transfer Unit(MTU)
The MTU is the maximum transfer unit on a physical network, expressed in bytes. The
MTU is determined by the data link layer protocol, and thus networks with different data
link layer protocols have different MTUs.
Generally, the IP layer limits the length of a packet to be sent each time. Any time the IP
layer receives an IP packet to be sent, it checks to which local interface the packet needs
to be sent and obtains the MTU configured on the interface. Then, the IP layer compares
the MTU with the packet length. If the packet length is longer than the MTU, the IP layer
disassembles the packet to fragments, each no longer than the MTU. If forcible
unfragmentation is configured, some packets may be discarded during data transmission
at the IP layer.
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If the MTU is set too small and the size of packets is quite large, packets will be broken
into a great number of fragments, and then be discarded by QoS queues.
If the MTU is set too large, packets may be transmitted at a low speed.
l LAN/WAN mode of 10GE interface
A ten-GigabitEthernet (10GE) interface can operate in either of the following modes in
terms of physical feature:
LAN mode: In this mode, the 10GE interface transmits Ethernet packets and is used to
connect to the Ethernet network.
WAN mode: In this mode, the 10GE interface transmits Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
(SDH) frames and is used to connect to the SDH network.
The 10GE interface in WAN mode only supports point-to-point packet transmission.
NOTE
The 10GE interface in WAN mode encapsulates Ethernet packets to SDH frames.
The format of SDH frames encapsulated by a 10G Ethernet interface is different from that
encapsulated by a 10G POS interface. Therefore, the 10G Ethernet interface in WAN mode
cannot interwork with 10G POS interface in WAN mode.
l Overhead bytes
SDH frames contain various overhead bytes that are used to implement operation and
maintenance functions such as layered management of SDH transport networks. J0 and J1
are used for interoperability between devices of different countries, areas, or manufacturers.
l Loopback test function of Ethernet interface
By enabling the loopback test function on an Ethernet interface, you can check whether the
Ethernet interface operates properly.
The loopback test function of Ethernet interface includes:
Internal loopback test: establishes a loop withinthe switching chip to check whether
certain hardware of the Ethernet interface is faulty.
External loopback test: After receiving packets from a peer end, the local end does not
forward these packets to the destination addresses of these packets, but sends them back
to the peer end. The external loopback test is used to detect whether a link between the
local and peer ends is faulty.
NOTE
l During the loopback test on an Ethernet interface, packets cannot be properly forwarded by the
Ethernet interface.
l When an Ethernet interface is in the Down state, you can only perform the internal loopback test.
After running the shutdown command in the view of a specified Ethernet interface and the
interface status is displayed as Administratively down, you cannot perform either the internal
loopback test or the external loopback test on the Ethernet interface.
l During the loopback test on an Ethernet interface, the shutdown commands cannot be run on
the Ethernet interface.
l After the loopback test function is enabled on an Ethernet interface, the Ethernet interface will
operate in full-duplex mode. After the loopback test function is disabled, the Ethernet interface
restores the original settings.
2.2 Ethernet Interface Attributes Supported by the NE5000E
This section describes Ethernet interface features supported by the NE5000E in light of better
understanding the process of configuring Ethernet interfaces.
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Ethernet Interface Attributes
As shown in Table 2-2, different Ethernet interfaces on theNE5000E support different attributes.
Table 2-2 Ethernet interface attributes
Ethernet Interface
Attributes
Ethernet
Electrical
Interface
Ethernet
Optical
Interface
10GE
WAN
Interface
10GE
LAN/
WAN
Interface
Run the
mtu mtu or ipv6 mtu mtu
command to configure an
MTU.
Supported Supported Supported Supported
Run the
duplex { full | half | auto }
command to configure a duplex
mode.
Supported Not
supported
(by default,
the full-
duplex
mode is
supported)
Not
supported
Not
supported
Run the
speed { 10 | 100 | auto }
command to configure the rate
for an Ethernet electrical
interface.
Supported Not
supported
Not
supported
Not
supported
Run the
negotiation auto command to
configure the auto-negotiation
mode.
Supported Supported Not
supported
Not
supported
Run the
flow control [ receive | send ]
command to configure flow
control on a GE interface.
Supported Supported Supported Supported
Run the
flag command to configure
overhead bytes for a 10GE
WAN interface.
Not
supported
Not
supported
Supported Supported
by WAN
interfaces
but not
supported
by LAN
interfaces

Auto-negotiation of the Ethernet Interface Rate and Duplex Mode
NOTE
Ethernet electrical interfaces support the configuration of interface rates, duplex modes, and auto-
negotiation modes. Ethernet optical interfaces only support the configuration of the auto-negotiation mode.
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Table 2-3 describes basic configurations of an Ethernet interface, including Ethernet interface
rate and duplex mode.
Table 2-3 Basic Ethernet interface configurations
Interface Mode Usage Scenario
Full-duplex mode The Ethernet interface sends and receives data packets at the same
time.
Half-duplex mode The Ethernet interface sends or receives data packets at a time.
Auto-negotiation The duplex mode of the Ethernet interface is determined by the auto-
negotiation between the Ethernet interface and the peer interface.
If auto-negotiation is used to set the rate of an Ethernet interface, the rate is determined by
the auto-negotiation between the Ethernet interface and the peer interface.
NOTE
By default, the rate and duplex mode of an GE electrical interface are auto-negotiation. You can forcibly
change the Ethernet interface rate and duplex mode. The change, however, cannot lead to the rate and
duplex mode difference between Ethernet interfaces of the link. Otherwise, the communication on the link
fails.

The auto-negotiation priorities of the Ethernet interface rate and duplex mode are listed as
follows in descending order:
l 1000M full duplex
l 1000M half duplex
l 100M full duplex
l 100M half duplex
l 10M full duplex
l 10M half duplex
Ethernet Sub-interfaces
The NE5000E provides the sub-interface feature. You can configure multiple sub-interfaces on
a single physical interface, enhancing networking flexibility.
A Layer 3 Ethernet main interface does not identify VLAN IDs and cannot correctly forward
user traffic with VLAN tags. In this case, you can configure multiple sub-interfaces on the Layer
3 Ethernet main interface and associate these sub-interfaces to VLANs. This allows users or
services to be differentiated by VLAN IDs, enhancing networking flexibility.
NOTE
l You can set IP parameters for Ethernet sub-interfaces. For details, refer to basic IPv4 configuration or
basic IPv6 configuration in the NE5000E Configruation Guide - IP Services.
l An Ethernet sub-interface can be activated to send and receive packets only after it is associated with
a VLAN.
l The Ethernet sub-interface number and VLAN ID of the local device must be consistent with those of
the remote device. Otherwise, packets cannot be correctly forwarded.
l A management Ethernet interface cannot be configured with sub-interfaces.
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2.3 Configuring an Ethernet Interface on an LPU
You can configure Ethernet interfaces on LPUs to ensure correct physical connections between
devices.
Applicable Environment
You need to configure the Ethernet interface when using the Ethernet to transmit packets.
All configuration items of the Ethernet interface, excluding the IP address, have default values.
Any change must be consistent with the peer device.
Pre-configuration Tasks
None.
Configuration Procedures
You can choose one or more configuration tasks (excluding "Checking the Configuration") as
required.
2.3.1 Configuring the MTU for an Ethernet Interface
The MTU is the maximum transfer unit on a physical network, expressed in bytes. The MTU is
determined by the data link layer protocol. Networks with different data link layer protocols
have different MTUs. Therefore, a proper MTU is a prerequisite for normal communication on
a network.
Context
Generally, the IP layer controls the maximum length of frames that are sent each time. Any time
the IP layer receives an IP packet to be sent, it checks which local interface the packet needs to
be sent to and queries the MTU of the interface. Then, the IP layer compares the MTU with the
packet length to be sent. If the packet length is greater than the MTU, the IP layer fragments the
packet to ensure that the length of each fragment is smaller or equal to the MTU.
If forcible unfragmentation is configured, certain packets are lost during data transmission at
the IP layer. To ensure jumbo packets are not dropped during transmission, you need to configure
forcible fragmentation. In this case, you can set the size of a fragment.
NOTE
l After changing the MTU on a specified interface, you need to restart the interface to validate the newly-
configured MTU by running the shutdown and undo shutdown commands in sequence.
l If the Ethernet interface has sub-interfaces, you need to run the undo shutdown command 15 seconds
after running the shutdown command.
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NOTE
l If the MTU is set too small and the size of packets is quite large, packets are fragmented into a great
number of fragments, and thus discarded by QoS queues.
l If the MTU is set too large, packets may be transmitted at a low speed.
l After changing the MTU of an Ethernet interface, you need to change the MTU of the peer the Ethernet
interface to ensure that the MTUs of both interfaces are the same. Otherwise, services may be
interrupted.
Do as follows on each router:
Procedure
l Set an IPv4 MTU for an Ethernet interface.
1. Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
2. Run:
interface gigabitethernet interface-number
The specified Ethernet interface view is displayed.
By default, the Ethernet interface is in Layer 3 mode.
3. Run:
mtu mtu
An IPv4 MTU is set for the Etherent interface.
The MTU is expressed in bytes. The MTU value range of an Ethernet interface is
determined by the device type. The default MTU is 1500 bytes.
4. Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
l Set an IPv6 MTU for an Ethernet interface.
1. Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
2. Run:
interface gigabitethernet interface-number
The specified Ethernet interface view is displayed.
By default, the Ethernet interface is in Layer 3 mode.
3. Run:
ipv6 enable
IPv6 is enabled on the Ethernet interface.
4. Run:
ipv6 mtu mtu
An IPv6 MTU is set for the Ethernet interface.
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The MTU is expressed in bytes. The MTU value range of an Ethernet interface is
determined by the specific device. The default MTU is 1500 bytes.
5. Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
Follow-up Procedure
The length of a QoS queue is limited. If the MTU is too small, whereas the packet size is large,
the packet is probably divided into many fragments, and thus discarded by the QoS queue. To
avoid such a problem, you can increase the length of the QoS queue accordingly. By default,
the queue scheduling mechanism First In First Out (FIFO) is used to change the length of the
QoS queue. For the configuration of a QoS queue, see the HUAWEI NetEngine5000E Core
Router Configuration Guide - QoS.
2.3.2 Configuring the Working Mode for an Ethernet Interface
There are two communication modes at the physical layer of an Ethernet network: half-duplex
and full-duplex. To ensure the normal communication between devices, you need to configure
a proper working mode (full-duplex or full-duplex) for an Ethernet interface.
Context
On a large-scale Ethernet network, manually setting the interface rate and duplex mode, verifying
the configurations of devices, and checking statistics about Ethernet interfaces require a great
deal of time and human input. Therefore, it is recommended that manually setting the interface
rate and duplex mode be adopted only when auto-negotiation of an Ethernet link fails or a
problem occurs with auto-negotiation. When there is an auto-negotiation problem, you are
recommended to upgrade software or hardware of the device to support the auto-negotiation
standard defined in IEEE802.3u/z.
Do as follows on each router:
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface gigabitethernet interface-number
The specified Ethernet interface view is displayed.
Step 3 Run the following command as required.
l Run:
duplex { full | half | auto }
The working mode is configured for the Ethernet interface.
l Run:
negotiation auto
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The Ethernet interface works in auto-negotiation mode.
NOTE
l Ethernet optical interfaces work only in full-duplex mode.
l When connecting to a hub, the Ethernet electrical interface on the router must work in half-duplex
mode because the hub can work only in half-duplex mode. When connecting to a LAN switch, the
Ethernet electrical interface on the router can work in either full-duplex or half-duplex mode. Ethernet
electrical interfaces on the router and peer device must work in the same mode.
l If the working rate of a GE electrical interface is 1000 Mbit/s, you cannot configure the GE electrical
interface to work in half-duplex mode.
l If the working rate of a GE electrical interface is 1000 Mbit/s and auto-negotiation is enabled, you
cannot configure the GE electrical interface to work in simplex mode or duplex mode. In addition, you
cannot disable auto-negotiation on the interface.
l If the working rate of a GE electrical interface is 10 Mbit/s or 100 Mbit/s, you can configure the GE
electrical interface to work in simplex, duplex, or auto-negotiation mode.
l If a GE electrical interface on the local device is enabled with auto-negotiation, the GE electrical
interface on the connected peer device must also be enabled with auto-negotiation.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
2.3.3 Configuring the Working Rate for an Ethernet Electrical
Interface
The volume of traffic that can be transmitted on an Ethernet electrical interface is determined
by the working rate of the interface. To ensure the normal communication between devices, you
must set a proper working rate for the Ethernet electrical interface.
Context
On a large-scale Ethernet network, manually setting the interface rate and duplex mode, verifying
the configurations of devices, and checking statistics about Ethernet interfaces require a great
deal of time and human input. Therefore, it is recommended that manually setting the interface
rate and duplex mode be adopted only when auto-negotiation of an Ethernet link fails or a
problem occurs with auto-negotiation. When there is an auto-negotiation problem, you are
recommended to upgrade software or hardware of the device to support the auto-negotiation
standard defined in IEEE802.3u/z.
You need to set the working rate only for Ethernet electrical interfaces, not Ethernet optical
interfaces.
Do as follows on each router:
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface gigabitethernet interface-number
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The specified Ethernet electrical interface view is displayed.
Step 3 Run:
speed { 10 | 100 | auto }
The working rate is set for the Ethernet electrical interface.
NOTE
By default, a GE electrical interface works in auto-negotiation mode, with the working rate of 1000 Mbit/
s. You can change the working rate of a GE electrical interface, but ensure that the working rate of the GE
electrical interface is identical with that on the peer device. If you set the working rate to 10 Mbit/s or 100
Mbit/s, the auto-negotiation mode is canceled.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
2.3.4 Configuring the Optical or Electrical Mode for a GE Interface
In normal situations, the system recognizes the interface module and thus automatically sets the
optical or electrical mode of an interface. If the system fails to recognize the interface module,
you need to configure the optical or electrical mode for an interface.
Context
Do as follows on each router:
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface gigabitethernet interface-number
The specified Ethernet interface view is displayed.
Step 3 Run:
port-type { copper | fiber-100 | fiber-1000 }
The optical or electrical mode is configured.
CAUTION
The port-type command can be used only on auto-sensing optical or electrical GE interfaces,
not all GE interfaces.
If the router can recognize the type of a Small Form-Factor Pluggable (SFP) module, the system
can set the optical or electrical mode of the interface accordingly without additional
configurations.
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If the router cannot recognize the type of an SFP module that works properly, you need to
configure the working mode for the interface.
NOTE
Before configuring the working mode for a GE interface, delete all the configurations on the interface.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
2.3.5 Configuring the LAN/WAN Transmission Mode for a 10GE
Interface
The 10G XFP multi-mode optical transceiver works in either LAN or WAN mode. You can
configure a proper mode as required.
Context
Do as follows on the router:
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface gigabitethernet interface-number
The view of the 10GE interface is displayed.
Step 3 Run:
shutdown
The interface is shut down.
Step 4 Run:
set transfer-mode { lan | wan }
The LAN/WAN transmission mode is configured for the 10GE interface.
Step 5 Run:
undo shutdown
The interface is restarted.
NOTE
When configuring the LAN/WAN transmission mode for a 10GE interface, delete all configurations on
the interface, excluding the IP address, and then shut down the interface.
Step 6 Run:
commit
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The configuration is committed.
----End
2.3.6 Configuring the Overhead Byte for a 10GE WAN Interface
SONET/SDH provides a variety of overhead bytes. You can configure overhead bytes for a
10GE WAN interface to implement monitoring at different levels.
Context
10 GE WAN interfaces need to use SDH/SONET as the frame format and the overhead byte
needs to be set.
Do as follows on the router:
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface gigabitethernet interface-number
The specified Ethernet interface view is displayed.
Step 3 Configure the overhead byte for the 10GE WAN interface.
Run the following command as required.
l Run:
flag j0 64byte-or-null-mode [ j0-value ]
or
flag j0 { 16byte-mode | 1byte-mode } j0-value
The overhead byte j0 is configured for the interface.
l Run:
flag j1 64byte-or-null-mode [ j1-value ]
or
flag j1 { 16byte-mode | 1byte-mode } j1-value
The overhead byte j1 is configured for the interface.
l Run:
flag c2 c2-value
The overhead byte c2 is configured for the interface.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
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2.3.7 Enabling Flow Control on a GE Interface
When the traffic between a local device and its direct device is congested, configuring flow
control on GE interfaces on the two devices can properly control the rates of sending and
receiving packets on the local end.
Context
Do as follows on each router:
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface gigabitethernet interface-number
The specified Ethernet interface view is displayed.
Step 3 Run:
flow control [ receive | send ]
Flow control is enabled on a GE interface.
By default, flow control is enabled for incoming and outgoing flows on a GE interface.
After flow control is enabled on a GE interface, if the rate at which the peer interface sends
traffic reaches the set threshold, such as 1 Gbit/s, the interface sends a Pause frame to instruct
the peer interface to send traffic at a lower rate.If the peer interface also supports flow control,
it sends data at a lower rate after receiving a Pause frame. This allows the local interface to
process received frames properly. If the peer interface does not support flow control, it will not
send data at a lower rate after receiving a Pause frame.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
2.3.8 Configuring the Hold-Time Interval After an Interface
Becomes Up/Down
When the status of an interface frequently changes between Up and Down, flapping may occur.
To prevent the problem, you can configure the holt-time interval after an interface changes
between Up and Down.
Context
Do as follows on the router:
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Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface interface-type interface-number
The interface view is displayed.
Step 3 Run the following command as required:
l To configure the hold-time interval after an interface becomes Up, run:
carrier up-hold-time interval
l To configure the hold-time interval after an interface becomes Down, run:
carrier down-hold-time interval
The hold-time interval can be configured on Gigabit Ethernet interfaces.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
2.3.9 Checking the Configuration
After an Ethernet interface is successfully configured on an LPU, you can view information
about the IP address, MTU, working rate, working mode, and interface type of the Ethernet
interface, and statistics about packets sent and received on the interface.
Procedure
l Run the display interface gigabitethernet [ interface-number ] command to view the
status of the specified Ethernet interface.
----End
Example
Run the display interface gigabitethernet [ interface-number ] command, and you can view
the MTU, IP address, mask, working rate, and working mode of the Ethernet interface. For
example:
<HUAWEI> display interface gigabitethernet 2/0/0
GigabitEthernet2/0/0 current state : UP
Line protocol current state : UP
Description : GigabitEthernet2/0/0 Interface, Route Port
The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1500 bytes, Hold timer is 10(sec)
Internet Address is 1.1.3.1/24
IP Sending Frames' Format is PKTFMT_ETHNT_2, Hardware address is 00e0-fc01-0054
Media type: twisted-pair ,Link type: auto negotiation
Loopback:none, Maximal BW:1G, Current BW:100M, full-duplex mode,
Pause Flowcontrol:Send and Receive Enable
Statistics last cleared:never
Last 30 seconds input rate: 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Last 30 seconds output rate: 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Input: 0 Bytes, 0 Packets
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Output: 0 Bytes, 0 Packets
Input:
Unicast: 0, Multicast: 0
Broadcast: 0, JumboOctets: 0
CRC: 0, Symbol: 0
Overrun: 0 , InRangeLength: 0
LongPacket: 0 , Jabber: 0, Alignment: 0
Fragment: 0, Undersized Frame: 0
RxPause: 0
Output:
Unicast: 0, Multicast: 0
Broadcast: 0, JumboOctets: 0
Lost: 0, Overflow: 0, Underrun: 0
TxPause: 0
Input bandwidth utilization : 0.01%
Output bandwidth utilization : 0.01%
2.4 Configuring an Ethernet Interface on an MPU
After being configured, the Ethernet interface on an MPU can connect a device to the network
management station (NMS) for management.
Applicable Environment
The Ethernet interface on an MPU connects a device to the NMS for management.
NOTE
The management Ethernet interface on an MPU cannot forward services and does not support IPv6.
Pre-configuration Tasks
None.
Configuration Procedures
You can choose one or more configuration tasks (excluding "Checking the Configuration") as
required.
2.4.1 Configuring the Working Mode for an Ethernet Interface
There are two communication modes at the physical layer of an Ethernet network: half-duplex
and full-duplex. To ensure the normal communication between devices, you need to configure
a proper working mode (full-duplex or full-duplex) for an Ethernet interface.
Context
Do as follows on the router:
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface gigabitethernet interface-number
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The specified Ethernet interface view is displayed.
Step 3 Run:
duplex { auto | half | full }
The working mode is configured for the Ethernet interface.
Ethernet optical interfaces work only in full-duplex mode.
By default, the duplex mode obtained through automatic negotiation is used.
NOTE
l When connecting to a hub, the Ethernet interface on the router must work in half-duplex mode because
hubs work only in half-duplex mode.
l When connecting to a LAN switch, the Ethernet interface on the router can work in either full-duplex
or half-duplexmode.
l Ethernet interfaces on the local and peer devices must work in the same mode.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
2.4.2 Configuring the Working Rate for an Ethernet Electrical
Interface
The volume of traffic that can be transmitted on an Ethernet electrical interface is determined
by the working rate of the interface. To ensure the normal communication between devices, you
must set a proper working rate for the Ethernet electrical interface.
Context
Do as follows on the router:
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface gigabitethernet interface-number
The specified Ethernet interface view is displayed.
Step 3 Run:
speed { auto | 10 | 100 | 1000 }
The working rate is set for a GE electrical interface.
The working rate of the Ethernet electrical interface on the router can be 10Mbit/s, 100Mbit/s,
or 1000Mbit/s.
The default working rate of the Ethernet electrical interface is specified by auto.
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You can forcibly set the working rate for an interface. But ensure that the specified working rate
of the interface must be identical with that on the peer device to which the interface is connected.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
2.4.3 Configuring the Promiscuity Mode
The promiscuity mode of an interface determines how the NE5000E receives frames from the
physical layer.
Context
Do as follows on the routers:
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface gigabitethernet interface-number
The GigabitEthernet interface view is displayed.
Step 3 Run:
promode { on | off }
The Promiscuity Mode is set.
By default, the promiscuity mode of the Ethernet interface on SRU/MPU is off.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
2.4.4 Checking the Configuration
After an Ethernet interface is successfully configured on an MPU, you can view information
about the IP address, MTU, working rate, working mode, and interface type of the Ethernet
interface, and statistics about packets sent and received on the interface.
Procedure
l Run the display interface gigabitethernet [ interface-number ] command to view the
status of the specified Ethernet interface on the MPU.
----End
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Example
Run the display interface gigabitethernet interface-number command, and you can view the
MTU, IP address, mask, working rate, and working mode of the Ethernet interface on the MPU.
For example:
<HUAWEI> display interface gigabitethernet 0/0/0
GigabitEthernet0/0/0 current state : UP
Line protocol current state : UP
Last line protocol up time : 2000-01-09 01:10:56
Description: HUAWEI, Quidway Series, GigabitEthernet0/0/0 Interface (ifindex:1,
vr: 0)
Route Port,The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1500
Internet Address is 189.64.4.153/16
IP Sending Frames' Format is PKTFMT_ETHNT_2, Hardware address is 00e0-fc8c-0157
Media type: twisted-pair, link type: auto negotiation
loopback: none, promiscuous: off
maxmimal BW: 1000M, current BW: 10, half-duplex mode
Last physical up time : 2000-01-08 21:17:26
Last physical down time : -
Current system time: 2000-01-09 17:49:41
Statistics last cleared:never
Last 300 seconds input rate 4768 bits/sec, 9 packets/sec
Last 300 seconds output rate 656 bits/sec, 1 packets/sec
Input: 47219931 bytes, 733283 packets
Output: 10023822 bytes, 148963 packets
Input:
Unicast: 61194, Multicast: 0
Broadcast: 672089,
CRC: 0, Overrun: 0
LongPacket: 0, Jabber: 0,
Undersized Frame: 0
Output:
Unicast: 135356, Multicast: 0
Broadcast: 13607
Total output error: 0,Underrun: 0
Last 300 seconds input utility rate: 0.01%
Last 300 seconds output utility rate: 0.01%
2.5 Configuring Ethernet Sub-interfaces to Support
Communication Between VLANs
To implement communication between hosts in a VLAN and hosts outside the VLAN, you need
to create sub-interfaces on the Ethernet interfaces connecting a Layer 3 device to Layer 2 devices
and then encapsulate the sub-interfaces with 802.1q.
Applicable Environment
In the case where Layer 2 switches belong to different VLANs, to ensure normal communication
between hosts in different VLANs, you need to create sub-interfaces on Ethernet interfaces
connecting a Layer 3 device to Layer 2 switches and then bind each user VLAN to a sub-interface.
In addition, you need to configure an IP address and 802.1q encapsulation for every sub-
interface.
As shown in Figure 2-1, GE 1/0/1 on the router are connected to the upstream interfaces on
Switch A. Downstream interfaces on Switch A belong to VLAN 10 and VLAN 20.
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Figure 2-1 Networking diagram of Ethernet sub-interfaces supporting communication between
VLANs
VLAN 10
10.110.4.0/24
GE1/0/1.1
10.110.4.3/24
GE1/0/1.2
10.110.6.3/24
Router
SwitchA
VLAN 20
10.110.6.0/24

To make hosts in VLAN 10 communicate with hosts in VLAN 20, you need to do as follows on
the router:
l Create Ethernet sub-interfaces.
l Configure 802.1q encapsulation on the sub-interfaces and associate the sub-interfaces with
VLANs.
l Assign IP addresses to the sub-interfaces.
NOTE
For detailed configurations of the switches, refer to the related configuration guide.
Pre-configuration Tasks
Before configuring Ethernet sub-interfaces to support communication between VLANs,
complete the following task:
l Powering on the device and ensuring a successful self-check
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Configuration Procedures
Figure 2-2 Flowchart of configuring an Eth-Trunk sub-interface
Create an ethernet sub-interface
Configure an IP address on the
ethernet sub-interface
Configure the encapsulation type
on the ethernet sub-interface
Mandatory procedure
Optional procedure

2.5.1 Creating a Sub-interface
To ensure normal communication between VLANs, you need to create Ethernet sub-interfaces
on a Layer 3 device.
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface interface-type interface-number.subinterface-number
An Ethernet sub-interface is created. If an Ethernet sub-interface has existed, enter the view of
the Ethernet sub-interface.
NOTE
Sub-interfaces cannot be created on an Eth-Trunk member interface.
Step 3 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
NOTE
If a main interface has a large number of sub-interfaces, to disable these interfaces, run the shutdown command
on each sub-interface view. To release workloads, you can run the shutdown interface command to disable
sub-interfaces in batches.
----End
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2.5.2 Configuring an IP address
To implement communication between VLANs, you need to establish IP routes.
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface interface-type interface-number.subinterface-number
The view of the Ethernet sub-interface that needs to be configured with an IP address is displayed.
Step 3 Run:
ip address ip-address ip-mask [ sub ]
An IP address is assigned to the Ethernet sub-interface.
When two or more IP addresses are configured for an Ethernet sub-interface, the keyword sub
can be used to indicate secondary IP addresses.
For the detailed configuration of an IP address, see the NE5000E Configuration Guide - IP
Service.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
NOTE
If a main interface has a large number of sub-interfaces, to disable these interfaces, run the shutdown command
on each sub-interface view. To release workloads, you can run the shutdown interface command to disable
sub-interfaces in batches.
----End
2.5.3 Configuring 802.1Q Encapsulation
When a Layer 3 device and a Layer 2 device are directly connected through an Ethernet interface,
and the Ethernet interface connecting the Layer 2 device to the Layer 3 device has joined a
specific VLAN, you need to configure an encapsulation type for the sub-interface on the Layer
3 device for the communication between the Layer 3 device and the Layer 2 device.
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface interface-type interface-number.subinterface-number
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The view of the Ethernet sub-interface that needs to be configured with 802.1Q encapsulation
is displayed.
Step 3 Run:
vlan-type dot1q vlan-id
The encapsulation type of the sub-interface and associated VLAN ID are configured.
By default, Ethernet sub-interfaces are neither encapsulated nor associated with any VLAN.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
NOTE
If a main interface has a large number of sub-interfaces, to disable these interfaces, run the shutdown command
on each sub-interface view. To release workloads, you can run the shutdown interface command to disable
sub-interfaces in batches.
----End
2.5.4 Checking the Configuration
After an Ethernet sub-interface is configured to support communication between VLANs, you
can view information about the sub-interface, including the MTU, IP address, and VLAN
encapsulation.
Prerequisite
The configurations of an Ethernet sub-interface for communication between VLANs are
complete.
Procedure
l Run the display interface gigabitethernet [ interface-number [ .subnumber ] ] command
to view the status of an Ethernet sub-interface.
----End
Example
Run the display interface gigabitethernet command, and you can view information about an
Ethernet sub-interface, including the physical status, protocol status, MTU, IP address, and
VLAN encapsulation. For example:
<HUAWEI> display interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1.1
GigabitEthernet1/0/1.1 current state : UP
Line protocol current state : UP
Last line protocol up time : 2011-05-10 12:15:04
Description: HUAWEI, Quidway Series, GigabitEthernet1/0/1.1 Interface (ifindex:
7301, vr: 0)
Route Port,The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1500
Internet Address is 192.168.1.1/24
IP Sending Frames' Format is PKTFMT_ETHNT_2, Hardware address is 0025-9e5a-ed76
Encapsulation dot1q Virtual LAN, The number of Vlan is 1, Vlan ID 1
Current system time: 2011-05-10 12:15:16
Last 300 seconds input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Last 300 seconds output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Realtime 22 seconds input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
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Realtime 22 seconds output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Input: 0 packets,0 bytes
0 unicast,0 broadcast,0 multicast
0 errors,0 drops
Output:0 packets,0 bytes
0 unicast,0 broadcast,0 multicast
0 errors,0 drops
Last 20 seconds input utility rate: 0.00%
Last 20 seconds output utility rate: 0.00%
2.6 Configuration Examples
This section provides configuration examples of Ethernet interfaces, including networking
requirements, configuration roadmap, data preparation, and configuration files.
2.6.1 Example for Configuring Ethernet Interface Parameters
In this example, two interconnected Ethernet interfaces work at different rates. As a result, the
link status of the interfaces becomes Down.
Networking Requirements
CAUTION
For the NE5000E, the interface is numbered as slot number/card number/interface number. For
the NE5000E cluster, the interface is numbered as chassis ID/slot number/card number/interface
number. The slot number is chassis ID/slot ID.
As shown in Figure 2-3, electrical Ethernet interfaces on Router A, Router B, and Router C are
connected to the IP network 202.38.165.0/24. Each of the interfaces is correctly configured with
an IP address. After the configurations, Router A and Router B can ping each other successfully
but Router A and Router C cannot ping each other successfully. It is found that the link between
Router A and Router C is Down; the rate of GE 1/0/1 on Router A is 100 Mbit/s and the rate of
GE 1/0/1 on Router B is 10 Mbit/s.
Figure 2-3 Networking diagram for configuring Ethernet interface parameters
GE1/0/1
202.38.165.1/24
RouterA
RouterC
RouterB
GE1/0/1
202.38.165.2/24
GE1/0/1
202.38.165.3/24
Ethernet

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Configuration Notes
l Rates of the Ethernet interfaces at the two ends of a link must be the same.
l After the rate of an interface is changed, you need to restart the interface to make the
configuration take effect.
Configuration Roadmap
The configuration roadmap is as follows:
1. Change the rate of the Ethernet interface on router C to make the rate the same as the rate
of the peer interface.
In the case where interface hardware supports auto-negotiation, you are recommended to
configure Ethernet interfaces to work in auto-negotiation mode (default mode) in terms of
the rate and duplex mode.
2. Assign an IP address to each interface of the router for communication at the network layer.
Data Preparation
To complete the configuration, you need the following data:
l All devices in this example support the auto-negotiation mode. Therefore, the parameters
of all the Ethernet interfaces adopt the default values.
By default, both the rate and the duplex mode of an Ethernet interface are automatically
negotiated. The default MTU value is 1500 bytes.
Procedure
Step 1 Configure Router A.
<HUAWEI> system-view
[HUAWEI] syname RouterA
[HUAWEI] commit
[~RouterA] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1
[~RouterA-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] undo shutdown
[~RouterA-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] description RouterA to Ethernet
[~RouterA-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] speed auto
[~RouterA-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] duplex auto
[~RouterA-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] shutdown
[~RouterA-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] commit
[~RouterA-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] undo shutdown
[~RouterA-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] ip address 202.38.165.1 255.255.255.0
[~RouterA-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] commit
[~RouterA-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] quit
Step 2 Configure Router B.
<HUAWEI> system-view
[HUAWEI] syname RouterB
[HUAWEI] commit
[~RouterB] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1
[~RouterB-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] undo shutdown
[~RouterB-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] description RouterB to Ethernet
[~RouterB-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] speed auto
[~RouterB-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] duplex auto
[~RouterB-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] shutdown
[~RouterB-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] commit
[~RouterB-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] undo shutdown
[~RouterB-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] ip address 202.38.165.2 255.255.255.0
[~RouterB-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] commit
[~RouterB-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] quit
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Step 3 Configure Router C.
<HUAWEI> system-view
[HUAWEI] syname RouterC
[HUAWEI] commit
[~RouterC] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1
[~RouterC-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] undo shutdown
[~RouterC-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] description RouterC to Ethernet
[~RouterC-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] speed auto
[~RouterC-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] duplex auto
[~RouterC-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] shutdown
[~RouterC-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] commit
[~RouterC-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] undo shutdown
[~RouterC-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] ip address 202.38.165.3 255.255.255.0
[~RouterC-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] commit
[~RouterC-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] quit
Step 4 Verify the configuration.
After the configurations, you can use the following methods to check whether the Ethernet
interfaces work normally.
l Run the display interface brief command or the display interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1
command on each router.
View the statistics of the router to check whether the statistics about received errored
frames keep unchanged. If the statistics keep unchanged, the Ethernet interface operates
normally.
View the parameters and status of the interface on each router. Both physical status and
protocol status are Up.
After the rate of GE 1/0/1 on Router C is changed, the link between Router C and
Router A goes Up.
l When traffic is light, use one router to ping the address of the Ethernet interface on another
router, and then check whether all ping packets are replied.
After the rate of GE 1/0/1 on Router C is changed, Router C and Router A can ping each
other successfully.
Take the display on Router A as an example.
<RouterA> display interface brief
PHY: Physical
*down: administratively down
^down: standby
(l): loopback
(s): spoofing
(b): BFD down
(e): EFM down
(d): Dampening Suppressed
InUti/OutUti: input utility/output utility
Interface PHY Protocol InUti OutUti inErrors
outErrors
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 up up 0% 0% 0 0
<RouterA> display interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 current state : UP
Line protocol current state : UP
Last line protocol up time : 2010-04-13 11:25:30
Description:RouterA to Ethernet
Route Port,The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1500
Internet Address is 202.38.165.1/24
IP Sending Frames' Format is PKTFMT_ETHNT_2, Hardware address is 00e0-fc9a-aeb4
Media type: twisted-pair ,Link type: auto negotiation
Loopback:none, Maximal BW:1G, Current BW:1G,full-duplex mode, negotiation: enable,
Pause Flowcontrol:Receive Enable and Send Enable
Last physical up time : 2010-04-13 11:22:23
Last physical down time : 2010-04-13 11:22:21
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Statistics last cleared:never
Last 300 seconds input rate: 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Last 300 seconds output rate: 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Input: 0 bytes, 0 packets
Output: 0 bytes, 0 packets
Input:
Unicast: 0 packets, Multicast: 0 packets
Broadcast: 0 packets, JumboOctets: 0 packets
CRC: 0 packets, Symbol: 0 packets
Overrun: 0 packets, InRangeLength: 0 packets
LongPacket: 0 packets, Jabber: 0 packets, Alignment: 0 packets
Fragment: 0 packets, Undersized Frame: 0 packets
RxPause: 0 packets
Output:
Unicast: 0 packets, Multicast: 0 packets
Broadcast: 0 packets, JumboOctets: 0 packets
Lost: 0 packets, Overflow: 0 packets, Underrun: 0 packets
System: 0 packets, Overruns: 0 packets
TxPause: 0 packets
Unknown Vlan: 0 packets
----End
Configuration Files
l Configuration file of Router A
#
sysname RouterA
#
admin
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/1
undo shutdown
ip address 202.38.165.1 255.255.255.0
description RouterA to Ethernet
#
return
l Configuration file of Router B
#
sysname RouterB
#
admin
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/1
undo shutdown
ip address 202.38.165.2 255.255.255.0
description RouterB to Ethernet
#
return
l Configuration file of Router C
#
sysname RouterC
#
admin
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/1
undo shutdown
ip address 202.38.165.3 255.255.255.0
description RouterC to Ethernet
#
return
2.6.2 Example for Configuring Ethernet Sub-interfaces to Support
Communication Between VLANs
Configuring sub-interfaces enables users in different VLANs and network segments to
communicate with each other.
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Networking Requirements
CAUTION
For the NE5000E, the interface is numbered as slot number/card number/interface number. For
the NE5000E cluster, the interface is numbered as chassis ID/slot number/card number/interface
number. The slot number is chassis ID/slot ID.
Users in different residential compounds in different network segments require various services
such as Internet, IPTV, and VoIP services. The network administrator of each residential
compound configures a VLAN for each service to simplify management. After the configuration,
users in different residential compounds belong to different VLANs, but they need to
communicate with each other for the same type of service.
On the network shown in Figure 2-4, users in residential compounds 1 to 4 belong to different
VLANs in different network segments but all require the Internet service. Therefore,
communication between these users is required.
Figure 2-4 Networking diagram for configuring inter-VLAN communication by using sub-
interfaces
CE2
GE2/0/0.1: 10.110.4.3/24
GE2/0/0.2: 10.110.3.3/24
GE1/0/1.1: 10.110.6.3/24
GE1/0/1.2: 10.110.5.3/24
CE1
PE
GE1/0/1 GE1/0/2 GE1/0/1 GE1/0/2
GE1/0/3
GE1/0/3
community1 community2 community3 community4
VLAN 30
10.110.4.0/24
VLAN 40
10.110.3.0/24
VLAN 10
10.110.6.0/24
VLAN 20
10.110.5.0/24

Configuration Notes
The IP addresses of hosts in different VLANs and the IP addresses of sub-interfaces that connect
the PE to the hosts must be on the same network segment.
Configuration Roadmap
The configuration roadmap is as follows:
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1. Create sub-interfaces on the PE and associate the sub-interfaces with VLANs so that the
sub-interface can different VLAN packets with different VLAN tags
2. Assign an IP address to each sub-interface for communication at the network layer.
Data Preparation
To complete the configuration, you need the following data:
l VLAN ID associated with the Ethernet sub-interfaces on PE
l IP address of each sub-interface on PE
Procedure
Step 1 Create sub-interfaces on PE and associate the sub-interfaces with VLANs.
<HUAWEI> system-view
[~HUAWEI] syname PE
[~HUAWEI] commit
[~PE] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1
[~PE-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] undo shutdown
[~PE-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] quit
[~PE] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1.1
[~PE-GigabitEthernet1/0/1.1] vlan-type dot1q 10
[~PE-GigabitEthernet1/0/1.1] quit
[~PE] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1.2
[~PE-GigabitEthernet1/0/1.2] vlan-type dot1q 20
[~PE-GigabitEthernet1/0/1.2] quit
[~PE] interface gigabitethernet 2/0/0
[~PE-GigabitEthernet2/0/0] undo shutdown
[~PE-GigabitEthernet2/0/0] quit
[~PE] interface gigabitethernet 2/0/0.1
[~PE-GigabitEthernet2/0/0.1] vlan-type dot1q 30
[~PE-GigabitEthernet2/0/0.1] quit
[~PE] interface gigabitethernet 2/0/0.2
[~PE-GigabitEthernet2/0/0.2] vlan-type dot1q 40
[~PE-GigabitEthernet2/0/0.2] quit
Step 2 Configure IP addresses.
[~PE] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1.1
[~PE-GigabitEthernet1/0/1.1] ip address 10.110.6.3 24
[~PE-GigabitEthernet1/0/1.1] quit
[~PE] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1.2
[~PE-GigabitEthernet1/0/1.2] ip address 10.110.5.3 24
[~PE-GigabitEthernet1/0/1.2] quit
[~PE] interface gigabitethernet 2/0/0.1
[~PE-GigabitEthernet2/0/0.1] ip address 10.110.4.3 24
[~PE-GigabitEthernet2/0/0.1] quit
[~PE] interface gigabitethernet 2/0/0.2
[~PE-GigabitEthernet2/0/0.2] ip address 10.110.3.3 24
[~PE-GigabitEthernet2/0/0.2] quit
Step 3 For the detailed configuration of switches, refer to the related configuration guide.
Step 4 Verify the configuration.
On PCs in VLAN 10, configure the IP address 10.110.6.3/24 of GE 1/0/1.1 as the default gateway
address.
On PCs in VLAN 20, configure the IP address 10.110.5.3/24 of GE 1/0/1.2 as the default gateway
address.
On PCs in VLAN 30, configure the IP address 10.110.4.3/24 of GE 2/0/0.1 as the default gateway
address.
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On PCs in VLAN 40, configure the IP address 10.110.3.3/24 of GE 2/0/0.2 as the default gateway
address.
After the configurations, PCs in VLANs 10, 20, 30, and 40 can ping each other successfully.
----End
Configuration file of PE
#
sysname PE
#
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/1
undo shutdown
#
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/1.1
vlan-type dot1q 10
ip address 10.110.6.3 255.255.255.0
#
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/1.2
vlan-type dot1q 20
ip address 10.110.5.3 255.255.255.0
#
interface GigabitEthernet2/0/0
undo shutdown
#
interface GigabitEthernet2/0/0.1
vlan-type dot1q 30
ip address 10.110.4.3 255.255.255.0
#
interface GigabitEthernet2/0/0.2
vlan-type dot1q 40
ip address 10.110.3.3 255.255.255.0
#
return
2.6.3 Example for Configuring Ethernet Sub-interfaces for
Communication Between VLAN Users and Non-VLAN Users
This example describes how to configure communication between VLAN users and non-VLAN
users.
Networking Requirements
CAUTION
For the NE5000E, the interface is numbered as slot number/card number/interface number. For
the NE5000E cluster, the interface is numbered as chassis ID/slot number/card number/interface
number. The slot number is chassis ID/slot ID.
Residents in a residential compound belong to different network segments. To simplify
management, the network administrator of the residential compound adds users to different
VLANs. Residents in another residential compound are not added to any VLAN. VLAN users
must be able to communicate with non-VLAN users.
On the network shown in Figure 2-5, users in residential compound 1 belong to different VLANs
and reside on different network segments; users in residential compound 2 do not belong to any
VLAN. It is required that users in VLAN 10 be able to communicate with users in residential
compound 2.
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Figure 2-5 Networking diagram for configuring VLAN and non-VLAN users to communicate
by using sub-interfaces
community2
CE2
GE1/0/1.1
10.110.2.5/24
GE2/0/0
10.110.3.5/24
User1
VLAN10
10.110.2.0/24
CE1
10.110.3.0/24
PE
User2
VLAN20
10.110.4.0/24
GE1/0/1
GE1/0/1
GE1/0/3
GE1/0/2
GE1/0/2
community1

Configuration Notes
l The IP address assigned to the sub-interface connected to VLAN users must be on the same
network segment with IP addresses of VLAN users.
l The IP address assigned to the interface connected to non-VLAN users must be on the same
network segment with IP addresses of non-VLAN users.
l The default gateway addresses of PCs in VLAN 10 must be the IP address of the sub-
interface. Otherwise, VLAN and non-VLAN users cannot communicate with each other.
Configuration Roadmap
The configuration roadmap is as follows:
1. Create sub-interfaces on the PE and associate the sub-interfaces with VLANs so that the
sub-interface can different VLAN packets with different VLAN tags.
2. Assign IP addresses to interfaces for communication at the network layer.
l Assign an IP address to the sub-interface.
l Assign an IP address to the interface connecting the PE to non-VLAN users.
Data Preparation
To complete the configuration, you need the following data:
l VLAN ID associated with the Ethernet sub-interfaces on PE
l IP address of each sub-interface on PE
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Procedure
Step 1 Create sub-interfaces on PE and associate the sub-interfaces with VLANs.
<HUAWEI> system-view
[~HUAWEI] syname PE
[~HUAWEI] commit
[~PE] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1
[~PE-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] undo shutdown
[~PE] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1.1
[~PE-GigabitEthernet1/0/1.1] vlan-type dot1q 10
Step 2 Configure IP addresses.
[~PE-GigabitEthernet1/0/1.1] ip address 10.110.2.5 24
[~PE-GigabitEthernet1/0/1.1] quit
[~PE] interface gigabitethernet 2/0/0
[~PE-GigabitEthernet2/0/0] undo shutdown
[~PE-GigabitEthernet2/0/0] ip address 10.110.3.5 24
[~PE-GigabitEthernet2/0/0] quit
Step 3 For the detailed configuration of switches, see the related configuration guide.
Step 4 Verify the configuration.
On PCs in VLAN 10, configure the IP address 10.110.2.5/24 of GE 1/0/1.1 as the default gateway
address.
On CE 2, configure the IP address 10.110.3.5 of GE 2/0/0 as the default gateway address.
After the configurations, users in VLAN 10 and non-VLAN users can ping each other
successfully.
----End
Configuration file of PE
#
sysname PE
#
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/1
undo shutdown
#
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/1.1
vlan-type dot1q 10
ip address 10.110.2.5 255.255.255.0
#
interface GigabitEthernet2/0/0
undo shutdown
ip address 10.110.3.5 255.255.255.0
#
return
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3 Eth-Trunk Interface Configuration
About This Chapter
An Ether-Trunk interface can perform load balancing among member links, which increases the
interface bandwidth and improves reliability.
3.1 Eth-Trunk Overview
An Eth-Trunk interface is a logical interface formed by bundling multiple physical interfaces.
In addition to having all the functions supported by an Ethernet interface, an Eth-Trunk interface
has more bandwidth and features higher reliability.
3.2 Eth-Trunk Features Supported by the NE5000E
This section describes how to configure Eth-Trunk interface features supported by the
NE5000E.
3.3 Configuring the Link Aggregation Mode of an Eth-Trunk Interface
The link aggregation mode of an Eth-Trunk interface can be the manual load balancing mode
and the static LACP mode.
3.4 Configuring Eth-Trunk Interface Parameters
To ensure reliable communication of Eth-Trunk interfaces, you need to configure proper
parameters for the Eth-Trunk interfaces.
3.5 Configuring Parameters of an Eth-Trunk Member Interface
Parameters of an Eth-Trunk member interface include the load balancing weight and LACP
priority of the member interface.
3.6 Configuring Eth-Trunk Sub-interfaces to Support Communication Between VLANs
When a Layer 3 device is connected to Layer 2 switches through Layer 3 Eth-Trunk interfaces,
you need to create sub-interfaces on the Eth-Trunk interfaces connecting the Layer 3 device to
the Layer 2 switches, and then encapsulate the sub-interfaces with 802.1Q.
3.7 Maintenance
The statistics reset commands and debugging commands help to locate faults on Eth-Trunk
interfaces.
3.8 Configuration Examples
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This section describes the typical application scenarios of Eth-Trunk, including networking
requirements, configuration roadmap, and data preparation, and provides related configuration
files.
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3.1 Eth-Trunk Overview
An Eth-Trunk interface is a logical interface formed by bundling multiple physical interfaces.
In addition to having all the functions supported by an Ethernet interface, an Eth-Trunk interface
has more bandwidth and features higher reliability.
Overview of VLAN
Before the trunk technology is introduced, the transmission rate between two network devices
connected by the fast Ethernet twisted pair can only be 100 Mbit/s. To achieve a higher
transmission rate, you have to change the transmission media, that is, replace the twisted pair
with the gigabit fiber, or upgrade the existing network to the Gigabit Ethernet network. This
solution, however, is costly and not suitable for small-and-medium enterprises or institutions.
To solve the preceding problem, the trunk technology is introduced. A trunk interface is formed
by bundling multiple physical interfaces to meet the bandwidth requirement without additional
costs. For example, three 100 Mbit/s full-duplex interfaces can be bundled to provide a maximum
bandwidth of 300 Mbit/s.
Besides Ethernet interfaces, Packet Over SONET/SDH (POS) interfaces can be bundled to form
a trunk interface.
l Trunk interfaces formed by bundling Ethernet interfaces are called Eth-Trunk interfaces.
l Trunk interfaces formed by bundling POS interfaces are called IP-Trunk interfaces.
The bundled interfaces are called member interfaces.
NOTE
Ethernet interfaces and POS interfaces, however, cannot be added to the same trunk interface.
l Ethernet interfaces are applicable to broadcast networks.
l POS interfaces can be added to IP-Trunk interfaces, and the data link layer protocol of POS interfaces
is HDLC. As HDLC is a point-to-point (P2P) protocol, POS interfaces are applicable to P2P networks.
Up to 255 trunk interfaces, including Eth-Trunk and IP-Trunk interfaces, can be created on each
router. An Eth-Trunk interface contains a maximum of 32 member interfaces.
The Eth-Trunk technology has the following advantages:
l Increased bandwidth: The bandwidth of an Eth-Trunk is the total bandwidth of all member
interfaces.
l Improved reliability: When a member link fails, traffic is automatically switched to other
available member links. This ensures reliability of the entire Eth-Trunk link.
l Load Balancing: On an Eth-Trunk interface, you can configure weights for member links
to carry out load balancing.
The Eth-Trunk technology has the following constraints:
l Devices use Eth-Trunk interfaces to communicate with each other must be directly
connected.
l Two devices on both ends of an Eth-Trunk link must have the same Eth-Trunk member
interfaces.
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Basic Eth-Trunk Concepts
l Link aggregation modes of Eth-Trunk interfaces
Table 3-1 Link aggregation modes of Eth-Trunk interfaces
Link
Aggregation
Mode
Description
Eth-Trunk
interfaces in
manual load
balancing mode
The manual load balancing mode is a basic link aggregation mode.
In this mode, you must manually create an Eth-Trunk interface, add
interfaces to the Eth-Trunk interface, and specify active member
interfaces. LACP is not involved.
In manual load balancing mode, all active member interfaces
forward data and perform load balancing. In this mode, Traffic can
be evenly balanced among all member interfaces. Alternatively,
you can also set the weight for each member interface to implement
uneven load balancing; in this manner, the interface that has a
greater weight value transmits a larger volume of traffic. If an active
link of the link aggregation group fails, traffic is balanced among
the remaining active links.
Eth-Trunk
interfaces in static
LACP mode
In static LACP mode, you must manually create an Eth-Trunk
interface and add interfaces to the Eth-Trunk interface. Different
from link aggregation in manual load balancing mode, active
member interfaces are selected by sending LACP data units
(LACPDUs) in static LACP mode. That is, when a group of
interfaces are added to an Eth-Trunk interface, devices at the two
ends determine active interfaces and inactive interfaces by sending
LACPDUs to each other.
The static LACP mode is called the M:N mode. In this mode, both
load balancing and redundancy backup can be implemented. In the
link aggregation group, M pieces of links are active to forward data
and perform load balancing and other N pieces of links are inactive.
The inactive links function as standby links and do not forward
data. When one active link fails, the system selects the link with
the highest priority from the standby links to replace the faulty link.
Then, the link becomes active and starts to forward data.

NOTE
The Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) is a standard conforming to IEEE 802.3ad. LACP-
capable devices exchange LACPDUs to communicate with each other.
l Public parameters of an Eth-Trunk interface
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Table 3-2 Public parameters of an Eth-Trunk interface
Parameter Description
Minimum
number of
active member
links
The number of active member links on an Eth-Trunk interface affects
the status and bandwidth of the Eth-Trunk interface. The bandwidth
of an Eth-Trunk interface equals the total bandwidth of all member
interfaces in the Up state.
When the number of active member links decreases below the
threshold, the Eth-Trunk interface goes Down. Setting the minimum
number of active member links is on purpose of ensuring the
minimum bandwidth of an Eth-Trunk interface.
For example, each member link can provide the bandwidth of 1 Gbit/
s, and the trunk interface needs to provide the minimum bandwidth
of 2 Gbit/s. In this case, the lower threshold must be set to 2 or a
greater value. If the number of active member links decreases below
2, the Eth-Trunk interface goes Down.
Load balancing
mode
There are two load balancing modes, namely, per-destination and per-
packet load balancing.
l Per-destination load balancing differentiates data flows based on
the MAC address or IP address in each packet, and ensures that
the packets of the same data flow are transmitted over the same
member link.
Layer 3 Eth-Trunk interfaces support per-destination load
balancing only based on the IP address in each packet.
Per-destination load balancing guarantees the packet sequence,
but not the bandwidth usage.
l Per-packet load balancing takes each packet (rather than the data
flow) as the transmission unit, and disperses and transmits packets
over different member links.
Per-packet load balancing guarantees the bandwidth usage, but
not the packet sequence.
MAC address Each station or server connected to an Ethernet interface of a device
has its own MAC address. The MAC address table on the device
records information about the MAC addresses of connected devices.
When a Layer 3 router is connected to a Layer 2 switch through two
Eth-Trunk links for different services, if both Eth-Trunk interfaces
on the router adopt the default system MAC address, the system MAC
address is learned by the switch and alternates between the two Eth-
Trunk interfaces. In this case, a loop probably occurs between the two
devices. To prevent loops, you can change the MAC address of an
Eth-Trunk interface by using the mac-address command. By
configuring the source and destination MAC addresses for two Eth-
Trunk links, you can guarantee the normal transmission of service
data flows and improve the network reliability.
After the MAC address of an Eth-Trunk interface is changed, the
device sends gratuitous ARP packets to update the mapping
relationship between MAC addresses and ports.
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Parameter Description
MTU Generally, the IP layer controls the maximum length of frames that
are sent each time. Any time the IP layer receives an IP packet to be
sent, it checks which local interface the packet needs to be sent to and
queries the MTU of the interface. Then, the IP layer compares the
MTU with the packet length to be sent. If the packet length is greater
than the MTU, the IP layer fragments the packet to ensure that the
length of each fragment is smaller or equal to the MTU.
If forcible unfragmentation is configured, certain packets are lost
during data transmission at the IP layer. To ensure jumbo packets are
not dropped during transmission, you need to configure forcible
fragmentation.
Generally, it is recommended that you adopt the default MTU value
of 1500 bytes. If you need to change the MTU of an Eth-Trunk
interface, you need to change the MTU of the peer Eth-Trunk
interface to ensure that the MTUs of both interfaces are the same.
Otherwise, services may be interrupted.

l Parameters of an Eth-Trunk interface in static LACP mode
Table 3-3 Parameters of an Eth-Trunk interface in static LACP mode
Parameter Description
Maximum
number of
active member
links
The number of active member links on an Eth-Trunk interface affects
the status and bandwidth of the Eth-Trunk interface. The bandwidth
of an Eth-Trunk interface equals the total bandwidth of all member
interfaces in the Up state.
After the number of active member links reaches the upper threshold,
the bandwidth of the Eth-Trunk interface does not increase even if
more member links go Up. Setting the maximum number of active
member links improves network reliability on the basis of sufficient
bandwidth.
For example, An Eth-Trunk interface has 10 trouble-free member
links and each of them can provide the bandwidth of 1 Gbit/s. The
Eth-Trunk interface needs to provide the maximum bandwidth of 5
Gbit/s. In this case, the upper threshold can be set to 5. Other links
automatically enter the standby state. When one or more links of the
selected five links go Down, standby links automatically start to work.
This ensures the 5 Gbit/s bandwidth of the Eth-Trunk interface and
improves the network reliability.
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Parameter Description
System LACP
priority
System LACP priorities are set to prioritize the devices at the two
ends of an Eth-Trunk link. The device with a higher system priority
is selected as the Actor, and then active member interfaces are
selected according to the configuration of the Eth-Trunk interface on
the Actor.
If neither of the devices at the two ends of an Eth-Trunk link is
configured with the system priority, the devices adopt the default
value 32768. In this case, the Actor is selected according to the system
ID. That is, the device with the smaller system ID becomes the Actor.
Mode for
selecting active
interfaces
As defined in LACP, active interfaces are selected according to the
interface priority by default. If member interfaces of an Eth-Trunk
interface in static LACP mode work at different rates, such as 100
Mbit/s and 1 Gbit/s, low-speed member interfaces may be selected as
active interfaces because of their high priorities. If you intend to select
high-speed interfaces to be active interfaces, you can run the lacp
selected command to set the mode for selecting active interfaces to
speed.
Timeout period
for receiving
LACP packets
If two devices are connected through three GE interfaces on each end,
the three GE interfaces are bundled into an Eth-Trunk interface and
the mode lacp-static command is used to configure the Eth-Trunk
interface to work in static LACP mode. In addition, the least active-
linknumber link-number command is used to set the minimum
number of active member links to 2.
When an Eth-Trunk member interface on the peer end goes Down,
the Eth-Trunk interface on the local end cannot detect the fault
immediately. As a result, the local Eth-Trunk interface still has three
member interfaces in the Up state. Data is balanced among the three
member interfaces, and thus certain data is lost. To ensure data
transmission, you can run the lacp timeout command to configure
the timeout period for the Eth-Trunk interface to receive packets. If
a local member interface does not receive any LACP packet within
the configured timeout period, it turns down immediately and no
longer forwards data.
As the number of Up member interfaces does not fall below the
configured minimum number of Up member interfaces, the Eth-
Trunk interface is still Up. In this case, data is balanced between the
two member interfaces in the Up state, thus ensuring the reliability of
data transmission.
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Parameter Description
Preemption
delay
A member interface of an Eth-Trunk interface in static LACP mode
fails and thus is in the standby state. When the member interface
recovers, it switches to the forwarding state. To avoid unstable data
transmission on the entire Eth-Trunk link due to the member
interface's alternating between Up and Down, you can run the lacp
preempt delay command to configure the preemption delay. In this
manner, the member interface can switch to the forwarding state only
after the preemption delay expires.
l If it is required that the member interface switch to the forwarding
state as soon as possible after it recovers, you can use the lacp
preempt delay command to set the preemption delay to the
minimum value 10 seconds.
l If it is required that the member interface switch the forwarding
state some time after it recovers, you can use the lacp preempt
delay command to set a proper preemption delay. The value can
be set as required as long as it ranges from 10 to 180 seconds.

l Parameters of an Eth-Trunk member interface
Table 3-4 Parameters of an Eth-Trunk member interface
Parameter Description
Load balancing
weight
On an Eth-Trunk interface, you can load balance traffic among
member interfaces according to the weights configured for the
member interfaces.
The higher the weight of a member interface, the heavier the load over
the member link. Therefore, you can run the distribute-weight
command to configure a higher weight for a member interface so that
the member link can carry a heavier load.
A maximum of 32 member interfaces in an Eth-Trunk interface can
carry out load balancing. The total weights of all member interfaces
in an Eth-Trunk interface cannot be greater than 32.
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Parameter Description
Interface LACP
priority
Interface LACP priorities are set to prioritize interfaces of the same
device. Interfaces with higher priorities are selected as active
interfaces.
Two devices are connected through three GE interfaces on each side.
After the three GE interfaces are bundled into an Eth-Trunk interface,
the mode lacp-static command is used to configure the Eth-Trunk
interface to work in static LACP mode. Two Eth-Trunk member
interfaces are active. If you want to use an inactive interface to replace
one of the active interfaces, you can take either of the following
actions:
l Run the lacp priority command in the interface view to set the
interface LACP priority of an inactive interface to 10 or another
value as long as the LACP priority of the inactive interface is lower
than that of an active interface.
l Run the lacp priority command in the interface view to set the
interface LACP priority of an active interface to 180 or another
value as long as the LACP priority of the active interface is higher
than that of any inactive interface.

l Status of member interfaces of an Eth-Trunk interface in static LACP mode
Table 3-5 Status of member interfaces of an Eth-Trunk interface in static LACP mode
Status Description
Selected Member interfaces in the Selected state can forward traffic.
Unselected Member interfaces in the Unselected state cannot forward traffic.

NOTE
The rate and duplex mode of an Eth-Trunk interface is determined by its member interfaces in the
Selected state:
l The rate of an Eth-Trunk interface is the sum of the rates of all its member interfaces in the
Selected state.
l The duplex mode of an Eth-Trunk interface is the same as that of its member interfaces in the
Selected state.
3.2 Eth-Trunk Features Supported by the NE5000E
This section describes how to configure Eth-Trunk interface features supported by the
NE5000E.
The roadmap for configuring an Eth-Trunk interface is as follows:
1. Determine the link aggregation mode for the Eth-Trunk interface, and then add physical
interfaces to the Eth-Trunk interface to make the Eth-Trunk interface take effect.
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2. Adjust parameters for the Eth-Trunk interface and its member interfaces to improve
interface reliability.
3. Configure the Eth-Trunk interface to support other features to improve network reliability.
For example, configure Eth-Trunk sub-interfaces for inter-VLAN communication.
Link Aggregation Modes
NOTE
Before configuring the link aggregation mode of an Eth-Trunk interface, ensure that the Eth-Trunk interface
does not contain any member interface.
Table 3-6 shows the link aggregation modes of Eth-Trunk interfaces, which are supported by
the NE5000E currently.
Table 3-6 Link aggregation modes of Eth-Trunk interfaces
Link Aggregation
Mode
Applicable Scenario
Eth-Trunk interfaces in
manual load balancing
mode
In the case that the device on one end of an Eth-Trunk link does
not support the Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP), you
can create an Eth-Trunk interface in load balancing mode on the
NE5000E and add multiple interfaces to the Eth-Trunk to increase
bandwidth and enhance transmission reliability.
Eth-Trunk interfaces in
static LACP mode
In the case that the devices on both ends of an Eth-Trunk link
support LACP, you can create an Eth-Trunk interface in static
LACP mode on the NE5000E. In this mode, both load balancing
and redundancy backup can be implemented.

Parameters of an Eth-Trunk Interface
l Public parameters
Table 3-7 Public parameters of an Eth-Trunk interface
Parameter Applicable Scenario
Minimum
number of
active member
links
If the minimum bandwidth must be guaranteed, you can configure the
minimum number of active member links.
Load balancing
mode
Load balancing can be carried out in the following ways:
l If data transmission sequence takes precedence over bandwidth
usage in forwarding requirements, you can deploy per-destination
load balancing.
l If bandwidth usage takes precedence over data transmission
sequence in forwarding requirements, you can deploy per-packet
load balancing.
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Parameter Applicable Scenario
MAC address If a Layer 3 routing device and a Layer 2 switching device transmit
different services through two Eth-Trunk links, you can configure
different MAC addresses for the two Eth-Trunk interfaces on the
Layer 3 routing device to specify forwarding paths.
MTU If the length of packets transmitted on a network is longer than the
MTU, you need to decrease the MTU value and configure packets to
be forcibly fragmented. This ensures that fewer large packets
transmitted on the network are dropped.
Generally, it is recommended that you adopt the default MTU value
of 1500 bytes. If you need to change the MTU of an Eth-Trunk
interface, you need to change the MTU of the peer Eth-Trunk
interface to ensure that the MTUs of both interfaces are the same.
Otherwise, services may be interrupted.

l Parameters of an Eth-Trunk interface in static LACP mode
Table 3-8 Parameters of an Eth-Trunk interface in static LACP mode
Parameter Applicable Scenario
Maximum
number of
active member
links
If it is required that the maximum bandwidth be unchanged when
more member interfaces go Up, you can configure the maximum
number of active member links.
System LACP
priority
If the Actor of an Eth-Trunk link needs to be manually configured,
you can configure the system LACP priority.
Mode for
selecting active
interfaces
When an Eth-Trunk interface has multiple Up member interfaces
working at different rates, you can configure a mode for selecting
active interfaces to ensure the maximum rate of the Eth-Trunk
interface.
Timeout period
for receiving
LACP packets
If an Eth-Trunk interface has multiple Up member interface, and the
minimum number of active member links is set, you can configure
the timeout period for receiving LACP packets to ensure no packet
loss after member interfaces go Down.
Preemption
delay
To prevent unstable data transmission on an Eth-Trunk interface
caused by frequent status changes of its member interfaces, you can
configure a preemption delay.

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Parameters of Eth-Trunk Member Interfaces
Table 3-9 Parameters of an Eth-Trunk member interface
Parameter Applicable Scenario
Load balancing
weight
You can configure load balancing weights for member interfaces if an
Eth-Trunk interface has multiple Up member interfaces working at
different rates, and it is required that member interfaces working at higher
rates bear heavier loads.
Interface LACP
priority
You can configure interface LACP priorities for member interfaces to
determine active member interfaces of an Eth-Trunk interface.

Eth-Trunk Sub-interfaces
You can create sub-interfaces on Eth-Trunk main interfaces. The NE5000E supports sub-
interfaces on a Layer 3 Eth-Trunk interface.
After you encapsulate Eth-Trunk sub-interfaces with 802.1Q and associate them with a VLAN,
the sub-interfaces can communicate with devices outside the VLAN.
3.3 Configuring the Link Aggregation Mode of an Eth-
Trunk Interface
The link aggregation mode of an Eth-Trunk interface can be the manual load balancing mode
and the static LACP mode.
Applicable Environment
To improve link communication capabilities, you can bind multiple Ethernet interfaces to form
an Eth-Trunk interface. The bandwidth of the Eth-Trunk interface is the total bandwidth of all
member interfaces. In this manner, you can increase the interface bandwidth.
Load balancing can be carried out on an Eth-Trunk interface by dispersing traffic over member
links, and sending the traffic to the same destination. In this manner, network congestion can be
avoided.
Adopting Eth-Trunk interfaces can improve the link reliability. If a member interface of an Eth-
Trunk interface goes Down, traffic can be transmitted through other member interfaces.
Figure 3-1 Networking diagram of link aggregation mode of an Eth-Trunk Interface
Eth-Trunk
RouterA RouterB
Eth-Trunk1
Eth-Trunk1

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l When one of the devices at two ends of an Eth-Trunk link does not support LACP (for
example, in Figure 3-1, Router A supports LACP but Router B does not support LACP),
you can create an Eth-Trunk interface in manual load balancing mode on the two devices,
and then add multiple interfaces to the Eth-Trunk interface to increase bandwidth of the
Eth-Trunk link and improve reliability.
l When the devices at two ends of an Eth-Trunk link support LACP (as shown in Figure
3-1, both Router A and Router B support LACP), you can create an Eth-Trunk interface in
static LACP mode on the two devices, and then add multiple interfaces to the Eth-Trunk
interface to implement load balancing and backup.
NOTE
l In manual load balancing mode, member interfaces with different transmission rates, in different duplex
modes, and on different boards can be added to the same Eth-Trunk interface.
l In static LACP mode, member interfaces with different rates, in different duplex modes, and on different
boards can be aggregated to the same Eth-Trunk interface. Member interfaces with different rates,
however, cannot be in the forwarding state at the same time. In addition, member interfaces working
in half-duplex mode cannot forward data.
Pre-configuration Tasks
Before configuring the link aggregation mode of an Eth-Trunk interface, complete the following
task:
l Powering on the device and ensuring a successful self-check
Configuration Procedures
Figure 3-2 Flowchart of configuring the link aggregation mode of an Eth-Trunk interface
Create an Eth-Trunk
interface
Configure the Eth-Trunk
interface to work in manual
load balancing mode
Add interfaces to the Eth-
Trunk interface
Create an Eth-Trunk
interface
Configure the Eth-Trunk
interface to work in static
LACP mode
Add interfaces to the Eth-
Trunk interface
Eth-Trunk interface in manual load
balancing mode
Eth-Trunk interface in static
LACP mode
Mandatory procedure
Optional procedure

Related Tasks
3.8.1 Example for Configuring Eth-Trunk Interfaces to Work in Manual Load Balancing Mode
3.8.2 Example for Configuring an Eth-Trunk Interface to Work in Static LACP Mode
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3.3.1 Creating an Eth-Trunk Interface
The Eth-Trunk ID uniquely identifies an Eth-Trunk link. You must create an Eth-Trunk interface
before configuring the link aggregation mode of the Eth-Trunk interface. Do as follows on the
router that requires an Eth-Trunk interface:
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface eth-trunk trunk-id
An Eth-Trunk interface is created, and enter the view of the Eth-Trunk interface.
The Eth-Trunk ID ranges from 0 to 254. Currently, a maximum of 255 Eth-Trunk interfaces can
be configured.
Step 3 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
3.3.2 Setting the Link Aggregation Mode of an Eth-Trunk Interface
You can add multiple physical interfaces to an Eth-Trunk interface only after configuring the
link aggregation mode of the Eth-Trunk interface. Do as follows on the routers at two ends of
an Eth-Trunk link:
Context
Before configuring the link aggregation mode of an Eth-Trunk interface, ensure that the Eth-
Trunk interface does not contain any member interface; otherwise, the link aggregation mode
of the Eth-Trunk cannot be changed.
To delete member interfaces of an Eth-Trunk interface, run the undo eth-trunk trunk-id
command in the related interface view.
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface eth-trunk trunk-id
The Eth-Trunk interface view is displayed.
Step 3 Run:
mode { lacp-static | manual [ load-balance ] }
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The link aggregation mode of an Eth-Trunk interface is configured.
By default, an Eth-Trunk interface works in manual load balancing mode.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
3.3.3 Adding Interfaces to an Eth-Trunk Interface
After configuring the link aggregation mode of an Eth-Trunk interface, you must add interfaces
to the Eth-Trunk interface to increase bandwidth, improve reliability, and implement load
balancing. Do as follows on the routers at two ends of an Eth-Trunk link:
Context
When adding interfaces to an Eth-Trunk interface, note the following issues:
l An Eth-Trunk interface can contain a maximum of 32 member interfaces.
l Fast Ethernet (FE) interfaces and Gigabit Ethernet (GE) interfaces can be added to the same
Eth-Trunk interface.
l Ethernet interfaces on different interface boards can be added to the same Eth-Trunk
interface.
l An Ethernet interface can be added to only one Eth-Trunk interface. The Ethernet interface
must be deleted from the original Eth-Trunk interface before joining another Eth-Trunk
interface.
l Member interfaces can be configured with neither Layer 3 configurations such as IP
addresses nor services.
l Member interfaces cannot be configured with auto-negotiation attributes or static MAC
addresses.
l An Eth-Trunk interface cannot be the member interface of another Eth-Trunk interface.
l If a member interface of an Eth-Trunk interface is connected to the peer, the directly
connected interface on the peer must also be a member interface of an Eth-Trunk interface;
otherwise, the devices cannot communicate with each other.
Adding an interface to an Eth-Trunk interface can be configured in the Eth-Trunk interface view
or in the view of the interface to be added. You can choose the view as required to add an interface
to an Eth-Trunk interface.
Procedure
l Add interfaces to an Eth-Trunk interface in the Eth-Trunk interface view.
1. Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
2. Run:
interface eth-trunk trunk-id
The Eth-Trunk interface view is displayed.
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3. Run either of the following commands as required:
To add interfaces to the Eth-Trunk interface in batches, run:
trunkport interface-type { interface-number1 [ to interface-number2 ] }
&<1-16>
In the trunkport command, you can use the to parameter to specify the interface
range for up to 16 times. When you specify the interface range, check the following
points to ensure that the interface format is correct.
The interface number after to must be greater than the interface number before
to.
The types of the interfaces specified by adopting the to parameter must be the
same.
The interfaces in the range must exist.
To add an interface to the Eth-Trunk interface, run:
trunkport interfacetype interface-number
4. Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
l Add a physical interface to an Eth-Trunk interface in the physical interface view.
1. Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
2. Run:
interface interface-type interface-number
The view of the interface to be added to an Eth-Trunk interface is displayed.
3. Run:
eth-trunk trunk-id
The interface is added to an Eth-Trunk interface.
4. Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
3.3.4 Checking the Configuration
After the link aggregation mode of an Eth-Trunk interface is configured, you can check
information about the Eth-Trunk interface, including the interface ID, working mode, and status
of member interfaces.
Prerequisite
The configurations of the link aggregation mode of an Eth-Trunk interface are complete.
Procedure
l Run the display eth-trunk [ trunk-id [ interface interface-type interface-number |
verbose ] ] command to check information about the link aggregation group.
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l Run the display trunkfwdtbl eth-trunk trunk-id [ slot slot-id ] command to check
information about the forwarding table for the link aggregation group.
----End
Example
If an Eth-Trunk interface works in manual load balancing mode, run the display eth-trunk
command. The command output shows that the Eth-Trunk interface works in the Normal state
and information about its member interfaces.
<HUAWEI> display eth-trunk 1
Eth-Trunk1's state information is:
WorkingMode: NORMAL Hash arithmetic: According to flow
Least Active-linknumber: 1 Max Bandwidth-affected-linknumber: 16
Operate status: up Number Of Up Port In Trunk: 1
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PortName Status Weight
GigabitEthernet1/0/6 Up 1
GigabitEthernet1/0/7 Up 1
GigabitEthernet1/0/5 down 1
If an Eth-Trunk interface works in static LACP mode, run the display eth-trunk command. The
command output shows that the Eth-Trunk interface works in the STATIC state and information
about its member interfaces.
<HUAWEI> display eth-trunk 10
Eth-Trunk10's state information is:
Local:
LAG ID: 10 WorkingMode: STATIC
Preempt Delay Time: 20 Hash arithmetic: According to flow
System Priority: 100 System ID: 00e0-fc6f-87cc
Least Active-linknumber: 1 Max Active-linknumber: 2
Operate status: up Number Of Up Port In Trunk: 2
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ActorPortName Status PortType PortPri PortNo PortKey PortState Weight
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 Selected 1GE 100 262 561 11111100 1
GigabitEthernet1/0/2 Selected 1GE 100 263 545 11100000 1
GigabitEthernet1/0/3 Unselect 1GE 150 264 561 11111100 1
Partner:
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ActorPortName SysPri SystemID PortPri PortNo PortKey PortState
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 32768 00e0-fcb8-d6b6 100 262 561 11111100
GigabitEthernet1/0/2 32768 00e0-fcb8-d6b6 100 263 545 11100000
GigabitEthernet1/0/3 32768 00e0-fcb8-d6b6 150 264 561 11111100
Run the display trunkfwdtbl eth-trunk command. The command output shows information
about the forwarding table for the link aggregation group.
<HUAWEI> display trunkfwdtbl eth-trunk 10
Eth-Trunk10's forwarding table is:
MASTER SLAVE
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 GigabitEthernet1/0/3
GigabitEthernet1/0/3 GigabitEthernet1/0/2
GigabitEthernet1/0/2 GigabitEthernet1/0/1
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 GigabitEthernet1/0/3
GigabitEthernet1/0/3 GigabitEthernet1/0/2
GigabitEthernet1/0/2 GigabitEthernet1/0/1
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 GigabitEthernet1/0/3
GigabitEthernet1/0/3 GigabitEthernet1/0/2
GigabitEthernet1/0/2 GigabitEthernet1/0/1
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 GigabitEthernet1/0/3
GigabitEthernet1/0/3 GigabitEthernet1/0/2
GigabitEthernet1/0/2 GigabitEthernet1/0/1
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 GigabitEthernet1/0/3
GigabitEthernet1/0/3 GigabitEthernet1/0/2
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GigabitEthernet1/0/2 GigabitEthernet1/0/1
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 GigabitEthernet1/0/3
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 GigabitEthernet1/0/3
GigabitEthernet1/0/3 GigabitEthernet1/0/2
GigabitEthernet1/0/2 GigabitEthernet1/0/1
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 GigabitEthernet1/0/3
GigabitEthernet1/0/3 GigabitEthernet1/0/2
GigabitEthernet1/0/2 GigabitEthernet1/0/1
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 GigabitEthernet1/0/3
GigabitEthernet1/0/3 GigabitEthernet1/0/2
GigabitEthernet1/0/2 GigabitEthernet1/0/1
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 GigabitEthernet1/0/3
GigabitEthernet1/0/3 GigabitEthernet1/0/2
GigabitEthernet1/0/2 GigabitEthernet1/0/1
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 GigabitEthernet1/0/3
GigabitEthernet1/0/3 GigabitEthernet1/0/2
GigabitEthernet1/0/2 GigabitEthernet1/0/1
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 GigabitEthernet1/0/3
3.4 Configuring Eth-Trunk Interface Parameters
To ensure reliable communication of Eth-Trunk interfaces, you need to configure proper
parameters for the Eth-Trunk interfaces.
Applicable Environment
For the applicable environment of Eth-Trunk interface parameters, as show inTable 3-10.
Table 3-10 Public parameters of an Eth-Trunk interface
Parameter Applicable Scenario
Minimum
number of active
member links
If the minimum bandwidth must be guaranteed, you can configure the
minimum number of active member links.
Load balancing
mode
Load balancing can be carried out in the following ways:
l If data transmission sequence takes precedence over bandwidth usage
in forwarding requirements, you can deploy per-destination load
balancing.
l If bandwidth usage takes precedence over data transmission sequence
in forwarding requirements, you can deploy per-packet load
balancing.
MAC address If a Layer 3 routing device and a Layer 2 switching device transmit
different services through two Eth-Trunk links, you can configure
different MAC addresses for the two Eth-Trunk interfaces on the Layer
3 routing device to specify forwarding paths.
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Parameter Applicable Scenario
MTU If the length of packets transmitted on a network is longer than the MTU,
you need to decrease the MTU value and configure packets to be forcibly
fragmented. This ensures that fewer large packets transmitted on the
network are dropped.
Generally, it is recommended that you adopt the default MTU value of
1500 bytes. If you need to change the MTU of an Eth-Trunk interface,
you need to change the MTU of the peer Eth-Trunk interface to ensure
that the MTUs of both interfaces are the same. Otherwise, services may
be interrupted.

Pre-configuration Tasks
Before configuring Eth-Trunk interface parameters, complete the following task:
l Configuring the Link Aggregation Mode of an Eth-Trunk Interface
Configuration Procedures
You can choose one or more configuration tasks (excluding "Checking the Configuration") as
required.
Related Tasks
3.8.1 Example for Configuring Eth-Trunk Interfaces to Work in Manual Load Balancing Mode
3.8.2 Example for Configuring an Eth-Trunk Interface to Work in Static LACP Mode
3.4.1 Configuring Public Parameters of an Eth-Trunk Interface
Public parameters of an Eth-Trunk interface include the minimum number of active member
links, load balancing mode, MAC address, and MTU. Do as follows on the routers on two ends
of an Eth-Trunk link:
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface eth-trunk trunk-id
The Eth-Trunk interface view is displayed.
Step 3 Configure one or more public parameters of an Eth-Trunk interface as required:
l Run the least active-linknumber link-number command to configure the minimum number
of active member links.
By default, the minimum number of active member links on an Eth-Trunk interface is 1.
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The Eth-Trunk interface goes Down when the number of active member links falls below
the configured lower threshold.
The Eth-Trunk interface goes Up when the number of active member links reaches the
configured lower threshold.
l Run the load-balance { ip | packet-all } command to configure the load balancing mode of
an Eth-Trunk interface.
By default, Layer 3 Eth-Trunk interfaces carry out IP-based load balancing.
If packet-all is configured to perform per-packet load balancing, note the following points:
Taking a packet (rather than a data flow) as the transmission unit, per-packet load
balancing disperses and transmits packets among different member links.
Per-packet load balancing guarantees the bandwidth usage but not the data sequence,
which is applicable to the scenario where the data sequence is not strictly required.
If IP is configured to perform per-destination load balancing, note the following points:
Per-destination load balancing differentiates data flows based on IP addresses of packets
to ensure that the packets of the same data flow are transmitted over the same member
link.
Per-destination load balancing guarantees the data sequence but not the bandwidth usage.
l Run the mac-address mac-address command to configure a MAC address for the current
Eth-Trunk interface.
By default, the MAC address of an Eth-Trunk interface is the system MAC address, that is,
the MAC address of the Ethernet interface on the main control board.
The mac-address is in the format of H-H-H. Each H stands for one to four hexadecimal
numbers, such as 00e0 and fc01. If an H contains less than four bits, 0 is padded ahead. For
example, if you specify an H as e0, it is displayed as 00e0. A MAC address cannot be set to
all 0s or all 1s.
l Run the mtu mtu command to set the MTU for an Eth-Trunk interface.
By default, the MTU is 1500 bytes.
If the MTU is set too small and the size of packets is quite large, packets are fragmented
into a great number of fragments, and thus discarded by QoS queues.
If the MTU is set too large, packets may be transmitted at a low speed.
NOTE
l You need to run the mtu command in the view of an Eth-Trunk interface to change its MTU. Do
not run the mtu command on the Eth-Trunk member interfaces.
l After using the mtu command to change the MTU of an Eth-Trunk interface, you need to change
the MTU of the peer Eth-Trunk interface to ensure that the MTUs of both interfaces are the same.
Otherwise, services may be interrupted.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
3.4.2 Configuring Parameters of an Eth-Trunk Interface in Static
LACP Mode
Parameters of an Eth-Trunk interface in static LACP mode include the maximum number of
active member links, system LACP priority, interface LACP priority, mode for selecting active
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interfaces, timeout period of LACP packets, preemption function, and preemption delay. Do as
following on the routers on both ends of an Eth-Trunk link in static LACP mode:
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
lacp priority priority
The system LACP priority is configured.
By default, the system LACP priority is 32768.
Step 3 Run:
interface eth-trunk trunk-id
The view of an Eth-Trunk interface in static LACP mode is displayed.
Step 4 Configure one or more parameters of an Eth-Trunk interface in static LACP mode as required:
l Run the max active-linknumber link-number command to configure the maximum number
of active member links.
By default, the maximum number of active member links is 32.
If the least active-linknumber command has been used to configure the minimum number
of active member links, ensure that the value of link-number specified in the max active-
linknumber link-number command is greater than the minimum number of active member
links.
l Run the lacp selected { priority | speed } command to configure the mode for selecting
active interfaces of an Eth-Trunk interface in static LACP mode.
By default, active interfaces are selected according to the interface priority.
By default, Eth-Trunk active member interfaces are selected according to the interface
priority. Changing the mode for selecting active interfaces causes short-term service
interruption. Thus, you are not recommended to change the mode for selecting active
interfaces during service transmission.
l Run the lacp timeout { fast | slow } command to configure the timeout period for an Eth-
Trunk interface in static LACP mode to receive LACP packets.
By default, the timeout period for an Eth-Trunk interface to receive packets is 3 seconds, that
is, the keyword slow is configured.
If the parameter fast is configured, the peer sends an LACP packet every 1 second.
If the parameter slowis configured, the peer sends an LACP packet every 30 seconds.
l Run the lacp preempt delay delay-time to configure the preemption delay.
By default, the preemption delay is 30 seconds.
When LACP priority preemption occurs, the standby link waits for a period of time before
switching to the forwarding state.
In the case that LACP priority preemption in static LACP mode is enabled but the preemption
delay is not configured, the system adopts the default preemption delay. If the preemption
delay of a local device is different from that of the peer, the system adopts the longer
preemption delay.
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NOTE
Before configuring the preemption delay, ensure that the lacp preempt enable command has been
used in the view of the Eth-Trunk interface in static LACP mode to enable the preemption function.
Step 5 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
3.4.3 Checking the Configuration
After parameters of an Eth-Trunk interface are successfully configured, you can view
information about the Eth-Trunk interface, including the interface ID, working mode, status of
member interfaces, system LACP priority, interface LACP priority, and LACP preemption
delay.
Prerequisite
The configurations of parameters of an Eth-Trunk interface are complete.
Procedure
l Run the display eth-trunk [ trunk-id [ interface interface-type interface-number |
verbose ] ] command to check information about the link aggregation group.
l Run the display trunkfwdtbl eth-trunk trunk-id [ slot slot-id ] command to check
information about the forwarding table for the link aggregation group.
----End
Example
Run the display eth-trunk and display trunkfwdtbl eth-trunk commands, and you check
whether the configured working mode, system LACP priority, and interface LACP priority take
effect and which interfaces are selected as active member interfaces.
<HUAWEI> display eth-trunk 1
Eth-Trunk1's state information is:
Local:
LAG ID: 1 WorkingMode: STATIC
Preempt Delay Time: 20 Hash arithmetic: According to flow
System Priority: 100 System ID: 00e0-fc6f-87cc
Least Active-linknumber: 1 Max Active-linknumber: 2
Operate status: up Number Of Up Port In Trunk: 2
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ActorPortName Status PortType PortPri PortNo PortKey PortState Weight
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 Selected 1GE 100 262 561 11111100 1
GigabitEthernet1/0/2 Selected 1GE 100 263 545 11100000 1
GigabitEthernet1/0/3 Unselect 1GE 150 264 561 11111100 1
Partner:
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ActorPortName SysPri SystemID PortPri PortNo PortKey PortState
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 32768 00e0-fcb8-d6b6 100 262 561 11111100
GigabitEthernet1/0/2 32768 00e0-fcb8-d6b6 100 263 545 11100000
GigabitEthernet1/0/3 32768 00e0-fcb8-d6b6 150 264 561 11111100
<HUAWEI> display trunkmembership eth-trunk 1
Trunk ID: 1
used status: VALID
TYPE: ethernet
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Working Mode : Static
Number Of Ports in Trunk = 3
Number Of UP Ports in Trunk = 2
operate status: up
Interface GigabitEthernet1/0/1, valid, operate up, weight=1,
Interface GigabitEthernet1/0/2, valid, operate up, weight=1,
Interface GigabitEthernet1/0/3, valid, operate down, weight=1,
Run the display trunkfwdtbl eth-trunk command. The command output shows information
about the forwarding table for the link aggregation group.
<HUAWEI> display trunkfwdtbl eth-trunk 10
Eth-Trunk10's forwarding table is:
MASTER SLAVE
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 GigabitEthernet1/0/3
GigabitEthernet1/0/3 GigabitEthernet1/0/2
GigabitEthernet1/0/2 GigabitEthernet1/0/1
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 GigabitEthernet1/0/3
GigabitEthernet1/0/3 GigabitEthernet1/0/2
GigabitEthernet1/0/2 GigabitEthernet1/0/1
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 GigabitEthernet1/0/3
GigabitEthernet1/0/3 GigabitEthernet1/0/2
GigabitEthernet1/0/2 GigabitEthernet1/0/1
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 GigabitEthernet1/0/3
GigabitEthernet1/0/3 GigabitEthernet1/0/2
GigabitEthernet1/0/2 GigabitEthernet1/0/1
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 GigabitEthernet1/0/3
GigabitEthernet1/0/3 GigabitEthernet1/0/2
GigabitEthernet1/0/2 GigabitEthernet1/0/1
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 GigabitEthernet1/0/3
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 GigabitEthernet1/0/3
GigabitEthernet1/0/3 GigabitEthernet1/0/2
GigabitEthernet1/0/2 GigabitEthernet1/0/1
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 GigabitEthernet1/0/3
GigabitEthernet1/0/3 GigabitEthernet1/0/2
GigabitEthernet1/0/2 GigabitEthernet1/0/1
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 GigabitEthernet1/0/3
GigabitEthernet1/0/3 GigabitEthernet1/0/2
GigabitEthernet1/0/2 GigabitEthernet1/0/1
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 GigabitEthernet1/0/3
GigabitEthernet1/0/3 GigabitEthernet1/0/2
GigabitEthernet1/0/2 GigabitEthernet1/0/1
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 GigabitEthernet1/0/3
GigabitEthernet1/0/3 GigabitEthernet1/0/2
GigabitEthernet1/0/2 GigabitEthernet1/0/1
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 GigabitEthernet1/0/3
3.5 Configuring Parameters of an Eth-Trunk Member
Interface
Parameters of an Eth-Trunk member interface include the load balancing weight and LACP
priority of the member interface.
Applicable Environment
For the applicable environment of parameters of an Eth-Trunk member interface, see
Parameters of an Eth-Trunk Member Interface.
Pre-configuration Tasks
Before configuring parameters of an Eth-Trunk member interface, complete the following task:
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l Configuring the Link Aggregation Mode of an Eth-Trunk Interface
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface interface-type interface-number
The view of an Eth-Trunk member interface is displayed.
Step 3 Run:
distribute-weight weight-value
The load balancing weight of the Eth-Trunk member link is configured.
The value of load balancing weight of an Eth-Trunk member link ranges from 1 to 32. By default,
the weight of an Eth-Trunk member interface is 1.
The higher the weight of a member interface, the heavier the load over the member link.
Step 4 (Optional) Run:
lacp priority priority
The LACP priority of the member interface is configured.
By default, the LACP priority of an interface is 32768. The value of the interface LACP priority
ranges from 0 to 65535. The smaller the value, the higher the interface LACP priority.
NOTE
Configuring the interface LACP priority is optional. Only a member interface of an Eth-Trunk interface
in static LACP mode can be configured with the interface LACP priority.
Step 5 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
Checking the Configuration
After parameters of an Eth-Trunk member interface are configured, you can run the following
commands to check the configuration.
l Run the display trunkmembership eth-trunk command to view information about
member interfaces of an Eth-Trunk interface.
l Run the display eth-trunk command to view information about the Eth-Trunk link
aggregation group.
Run the display trunkmembership eth-trunk command to view the ID and working mode of
the Eth-Trunk interface and the status and weight of every member interface.
<HUAWEI> display trunkmembership eth-trunk 1
Trunk ID: 1
used status: VALID
TYPE: ethernet
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Working Mode : Static
Number Of Ports in Trunk = 3
Number Of UP Ports in Trunk = 2
operate status: up
Interface GigabitEthernet1/0/1, valid, operate up, weight=1,
Interface GigabitEthernet1/0/2, valid, operate up, weight=1,
Interface GigabitEthernet1/0/3, valid, operate down, weight=1,
Run the display eth-trunk command to view the ID and working mode of the Eth-Trunk
interface and the status and weight of every member interface.
<HUAWEI> display eth-trunk 1
Eth-Trunk1's state information is:
Local:
LAG ID: 1 WorkingMode: STATIC
Preempt Delay Time: 20 Hash arithmetic: According to flow
System Priority: 100 System ID: 00e0-fc6f-87cc
Least Active-linknumber: 1 Max Active-linknumber: 2
Operate status: up Number Of Up Port In Trunk: 2
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ActorPortName Status PortType PortPri PortNo PortKey PortState Weight
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 Selected 1GE 100 262 561 11111100 1
GigabitEthernet1/0/2 Selected 1GE 100 263 545 11100000 1
GigabitEthernet1/0/3 Unselect 1GE 150 264 561 11111100 1
Partner:
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ActorPortName SysPri SystemID PortPri PortNo PortKey PortState
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 32768 00e0-fcb8-d6b6 100 262 561 11111100
GigabitEthernet1/0/2 32768 00e0-fcb8-d6b6 100 263 545 11100000
GigabitEthernet1/0/3 32768 00e0-fcb8-d6b6 150 264 561 11111100
Related Tasks
3.8.1 Example for Configuring Eth-Trunk Interfaces to Work in Manual Load Balancing Mode
3.8.2 Example for Configuring an Eth-Trunk Interface to Work in Static LACP Mode
3.6 Configuring Eth-Trunk Sub-interfaces to Support
Communication Between VLANs
When a Layer 3 device is connected to Layer 2 switches through Layer 3 Eth-Trunk interfaces,
you need to create sub-interfaces on the Eth-Trunk interfaces connecting the Layer 3 device to
the Layer 2 switches, and then encapsulate the sub-interfaces with 802.1Q.
Applicable Environment
In the case where Layer 2 switches belong to different VLANs, to ensure normal communication
between hosts in different VLANs, you need to create sub-interfaces on the Eth-Trunk interfaces
connecting a Layer 3 device to the Layer 2 switches and then bind each user VLAN to a sub-
interface. In addition, you need to configure an IP address and 802.1Q encapsulation for every
sub-interface.
As shown in Figure 3-3, Router A is connected to Switch A through Eth-Trunk 1, downstream
interfaces on Switch A belong to VLAN 10 and 20.
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Figure 3-3 Networking diagram of Eth-Trunk sub-interfaces supporting communication
between VLANs
VLAN 10
10.110.2.0/24
VLAN 20
10.110.1.0/24
Eth-Trunk1.1
10.110.1.10/24
SwitchA
RouterA
Eth-Trunk1.2
10.110.2.10/24

To interconnect devices in VLAN 10 and VLAN 20, do as follows on Router A:
l Create Eth-Trunk sub-interfaces and assign IP addresses to them.
l Encapsulate the Eth-Trunk sub-interfaces with 802.1Q and associate them with VLANs.
Pre-configuration Tasks
Before configuring Eth-Trunk sub-interfaces to support communication between VLANs,
complete the following tasks:
l Ensuring that an Eth-Trunk interface has been successfully created
Configuration Procedures
Figure 3-4 Flowchart of configuring an Eth-Trunk sub-interface
Create an Eth-Trunk sub-interface
Assign an IP address
Configure the encapsulation type
Mandatory procedure
Optional procedure
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Related Tasks
3.8.3 Example for Configuring Eth-Trunk Sub-interfaces to Support Communication Between
VLANs
3.6.1 Creating a Sub-interface
To ensure normal communication between VLANs, you need to create Eth-Trunk sub-interfaces
on a Layer 3 device.
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface eth-trunk trunk-id.subnumber
A sub-interface is created and the sub-interface view is displayed.
trunk-id ranges from 0 to 254. Currently, a maximum of 255 Eth-Trunk interfaces can be
configured.
subnumber specifies the number of an Eth-Trunk sub-interface, ranging from 1 to 4096. A
maximum of 4096 sub-interfaces can be created on an Eth-Trunk interface.
Step 3 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
3.6.2 Assigning an IP Address
To communicate with Layer 3 networks, Eth-Trunk sub-interfaces need to be assigned IP
addresses.
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface eth-trunk interface-number.subinterface-number
The view of a specified Eth-Trunk sub-interface is displayed.
Step 3 Run:
ip address ip-address mask [ sub ]
An IP address is assigned to the Eth-Trunk sub-interface.
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When more than one IP address is assigned to an Eth-Trunk interface, the keyword sub can be
used to indicate the second and later IP addresses.
For the configuration of IP addresses, see the HUAWEI NetEngine5000E Core Router
Configuration Guide - IP Services.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
3.6.3 Configuring 802.1Q Encapsulation
A Layer 3 device is connected to a Layer 2 device through Eth-Trunk interfaces and the directly
connected Eth-Trunk interfaces are added to specified VLANs. In this case, you need to
configure the encapsulation type for the Eth-Trunk sub-interfaces on the Layer 3 device to ensure
the communication between the two devices.
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface eth-trunk trunk-id.subnumber
The Eth-Trunk sub-interface view is displayed.
Step 3 Run:
vlan-type dot1q vlan-id
The encapsulation type and associated VLAN ID are configured for an Eth-Trunk sub-interface.
By default, no encapsulation type or associated VLAN ID is configured on the sub-interface.
Currently, the NE5000E allows an Eth-Trunk sub-interface to be associated with only one
VLAN.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
3.6.4 Checking the Configuration
After an Eth-Trunk sub-interface is successfully configured, you can view information about
the sub-interface, including the IP address and MAC address.
Prerequisite
The configurations of an Eth-Trunk sub-interface are complete.
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Procedure
Step 1 Run the display interface eth-trunk [ trunk-id [.subnumber ] ] command to view the status of
the Eth-Trunk interface.
----End
Example
Run the display interface eth-trunk command, and you can view information about the Eth-
Trunk sub-interface, including the IP address, MAC address, and VLAN encapsulation type.
For example:
<HUAWEI> display interface eth-trunk 1.1
Eth-Trunk1.1 current state : UP
Line protocol current state : UP
Last line protocol up time: 2010-01-20, 14:45:13
Description: HUAWEI, Eth-Trunk1.1 Interface (ifindex: 20, vr: 0)
Route Port,Hash arithmetic : According to flow,Maximal BW: 2Gbps, Current BW:
2Gbps,
The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1500
Internet Address is 10.110.1.10/24
IP Sending Frames' Format is PKTFMT_ETHNT_2, Hardware address is 3870-1210-0100
Encapsulation dot1q Virtual LAN, The number of Vlan is 1, Vlan ID 20
Current system time: 2010-02-06 15:28:56
Last 300 seconds input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Last 300 seconds output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Input: 0 packets,0 bytes,
0 unicast,0 broadcast,0 multicast
0 errors,0 drops,
Output:0 packets,0 bytes,
0 unicast,0 broadcast,0 multicast
0 errors,0 drops
Last 300 seconds input utility rate: 0.00%
Last 300 seconds output utility rate: 0.00%
------------------------------------------------------
PortName Status Weight
------------------------------------------------------
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 UP 1
GigabitEthernet1/0/2 UP 1
------------------------------------------------------
The Number Of Ports in Trunk : 2
The Number Of UP Ports in Trunk : 2
3.7 Maintenance
The statistics reset commands and debugging commands help to locate faults on Eth-Trunk
interfaces.
3.7.1 Clearing the Statistics on Eth-Trunk Interfaces
Before collecting traffic statistics in a specified time period on an interface, you need to reset
the original statistics on the interface.
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Context
CAUTION
Statistics cannot be restored after being cleared. Therefore, confirm the action before you run
the following command.
Procedure
l To clear statistics on an Eth-Trunk interface, run the reset counters interface eth-trunk
[ trunk-id ] command in the user view.
l To clear statistics on an Eth-Trunk interface in static LACP mode, run the reset lacp
statistics eth-trunk [ trunk-id [ interface interface-type interface-number ] ] command in
the user view.
----End
3.8 Configuration Examples
This section describes the typical application scenarios of Eth-Trunk, including networking
requirements, configuration roadmap, and data preparation, and provides related configuration
files.
3.8.1 Example for Configuring Eth-Trunk Interfaces to Work in
Manual Load Balancing Mode
In manual load balancing mode, traffic can be evenly distributed among all the member
interfaces. You can also set different weights for the member interfaces so that uneven load
balancing can be carried out. That means, certain interfaces that have greater weights transmit
more traffic.
Networking Requirements
CAUTION
For the NE5000E, the interface is numbered as slot number/card number/interface number. For
the NE5000E cluster, the interface is numbered as chassis ID/slot number/card number/interface
number. The slot number is chassis ID/slot ID.
If users need to communicate with each other, you can bundle multiple Ethernet interfaces into
a logical Eth-Trunk interface (link aggregation group) to increase bandwidth, improve link
reliability, and implement load balancing.
On the network shown in Figure 3-5, user group 1 communicates with user group 2. To allow
traffic to be load-balanced among links, you can create Eth-Trunk interfaces on PE1 and PE2
and configure the Eth-Trunk interfaces to work in manual load balancing mode.
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Figure 3-5 Networking diagram of link aggregation in manual load balancing mode
Eth-Trunk
PE1 PE2
Eth-Trunk1 Eth-Trunk1
GE1/0/1 GE1/0/1
GE1/0/2 GE1/0/2
GE1/0/3 GE1/0/3
user1 user2
S1 S2

Configuration Notes
After an Eth-Trunk interface is created, its member interfaces work in manual load balancing
mode by default. Therefore, you can directly adopt the default setting.
If the current working mode is not the default one, you can run the mode command to restore
the setting.
Configuration Roadmap
The configuration roadmap is as follows:
1. Create an Eth-Trunk interface in manual load balancing mode on each PE to implement
link aggregation.
2. Add Ethernet interfaces to each Eth-Trunk interface and set a load balancing weight for
each member interface to increase bandwidth and implement load balancing.
3. Verify the configuration.
Data Preparation
To complete the configuration, you need the following data:
l The ID of Eth-Trunk interface
l Type and number of the member interface of the Eth-Trunk interface
Default value of every parameter of the Eth-Trunk interface
Procedure
Step 1 Create an Eth-Trunk interface.
# Configure PE1.
<HUAWEI> system-view
[~HUAWEI] sysname PE1
[~HUAWEI] commit
[~PE1] interface eth-trunk 1
[~PE1-Eth-Trunk1] commit
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[~PE1-Eth-Trunk1] quit
# Configure PE2.
<HUAWEI> system-view
[~HUAWEI] sysname PE2
[~HUAWEI] commit
[~PE2] interface eth-trunk 1
[~PE2-Eth-Trunk1] commit
[~PE2-Eth-Trunk1] quit
Step 2 Add interfaces to the Eth-Trunk interface, and then configure a load balancing weight for every
member interface.
# Configure PE1.
[~PE1] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1
[~PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] undo shutdown
[~PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] eth-trunk 1
[~PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] quit
[~PE1] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/2
[~PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] undo shutdown
[~PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] eth-trunk 1
[~PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] distribute-weight 3
[~PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] quit
[~PE1] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/3
[~PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/3] undo shutdown
[~PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/3] eth-trunk 1
[~PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/3] commit
[~PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/3] quit
# Configure PE2.
[~PE2] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1
[~PE2-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] undo shutdown
[~PE2-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] eth-trunk 1
[~PE2-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] quit
[~PE2] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/2
[~PE2-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] undo shutdown
[~PE2-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] eth-trunk 1
[~PE2-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] distribute-weight 3
[~PE2-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] quit
[~PE2] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/3
[~PE2-GigabitEthernet1/0/3] undo shutdown
[~PE2-GigabitEthernet1/0/3] eth-trunk 1
[~PE2-GigabitEthernet1/0/3] commit
[~PE2-GigabitEthernet1/0/3] quit
Step 3 Verify the configuration.
Run the display trunkmembership command in any view. You can view that the Eth-Trunk
interface works in manual load balancing mode and the Eth-Trunk interface is Up. In addition,
you can view the weight of every member interface of the Eth-Trunk interface. Take the display
on PE1 as an example.
[~PE1] display trunkmembership eth-trunk 1
Trunk ID: 1
used status: VALID
TYPE: ethernet
Working Mode : Normal
Working State: Normal
Number Of Ports in Trunk = 3
Number Of Up Ports in Trunk = 3
operate status: up
Interface GigabitEthernet1/0/1, valid, operate up, weight 1,
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Interface GigabitEthernet1/0/2, valid, operate up, weight 3,
Interface GigabitEthernet1/0/3, valid, operate up, weight 1,
----End
Configuration Files
l Configuration file of PE1
#
sysname PE1
#
interface Eth-Trunk1
#
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/1
undo shutdown
eth-trunk 1
#
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/2
undo shutdown
eth-trunk 1
distribute-weight 3
#
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/3
undo shutdown
eth-trunk 1
#
admin
return
l Configuration file of PE2
#
sysname PE2
#
interface Eth-Trunk1
#
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/1
undo shutdown
eth-trunk 1
#
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/2
undo shutdown
eth-trunk 1
distribute-weight 3
#
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/3
undo shutdown
eth-trunk 1
admin
return
Related Tasks
3.3 Configuring the Link Aggregation Mode of an Eth-Trunk Interface
3.4 Configuring Eth-Trunk Interface Parameters
3.5 Configuring Parameters of an Eth-Trunk Member Interface
3.8.2 Example for Configuring an Eth-Trunk Interface to Work in
Static LACP Mode
In this networking, LACP packets are used to negotiate aggregation parameters to determine the
link aggregation modes of active interfaces and inactive interfaces. In static LACP mode, you
need to manually create an Eth-Trunk interface and add Ethernet interfaces, and LACP selects
active and inactive interfaces by negotiating aggregation parameters through LACP packets.
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Networking Requirements
CAUTION
For the NE5000E, the interface is numbered as slot number/card number/interface number. For
the NE5000E cluster, the interface is numbered as chassis ID/slot number/card number/interface
number. The slot number is chassis ID/slot ID.
If users need to communicate with each other, you can bundle multiple Ethernet interfaces into
a logical Eth-Trunk interface (link aggregation group) to increase bandwidth, improve link
reliability, and implement load balancing. In static LACP mode, member interfaces of the Eth-
Trunk interface back up each other dynamically.
On the network shown in Figure 3-6, user group 1 communicates with user group 2. To improve
the communication quality, implement load balancing, and allow member interfaces to
dynamically back up each other, you can configure Eth-Trunk interfaces in static LACP mode
on PE1 and PE2.
Figure 3-6 Networking diagram of link aggregation in static LACP mode
Active links
Backup links
Eth-Trunk
PE1 PE2
Eth-Trunk1 Eth-Trunk1
GE1/0/1 GE1/0/1
GE1/0/2 GE1/0/2
GE1/0/3 GE1/0/3
user1 user2
S1 S2

Configuration Notes
In static LACP mode, the maximum number of active links can be set to control the number of
active member interfaces. The number of active member interfaces can reach but cannot exceed
the maximum number. When the number of active member interfaces reaches the maximum
number, additional active member interfaces are set to Down.
Configuration Roadmap
The configuration roadmap is as follows:
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1. Create an Eth-Trunk interface in static LACP mode on each PE and add Ethernet interfaces
to the Eth-Trunk interface to implement link aggregation.
2. Configure Eth-Trunk interface parameters:
l Configure system LACP priorities for the two Eth-Trunk interfaces to determine the
Actor to select active member interfaces according to the Actor.
l Configure the maximum number of active member links to improve network reliably
in the case of guaranteed bandwidth.
l Configure LACP preemption and a preemption delay to prevent the Eth-Trunk interface
flapping caused by frequent status changes of member interfaces. Member interfaces
that went Down can switch back to the Selected state to forward traffic only after the
preemption delay times out. This ensures reliable data transmission.
3. Configure parameters for Eth-Trunk member interfaces:
Configure interface LACP priorities for member interfaces to allow interfaces with higher
priorities to be selected as active interfaces.
4. Verify the configuration.
Data Preparation
To complete the configuration, you need the following data:
l ID and mode of the Eth-Trunk interface
l System LACP priority of PE1
l Maximum number of active links
l Delay for LACP preemption
l LACP priorities of active interfaces
Procedure
Step 1 Create Eth-Trunk 1 and configure the Eth-Trunk interface to work in static LACP mode, and
then add interfaces to the Eth-Trunk interface.
# Configure PE1.
<HUAWEI> system-view
[~HUAWEI] sysname PE1
[~HUAWEI] commit
[~PE1] interface eth-trunk 1
[~PE1-Eth-Trunk1] mode lacp-static
[~PE1-Eth-Trunk1] commit
[~PE1-Eth-Trunk1] quit
[~PE1] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1
[~PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] undo shutdown
[~PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] eth-trunk 1
[~PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] quit
[~PE1] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/2
[~PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] undo shutdown
[~PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] eth-trunk 1
[~PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] quit
[~PE1] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/3
[~PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/3] undo shutdown
[~PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/3] eth-trunk 1
[~PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/3] quit
[~PE1] commit
# Configure PE2.
<HUAWEI> system-view
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[~HUAWEI] sysname PE2
[~HUAWEI] commit
[~PE2] interface eth-trunk 1
[~PE2-Eth-Trunk1] mode lacp-static
[~PE2-Eth-Trunk1] commit
[~PE2-Eth-Trunk1] quit
[~PE2] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1
[~PE2-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] undo shutdown
[~PE2-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] eth-trunk 1
[~PE2-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] quit
[~PE2] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/2
[~PE2-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] undo shutdown
[~PE2-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] eth-trunk 1
[~PE2-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] quit
[~PE2] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/3
[~PE2-GigabitEthernet1/0/3] undo shutdown
[~PE2-GigabitEthernet1/0/3] eth-trunk 1
[~PE2-GigabitEthernet1/0/3] quit
[~PE2] commit
Step 2 Configure parameters of an Eth-Trunk interface in static LACP mode
l Set the system priority of PE1 to 100 to make it become the LACP Actor.
[~PE1] lacp priority 100
[~PE1] commit
l On PE1, set the maximum number of active links to 2.
[~PE1] interface eth-trunk 1
[~PE1-Eth-Trunk1] max active-linknumber 2
[~PE1-Eth-Trunk1] commit
NOTE
Because PE1 is the Actor, PE2 does not need to be configured with the maximum number of active
links.
l Enable LACP preemption and set the delay for LACP preemption.
# Configure PE1.
[~PE1-Eth-Trunk1] lacp preempt enable
[~PE1-Eth-Trunk1] lacp preempt delay 20
[~PE1-Eth-Trunk1] commit
[~PE1-Eth-Trunk1] quit
# Configure PE2.
[~PE2] interface eth-trunk 1
[~PE2-Eth-Trunk1] lacp preempt enable
[~PE2-Eth-Trunk1] lacp preempt delay 20
[~PE2-Eth-Trunk1] commit
[~PE2-Eth-Trunk1] quit
Step 3 Configure parameters of an Eth-Trunk member interface
# Configure the interface priority
# Configure PE1.
[~PE1] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1
[~PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] lacp priority 100
[~PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] quit
[~PE1] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/2
[~PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] lacp priority 100
[~PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] quit
[~PE1] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/3
[~PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/3] lacp priority 150
[~PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/3] quit
[~PE1] commit
# Configure PE2.
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[~PE2] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1
[~PE2-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] lacp priority 100
[~PE2-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] quit
[~PE2] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/2
[~PE2-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] lacp priority 100
[~PE2-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] quit
[~PE2] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/3
[~PE2-GigabitEthernet1/0/3] lacp priority 150
[~PE2-GigabitEthernet1/0/3] quit
[~PE2] commit
Step 4 Verify the configuration.
# Check information about an Eth-Trunk interface on each PE. You can view the ID and selected
member interfaces of the Eth-Trunk interface and find that the Eth-Trunk interface works in
static LACP mode.
[~PE1] display eth-trunk 1
Eth-Trunk1's state information is:
Local:
LAG ID: 1 WorkingMode: STATIC
Preempt Delay Time: 20 Hash arithmetic: According to flow
System Priority: 100 System ID: 00e0-fc6f-87cc
Least Active-linknumber: 1 Max Active-linknumber: 2
Operate status: up Number Of Up Port In Trunk: 2
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ActorPortName Status PortType PortPri PortNo PortKey PortState Weight
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 Selected 1GE 100 262 561 11111100 1
GigabitEthernet1/0/2 Selected 1GE 100 263 545 11100000 1
GigabitEthernet1/0/3 Unselect 1GE 150 264 561 11111100 1
Partner:
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ActorPortName SysPri SystemID PortPri PortNo PortKey PortState
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 32768 00e0-fcb8-d6b6 100 262 561 11111100
GigabitEthernet1/0/2 32768 00e0-fcb8-d6b6 100 263 545 11100000
GigabitEthernet1/0/3 32768 00e0-fcb8-d6b6 150 264 561 11111100
[~PE2] display eth-trunk 1
Eth-Trunk1's state information is:
Local:
LAG ID: 1 WorkingMode: STATIC
Preempt Delay Time: 20 Hash arithmetic: According to flow
System Priority: 32768 System ID: 00e0-fcb8-d6b6
Least Active-linknumber: 1 Max Active-linknumber: 16
Operate status: up Number Of Up Port In Trunk: 2
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ActorPortName Status PortType PortPri PortNo PortKey PortState Weight
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 Selected 1GE 100 262 561 11111100 1
GigabitEthernet1/0/2 Selected 1GE 100 263 545 11100000 1
GigabitEthernet1/0/3 Unselect 1GE 150 264 561 11111100 1
Partner:
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ActorPortName SysPri SystemID PortPri PortNo PortKey PortState
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 100 00e0-fc6f-87cc 100 262 561 11111100
GigabitEthernet1/0/2 100 00e0-fc6f-87cc 100 263 545 11100000
GigabitEthernet1/0/3 100 00e0-fc6f-87cc 150 264 561 11111100
The preceding information shows that the system priority of PE1 is 100, which is higher than
the system priority of PE2. Among the member interfaces of the Eth-Trunk interface,
Gigabitethernet 1/0/1 and Gigabitethernet 1/0/2 are active interfaces in the Selected state, and
Gigabitethernet 1/0/3 is in the Unselect state. In addition, two links carry out load balancing and
one link is standby.
----End
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Configuration Files
l Configuration file of PE1
#
sysname PE1
#
lacp priority 100
#
interface Eth-Trunk1
mode lacp-static
lacp preempt enable
max active-linknumber 2
lacp preempt delay 20
#
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/1
undo shutdown
eth-trunk 1
lacp priority 100
#
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/2
undo shutdown
eth-trunk 1
lacp priority 100
#
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/3
undo shutdown
eth-trunk 1
lacp priority 150
#
admin
return
l Configuration file of PE2
#
sysname PE2
#
interface Eth-Trunk1
mode lacp-static
lacp preempt enable
lacp preempt delay 20
#
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/1
undo shutdown
eth-trunk 1
lacp priority 100
#
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/2
undo shutdown
eth-trunk 1
lacp priority 100
#
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/3
undo shutdown
eth-trunk 1
lacp priority 150
#
return
Related Tasks
3.3 Configuring the Link Aggregation Mode of an Eth-Trunk Interface
3.4 Configuring Eth-Trunk Interface Parameters
3.5 Configuring Parameters of an Eth-Trunk Member Interface
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3.8.3 Example for Configuring Eth-Trunk Sub-interfaces to Support
Communication Between VLANs
To enable the communication between devices in different VLANs, you can create Eth-Trunk
sub-interfaces on the Eth-Trunk interfaces that connect a router to switches, configure 802.1Q
encapsulation and an IP address on each sub-interface, and associate each sub-interface with a
VLAN. In this manner, communication between VLANs can be implemented through the router
and switches.
Networking Requirements
CAUTION
For the NE5000E, the interface is numbered as slot number/card number/interface number. For
the NE5000E cluster, the interface is numbered as chassis ID/slot number/card number/interface
number. The slot number is chassis ID/slot ID.
Users in different residential compounds in different network segments require various services
such as Internet, IPTV, and VoIP services. The network administrator of each residential
compound configures a VLAN for each service to simplify management. Currently, the same
type of services in different residential compounds belong to different VLANs. It is required
that users in different VLANs communicate with each other for the same type of services through
load balanced links that provide higher bandwidth to ensure high-quality communication.
On the network shown in Figure 3-7, users in residential compounds 1 and 2 belong to different
VLANs in different network segments but all require the Internet service. Users in residential
compounds 1 and 2 need to communicate with each other for high-quality Internet services.
Figure 3-7 Networking diagram of configuring Eth-Trunk sub-interfaces to support
communication between VLANs
GE1/0/1 GE1/0/2
GE1/0/1 GE1/0/2
VLAN 10
10.110.2.0/24 10.110.1.0/24
Eth-Trunk1.1
10.110.1.10/24
SwitchA
PE
Eth-Trunk1.2
10.110.2.10/24
community1 community2
VLAN 20
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Configuration Notes
l The host IP addresses in VLAN 10 and the IP address of Eth-Trunk 1.2 must be in the same
network segment.
l The host IP addresses in VLAN 20 and the IP address of Eth-Trunk 1.1 must be in the same
network segment.
Configuration Roadmap
The configuration roadmap is as follows:
1. Create an Eth-Trunk sub-interface on each PE and assign an IP address for the sub-interface
for reachable Layer 3 routes.
2. Configure 802.1Q as the encapsulation mode for each Eth-Trunk sub-interface and
associate the sub-interface with a VLAN to use Eth-Trunk sub-interfaces to provide access
services for users in different VLANs.
3. Verify the configuration.
Data Preparation
To complete the configuration, you need the following data:
l IDs of Eth-Trunk interfaces and their member interfaces on PE
l Associated VLAN IDs and IP addresses of Eth-Trunk sub-interfaces on PE
l IDs of Eth-Trunk interfaces and their member interfaces on switches
NOTE
For detailed configurations of the switches, see the configuration guides for the switches.
Procedure
Step 1 # Create Eth-Trunk sub-interface and assign an IP address to it.
# Configure PE.
<HUAWEI> system-view
[~HUAWEI] sysname PE
[~HUAWEI] commit
# Create Eth-Trunk 1.
[~PE] interface eth-trunk 1
[~PE-Eth-Trunk1] commit
[~PE-Eth-Trunk1] quit
# Add GE 1/0/1 and GE 1/0/2 to Eth-Trunk 1.
[~PE] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1
[~PE-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] undo shutdown
[~PE-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] eth-trunk 1
[~PE-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] commit
[~PE-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] quit
[~PE] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/2
[~PE-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] undo shutdown
[~PE-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] eth-trunk 1
[~PE-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] commit
[~PE-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] quit
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# Create Eth-Trunk 1.1 and assign an IP address to it.
[~PE] interface eth-trunk 1.1
[~PE-Eth-Trunk1.1] ip address 10.110.1.10 24
# Create Eth-Trunk 1.2 and assign an IP address to it.
[~PE] interface eth-trunk 1.2
[~PE-Eth-Trunk1.2] ip address 10.110.2.10 24
Step 2 Configure the encapsulation mode for each Eth-Trunk sub-interface and associate the sub-
interface with a VLAN.
# Encapsulate Eth-Trunk 1.1 with 802.1Q and associate it with VLAN 10.
[~PE-Eth-Trunk1.1] vlan-type dot1q 20
[~PE-Eth-Trunk1.1] commit
[~PE-Eth-Trunk1.1] quit
# Encapsulate Eth-Trunk 1.2 with 802.1Q and associate it with VLAN 10.
[~PE-Eth-Trunk1.2] vlan-type dot1q 10
[~PE-Eth-Trunk1.2] commit
[~PE-Eth-Trunk1.2] quit
Step 3 Verify the configuration.
Assign IP addresses in the same network segment of the IP address of Eth-Trunk 1.2 to the hosts
in VLAN 10. Specify the IP address 10.110.2.10/24 of Eth-Trunk 1.2 as the default gateway.
Assign IP addresses in the same network segment of the IP address of Eth-Trunk 1.1 to the hosts
in VLAN 20. Specify the IP address 10.110.1.10/24 of Eth-Trunk 1.1 as the default gateway.
After the configuration, the hosts in VLAN 10 and VLAN 20 can ping each other successfully.
----End
Configuration file of PE
#
sysname PE
#
interface Eth-Trunk1
#
interface Eth-Trunk1.1
vlan-type dot1q 20
ip address 10.110.1.10 255.255.255.0
#
interface Eth-Trunk1.2
vlan-type dot1q 10
ip address 10.110.2.10 255.255.255.0
#
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/1
undo shutdown
eth-trunk 1
#
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/2
undo shutdown
eth-trunk 1
#
admin
return
Related Tasks
3.6 Configuring Eth-Trunk Sub-interfaces to Support Communication Between VLANs
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4 POS Interface Configuration
About This Chapter
The Packet over SONET/SDH (POS) technology is applied to MAN and WAN.
4.1 Overview of POS Interfaces
This part briefly describes POS interfaces in terms of basic concepts of SONET and SDH,
channelization and non-channelization, and frame structure of SDH.
4.2 Features of POS Interfaces in the NE5000E
4.3 Configuring POS Interfaces
You can configure the link layer protocol, clock mode, overhead byte, frame format, and CRC
for POS interfaces.
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4.1 Overview of POS Interfaces
This part briefly describes POS interfaces in terms of basic concepts of SONET and SDH,
channelization and non-channelization, and frame structure of SDH.
Introduction to SONET and SDH
Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) is the synchronous digital transmission standard
defined by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and mainly used in North America
and Japan. Clocks at each level in an entire network are provided by a very precise master clock.
SONET defines the line rate hierarchical structure of synchronous transmission for the optical
transmission system. The basic transmission rate of the SONET is 51.84 Mbit/s and
approximately equals the transmission rate of E3/T3.
l For an electrical signal, the transmission rate is called Level 1 Synchronous Transport
Signal, namely, STS-1.
l For an optical signal, the transmission rate is called Level 1 Optical Carrier, namely, OC-1.
Adopting synchronous signals, SONET can easily multiplex multiple signals.
Based on SONET, Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) is an international standard defined
by the ITU-T and mainly used in Europe. The corresponding standard of SDH is the proposals
from G.707 to G.709 passed in 1988 and the proposals added in 1992.
SDH is similar to SONET to a great extent. The basic rate of SDH is 155.52 Mbit/s, which is
called Level 1 Synchronous Transfer Module, STM-1. This rate equals the OC-3 rate in SONET.
Adopting synchronous multiplexing and flexible mapping, SDH can multiplex or demultiplex
low-speed tributary signals from SDH signals without using multiplexing or demultiplexing
devices. This reduces signal consumption and equipment investment.
Table 4-1 lists the common transmission rates of SONET and SDH. The transmission rates for
different types of signals are increasing by four times. For example, OC-3 is a four-times multiple
of OC-1, OC-9 is a four-times multiple of OC-3, and so on. For convenience, the approximations
in the parentheses are often used to express transmission rates.
Table 4-1 Relationship between common transmission rates of SONET and SDH
SONET SDH Transmission Rate
(Mbit/s)
Electrical
Signal
Optical Signal Optical Signal
STS-1 OC-1 - 51.840
STS-3 OC-3 STM-1 155.520 (155)
STS-9 OC-9 STM-3 466.560
STS-12 OC-12 STM-4 622.080 (622)
STS-18 OC-18 STM-6 933.120
STS-24 OC-24 STM-8 1244.160
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SONET SDH Transmission Rate
(Mbit/s)
Electrical
Signal
Optical Signal Optical Signal
STS-36 OC-36 STM-12 1866.240
STS-48 OC-48 STM-16 2488.320 (2.5 Gbit/s)
STS-96 OC-96 STM-32 4876.640
STS-192 OC-192 STM-64 9953.280 (10 Gbit/s)

POS
Packet Over SDH/SONET (POS) is a technique applicable to the WAN and MAN, using high-
speed transport channels provided by SONET/SDH to directly transmit IP data packets. It
encapsulates IP packets into PPP or HDLC packets, maps the encapsulated packets to the payload
of SONET/SDH signals by using the service adapter of the SONET/SDH channel, puts the
payload into an SONET/SDH frame after adding the channel overhead at the transmission layer
and the section overhead at the section layer, and finally sends the SONET/SDH frame to the
optical network so that frames can be transmitted over optical fibers on the optical network. POS
adopts connectionless-oriented transmission of IP and inherits the merit of IP packets.
Frame Structure of SDH
To facilitate understanding, the following section describes the frame structure of the SDH
signal, that is, the structure of the STM-N frame.
To add or drop low-speed tributary signals to or from high-speed signals, try to distribute
tributary signals in the frame equably and regularly. The ITU-T regulates that STM-N frames
are rectangular and expressed in bytes, as shown in Figure 4-1.
Figure 4-1 STM-N frame structure
Regenerator
Section
Overhead
AUPTR
Multiplex
Section
Overhead
Payload
9*N 261*N
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
9*270*N(bytes)
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STM-N is the frame with the dimension of 9 rows x 270 x N columns. Here, N is consistent with
that in STM-N, indicating how many STM-1 signals are multiplexed to this STM-N signal.
An STM-N frame consists of the following parts:
l Section Overhead (SOH): includes Regenerator Section Overhead (RSOH) and Multiplex
Section Overhead (MSOH).
l Administration Unit Pointer (AU-PTR): is the pointer that specifies the first byte of the
payload. The receiving end can correctly extract the payload according to the location of
the pointer.
l Payload
Overhead Bytes
SDH provides monitoring and management in layers. Monitoring is classified into section
monitoring and path monitoring. Section monitoring is classified into regenerator section
monitoring and multiplex section monitoring. Path monitoring is classified into higher-order
path monitoring and lower-order path monitoring. Different overhead bytes help to implement
the monitoring functions.
NOTE
This section describes only some SDH overhead bytes used in configuration. For details, refer to a book
about the particular topic.
l SOH
SOH consists of RSOH and MSOH.
The payload of an STM-N frame contains the path overhead (POH) that monitors low-
speed tributary signals.
J0, the regeneration section trace byte is contained in RSOH. This byte is used to transmit
the Section Access Point Identifiers (SAPIs) repeatedly to check the connection between
the receiver and the transmitter. The byte can be any character in the networks of a carrier,
whereas the J0 byte of the receiver and the transmitter must match each other at the border
of networks between two carriers. With the JO byte, a carrier can locate and rectify faults
in advance to speed up the network recovery.
l Path overhead
SOH monitors section layers, whereas POH monitors path layers. POH is classified into
lower-order path overhead and higher-order path overhead.
The higher-order path overhead monitors the paths at VC-4 and VC-3 levels.
J1, the higher-order VC-N path trace byte, is contained in the higher-order path overhead.
Similar to j0, J1 is used to transmit SAPIs repeatedly to check the connection between the
receiver and the transmitter. J1 bytes of the receiver and transmitter must match each other.
C2, the path signal label byte, is contained in higher-order path overhead. C2 is used to
specify the multiplexing structure and the attributes of the information payload in a VC
frame, including whether the path is loaded with services, service types, and the mapping
mode. C2 bytes of the receiver and transmitter must match each other.
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Terms
NOTE
The following terms may be used in interface configurations:
l Multiplexing units: SDH contains basic multiplexing units, including container (C-n),
virtual container (VC-n), tributary unit (TU-n), tributary unit group (TUG-n),
administrative unit (AU-n), and administrative unit group (AUG-n). Here, n stands for the
number of the unit level.
l Container: It is used to carry service signals that are transmitted at different rates. G.709
defines specifications for five types of standard containers: C-11, C-12, C-2, C-3, and C-4.
l VC: It is used to support connections between channel layers of the SDH and is an
information terminal of SDH channels. VCs are classified into lower-order VCs and higher-
order VCs. VC-3 in AU-3 and VC-4 are higher-order VCs.
l TU and TUG: TU provides adaptation between lower-order and higher-order path layers.
One TU or a set of multiple TUs, occupying a fixed position in the payload of the higher-
order VC, is called a TUG.
l AU and AUG: AU provides adaptation between higher-order channel layer and multiplex
section layer. One AU and a set of multiple AUs, occupying a fixed position in the payload
of STM-N, is called an AUG.
4.2 Features of POS Interfaces in the NE5000E
POS can map packets of variable lengths directly into the payload of SONET signals. POS
transmits packets over the physical layer of SONET, which provides a high speed, reliable, and
P2P data connection.
POS
The POS can map packets of variable length directly into the payload of SONET. The POS uses
the physical layer transmission standard of SONET. This offers a high speed, reliable, and P2P
data connection.
The NE5000E provides various rates of POS interfaces, which can be divided into three kinds
based on the rate: STM-1 (155 Mbit/s), STM-4c (622 Mbit/s), STM-16c (2.5 Gbit/s), and
STM-64c (10 Gbit/s).
4.3 Configuring POS Interfaces
You can configure the link layer protocol, clock mode, overhead byte, frame format, and CRC
for POS interfaces.
Applicable Environment
Before using a SONET/SDH optical interface to bear packet data, you need to configure
parameters for the POS interface.
Pre-configuration Tasks
Before configuring a POS interface, complete the following task:
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l Powering on the router and starting it normally
l The CR5M00P2XX60 subcard can operate in POS or OTN mode. By default, the
CR5M00P2XX60 subcard operates in POS mode. If the CR5M00P2XX60 subcard
operates in OTN mode, run the set transfer-mode slot slot-id card card-id pos command
to configure the operating mode of the CR5M00P2XX60 as POS.
Configuration Procedure
By default, parameters in POS interface configuration commands use default values. You can
choose one or more configuration tasks (excluding "Checking the Configuration") as needed.
4.3.1 Configuring the Link Layer Protocol
The link layer protocol of POS interfaces can be configured as PPP and HDLC.
Context
PPP is a link layer protocol used to encapsulate and transmit network layer packets over P2P
links. If a bit-oriented link layer protocol is needed for synchronous transmission and no complex
services are configured, HDLC can be applied. HDLC does not require that data to be transmitted
must be character sets. Instead, it can transparently transmit bit flows of all types, especially the
control and response messages. Unlike PPP, HDLC uses authentication protocols to ensure the
correctness and connectivity of links to be established. HDLC frames are authenticated and
numbered by the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) to ensure reliable transmission. An IP-Trunk
can consist of only POS links and the link layer protocol running on IP-Trunk member interfaces
must be HDLC.
Do as follows on the routers:
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface pos interface-number
The POS interface view is displayed.
Step 3 Run:
link-protocol { ppp | hdlc }
The link layer protocol of the POS interface is configured.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
4.3.2 Configuring Clock Mode
A POS interface works in either master clock mode or slave clock mode. You need to configure
different clock modes for POS interfaces that function as the DTE device and the DCE device.
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Context
A POS interface supports the following clock modes:
l Master clock mode: uses internal clock signal.
l Slave clock mode: uses line clock signal.
In real world situation, two routers are connected through SDH/SONET transmission devices,
clocks of the POS interfaces on the two routers work in slave mode, and the clocks of SDH/
SONET transmission devices work in master mode. Principles for configuring clocks of POS
interfaces on the routers are as follows:
l On the backbone network, if two routers are connected directly or through WDM
transmission devices, the clock of the POS interface on one router must work in master
mode and that of the other router must work in slave mode.
l On the backbone network, if two routers are connected through SDH/SONET transmission
devices, the clocks of POS interfaces on the two routers both work in slave mode.
l On an IP RAN, if a router is directly connected to an SDH/SONET transmission device
using a POS interface, the clock of the POS interface on the router usually works in
master mode. This is not applicable in a scenario where a BITS clock is directly connected
to an SDH network.
l If the connection mode of two routers is unknown, the clocks of the POS interfaces on the
two routers must work in master mode.
Do as follows on the routers:
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface pos interface-number
The POS interface view is displayed.
Step 3 Run:
clock { master | slave }
Clock mode of the POS interface is configured.
NOTE
By default, the clock on a POS interface works in master mode.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
4.3.3 Configuring Overhead Bytes
SONET/SDH provides a variety of overhead bytes to implement monitoring at different levels.
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Context
C2, the path signal label byte, is contained in the higher-order path overhead. C2 is used to
specify the multiplexing structure and the attributes of the information payload in a VC frame.
J0, the regeneration section trace byte, is contained in the section overhead. It is used to detect
the continuity of the connection between two ports on the section layer.
J1, the higher-order VC-N path trace byte, is used to detect the connectivity of the connection
between two ports on the path layer.
NOTE
C2, J0, and J1 of the receiver and the transmitter must be the same; otherwise, the two ends cannot
communicate.
For a POS interface, the default value of C2 is hexadecimal 16; the default value of J0 is
hexadecimal 0; the default value of J1 is hexadecimal 0.
Do as follows on the routers:
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface pos interface-number
The POS interface view is displayed.
Step 3 Configure the overhead byte for the POS interface.
Run the following command as required.
l Run:
flag j0 64byte-or-null-mode [ j0-value ]
or
flag j0 { 16byte-mode | 1byte-mode } j0-value
The overhead byte j0 is configured for the interface.
l Run:
flag j1 64byte-or-null-mode [ j1-value ]
or
flag j1 { 16byte-mode | 1byte-mode } j1-value
The overhead byte j1 is configured for the interface.
l Run:
flag c2 c2-value
The overhead byte c2 is configured for the interface.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
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4.3.4 Configuring Frame Format
The frame format of an interface determines the application mode of the interface. POS interfaces
support two frame formats, namely, SDH and SONET.
Context
A POS interface supports the following types of frame formats:
l SDH
l SONET
By default, the frame format of a POS interface is SDH.
Do as follows on the routers:
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface pos interface-number
The POS interface view is displayed.
Step 3 Run:
frame-format { sdh | sonet }
Frame format of the POS interface is configured.
SDH and SONET are two optical transmission standards defined by different organizations.
These two standards do not have obvious differences in contents and specifications. The
selection of SDH or SONET is determined by carriers in different geographical locations and
by different device manufacturers. It is required that frame format configured on the POS
interface be the same as that on transmission devices.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
4.3.5 Configuring the Scramble Function
POS interfaces support the scrambling function for the payload data to avoid excessive number
of consecutive 1s or 0s and help the receiver extract line clock signals.
Context
The scrambling function of the directly connected interfaces must be configured the same.
By default, the scrambling function is enabled on the payload.
Do as follows on the routers:
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Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface pos interface-number
The POS interface view is displayed.
Step 3 Run:
scramble
The scrambling function of the payload is configured for the POS interface.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
4.3.6 Configuring the Length of the CRC Check Character
POS interfaces support the CRC character in either 16 bits or 32 bits.
Context
The CRC check uses an algorithm to verify data consistency on the POS interfaces connecting
two devices. It is required that CRC code lengths configured for POS interfaces connecting two
devices be identical. The default CRC code length is 32 bits.
Do as follows on the router:
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface pos interface-number
The POS interface view is displayed.
Step 3 Run:
crc { 16 | 32 }
The length of the CRC check character is configured for the POS interface.
CRC code lengths configured for POS interfaces connecting two devices must be identical. If
CRC code lengths configured for POS interfaces connecting two devices are different, a large
number of CRC error packets will be generated.
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The CRC check uses an algorithm great precision to verify data consistency on the POS interfaces
connecting two devices. The CRC check using a 32-bit CRC code is more precise than that using
a 16-bit CRC code length, but consumes more resources.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
4.3.7 Configuring the MTU
The MTU is used to reassemble or fragment packets on a POS interface when packets are
received or sent on the interface through the IP network protocol.
Context
A router reassembles or fragments the received or sent packets based on the MTU.
The IP layer limits the length of each frame in a packet to be sent each time. Any time the IP
layer receives an IP packet to be sent, it determines to which interface the packet should be
delivered to and obtains the MTU of the target interface. Then, the IP layer compares the MTU
with the packet length. If the packet length is longer than the MTU, the IP layer fragments the
packet. Each fragment is not longer than the MTU.
NOTE
l If the MTU is set too small and the size of packets is quite large, packets will be disassembled into too
many fragments, and then be discarded by QoS queues.
l If the MTU is set too large, packet transmission will be slowed down.
CAUTION
After changing the MTU of an interface by running the mtu mtu command, restart the interface
to validate the configuration by running the shutdown and undo shutdown commands
consecutively.
Do as follows on the routers:
Procedure
l Configure the IPv4 MTU.
1. Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
2. Run:
interface pos interface-number
The POS interface view is displayed.
3. Run:
mtu mtu
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The IPv4 MTU of the POS interface is configured.
CAUTION
If IPv6 also runs on the interface and the interface MTU is set to a value smaller than
1280, IPv6 will function improperly on the interface. To address this problem, set the
interface MTU to 1280 or a value greater than 1280.
4. Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
l Configure the IPv6 MTU.
1. Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
2. Run:
interface pos interface-number
The POS interface view is displayed.
3. Run:
ipv6 mtu mtu
The IPv6 MTU of the POS interface is configured.
CAUTION
After configuring the IPv6 MTU, run the ppp mru-negotiate { ipv4 | ipv6 } command
to start negotiation of the IPv6 MTU.
4. Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
4.3.8 Configuring the Loopback Function on a POS Interface
Loopback is enabled on an interface only when some special function tests need to be carried
out.
Context
If local loopback has been enabled on the interface, the physical status of the interface changes
to Up, whereas the link layer protocol of the interface remains Down.
If remote loopback has been enabled on the interface and PPP is used as the link layer protocol,
the physical status of the interface changes to Up, whereas the link layer protocol of the interface
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remains Down. If HDLC is used as the link layer protocol, both the physical status and the link
layer protocol of the interface go Up.
Local loopback and remote loopback cannot be both enabled on a POS interface.
NOTE
The configurations of loopback of the POS interface on different LPUs vary with each other. In the actual
configuration, note the following points:
l To enable local loopback on a POS interface, ensure that the clock of the POS interface works in master
mode.
l To enable remote loopback on a POS interface, ensure that the clock of the POS interface works in
slave mode.
Do as follows on the routers:
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface pos interface-number
The POS interface view is displayed.
Step 3 Run:
loopback { local | remote }
The loopback function is configured on the POS interface.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
4.3.9 Checking the Configuration
After configuring POS interfaces, you can view the configuration and status of POS interfaces.
Prerequisite
The configurations of the POS interfaces are complete.
Procedure
l Run the display interface pos [ interface-number ] [ | { begin | exclude | include } regular-
expression ] command to check the configuration and status of the POS interface.
l Run the display interface brief [ | { begin | include | exclude } regular-expression ]
command to check brief information about the POS interface.
----End
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Example
After running the display interface brief [ | { begin | include | exclude } regular-expression ]
command, you can check brief information about the physical status, link layer protocol status,
bandwidth utilization, and number of incorrect packets of the POS interface. The display of the
command is as follows:
<HUAWEI> display interface brief | include Pos
*down: administratively down
^down: standby
(l): loopback
(s): spoofing
(b): BFD down
(d): DampeningSuppressed
InUti/OutUti: input utility/output utility
Interface PHY Protocol InUti OutUti inErrors outErrors
Pos4/0/0 down down 0% 0% 831745956 0
Pos5/0/0 up up 0.01% 0.01%3795064053 0
Pos5/0/1 down down 0% 0% 343911292 0
Pos5/0/2 down down 0% 0% 343913408 0
Pos5/0/3 down down 0% 0% 343915353 0
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5 WDM Interface Configuration
About This Chapter
Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) is a technology used for long-distance transmission
over metropolitan area networks (MANs) and wide area networks (WANs).
5.1 Overview of WDM Interfaces
This section describes basic concepts of the optical transport network (OTN) and WDM.
5.2 WDM Interface Features Supported by the NE5000E
WDM interfaces supported by the NE5000E consist of two interfaces, namely the controller
WDM interface and its corresponding GE interface. Parameters related to the optical layer and
electrical layer are configured in the controller WDM interface view, and all service features are
configured in the GE interface view. The mapping mode of service signals on WDM interfaces
is Ethernet over OTN.
5.3 Configuring WDM Interfaces
The physical layer of a WDM interface is configured in the WDM interface view, and service
parameters are configured in the GE interface view.
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5.1 Overview of WDM Interfaces
This section describes basic concepts of the optical transport network (OTN) and WDM.
Overview of OTN
Currently, the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy over Synchronous Optical Network (SDH/
SONET) and WDM networks are usually used as transport networks. SDH/SONET processes
and schedules services at the electrical layer and WDM processes and schedules services at the
optical layer. With the increasing of data services, more and more bandwidths are required. The
SDH/SONET network cannot meet the requirements on cross scheduling and network
scalability. In addition, operators require the WDM network of high maintainability, security,
and service scheduling flexibility. As a result, the OTN is developed to solve the problems.
The OTN technology applies the operability and manageability of SDH/SONET networks to
the WDM system so that the OTN acquires the advantages of both the SDH/SONET network
and the WDM network. In addition, the OTN technology defines a complete system structure,
including the management and monitoring mechanism for each network layer and the network
survival mechanism of the optical layer and electrical layer. In this manner, operators' carrier-
class requirements are really met.
The OTN, which consists of optical network elements connected through optical fiber links,
provides the transport, multiplexing, routing, management, monitoring, and protection (survival)
capabilities to optical channels that are used to transmit client signals. The OTN features that
the transport settings of any digital client signal are independent of specified client features,
namely, client independence. Optical Transport Hierarchy (OTH) is a new connection-oriented
transport technology that is used to develop the OTN. Owing to the great scalable capability,
the OTN is applicable to the backbone mesh network. Ideally, the future transport network is an
all OTN network. Compared with SDH networks, the OTN is the optical transport network of
the next generation.
Compared with the traditional SDH and SONET networks, the OTN has the following
advantages:
l Higher FEC capability
l Tandem Connection Monitoring (TCM) of more levels
l Transparent transport of client signals
l Measurable data exchange
Overview of WDM
Wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM), a technology used in the MAN and WAN, is used
to transmit two or more optical signals of different wavelengths through the same optical fiber.
A WDM system uses a multiplexer at the transmitter to join multiple optical carrier signals of
different wavelengths (carrying different information) together on a single optical fiber, and a
demultiplexer at the receiver to split the optical carrier signals apart. Then, an optical receiver
further processes and restores the optical carrier signals to the original signals.
5.2 WDM Interface Features Supported by the NE5000E
WDM interfaces supported by the NE5000E consist of two interfaces, namely the controller
WDM interface and its corresponding GE interface. Parameters related to the optical layer and
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electrical layer are configured in the controller WDM interface view, and all service features are
configured in the GE interface view. The mapping mode of service signals on WDM interfaces
is Ethernet over OTN.
FEC Overview
The communication reliability is of great importance to communication technologies. Multiple
channel protection measures and automatic error correction coding techniques are used to
enhance reliability.
The OTU overhead of an OTN frame contains FEC information. FEC, which corrects data by
using algorithms, can effectively improve the transport performance of the system where the
signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and dispersion are limited. In this manner, the investment cost on
the transport system is reduced accordingly. In addition, in the system using FEC, the receiver
can receive signals of a lower SNR. The maximum single span is enlarged or the number of
spans increases. In this manner, the total transmission distance of signals is prolonged.
The NE5000E supports two FEC modes: standard G.709 FEC and enhanced FEC. Compared
with standard G.709 FEC, enhanced FEC improves algorithms by using the FEC code type with
stronger forward error correction capability.
TTI Overview
Trail trace identifier (TTI) is a byte string in the overhead of an optical transport unit (OTU) or
an optical data unit (ODU). Like the J byte in the SDH segment overhead, the TTI identifies the
source and destination stations to which each optical fiber is connected to prevent incorrect
connection. If the received TTI differs from the expected value, a TIM alarm is generated.
OTU overhead: contains information about the transmission function of optical channels, and
defines FAS, MFAS, GCC0, and SM (such as TTI, BIP-8, BDI, BEI/BIAE, and IAE) overheads.
Among these overheads, TTI is a 64-byte string monitoring the connectivity of the OTU segment.
ODU overhead: contains information about the maintenance and operation function of optical
channels, and defines TCM, PM, GCC1/GCC2, APS/PCC, and FTFL overheads. Among these
overheads, TCM monitors the serial connection, and PM monitors ODU paths.
5.3 Configuring WDM Interfaces
The physical layer of a WDM interface is configured in the WDM interface view, and service
parameters are configured in the GE interface view.
Applicable Environment
WDM interfaces must be configured when the OTN is used to transmit Ethernet packets.
Pre-configuration Tasks
Before configuring WDM interfaces, complete the following tasks:
l Powering on the router and confirming that the self-check is successful
l Confirming that the subcard type is CR5M00P2XX60.
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Configuration Procedure
Figure 5-1 Configuring WDM interfaces
Configuring the Operating Mode
Configuring Optical Parameters
Mandatory step
Optional step
Configuring Service Parameters

5.3.1 Configuring the Operating Mode
Currently, WDM interfaces can be configured only on the CR5M00P2XX60 subcard. By default,
the CR5M00P2XX60 subcard operates in POS mode. The operating mode of the
CR5M00P2XX60 subcard must be configured as OTN before you can configure parameters for
WDM interfaces.
Context
The CR5M00P2XX60 subcard can operate in POS or OTN mode. By default, the
CR5M00P2XX60 subcard operates in POS mode. In POS mode, a WDM interface functions
the same as a POS interface. For details on how to configure POS interfaces, see 4 POS Interface
Configuration. The operating mode must be OTN when WDM interfaces are used.
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
set transfer-mode slot slot-id card card-id otn
The operating mode of the CR5M00P2XX60 subcard is configured as OTN.
NOTE
Configurations on the interface will be cleared after the operating mode is changed.
----End
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5.3.2 Configuring Optical Parameters
Optical parameters are configured in the WDM interface view to allow the WDM interfaces at
both ends of an optical fiber to communicate at the physical layer.
Context
Optical parameters of WDM interfaces must be configured to allow the WDM interfaces at both
ends of an optical fiber to communicate at the physical layer. Service parameters can be
configured only after optical parameters are configured. Currently, optical parameters of WDM
interfaces on the NE5000E are FEC and TTI.
l FEC contained in the OTU overhead of the OTN frame is used for data error correction by
using algorithms. NE5000E supports two FEC modes: standard G.709 FEC and enhanced
FEC. Compared with standard G.709 FEC, enhanced FEC improves algorithms by using
the FEC code type with stronger forward error correction capability.
l TTI is a byte string in the overhead of an OTU and or an ODU. Like the J byte in the SDH
segment overhead, the TTI identifies the source and destination stations to which each
optical fiber is connected to prevent incorrect connection. If the received TTI differs from
the expected value, a TIM alarm is generated.
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
controller wdm interface-number
The interface view is displayed.
Step 3 (Optional) Run:
fec { enhanced | standard
The FEC mode is configured for the WDM interface.
NOTE
l By default, the FEC mode of WDM interfaces is the standard mode.
l Two interconnected WDM interfaces must have the same FEC configurations.
Step 4 Run:
tti { odu | odu-pm | otu } { expected | sent } 64byte-mode value
Or,
tti odu-tcm { all | spending-segment } { expected | sent } 64byte-mode value
The TTI is configured for the OTU or ODU.
NOTE
The value on the sending end must be the same as the expected value set on the peer end of an optical fiber.
Step 5 Run:
commit
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The configuration is committed.
----End
5.3.3 Configuring Service Parameters
Service parameters of WDM interfaces are configured in the GE interface view to allow
interfaces to bear services.
Context
Service parameters of WDM interfaces must be configured in the GE interface view. The
configuration procedure is the same as that for 10GE LAN interfaces. For details, see Ethernet
Interface Configuration.
5.3.4 Checking the Configuration
After configurations of WDM interfaces are complete, you can view information about interface
configurations and status.
Context
After configurations of WDM interfaces are complete, you can view information about interface
configurations and status.
Procedure
Step 1 Run the display this command to check the configurations and status of a WDM interface.
Step 2 Run the display this interface command to check the statistics about a WDM interface.
----End
Example
Run the display this interface command, and you can view the statistics about a WDM
interfaces. For example:
<HUAWEI> system-view
[~HUAWEI] controller wdm 1/0/0
[~HUAWEI-Wdm1/0/0] display this interface
The Vendor PN is TRF5013FN-GA420
The Vendor Name is Opnext Inc.
Port BW: 10G, Transceiver max BW: 10000~11300Mbps, Transceiver Mode: Single Mode
WaveLength: 1310nm, Transmission Distance: 10km
Rx Optical Power: -5.54dBm, Tx Optical Power: -3.25dBm
FEC Mode: enhance
OTN alarm:
OTU layer: R_LOF OTU_LOM R_OOF SM_IAE SM_BDI
ODU layer: PM-BDI ODU-AIS ODU-OCI ODU-LCK
OPU layer: none
WDM Error Counter:
SM_BEI :3342285
PM_BEI :3342285
SM_BIP :3342285
PM_BIP :3342285
FEC 0 error :4295821408
FEC 1 error :4295829075
FEC 0 and 1 type error:0
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FEC symbol error :427508
FEC uncorrected error :822083535
BER :0.000000000
Received OTU TTI: ""
Received ODU TTI: ""
Received ODU TCM1 TTI: ""
Received ODU TCM2 TTI: ""
Received ODU TCM3 TTI: ""
Received ODU TCM4 TTI: ""
Received ODU TCM5 TTI: ""
Received ODU TCM6 TTI: ""
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6 Configurations of HDLC and IP-Trunk
About This Chapter
High-level Data Link Control (HDLC) is a bit-oriented link layer protocol that can be used for
transparent transmission of bit flows of any type. As a type of trunk interface, IP-Trunk consists
of the Packet over SDH/SONET (POS) links and is encapsulated with HDLC at the link layer.
IP-Trunk increases interface bandwidth and improves link reliability.
6.1 Overview of HDLC and IP-Trunk
As a bit-oriented link layer protocol, HDLC can be used for transparent transmission of bit flows
of any type without specifying data as a set of characters.
6.2 HDLC and IP-Trunk Supported by the NE5000E
Protocols in the standard HDLC protocol suite run on synchronous serial lines. An IP-Trunk can
be composed of only POS links, and the link layer protocol of interfaces to be added to an IP-
Trunk must be HDLC.
6.3 Configuring Basic HDLC Functions
This section describes how to configure HDLC encapsulation and optional parameters.
6.4 Configuring IP-Trunk Interfaces
IP-Trunk interfaces are a type of trunk interface. You can configure an IP-Trunk interface to
implement link backup and traffic load balancing.
6.5 Maintaining HDLC and IP-Trunk
This section describes how to maintain HDLC and IP-Trunk. Detailed operations include
clearing the statistics about HDLC or IP-Trunk interfaces and debugging HDLC.
6.6 Configuration Examples
This section provides several examples for HDLC and IP-Trunk. These configuration examples
explain the networking requirements, configuration roadmap, data preparation, configuration
procedure, and configuration files.
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6.1 Overview of HDLC and IP-Trunk
As a bit-oriented link layer protocol, HDLC can be used for transparent transmission of bit flows
of any type without specifying data as a set of characters.
As a typical bit-oriented synchronous data control protocol, HDLC has the following
characteristics:
l HDLC works in duplex mode and can transmit data continuously without waiting for
acknowledgement; thus, HDLC features a high data link transmission efficiency.
l HDLC adopts the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) for all frames and numbers them. This
helps you know which frames are dropped and which frames are repeatedly transmitted.
Thus, HDLC ensures high transmission reliability.
l HDLC separates the transmission control function from the processing function, and thus
features high flexibility and perfect control capabilities.
l HDLC is independent of any character encoding set, and thus data can be transparently
transmitted.
l Zero-bit insertion, which is used for transparent transmission of data, is easy to implement
on the hardware.
HDLC is especially used to logically transmit data that is segmented into physical blocks or
packages. These blocks or packages are called frames, each of which is identified by a start flag
and an end flag. In HDLC, all bit-oriented data link control protocols adopt a unified frame
format, and both data and control information are transmitted in frames. Each frame begins and
ends with a frame delimiter, which is a unique sequence of bits as 01111110. The frame delimiter
marks the start or end of a frame or marks for synchronization. The frame delimiter is guaranteed
not to be seen inside a frame to avoid confusion.
A trunk can aggregate many interfaces into an aggregation group to implement load balancing
on member interfaces for received and sent data. At the same time, the connectivity can be of
higher reliability. Trunk interfaces are classified into Eth-Trunk interfaces and IP-Trunk
interfaces. An IP-Trunk can be composed of only POS links. It has the following characteristics:
l Increased bandwidth: The bandwidth of an IP-Trunk is the total bandwidth of all member
interfaces.
l Improved reliability: When a link fails, traffic is automatically switched to other links. This
ensures reliability of the connection.
6.2 HDLC and IP-Trunk Supported by the NE5000E
Protocols in the standard HDLC protocol suite run on synchronous serial lines. An IP-Trunk can
be composed of only POS links, and the link layer protocol of interfaces to be added to an IP-
Trunk must be HDLC.
The NE5000E supports only the point-to-point HDLC operation mode and the check of link
status through Keepalive packets.
IP-Trunk supports load balancing according to the HASH algorithm during data forwarding.
Up to 255 trunk interfaces (including Eth-Trunk and IP-Trunk interfaces) can be created on a
Router, and each trunk interface can be composed of up to 32 physical links.
An IP-Trunk interface has the following characteristics:
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l It can be configured with an IP address, and its member interfaces use this IP address to
forward data.
l It supports MPLS forwarding and Layer 3 forwarding (in unicast mode).
l It supports physical interface-based QoS and logical interface-based QoS.
l It supports MPLS.
l It supports hot standby and hot swap.
6.3 Configuring Basic HDLC Functions
This section describes how to configure HDLC encapsulation and optional parameters.
Applicable Environment
When a bit-oriented link layer protocol is needed for synchronous transmission, HDLC can be
applied.
Pre-configuration Tasks
Before configuring basic HDLC functions, complete the following task:
l Configuring the physical attributes of the synchronous serial interface on the router to make
the physical layer status of the interface Up
Configuration Procedures
Figure 6-1 Configuration flowchart of basic HDLC functions
Configuration HDLC as the Link
Layer Protocol of an Interface
Configure HDLC as the link layer
protocol of an interface
Configure the polling interval
Assigning an IP Address to
an Interface
Assign an IP address to an
interface
Configure the polling interval
Mandatory procedure
Optional procedure
Related Tasks
6.6.1 Example for Configuring Basic HDLC Functions
6.3.1 Configuring HDLC as the Link Layer Protocol of an Interface
You can configure HDLC as the link layer protocol of an interface.
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Procedure
Step 1 On the router, run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface interface-type interface-number
The interface view is displayed.
Step 3 Run:
link-protocol hdlc
The link layer protocol of the interface is configured as HDLC.
NOTE
Before changing the link layer protocol on an interface, you must run the shutdown command to shut down
the interface, and then run the commit command to commit the configuration. Then, run the undo
shutdown command to restart the interface.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
6.3.2 Assigning an IP Address to an Interface
You can assign an IP address to an interface or configure IP unnumbered.
Procedure
Step 1 On the router, run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface interface-type interface-number
The interface view is displayed.
Step 3 Run the following command as required.
l To assign an IP address to the interface, run:
ip address ip-address { mask | mask-length } [ sub ]
l To configure IP unnumbered, run:
ip address unnumbered interface interface-type interface-number
NOTE
Before configuring IP unnumbered on an interface whose link layer protocol is HDLC, ensure that the
interface borrowing an IP address can learn a route to the peer; otherwise, data cannot be transmitted to
the peer.
When configuring IP unnumbered, you can use a routing protocol to learn a route to the peer or
configure a static route to the peer according to the following principles:
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l If you use a routing protocol, ensure that the mask of the learnt route is greater than the mask
of the borrowed IP address because the NE5000E searches for a route according to the longest
matching rule.
l If you configure a static route to the peer and the mask of the borrowed IP address is 32 bits,
ensure that the mask of the static route is smaller than 32 bits.
l If you configure a static route to the peer and the mask of the borrowed IP address is smaller
than 32 bits, ensure that the mask of the static route is greater than the mask of the borrowed
IP address.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
6.3.3 (Optional) Configuring the Polling Interval
After the polling interval is set, HDLC can periodically check whether links work properly.
Context
If the polling interval is too short and the network delay is too long or the congestion is severe,
route flapping occurs. If the polling interval is set to a great value, link detection lasts a long
period of time.
Procedure
Step 1 On the router, run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface interface-type interface-number
The interface view is displayed.
Step 3 Run:
timer hold seconds
The polling interval is set.
NOTE
Both ends of a link need to be set with the same polling interval. If the interval is set to 0 at both ends, link
detection is disabled.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
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6.3.4 Checking the Configuration
After the configurations of basic HDLC functions, you can view the interface status and link
layer protocol.
Prerequisite
The configurations of basic HDLC functions are complete.
Procedure
l Run the display interface [ interface-type [ interface-number ] ] command to view the
interface status, link layer protocol, and configuration.
----End
Example
Run the display interface command, and you can view that the link layer protocol of the interface
is HDLC.
<HUAWEI> display interface pos 8/0/1
Pos8/0/1 current state : UP
Line protocol current state : UP
Description: HUAWEI, Pos8/0/1 Interface (ifindex: 124, vr: 0)
Route Port,The Maximum Transmit Unit is 4470, Hold timer is 10(sec)
Internet protocol processing : disabled
Link layer protocol is nonstandard HDLC
Last physical up time : 2010-08-25 10:12:21
Last physical down time : 2010-08-24 09:20:45
Current system time: 2010-08-26 06:39:03
Statistics last cleared:2010-08-26 03:28:03
Last 300 seconds input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Last 300 seconds output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Input:0 packets, 0 bytes
Input error: 0 shortpacket, 0 longpacket, 0 CRC, 0 lostpacket
Output: 0 packets, 0 bytes
Output error: 0 lostpackets
Output error: 0 overrunpacket, 0 underrunpackets
Last 300 seconds input utility rate: 0.00%
Last 300 seconds output utility rate: 0.00%
6.4 Configuring IP-Trunk Interfaces
IP-Trunk interfaces are a type of trunk interface. You can configure an IP-Trunk interface to
implement link backup and traffic load balancing.
Applicable Environment
To improve communication capabilities of links, you can bundle multiple POS interfaces up to
form an IP-Trunk interface. The total bandwidth of an IP-Trunk interface is the bandwidth sum
of member interfaces; thus, you can add POS interfaces to an IP-Trunk interface to increase the
bandwidth of the interface.
To avoid traffic congestion, Traffic to the same destination can be balanced among member
links of the IP trunk interface rather than be transmitted along one path.
To improve link reliability, you can configure an IP-Trunk interface because after a member
interface goes Down, the IP-Trunk interface can use other member interfaces in the Up state to
transmit data.
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Pre-configuration Tasks
Before configuring basic HDLC functions, complete the following task:
l Powering on the device and ensuring a successful self-check
Configuration Procedures
Figure 6-2 Configuration flowchart of IP-Trunk interfaces
Mandatory procedure
Optional procedure
Configure IP-Trunk Interfaces
Create an IP-Trunk interface
and add interfaces to the IP-
Trunk interface
Configure the lower threshold of
up links
Assign an IP address to an IP-
Trunk interface
Configure the load balancing
mode for an IP-Trunk interface
Configure the weight for a
member link
Related Tasks
6.6.2 Example for Configuring IP Unnumbered
6.6.3 Example for Configuring IP-Trunk
6.4.1 Creating an IP-Trunk Interface and Adding Interfaces to the
IP-Trunk Interface
You can create an IP-Trunk interface and add interfaces to the IP-Trunk interface.
Procedure
l Do as follows in the IP-Trunk interface view:
1. Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
2. Run:
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interface ip-trunk trunk-id
The IP-Trunk interface view is displayed.
3. Run either of the following commands:
To add interfaces to the IP-Trunk interface in batches, run:
trunkport interface-type { interface-number1 [to interface-number2 ] }
&<1-32>
To add an interface to the IP-Trunk interface, run:
trunkport interfacetype interface-number
NOTE
A maximum of 32 interfaces can be added to or deleted from an IP-Trunk interface at a time.
The link layer protocol of the interface to be added to an IP-Trunk interface must be HDLC,
and the link layer protocol can not be changed.
4. Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
l Do as follows in the view of the interface to be added to an IP-Trunk interface
1. Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
2. Run:
interface ip-trunk trunk-id
An IP-Trunk interface is created.
3. Run:
quit
Return to the system view.
4. Run:
interface pos interface-number
The view of the interface to be added to the IP-Trunk interface is displayed.
5. Run:
link-protocol hdlc
The link layer protocol of the interface is set to HDLC.
NOTE
The link layer protocol of the interface to be added to an IP-Trunk interface must be HDLC.
6. Run:
ip-trunk trunk-id
The interface is added to the IP-Trunk interface.
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NOTE
When configuring an IP-Trunk interface, note the following issues:
l The link layer protocol of the interface to be added to the IP-Trunk interface must be HDLC.
l By default, the link layer protocol of a POS interface is PPP. You need to run the link-
protocol hdlc command in the view of the POS interface to set the link layer protocol to
HDLC.
l Before adding an interface to the IP-Trunk interface, ensure that the interface to be added
is configured with neither Layer 3 features such as the IP address nor any service.
l A POS interface can be added to only one IP-Trunk interface. If the POS interface needs
to be added to another IP-Trunk interface, it must first be deleted from the current IP-Trunk
interface.
l IP-Trunk interfaces cannot be added to IP-Trunk interfaces.
l POS interfaces on different interface boards can be added to the same IP-Trunk interface.
l It is not recommended to add interfaces with different forwarding capabilities to the same
IP-Trunk interface. If POS interfaces working at different rates are added to the same IP-
Trunk interface, the bandwidth of the IP-Trunk interface is determined by the following
conditions:
l Member interfaces selected through the hash algorithm
l Number of Up member interfaces and the bandwidth of each of the member interfaces
For example, a 10G POS interface and a 2.5G POS interface are added to the same IP-
Trunk interface. If both POS interfaces are Up and only the 2.5G POS interface is selected
as the member interface through the hash algorithm, the forwarding capability of the IP-
Trunk interface is 2.5 Gbit/s but not 12.5 Gbit/s.
l If a member interface of an IP-Trunk interface is connected to the peer, the directly
connected interface on the peer must also be a member interface of an IP-Trunk interface.
7. Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
6.4.2 Assigning an IP Address to an IP-Trunk Interface
You can assign an IP address to an IP-Trunk interface.
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface ip-trunk trunk-id
The IP-Trunk interface view is displayed.
Step 3 Run:
ip address ip-address { mask | mask-length } [ sub ]
An IP address is assigned to the IP-Trunk interface.
Step 4 Run:
commit
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The configuration is committed.
----End
6.4.3 (Optional) Configuring the Lower Threshold of Up Links
When you need to specify the minimum number of member interfaces in the Up state, you can
configure the lower threshold of Up links. When the number of member interfaces in the Up
state falls below the set lower threshold, the trunk interface goes Down; when the number of
member interfaces in the Up state reaches the set lower threshold, the trunk interface goes Up.
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface ip-trunk trunk-id
The IP-Trunk view is displayed.
Step 3 Run:
least active-linknumber link-number
The lower threshold of member interfaces in the Up state is set.
By default, the lower threshold is 1. That is, as long as one member interface is Up, the IP-Trunk
interface is Up.
NOTE
To ensure normal forwarding, it is recommended that you configure the same lower threshold for the IP-
Trunk interfaces on both ends of the IP-Trunk link.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
6.4.4 (Optional) Configuring the Load Balancing Mode for an IP-
Trunk Interface
You can configure the load balancing mode of the forwarding table.
Procedure
Step 1 On the router that uses the IP-Trunk interface, run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface ip-trunk trunk-id
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The IP-Trunk view is displayed.
Step 3 Run:
load-balance { ip |packet-all }
The load balancing mode is configured.
By default, load balancing is carried out among IP-Trunk member interfaces based on ip.
l IP-based load balancing ensures the correct sequence of packets but not a high bandwidth
usage.
l Packet-based load balancing ensures a high bandwidth usage but not the correctness of packet
order.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
6.4.5 (Optional) Configuring the Weight for a Member Link
An IP-Trunk interface performs load balancing on member links based on the weights of the
links. On an IP-Trunk interface, the greater the weight of a member link, the heavier the load
over the member link. Thus, to enable a member link to transmit more traffic, you can set a
higher weight for the link.
Procedure
Step 1 On the router that uses the IP-Trunk interface, run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface pos interface-number
The view of a member interface of an IP-Trunk interface is displayed.
Step 3 Run:
distribute-weight weight-value
The weight of the member link is configured.
By default, the weight of a member link is 1.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
6.4.6 Checking the Configuration
After the IP-Trunk interface configuration is complete, you can view the status and forwarding
table of the IP-Trunk interface and information about member interfaces.
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Prerequisite
The configurations of the IP-Trunk interface are complete.
Procedure
l Run the display interface ip-trunk [ trunk-id ] command to view the status of the IP-Trunk
interface.
l Run the display trunkmembership ip-trunk trunk-id command to view information about
member interfaces.
----End
Example
Run the display interface ip-trunk command, and you can view the physical status, link layer
protocol status, IP address, and load balancing mode of the IP-Trunk interface. For example:
<HUAWEI> display interface ip-trunk 1
Ip-Trunk1 current state : UP
Line protocol current state : UP
Description: HUAWEI, Quidway Series, Ip-Trunk1 Interface
Route Port,Hash arithmetic : According to flow,Maximal BW: 200M, Current BW: 200
M, The Maximum Transmit Unit is 4470
Internet Address is 10.1.1.1/24
Link layer protocol is nonstandard HDLC
Current system time: 2010-08-26 03:12:21
Physical is IP_TRUNK
Last 300 seconds input rate 38 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Last 300 seconds output rate 38 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Realtime 0 seconds input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Realtime 0 seconds output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Input: 96 packets,2304 bytes,
0 unicast,0 broadcast,96 multicast
0 errors,0 drops,
Output:96 packets,2304 bytes,
0 unicast,0 broadcast,96 multicast
0 errors,0 drops
Last 300 seconds input utility rate: 0.00%
Last 300 seconds output utility rate: 0.00%
---------------------------------------------------
PortName Status Weight
---------------------------------------------------
Pos1/0/0 UP 1
Pos1/0/1 UP 1
---------------------------------------------------
The Number Of Ports in Trunk : 2
The Number Of UP Ports in Trunk : 2
Run the display trunkmembership ip-trunk command, and you can view the total number of
member interfaces and the number of member interfaces that are in the Up state.
<HUAWEI> display trunkmembership ip-trunk 1
Trunk ID: 1
TYPE: pos
Number Of Ports in Trunk = 2
Number Of Up Ports in Trunk = 2
operate status: up
Interface Pos1/0/0, valid, operate up, weight 1,
Interface Pos1/0/1, valid, operate up, weight 1,
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6.5 Maintaining HDLC and IP-Trunk
This section describes how to maintain HDLC and IP-Trunk. Detailed operations include
clearing the statistics about HDLC or IP-Trunk interfaces and debugging HDLC.
6.5.1 Clearing Statistics About HDLC and IP-Trunk Interfaces
You can run the reset commands to clear interface statistics before recollecting traffic statistics
on the interface.
Context
CAUTION
HDLC information cannot be restored after you clear it. So, confirm the action before you use
the command
To clear the HDLC statistics on the NMS or displayed through the display interface command,
you can run the following reset commands in the user view.
NOTE
Refer to the relevant NMS manual to learn how to view the interface traffic statistics on the NMS.
Procedure
l Run the reset counters interface [ interface-type [interface-number ] ] command to clear
the interface statistics displayed through the display interface command.
----End
6.6 Configuration Examples
This section provides several examples for HDLC and IP-Trunk. These configuration examples
explain the networking requirements, configuration roadmap, data preparation, configuration
procedure, and configuration files.
6.6.1 Example for Configuring Basic HDLC Functions
This example shows how to configure HDLC to interconnect devices in typical networking.
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Networking Requirements
CAUTION
For the NE5000E, the interface is numbered as slot number/card number/interface number. For
the NE5000E cluster, the interface is numbered as chassis ID/slot number/card number/interface
number. The slot number is chassis ID/slot ID.
routerRouter A and Router B are connected through POS interfaces whose link layer protocol
is HDLC.
Figure 6-3 Networking diagram of HDLC configurations
Configuration Roadmap
The configuration roadmap is as follows:
1. Configure HDLC as the link layer protocol of the interface on each router.
2. Assign an IP address to each interface.
Data Preparation
To complete the configuration, you need the following data.
l IP address of the interface on Router A
l IP address of the interface on Router B
NOTE
The IP addresses of interfaces on Router A and Router B must be in the same network segment; otherwise,
the link layer protocol cannot go Up.
Procedure
Step 1 Configure Router A.
<HUAWEI> system-view
[~HUAWEI] sysname RouterA
[~HUAWEI] commit
[~RouterA] interface pos 1/0/0
[~RouterA-Pos1/0/0] link-protocol hdlc
[~RouterA-Pos1/0/0] ip address 100.1.1.1 24
[~RouterA-Pos1/0/0] undo shutdown
[~RouterA-Pos1/0/0] quit
[~RouterA] commit
Step 2 Configure Router B.
<HUAWEI> system-view
[~HUAWEI] sysname RouterB
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[~HUAWEI] commit
[~RouterB] interface pos 1/0/0
[~RouterB-Pos1/0/0] link-protocol hdlc
[~RouterB-Pos1/0/0] ip address 100.1.1.2 24
[~RouterB-Pos1/0/0] undo shutdown
[~RouterB-Pos1/0/0] quit
[~RouterB] commit
Step 3 Verify the configuration.
After the configuration, Router A and Router B can ping through each other.
Take the display on Router A as an example.
[~RouterA] ping 100.1.1.2
PING 100.1.1.2: 56 data bytes, press CTRL_C to break
Reply from 100.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=1 ttl=255 time=31 ms
Reply from 100.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=2 ttl=255 time=31 ms
Reply from 100.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=3 ttl=255 time=31 ms
Reply from 100.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=4 ttl=255 time=31 ms
Reply from 100.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=5 ttl=255 time=31 ms
--- 100.1.1.2 ping statistics ---
5 packet(s) transmitted
5 packet(s) received
0.00% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 31/31/31 ms
Run the display ip routing-table command. You can view that routing information is correct.
[~RouterA] display ip routing-table
Route Flags: R - relay, D - download to fib
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Routing Tables: Public
Destinations : 2 Routes : 2
Destination/Mask Proto Pre Cost Flags NextHop Interface
100.1.1.0/24 Direct 0 0 D 100.1.1.1 Pos1/0/0
100.1.1.1/32 Direct 0 0 D 127.0.0.1 Pos1/0/0
----End
Configuration Files
l The following lists the configuration file of Router A.
#
sysname RouterA
#
interface Pos1/0/0
undo shutdown
link-protocol hdlc
ip address 100.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
return
l The following lists the configuration file of Router B.
#
sysname RouterB
#
interface Pos1/0/0
undo shutdown
link-protocol hdlc
ip address 100.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
#
return
Related Tasks
6.3 Configuring Basic HDLC Functions
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6.6.2 Example for Configuring IP Unnumbered
This example shows how to configure IP unnumbered and how IP unnumbered works in typical
networking.
Networking Requirements
CAUTION
For the NE5000E, the interface is numbered as slot number/card number/interface number. For
the NE5000E cluster, the interface is numbered as chassis ID/slot number/card number/interface
number. The slot number is chassis ID/slot ID.
router Router A and Router B are connected through POS interfaces whose link layer protocol
is HDLC.
POS 1/0/0 on Router A borrows the IP address of the loopback interface on Router A, and the
mask of the IP address is 32 bits.
Figure 6-4 Networking diagram of IP unnumbered configurations
Loopback1
100.1.1.1/32
POS1/0/0
POS1/0/0
100.1.1.2/24
RouterA RouterB
Configuration Roadmap
The configuration roadmap is as follows:
1. Configure HDLC as the link layer protocol of the interface on each router.
2. Configure the IP address to be borrowed, that is, the IP address of the loopback interface
on Router A.
3. Configure IP unnumbered for the POS interface on Router A.
4. On Router A, configure a static route to Router B.
5. Configure the IP address of the interface on Router B.
Data Preparation
To complete the configuration, you need the following data:
l IP address of the loopback interface on Router A
l IP address of the POS interface on Router B
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NOTE
These two IP addresses must be in the same network segment; otherwise the link layer protocol cannot go
Up.
Procedure
Step 1 Configure Router A.
<HUAWEI> system-view
[~HUAWEI] sysname RouterA
[~HUAWEI] commit
[~RouterA] interface loopback 1
[~RouterA-LoopBack1] ip address 100.1.1.1 32
[~RouterA-LoopBack1] quit
[~RouterA] interface pos 1/0/1
[~RouterA-Pos1/0/0] link-protocol hdlc
[~RouterA-Pos1/0/0] ip address unnumbered interface loopback 1
[~RouterA-Pos1/0/0] undo shutdown
[~RouterA-Pos1/0/0] quit
[~RouterA] commit
Step 2 Configure Router B.
<HUAWEI> system-view
[~HUAWEI] sysname RouterB
[~HUAWEI] commit
[~RouterB] interface pos 1/0/1
[~RouterB-Pos1/0/0] link-protocol hdlc
[~RouterB-Pos1/0/0] ip address 100.1.1.2 24
[~RouterB-Pos1/0/0] undo shutdown
[~RouterB-Pos1/0/0] quit
Step 3 Configure a static route on Router A.
[~RouterA] ip route-static 100.1.1.0 24 pos 1/0/1
[~RouterB-Pos1/0/0] commit
Step 4 Verify the configuration.
After the configuration, Router A and Router B can ping through each other.
Take the display on Router A as an example.
[~RouterA] ping 100.1.1.2
PING 100.1.1.2: 56 data bytes, press CTRL_C to break
Reply from 100.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=1 ttl=255 time=31 ms
Reply from 100.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=2 ttl=255 time=63 ms
Reply from 100.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=3 ttl=255 time=63 ms
Reply from 100.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=4 ttl=255 time=63 ms
Reply from 100.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=5 ttl=255 time=63 ms
--- 100.1.1.2 ping statistics ---
5 packet(s) transmitted
5 packet(s) received
0.00% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 31/56/63 ms
Run the display ip routing-table command. You can view that routing information is correct.
[~RouterA] display ip routing-table
Route Flags: R - relay, D - download to fib
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Routing Table : Public
Destinations : 2 Routes : 2
Destination/Mask Proto Pre Cost Flags NextHop Interface
100.1.1.0/24 Static 60 0 D 0.0.0.0 Pos1/0/1
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100.1.1.1/32 Direct 0 0 D 127.0.0.1 LoopBack1
----End
Configuration Files
l The following lists the configuration file of Router A.
#
sysname RouterA
ip route-static 100.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 Pos1/0/0
#
interface Pos1/0/0
link-protocol hdlc
undo shutdown
ip address unnumbered interface LoopBack1
#
interface LoopBack1
ip address 100.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
#
return
l The following lists the configuration file of Router B.
#
sysname RouterB
#
interface Pos1/0/0
link-protocol hdlc
undo shutdown
ip address 100.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
#
return
Related Tasks
6.4 Configuring IP-Trunk Interfaces
6.6.3 Example for Configuring IP-Trunk
Networking Requirements
CAUTION
For the NE5000E, the interface is numbered as slot number/card number/interface number. For
the NE5000E cluster, the interface is numbered as chassis ID/slot number/card number/interface
number. The slot number is chassis ID/slot ID.
An IP-Trunk link is established between routerRouter A and Router B.
Figure 6-5 Networking diagram of the IP-Trunk
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Configuration Roadmap
The configuration roadmap is as follows:
1. Connect Router A to Router B through POS interfaces.
2. Create an IP-Trunk interface.
3. Add the POS interfaces to the IP-Trunk interface.
Data Preparation
To complete the configuration, you need the following data:
l IP address of the IP-Trunk interface on Router A
l IP address of the IP-Trunk interface on Router B
Procedure
Step 1 Configure Router A.
<HUAWEI> system-view
[~HUAWEI] sysname RouterA
[~HUAWEI] commit
# Create IP-Trunk 1 on Router A and assign an IP address to it.
[~RouterA] interface ip-trunk 1
[~RouterA-Ip-Trunk1] ip address 100.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
[~RouterA-Ip-Trunk1] undo shutdown
[~RouterA-Ip-Trunk1] quit
# Add POS 1/0/0 and POS 2/0/0 to IP-Trunk 1.
[~RouterA] interface pos 1/0/0
[~RouterA-Pos1/0/0] link-protocol hdlc
[~RouterA-Pos1/0/0] ip-trunk 1
[~RouterA-Pos1/0/0] undo shutdown
[~RouterA-Pos1/0/0] quit
[~RouterA] interface pos 2/0/0
[~RouterA-Pos2/0/0] link-protocol hdlc
[~RouterA-Pos2/0/0] ip-trunk 1
[~RouterA-Pos2/0/0] undo shutdown
[~RouterA-Pos2/0/0] quit
[~RouterA] commit
Step 2 Configure Router B.
<HUAWEI> system-view
[~HUAWEI] sysname RouterB
[~HUAWEI] commit
# Create IP-Trunk 1 on Router B and assign an IP address to it.
[~RouterB] interface ip-trunk 1
[~RouterB-Ip-Trunk1] ip address 100.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
[~RouterB-Ip-Trunk1] undo shutdown
[~RouterB-Ip-Trunk1] quit
[~RouterB-Ip-Trunk1] commit
# Add POS 1/0/0 and POS 2/0/0 to IP-Trunk 1.
[~RouterB] interface pos 1/0/0
[~RouterB-Pos1/0/0] link-protocol hdlc
[~RouterB-Pos1/0/0] ip-trunk 1
[~RouterB-Pos1/0/0] undo shutdown
[~RouterB-Pos1/0/0] quit
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[~RouterB] interface pos 2/0/0
[~RouterB-Pos2/0/0] link-protocol hdlc
[~RouterB-Pos2/0/0] ip-trunk 1
[~RouterB-Pos2/0/0] undo shutdown
[~RouterB-Pos2/0/0] quit
[~RouterB] commit
Step 3 Verify the configuration.
Run the display interface ip-trunk command on Router A or Router B. You can view that IP-
Trunk 1 is Up.
Take the display on Router A as an example.
[~RouterA] display interface ip-trunk 1
Ip-Trunk1 current state : UP
Line protocol current state : UP
Description: HUAWEI, Quidway Series, Ip-Trunk1 Interface (ifindex: 10, vr: 0)
Route Port,Hash arithmetic : According to flow,Maximal BW: 100M, Current BW: 100
M, The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1500
Internet Address is 200.1.1.1/24
Link layer protocol is nonstandard HDLC
Physical is IP_TRUNK
Last 300 seconds input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Last 300 seconds output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Realtime 0 seconds input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Realtime 0 seconds output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Input: 0 packets,0 bytes,
0 unicast,0 broadcast,0 multicast
0 errors,0 drops,
Output:0 packets,0 bytes,
0 unicast,0 broadcast,0 multicast
0 errors,0 drops
---------------------------------------------------
PortName Status Weight
---------------------------------------------------
Pos1/0/0 UP 1
Pos2/0/0 UP 1
---------------------------------------------------
The Number Of Ports in Trunk : 1
The Number Of UP Ports in Trunk : 1
On Router A, view the member interfaces of IP-Trunk 1.
[~RouterA] display trunkmembership ip-trunk 1
Trunk ID: 1
TYPE: pos
Number Of Ports in Trunk = 1
Number Of Up Ports in Trunk = 1
operate status: up
Interface Pos1/0/0, valid, operate up, weight 1
Interface Pos2/0/0, valid, operate up, weight 1
The IP-Trunk interfaces on Router A and Router B can ping through each other.
[~RouterA] ping -a 100.1.1.1 100.1.1.2
PING 100.1.1.2: 56 data bytes, press CTRL_C to break
Reply from 100.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=1 ttl=255 time=62 ms
Reply from 100.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=2 ttl=255 time=62 ms
Reply from 100.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=3 ttl=255 time=62 ms
Reply from 100.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=4 ttl=255 time=62 ms
Reply from 100.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=5 ttl=255 time=62 ms
--- 100.1.1.2 ping statistics ---
5 packet(s) transmitted
5 packet(s) received
0.00% packet loss
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round-trip min/avg/max = 62/62/62 ms
----End
Configuration Files
l The following lists the configuration file of Router A.
#
sysname RouterA
#
interface Ip-Trunk1
undo shutdown
ip address 100.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface Pos1/0/0
link-protocol hdlc
undo shutdown
ip-trunk 1
#
interface Pos2/0/0
link-protocol hdlc
undo shutdown
ip-trunk 1
#
return
l The following lists the configuration file of Router B.
#
sysname RouterB
#
interface Ip-Trunk1
undo shutdown
ip address 100.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
#
interface Pos1/0/0
link-protocol hdlc
undo shutdown
ip-trunk 1
#
interface Pos2/0/0
link-protocol hdlc
undo shutdown
ip-trunk 1
#
return
Related Tasks
6.4 Configuring IP-Trunk Interfaces
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7 PPP Configuration
About This Chapter
Functioning at the data link layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model and the link
layer of the TCP/IP protocol suite, the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is a link layer protocol that
is used to transmit network layer packets over point-to-point (P2P) links. PPP is developed based
on the Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP). As it provides user authentication, supports
synchronous and asynchronous communications, and is easy to extend, PPP is widely used.
7.1 PPP Overview
This section describes the principle of PPP and related protocols.
7.2 PPP Supported by the NE5000E
As a protocol for simple WAN P2P connections, PPP possesses some outstanding advantages
over other link layer protocols, and thus PPP is widely used.
7.3 Configure an interface to support PPP
This section describes how to configure PPP as the link layer protocol of an interface and how
to configure optional parameters.
7.4 Configuring Unidirectional PAP Authentication
Detailed operations of unidirectional PAP authentication include configuring the authenticator
to authenticate the authenticatee in PAP mode and configuring the authenticatee to be
authenticated in PAP mode.
7.5 Configuring Unidirectional CHAP Authentication
CHAP authentication is three-way handshake authentication. Unidirectional CHAP
authentication involves two situations, namely, the authenticator with a user name and the
authenticator without a user name.
7.6 Configuration Examples
This section describes the PAP authentication and CHAP authentication in terms of their
application scenarios.
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7.1 PPP Overview
This section describes the principle of PPP and related protocols.
P2P connections are simple WAN connections. The link layer protocol of a P2P link is mainly
PPP or High-level Data Link Control protocol (HDLC). HDLC supports only the synchronous
transfer mode, whereas PPP supports both synchronous and asynchronous transfer modes.
Working at the second layer (data link layer) of the OSI model, PPP is mainly used on the links
in duplex mode to transmit data between two ends. PPP is widely used because it provides user
authentication, supports synchronous and asynchronous communication, and is easy to extend.
PPP defines three protocol components, including:
l Data encapsulation mode: encapsulates multi-protocol data packets.
l Link Control Protocol (LCP): sets up, monitors, and tears down data links.
l Network Control Protocol (NCP): sets up and configures different network-layer protocols,
and negotiates the format and type of the data to be transmitted over data links.
PPP also provides protocols such as the Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) and the
Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) to ensure network security.
7.2 PPP Supported by the NE5000E
As a protocol for simple WAN P2P connections, PPP possesses some outstanding advantages
over other link layer protocols, and thus PPP is widely used.
The NE5000E supports the configuration of PPP on serial interfaces or POS interfaces to
implement the following functions:
l Maximum Receive Unit (MRU) negotiation
l PAP or CHAP authentication
7.3 Configure an interface to support PPP
This section describes how to configure PPP as the link layer protocol of an interface and how
to configure optional parameters.
Applicable Environment
As a link layer protocol that is used to transmit network layer packets over P2P links, PPP
supports the MRU negotiation. If the MTU is configured, you need to enable the MRU
negotiation to ensure that both ends of a link adopt the same MTU to transmit data.
l Timeout period
The timeout period is used during the PPP negotiation. If no reply packets from the peer is
received within the timeout period, PPP re-sends a request packet for negotiation.
l Polling interval
Link layer protocols such as PPP, FR, and HDLC use the polling timer to determine whether
a link works normally.
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In the case of long network delay or heavy congestion, you can prolong the polling interval
to reduce the possibility of network flapping.
The polling intervals on both ends must be the same.
l DNS server address negotiation
When a device is connected to the router through PPP and the device needs to access the
network by using the domain name, the router needs to assign a DNS server address to the
device.
If you connect a PC to the router, you can run the winipcfg command or the ipconfig /all
command on the PC to view the DNS server address assigned by the router.
The NE5000E can assign two DNS server addresses, namely, the primary DNS server
address and secondary DNS server address, to the peer.
Pre-configuration Tasks
Before configuring PPP as the link layer protocol, complete the following task:
l Connecting interfaces correctly and setting physical parameters for the interfaces to ensure
that the physical layer status of these interfaces is Up.
Configuration Procedures
Figure 7-1 Flowchart for configuring PPP as the link layer protocol
Configure PPP as the link layer
protocol on an interface
Enable the PPP MRU
negotiation
Mandatory procedure
Optional procedure
Configure the negotiation
timeout period
Configure the polling interval
Configure the DNS server
address negotiation
Prevent the peer host route
from being added to the local
routing table of direct routes
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7.3.1 Configuring PPP as the Link Layer Protocol on an Interface
You can configure PPP as the link layer protocol of an interface.
Procedure
Step 1 On the router, run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface interface-type interface-number
The interface view is displayed.
Step 3 Run:
link-protocol ppp
PPP is configured as the link layer protocol of the interface.
By default, PPP is the link layer protocol of a synchronous serial interface or a POS interface.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is submitted.
----End
7.3.2 (Optional) Enabling the PPP MRU Negotiation
The MRU indicates the packet receiving capability of an interface. If an interface is configured
with the IPv6 MTU, you need to enable the PPP IPv6 MRU negotiation to ensure that the IPv6
MRU negotiation can be performed at the link control layer.
Context
The initial MRU is equal to the configured MTU or the default MTU on an interface.
When the negotiation finishes, the negotiated MTU of a link is equal to the smaller MTU on
both ends and the MRUs of both ends keep unchanged. Therefore, on an interface, the MTU is
smaller than or equal to the MRU, which ensures that both ends are able to receive packets from
each other.
Procedure
Step 1 On the router, run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface interface-type interface-number
The interface view is displayed.
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Step 3 Run:
ppp mru-negotiate { ipv4 | ipv6 }
The MRU negotiation is enabled at the link control layer.
By default, the IPv4 MRU negotiation is enabled at the link control layer.
Step 4 Do as follows to restart the interface.
1. Run the shutdown command to shut down the interface.
2. Run the commit command to submit the configuration.
3. Run the undo shutdown command to start the interface.
NOTE
After the configuration, you need to run the shutdown and undo shutdown commands to restart the
interface to validate the configuration.
In this process, you need to run the commit command to submit the configuration after running the
shutdown command. Otherwise, the configuration does not take effect.
Step 5 Run:
commit
The configuration is submitted.
----End
7.3.3 (Optional) Configuring the Negotiation Timeout Period
A PPP link is set up through a series of negotiations. In a PPP negotiation, if the initiator does
not receive any reply from the peer in a specified period of time, the initiator resends a request
to the peer.
Procedure
Step 1 On the router, run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface interface-type interface-number
The interface view is displayed.
Step 3 Run:
ppp timer negotiate seconds
The negotiation timeout period is set.
Step 4 Do as follows to restart the interface.
1. Run the shutdown command to shut down the interface.
2. Run the commit command to submit the configuration.
3. Run the undo shutdown command to start the interface.
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NOTE
After the configuration, you need to run the shutdown and undo shutdown commands in the interface
view to restart the interface to validate the configuration.
In this process, you need to run the commit command to submit the configuration after running the
shutdown command. Otherwise, the configuration does not take effect.
Step 5 Run:
commit
The configuration is submitted.
----End
7.3.4 (Optional) Configuring the Polling Interval
Link layer protocols such as PPP, FR, and HDLC use the polling timer to check whether a link
works properly. You can set the polling interval.
Context
If the polling interval is set to a small value and the network delay is too long or the congestion
is severe, route flapping may occur. If the polling interval is set to a great value, link detection
lasts a long period of time.
Procedure
Step 1 On the router, run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface interface-type interface-number
The interface view is displayed.
Step 3 Run:
timer hold seconds
The polling interval is set.
NOTE
Both ends of a link need to be set with the same polling interval. If the interval is set to 0 at both ends, link
detection is disabled.
Step 4 Do as follows to restart the interface.
1. Run the shutdown command to shut down the interface.
2. Run the commit command to submit the configuration.
3. Run the undo shutdown command to start the interface.
NOTE
After the configuration, you need to run the shutdown and undo shutdown commands in the interface
view to restart the interface to validate the configuration.
In this process, you need to run the commit command to submit the configuration after running the
shutdown command. Otherwise, the configuration does not take effect.
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Step 5 Run:
commit
The configuration is submitted.
----End
7.3.5 (Optional) Configuring the DNS Server Address Negotiation
You can configure the local end to accept any DNS server address proposed by the peer or
configure the DNS server address negotiation.
Context
When a device is connected to a Router through PPP (usually, a PC dials up to a Router), the
Router assigns a DNS server address to the device through the negotiation. Thus, the device can
directly access the network by using the domain name.
If you use a PC to connect to a Router, you can run the winipcfg command (for Windows 98)
or the ipconfig /all command (for Windows 2000/XP) on the PC to view the DNS server address
assigned by the Router.
Procedure
l Configure the local end to accept any DNS server address proposed by the peer.
1. On the router, run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
2. Run:
interface interface-type interface-number
The interface view is displayed.
3. Run:
ppp ipcp dns admit-any
The interface is configured to accept any DNS server address proposed by the peer.
4. Run:
shutdown
The interface is shut down.
5. Run:
commit
The configuration is submitted.
6. Run:
undo shutdown
The interface is started.
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NOTE
After the configuration, you need to run the shutdown and undo shutdown commands to
restart the interface to validate the configuration.
In this process, you need to run the commit command to submit the configuration after running
the shutdown command. Otherwise, the configuration does not take effect.
7. Run:
commit
The configuration is submitted.
l Configure the DNS server address negotiation.
1. Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
2. Run:
interface interface-type interface-number
The interface view is displayed.
3. Run:
ppp ipcp dns primary-dns-address [ secondary-dns-address ]
The DNS server address negotiation is configured.
By default, the router does not provide any DNS server address for the peer.
4. Run:
shutdown
The interface is shut down.
5. Run:
commit
The configuration is submitted.
6. Run:
NOTE
undo shutdown
The interface is restarted.
After the configuration, you need to run the shutdown and undo shutdown commands to
restart the interface to validate the configuration.
In this process, you need to run the commit command to submit the configuration after running
the shutdown command. Otherwise, the configuration does not take effect.
7. Run:
commit
The configuration is submitted.
----End
7.3.6 (Optional) Preventing the Peer Host Route from Being Added
to the Local Routing Table of Direct Routes
To avoid incorrect routing information, you can prevent the peer host route from being added
to the local routing table of direct routes.
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Context
A PPP link does not strictly require that the peer route and local route exist in the same network
segment. The two ends of a PPP link in different network segments can communicate with each
other. In addition, the peer host route in a different network segment is automatically added to
the local routing table of direct routes.
If one end is configured with an incorrect IP address, the other end automatically adds the
incorrect peer host route to the local routing table of direct routes. As a result, the incorrect
routing information is advertised on the network.
With this function, you can decide whether to add the peer host route to the local routing table
of direct routes.
Procedure
Step 1 On the router connected to PPP links, run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface interface-type interface-number
The interface view is displayed.
Step 3 Run:
ppp peer hostroute-suppress
The peer host route is prevented from being added to the local routing table of direct routes.
Step 4 Do as follows to restart the interface.
1. Run the shutdown command to shut down the interface.
2. Run the commit command to submit the configuration.
3. Run the undo shutdown command to start the interface.
NOTE
After the configuration, you need to run the shutdown and undo shutdown commands to restart the
interface to validate the configuration.
In this process, you need to run the commit command to submit the configuration after running the
shutdown command. Otherwise, the configuration does not take effect.
Step 5 Run:
commit
The configuration is submitted.
----End
7.3.7 Checking the Configuration
After PPP is configured as the link layer protocol on an interface and optional parameters are
configured, you can view the PPP configuration and PPP status on the interface.
Prerequisite
The PPP configurations of an interface are complete.
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Procedure
l Run the display interface [ interface-type [ interface-number ] ] command to view the PPP
configuration, PPP status, and negotiated MTU.
----End
Example
Run the display interface command, and you can view that the link layer protocol of the interface
is PPP.
<HUAWEI> display interface pos 1/0/0
Pos1/0/0 current state : UP
Line protocol current state : UP
Last line protocol up time : 2010-07-13 16:47:08
Description: HUAWEI, Quidway Series, Pos1/0/0 Interface (ifindex: 22, vr: 0)
Route Port,The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1600, Hold timer is 10(sec)
Internet Address is 105.1.1.1/24
Link layer protocol is PPP
LCP opened, IPCP opened, IP6CP opened, OSICP opened, MPLSCP opened
PPP negotiated peer ip address is 105.1.1.2
Current system time: 2010-07-13 17:29:44
The Vendor PN is FTLF1322P1BTR-HW
The Vendor Name is FINISAR CORP.
Port BW: 622M, Transceiver max BW: 622M, Transceiver Mode: SingleMode
WaveLength: 1310nm, Transmission Distance: 15km
Rx Power: 7.66dBm, Tx Power: -11.78dBm
Physical layer is Packet Over SDH
Scramble enabled, clock master, CRC-32, loopback: none
Flag J0 "NetEngine "
Flag J1 "NetEngine "
Flag C2 22(0x16)
SDH alarm:
section layer: none
line layer: none
path layer: none
SDH error:
section layer: B1 284236
line layer: B2 1871 REI 4445
path layer: B3 719417 REI 12417181
Statistics last cleared:never
Last 300 seconds input rate 304 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Last 300 seconds output rate 320 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Input: 5754803980 packets, 540947996544 bytes
Input error: 0 shortpackets, 0 longpackets, 0 CRC, 0 lostpackets
Output: 5676758063 packets, 533611565328 bytes
Output error: 0 lostpackets
Output error: 0 overrunpackets, 0 underrunpackets
7.4 Configuring Unidirectional PAP Authentication
Detailed operations of unidirectional PAP authentication include configuring the authenticator
to authenticate the authenticatee in PAP mode and configuring the authenticatee to be
authenticated in PAP mode.
Applicable Environment
In PAP authentication, passwords are sent over the link in plain text. The user name and password
of the authenticatee can be added to the user list of the authenticator in Authentication,
Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) mode or through the Remote Authentication Dial-In User
Service (RADIUS) server.
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In unidirectional PAP authentication, one of two communication parties functions as the
authenticator, while the other functions as the authenticatee. In bidirectional PAP authentication,
two communication parties function as both the authenticator and the authenticatee.
This section describes how to configure unidirectional PAP authentication by adding the user
name and password of the authenticatee to the user list of the authenticator.
Pre-configuration Tasks
Before configuring unidirectional PAP authentication, complete the following tasks:
l Connecting interfaces correctly and configuring physical parameters for the interfaces to
ensure that the physical layer status of the interfaces is Up
l Configuring PPP as the link layer protocol of the interfaces
l Adding the user name and password of the authenticated to the local user list in the AAA
view
Configuration Procedures
There are two types of unidirectional PAP authentication, namely, the authenticator
authenticating the authenticatee in PAP mode and the authenticatee being authenticated in PAP
mode. You can configure either of the types as required.
Related Tasks
7.6.1 Example for Configuring PAP Authentication
7.4.1 Configuring the Authenticator to Authenticate Its Peer in PAP
Mode
This part describes how to configure PAP authentication on the authenticator. PAP
authentication is two-way handshake authentication and is performed only in the link
establishment phase.
Procedure
Step 1 On the router, run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
aaa
The AAA view is displayed.
Step 3 Run:
local-user user-name password { simple | cipher } password
The user name and password of the authenticatee are added to the local user list.
Step 4 Run:
quit
Return to the system view.
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Step 5 Run:
interface interface-type interface-number
The interface of the authenticator is displayed.
Step 6 Run:
ppp authentication-mode pap
The local end is configured to authenticate the peer in PAP mode.
Step 7 Do as follows to restart the interface.
1. Run the shutdown command to shut down the interface.
2. Run the commit command to submit the configuration.
3. Run the undo shutdown command to start the interface.
NOTE
After the configuration, you need to run the shutdown and undo shutdown commands to restart the
interface to validate the configuration.
In this process, you need to run the commit command to submit the configuration after running the
shutdown command. Otherwise, the configuration does not take effect.
Step 8 Run:
commit
The configuration is submitted.
----End
7.4.2 Configuring the Authenticatee to be Authenticated in PAP
Mode
This part describes how to configure the authenticatee to be authenticated in PAP mode.
Procedure
Step 1 On the router, run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface interface-type interface-number
The view of the interface on the authenticatee is displayed.
Step 3 Run:
ppp pap local-user user-name password { cipher | simple } password
The interface is configured to send the local user name and password to the authenticator when
the local end is authenticated in PAP mode.
Step 4 Do as follows to restart the interface.
1. Run the shutdown command to shut down the interface.
2. Run the commit command to submit the configuration.
3. Run the undo shutdown command to start the interface.
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NOTE
After the configuration, you need to run the shutdown and undo shutdown commands to restart the
interface to validate the configuration.
In this process, you need to run the commit command to submit the configuration after running the
shutdown command. Otherwise, the configuration does not take effect.
Step 5 Run:
commit
The configuration is submitted.
----End
7.4.3 Checking the Configuration
After the configuration of unidirectional PAP authentication, you can view the link status and
LCP running status of the current interface.
Prerequisite
The configurations of unidirectional PAP authentication are complete.
Procedure
l Run the display interface [ interface-type [ interface-number] ] command to view the link
status and LCP running status of the current interface.
----End
Example
Run the display interface command, and you can view whether PAP authentication is
successfully configured on the interface. When the LCP running status is Opened, it indicates
that the authentication succeeds. For example:
<HUAWEI> display interface Pos 1/0/0
pos1/0/0 current state : UP
Line protocol current state : UP
Description: HUAWEI, Quidway Series, pos1/0/0 Interface
Route Port,The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1500
Internet Address is 10.110.0.1/24
Link layer protocol is PPP
LCP opened, IPCP opened
Current BW: 100 Mbits
Statistics last cleared:never:
Last 300 seconds input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Last 300 seconds output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Input: 0 packets, 0 bytes
Input error: 0 shortpacket, 0 longpacket, 0 CRC, 0 lostpacket
Output: 0 packets, 0 bytes
Output error: 0 lostpackets
Output error: 0 overrunpackets, 0 underrunpackets
7.5 Configuring Unidirectional CHAP Authentication
CHAP authentication is three-way handshake authentication. Unidirectional CHAP
authentication involves two situations, namely, the authenticator with a user name and the
authenticator without a user name.
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Applicable Environment
CHAP authentication is complete before a link is set up. After a link is set up, CHAP
authentication can be performed anytime through CHAP negotiation packets.
In unidirectional CHAP authentication, one of two communication parties functions as the
authenticator, while the other functions as the authenticatee. The authenticator sends a Challenge
packet to the authenticatee. After performing the one-way Hash algorithm, the authenticatee
returns a calculated value to the authenticator. The authenticator compares the value calculated
by itself through the Hash algorithm with the value returned by the authenticatee. If the two
values match, the authentication succeeds. Otherwise, the authentication fails and the link is torn
down.
Pre-configuration Tasks
Before configuring unidirectional CHAP authentication, complete the following tasks:
l Connecting interfaces and configuring physical parameters of the interfaces to ensure that
the physical status of the interfaces is Up
l Configuring PPP as the link layer protocol of the interfaces
l Adding the user name and password of the authenticated to the local user list in the AAA
views
Configuration Procedures
In CHAP authentication, the authenticator can be configured with or without a user name. In
practice, you can configure any type of unidirectional CHAP authentication as required.
Related Tasks
7.6.2 Example for Configuring Unidirectional CHAP Authentication
7.6.3 Example for Configuring Bidirectional CHAP Authentication
7.5.1 Configuring the Authenticator with a User Name to
Authenticate Its Peer in CHAP Mode
With a user name, the authenticator can authenticate its peer in CHAP mode.
Procedure
l Configure the authenticator.
1. Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
2. Run:
aaa
The AAA view is displayed.
3. Run:
local-user user-name password { simple | cipher } password
The user name and password of the authenticatee are added to the local user list.
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4. Run:
quit
Return to the system view.
5. Run:
interface interface-type interface-number
The interface view is displayed.
6. Run:
ppp authentication-mode chap[ pap ]
The local end is configured to authenticate the peer in CHAP mode.
You can run the ppp authentication-mode chap[ pap ] command to perform CHAP
authentication preferentially in the LCP negotiation. If the peer does not support
CHAP authentication, PAP authentication is performed. If the peer supports neither
CHAP nor PAP, the LCP negotiation fails. Either CHAP or PAP is involved in a PPP
negotiation.
7. Run:
ppp chap user user-name
A user name is configured.
8. Run:
shutdown
The interface is shut down.
9. Run:
commit
The configuration is submitted.
10. Run:
undo shutdown
The interface is restarted.
NOTE
If you change the user name or the password in the interface view, you must run the
shutdown and undo shutdown commands in the same view to validate the configuration.
When restarting an interface, you need to run the commit command to submit the configuration
after running the shutdown command. Otherwise, the configuration does not take effect.
11. Run:
commit
The configuration is submitted.
l Configure the authenticatee.
1. Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
2. Run:
aaa
The AAA view is displayed.
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3. Run:
local-user user-name password { simple | cipher } password
The user name and password of the authenticator are added to the local user list.
4. Run:
quit
Return to the system view.
5. Run:
interface interface-type interface-number
The interface view is displayed.
6. Run:
ppp chap user user-name
A user name is configured.
7. Run:
shutdown
The interface is shut down.
8. Run:
commit
The configuration is submitted.
9. Run:
undo shutdown
Restart the interface.
NOTE
If you change the user name or the password in the interface view, you must run the
shutdown and undo shutdown commands in the same view to validate the configuration.
When restarting an interface, you need to run the commit command to submit the configuration
after running the shutdown command. Otherwise, the configuration does not take effect.
10. Run:
commit
The configuration is submitted.
----End
7.5.2 Configuring the Authenticator Without a User Name to
Authenticate Its Peer in CHAP Mode
Without a user name, the authenticator can authenticate its peer in CHAP mode.
Procedure
l Configure the authenticator.
1. On the router, run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
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2. Run:
aaa
The AAA view is displayed.
3. Run:
local-user user-name password { simple | cipher } password
The user name and password of the authenticatee are added to the local user list.
In CHAP authentication, the system searches the local user list for the user name and
password of the peer. If the user name and password configured on the peer interface,
the authentication succeeds.
4. Run:
quit
Return to the system view.
5. Run:
interface interface-type interface-number
The interface view is displayed.
6. Run:
ppp authentication-mode chap [ pap ]
The local end is configured to authenticate the peer in CHAP mode.
You can run the ppp authentication-mode chap [ pap ] command to perform CHAP
authentication preferentially in the LCP negotiation. If the peer does not support
CHAP authentication, PAP authentication is performed. If the peer supports neither
CHAP nor PAP, the LCP negotiation fails. Either CHAP or PAP is involved in a PPP
negotiation.
7. Run:
shutdown
The interface is shut down.
8. Run:
commit
The configuration is submitted.
9. Run:
undo shutdown
Restart the interface.
NOTE
If you change the user name or the password in the interface view, you must run the
shutdown and undo shutdown commands in the same view to validate the configuration.
When restarting an interface, you need to run the commit command to submit the configuration
after running the shutdown command. Otherwise, the configuration does not take effect.
10. Run:
commit
The configuration is submitted.
l Configure the authenticatee.
1. On the router, run:
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system-view
The system view is displayed.
2. Run:
interface interface-type interface-number
The interface view is displayed.
3. Run:
ppp chap user user-name
A user name is configured.
4. Run:
ppp chap password { cipher | simple } password
The password for CHAP authentication is configured.
5. Run:
shutdown
The interface is shut down.
6. Run:
commit
The configuration is submitted.
7. Run:
undo shutdown
Restart the interface.
NOTE
If you change the user name or the password in the interface view, you must run the
shutdown and undo shutdown commands in the same view to validate the configuration.
When restarting an interface, you need to run the commit command to submit the configuration
after running the shutdown command. Otherwise, the configuration does not take effect.
8. Run:
commit
The configuration is submitted.
----End
7.5.3 Checking the Configuration
After the configuration of unidirectional CHAP authentication, you can view the PPP
configuration and running status on the current interface.
Prerequisite
The configurations of unidirectional CHAP authentication are complete.
Procedure
l Run the display interface [ interface-type [ interface-number ] ] command to view the
PPP configuration and running status on the current interface.
----End
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Example
Run the display interface command, and you can view the PPP, LCP, and IPCP status to judge
whether the authentication on the link is successful. For example, in the following command
output, both LCP and IPCP are in the Open state, which indicates that CHAP authentication
succeeds.
<HUAWEI> display interface Pos 1/0/1
Pos1/0/1 current state : UP
Line protocol current state : UP
Description: HUAWEI, Quidway Series, Pos1/0/0 Interface
Route Port,The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1500
Internet Address is 10.110.0.1/24
Link layer protocol is PPP
LCP opened, IPCP opened
Current BW: 100 Mbits
Statistics last cleared:never
Last 300 seconds input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Last 300 seconds output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Input: 0 packets, 0 bytes
Input error: 0 shortpacket, 0 longpacket, 0 CRC, 0 lostpacket
Output: 0 packets, 0 bytes
Output error: 0 lostpackets
Output error: 0 overrunpackets, 0 underrunpackets
7.6 Configuration Examples
This section describes the PAP authentication and CHAP authentication in terms of their
application scenarios.
7.6.1 Example for Configuring PAP Authentication
This example describes the configuration method and implementation principle of PAP
authentication in PAP authentication networking.
Networking Requirements
CAUTION
For the NE5000E, the interface is numbered as slot number/card number/interface number. For
the NE5000E cluster, the interface is numbered as chassis ID/slot number/card number/interface
number. The slot number is chassis ID/slot ID.
As shown in Figure 7-2, Router A and Router B are connected through POS interfaces.
Router A is required to authenticate Router B in PAP mode.
Figure 7-2 Networking diagram of PAP authentication
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Configuration Notes
None.
Configuration Roadmap
The configuration roadmap is as follows:
1. Add the user name and password of Router B to the local user list of Router A.
2. Configure Router A to authenticate Router B in PAP mode.
3. Configure Router B to send its user name and password to Router A.
Data Preparation
To complete the configuration, you need the following data:
l User name and password of Router B
l IP address of an interface on Router A
l IP address of an interface on Router B
Procedure
Step 1 Configure Router A.
# Add the user name and password of Router B to the local user list of Router A.
<HUAWEI> system-view
[~HUAWEI] sysname RouterA
[~HUAWEI] commit
[~RouterA] aaa
[~RouterA-aaa] local-user rtb password simple hello1234
[~RouterA-aaa] quit
# Assign an IP address to POS 1/0/0 and configure PPP as the link layer protocol of the interface.
[~RouterA] interface pos 1/0/0
[~RouterA-pos1/0/0] ip address 10.110.0.1 255.255.255.0
[~RouterA-pos1/0/0] link-protocol ppp
# Configure Router A to authenticate Router B in PAP mode.
[~RouterA-pos1/0/0] ppp authentication-mode pap
[~RouterA-pos1/0/0] undo shutdown
# Submit the configuration.
[~RouterA-pos1/0/0] commit
Step 2 Configure Router B.
# Assign an IP address to POS 1/0/0 and configure PPP as the link layer protocol of the interface.
<HUAWEI> system-view
[~HUAWEI] sysname RouterB
[~HUAWEI] commit
[~RouterB] interface pos1/0/0
[~RouterB-pos1/0/0] ip address 10.110.0.2 255.255.255.0
[~RouterB-pos1/0/0] link-protocol ppp
# Configure Router B to send its user name and password to Router A.
[~RouterB-pos1/0/0] ppp pap local-user rtb password simple hello1234
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[~RouterB-pos1/0/0] undo shutdown
# Submit the configuration.
[~RouterB-pos1/0/0] commit
Step 3 Verify the configuration.
After the configurations, you can run the display interface command on each router, and you
can view that the LCP status on both ends are Opened. Take the display on Router A as an
example.
[~RouterA] display interface pos1/0/0
pos1/0/0 current state : UP
Line protocol current state : UP
Description: HUAWEI, Quidway Series, pos1/0/0 Interface (ifindex: 9, vr: 0)
Route Port,The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1500
Internet Address is 10.110.0.1/24
Link layer protocol is PPP
LCP opened, IPCP opened
Current BW: 100 Mbits
Statistics last cleared:never:
Last 300 seconds input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Last 300 seconds output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Input: 0 packets, 0 bytes
Input error: 0 shortpacket, 0 longpacket, 0 CRC, 0 lostpacket
Output: 0 packets, 0 bytes
Output error: 0 lostpackets
Output error: 0 overrunpackets, 0 underrunpackets
----End
Configuration Files
l Configuration file of Router A
#
sysname RouterA
#
interface Pos1/0/0
undo shutdown
link-protocol ppp
ip address 10.110.0.1 255.255.255.0
ppp authentication-mode pap
#
aaa
local-user rtb password simple hello1234
#
return
l Configuration file of Router B
#
sysname RouterB
#
interface Pos1/0/0
undo shutdown
link-protocol ppp
ip address 10.110.0.2 255.255.255.0
ppp pap local-user rtb password simple hello1234
#
return
Related Tasks
7.4 Configuring Unidirectional PAP Authentication
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7.6.2 Example for Configuring Unidirectional CHAP
Authentication
This example describes the configuration method and implementation principle of unidirectional
CHAP authentication.
Networking Requirements
CAUTION
For the NE5000E, the interface is numbered as slot number/card number/interface number. For
the NE5000E cluster, the interface is numbered as chassis ID/slot number/card number/interface
number. The slot number is chassis ID/slot ID.
In Figure 7-3, Router A is required to authenticate Router B in CHAP mode and the
authenticator, Router A, needs to be configured with a user name.
Figure 7-3 Networking diagram of unidirectional CHAP authentication
Configuration Notes
None.
Configuration Roadmap
The configuration roadmap is as follows:
1. Add the user name and password of Router B to the local user list of Router A.
2. Configure a user name on the interface of Router A.
3. Enable the interface on Router A to authenticate Router B in CHAP mode.
4. Add the user name and password of Router A to the local user list of Router B.
5. Configure a user name on the interface of Router B.
Data Preparation
To complete the configuration, you need the following data:
l User name of Router A
l User name and password of Router B
l IP address of an interface on Router A
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l IP address of an interface on Router B
Procedure
Step 1 Configure Router A.
# Add the user name and password of Router B to the local user list of Router A.
<HUAWEI> system-view
[~HUAWEI] sysname RouterA
[~HUAWEI] commit
[~RouterA] aaa
[~RouterA-aaa] local-user rtb password simple hello12345
[~RouterA-aaa] quit
# Assign an IP address to POS 1/0/0 and configure PPP as the link layer protocol of the interface.
[~RouterA] interface pos 1/0/0
[~RouterA-Pos1/0/0] ip address 10.110.0.1 255.255.255.0
[~RouterA-Pos1/0/0] link-protocol ppp
# Configure the local end to authenticate the peer in CHAP mode.
[~RouterA-Pos1/0/0] ppp authentication-mode chap
# Configure the user name of Router A.
[~RouterA-Pos1/0/0] ppp chap user rta
# Start the interface.
[~RouterA-Pos1/0/0] undo shutdown
# Submit the configuration.
[~RouterA-Pos1/0/0] commit
Step 2 Configure Router B.
# Assign an IP address to POS 1/0/0 and configure PPP as the link layer protocol of the interface.
<HUAWEI> system-view
[~HUAWEI] sysname RouterB
[~HUAWEI] commit
[~RouterB] interface pos 1/0/0
[~RouterB-Pos1/0/0] ip address 10.110.0.2 255.255.255.0
[~RouterB-Pos1/0/0] link-protocol ppp
# Configure the local end to be authenticated in CHAP mode.
[~RouterB-Pos1/0/0] ppp chap user rtb
[~RouterB-Pos1/0/0] ppp chap password simple hello12345
[~RouterB-Pos1/0/0] undo shutdown
# Submit the configuration.
[~RouterB-Pos1/0/0] commit
Step 3 Verify the configuration.
After the configurations, you can run the display interface command on each router, and you
can view that the LCP status on both ends are Opened. Take the display on Router A as an
example.
[~RouterA] display interface pos 1/0/0
Pos1/0/0 current state : UP
Line protocol current state : UP
Description: HUAWEI, Quidway Series, Pos1/0/0 Interface (ifindex: 9, vr: 0)
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Route Port,The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1500
Internet Address is 10.110.0.1/24
Link layer protocol is PPP
LCP opened, IPCP opened
Current BW: 100 Mbits
Statistics last cleared:never
Last 300 seconds input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Last 300 seconds output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Input: 0 packets, 0 bytes
Input error: 0 shortpacket, 0 longpacket, 0 CRC, 0 lostpacket
Output: 0 packets, 0 bytes
Output error: 0 lostpackets
Output error: 0 overrunpackets, 0 underrunpackets
----End
Configuration Files
l Configuration file of Router A
#
sysname RouterA
#
interface Pos1/0/0
undo shutdown
link-protocol ppp
ip address 10.110.0.1 255.255.255.0
ppp authentication-mode chap
ppp chap user rta
#
aaa
local-user rtb password simple hello12345
#
return
l Configuration file of Router B
#
sysname RouterB
#
interface Pos1/0/0
undo shutdown
link-protocol ppp
ip address 10.110.0.2 255.255.255.0
ppp chap user rtb
ppp chap password simple hello12345
#
return
Related Tasks
7.5 Configuring Unidirectional CHAP Authentication
7.6.3 Example for Configuring Bidirectional CHAP Authentication
This example describes the configuration method and implementation principle of bidirectional
CHAP authentication.
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Networking Requirements
CAUTION
For the NE5000E, the interface is numbered as slot number/card number/interface number. For
the NE5000E cluster, the interface is numbered as chassis ID/slot number/card number/interface
number. The slot number is chassis ID/slot ID.
In Figure 7-4, Router A and Router B are required to authenticate each other in CHAP mode.
Figure 7-4 Networking diagram of bidirectional CHAP authentication
Configuration Notes
None.
Configuration Roadmap
The configuration roadmap is as follows:
1. Configure the local user list for Router A and Router B.
2. Configure the user name on the interfaces of Router A and Router B.
3. Enable CHAP authentication on the interfaces of Router A and Router B.
Data Preparation
To complete the configuration, you need the following data:
l User names of Router A and Router B
l Passwords of Router A and Router B
l IP address of the interface on Router A
l IP address of the interface on Router B
NOTE
Router A and Router B must be configured with the same password; otherwise the authentication fails.
Procedure
Step 1 Configure Router A.
# Add the user name and password of Router B to the local user list of Router A.
<HUAWEI> system-view
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[~HUAWEI] sysname RouterA
[~HUAWEI] commit
[~RouterA] aaa
[~RouterA-aaa] local-user rtb password simple hello456
[~RouterA-aaa] quit
# Assign an IP address to POS 1/0/0 and configure PPP as the link layer protocol of the interface.
[~RouterA] interface pos 1/0/0
[~RouterA-Pos1/0/0] ip address 10.110.0.1 255.255.255.0
[~RouterA-Pos1/0/0] link-protocol ppp
# Configure the user name and password of Router A.
[~RouterA-Pos1/0/0] ppp chap user rta
[~RouterA-Pos1/0/0] ppp chap password simple hello12345
# Configure Router A to authenticate Router B in CHAP mode.
[~RouterA-Pos1/0/0] ppp authentication-mode chap
[~RouterA-Pos1/0/0] undo shutdown
# Submit the configuration.
[~RouterA-Pos1/0/0] commit
Step 2 Configure Router B.
# Add the user name and password of Router A to the local user list of Router B.
<HUAWEI> system-view
[~HUAWEI] sysname RouterB
[~HUAWEI] commit
[~RouterB] aaa
[~RouterB-aaa] local-user rta password simple hello12345
[~RouterB-aaa] quit
# Assign an IP address to POS 1/0/0 and configure PPP as the link layer protocol of the interface.
[~RouterB] interface pos 1/0/0
[~RouterB-Pos1/0/0] ip address 10.110.0.2 255.255.255.0
[~RouterB-Pos1/0/0] link-protocol ppp
# Configure the user name and password of Router B.
[~RouterB-Pos1/0/0] ppp chap user rtb
[~RouterB-Pos1/0/0] ppp chap password simple hello12345
# Configure Router B to authenticate Router A in CHAP mode.
[~RouterB-Pos1/0/0] ppp authentication-mode chap
[~RouterB-Pos1/0/0] undo shutdown
# Submit the configuration.
[~RouterB-Pos1/0/0] commit
Step 3 Verify the configuration.
After the configurations, run the display interface command on each router, and you can view
that the LCP status of both ends is Opened. Take the display on Router A as an example.
[~RouterA] display interface pos 1/0/0
Pos1/0/0 current state : UP
Line protocol current state : UP
Description: HUAWEI, Quidway Series, Pos1/0/0 Interface (ifindex: 9, vr: 0)
Route Port,The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1500
Internet Address is 10.110.0.1/24
Link layer protocol is PPP
LCP opened, IPCP opened
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Current BW: 100 Mbits
Statistics last cleared:never
Last 300 seconds input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Last 300 seconds output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Input: 0 packets, 0 bytes
Input error: 0 shortpacket, 0 longpacket, 0 CRC, 0 lostpacket
Output: 0 packets, 0 bytes
Output error: 0 lostpackets
Output error: 0 overrunpackets, 0 underrunpackets
----End
Configuration Files
l Configuration file of Router A
#
sysname RouterA
#
interface Pos1/0/0
undo shutdown
link-protocol ppp
ip address 10.110.0.1 255.255.255.0
ppp authentication-mode chap
ppp chap user rta
ppp chap password simple hello12345
#
aaa
local-user rtb password simple hello12345
#
return
l Configuration file of Router B
#
sysname RouterB
#
interface Pos1/0/0
undo shutdown
link-protocol ppp
ip address 10.110.0.2 255.255.255.0
ppp authentication-mode chap
ppp chap user rtb
ppp chap password simple hello12345
#
aaa
local-user rta password simple hello12345
#
return
Related Tasks
7.5 Configuring Unidirectional CHAP Authentication
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8 Configuring Transmission Alarm
Customization and Suppression
About This Chapter
Transmission alarm customization and suppression can reduce the impact of transmission alarms
on network stability.
8.1 Overview of Transmission Alarm Customization and Suppression
Transmission alarm suppression can efficiently filter and suppress alarm signals, which prevents
interfaces from frequently flapping. Transmission alarm customization can control the impact
of alarm signals on interface status.
8.2 Transmission Alarm Customization and Suppression Supported by the NE5000E
Transmission alarm customization and suppression is supported only by the SDH and SONET
physical interfaces.
8.3 Configuring Transmission Alarm Customization
This section describes the applicable environment, pre-configuration tasks, and data preparation
for transmission alarm customization.
8.4 Configuring an Interval for Filtering Transmission Alarms
This section describes the applicable environment of the transmission alarm filtering interval,
and the pre-configuration tasks and operation procedure for configuring the transmission alarm
filtering interval. If the lifetime (interval between alarm generation and alarm clearance) of an
alarm is shorter than the transmission alarm filtering interval, the alarm is regarded as a burr and
is filtered out. Otherwise, the alarm is processed as a normal alarm.
8.5 Configuring Transmission Alarm Suppression
This section describes the applicable environment, pre-configuration tasks, and configuration
procedure for transmission alarm suppression. After a transmission alarm suppression threshold
is configured, the alarms that reach the threshold will be reported to the system.
8.6 Maintaining Transmission Alarm Customization and Suppression
Maintenance tools can be used to locate the faults in transmission alarm customization and
suppression.
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8.1 Overview of Transmission Alarm Customization and
Suppression
Transmission alarm suppression can efficiently filter and suppress alarm signals, which prevents
interfaces from frequently flapping. Transmission alarm customization can control the impact
of alarm signals on interface status.
Concepts of Transmission Alarm Customization and Suppression
At present, the carrier-class network requires higher reliability for the IP devices. IP devices are
required to rapidly detect faults.
When the fast detection function is enabled on an interface, alarm reporting becomes faster. This
may cause the physical status of the interface to switch between Up and Down so that the network
flaps frequently.
Therefore, alarms need to be filtered and suppressed to prevent frequent network flapping.
Transmission alarm suppression can efficiently filter and suppress alarm signals. This prevents
interfaces from frequently flapping. In addition, transmission alarm customization can control
the impact of alarms on the interface status.
Transmission alarm customization and suppression provide the following functions:
l Alarm customization: specifies which alarms cause interface status switch.
l Alarm suppression: filters burrs and suppresses frequent network flapping.
Purposes of Transmission Alarm Customization and Suppression
Transmission alarm customization and suppression are configured to filter and suppress alarms,
and thus to prevent frequent network flapping.
On a backbone network or an MAN, IP devices are connected to transmission devices (including
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH), Synchronous Optical Network (SONET), and
Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) devices). When transmission devices become faulty,
IP devices will receive alarms. Then, faulty transmission devices perform link switchover and
the alarms disappear. After an alarm is generated, the link switchover lasts 50 ms to 200 ms. In
the log information on IP devices, the transmission alarms are displayed as burrs that last 50 ms
to 200 ms. These burrs will cause the interface status of IP devices to switch frequently. IP
devices will perform route calculation frequently. As a result, routes flap frequently, affecting
the performance of IP devices.
From the perspective of the entire network, it is expected that IP devices ignore such burrs. That
is, IP devices need to customize and suppress the alarms that are generated during transmission
device maintenance or link switchover. This can prevent route flapping. Transmission alarm
customization can control the impact of transmission alarms on the physical status of interfaces.
Transmission alarm suppression can efficiently filter and suppress specific alarm signals to avoid
frequent interface flapping.
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8.2 Transmission Alarm Customization and Suppression
Supported by the NE5000E
Transmission alarm customization and suppression is supported only by the SDH and SONET
physical interfaces.
Types of Interfaces that Support Transmission Alarm Customization and
Suppression
Transmission alarm customization and suppression can be supported only by SDH and SONET
physical interfaces. On an NE5000E, transmission alarm customization and suppression are
supported on the POS, 10GE WAN and WDM interfaces.
Support of Transmission Alarm Customization and Suppression During MPU
Master/Slave Switchover
During an MPU master/slave switchover, various transmission alarm signals can be processed
properly, and the transmission alarm configuration still takes effect.
8.3 Configuring Transmission Alarm Customization
This section describes the applicable environment, pre-configuration tasks, and data preparation
for transmission alarm customization.
Applicable Environment
In the scenario where transmission devices are connected to IP devices, if the network is unstable,
a large number of burr alarms will be generated. As a result, the physical status of interfaces on
the transmission devices will switch between Up and Down. To enable IP devices to ignore these
burrs, configure transmission alarm customization on the IP devices.
Pre-configuration Tasks
Before configuring the transmission alarm customization function, complete the following task:
l Powering on the router and ensuring that the router detects no error during self-check
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Configuration Procedures
Figure 8-1 Flowchart for Configuring Transmission Alarm Customization
Mandatory procedure
Optional procedure
Specify types of alarms that affect
the physical layer status of
interfaces
Set alarm thresholds of b3tca,
sdbere, and sfbere

Before configuring transmission alarm customization, complete the following tasks:
Data Preparation
To configure transmission alarm customization, you need the following data.
No. Data
1 Type and number of an interface
2 Type of an alarm that impacts the physical status of an interface
3 (Optional) Threshold of the b3tca, sdbere, or sfbere alarm

8.3.1 Configuring the Types of Alarms that Impact the Physical
Status of Interfaces
Transmission alarm customization can be configured only on interfaces. Different hardware
supports different alarm types.
Context
Do as follows on the interfaces that are connected to transmission devices:
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Perform either of the following configurations as required.
1. Run:
interface interface-type interface-number
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The POS or 10 GE WAN interface view is displayed.
2. Run:
controller wdm interface-number
The WDM interface view is displayed.
Step 3 Run:
(If the interface type is POS or 10GE WAN.) transmission-alarm down { auais | b3tca | lais
| lcd | lof | lom | lop | los | lrdi | lrei | oof | pais | pplm | prdi | prei | puneq | rdool | rrool |
sdbere | sfbere | trool } * or (If the interface type is WDM.)transmission-alarm down { odu-
ais odu-lck odu-oci otu-ais otu-lom otu-sd-ber otu-sf-ber pm-bdi pm-tim r-lof r-los r-oof
sm-bdi sm-iae sm-tim } *
The alarms that impact the physical status of interfaces are customized.
Not all interfaces support the preceding alarms because alarm types vary with hardware types.
If the alarm type that the hardware does not support is configured, the configuration fails. The
system will display a message telling you which alarm types are not supported on this interface.
The parameter lcd can be displayed only on 10GE WAN interfaces.
Only 10GE WAN interfaces support WAN Interface Link Status (wlnk) alarms. Wlnk alarms
cannot be configured. The display transmission-alarm command can be used to view the status
and statistics on wlnk alarms.
CAUTION
By default, the LAIS, LOF, and LOS alarms can change interface status. If these alarms are
disabled, service data cannot be forwarded correctly. Enabling the three types of alarms is
recommended.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
8.3.2 (Optional) Configuring b3tca, sdbere, and sfbere Alarm
Thresholds
The b3tca, sdbere, and sfbere alarm thresholds can be configured. When an alarm reaches the
threshold, it will be reported to the system.
Context
Do as follows on the interfaces that are connected to transmission devices:
Procedure
Step 1 Run: system-view. The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run: interface interface-type interface-number. The interface view is displayed.
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The POS, 10GE WAN and WDM interfaces support the configuration of alarm thresholds.
Step 3 Run: transmission-alarm threshold { b3tca b3tca | sdbere sdbere | sfbere sfbere } *. The
b3tca, sdbere, and sfbere alarm thresholds are configured.
NOTE
The b3tca alarm threshold cannot be configured on WDM interfaces.
The three types of alarm thresholds are in the format of 10
-n
. "n" is specified by an alarm
parameter in the transmission-alarm threshold command. The value of sdbere must be equal
to or larger than the value of sfbere.
By default, the b3tca alarm threshold is 10
-6
, the sdbere alarm threshold is 10
-6
, and the sfbere
alarm threshold is 10
-3
.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
8.3.3 Checking the Configuration
After the configuration is complete, check whether the configuration has taken effect. In
addition, check the alarm status and statistics on an interface.
Prerequisite
All configurations for transmission alarm customization are complete.
Procedure
l If an interface is a POS or 10 GE WAN interface, run the display transmission-alarm
{ pos | wan } interface-number [ auais | b3tca | lais | lcd | lof | lom | lop | los | lrdi | lrei |
oof | pais | prdi | prei | pplm| puneq | rdool | rrool | sdbere | sfbere | trool | wlnk ] *
command to check alarm configuration on the interface.
l If the interface is a WDM interface, run the display transmission-alarm wdm interface-
number [ odu-ais | odu-lck | odu-oci | otu-ais | otu-lom | otu-sd-ber | otu-sf-ber | pm-
bdi | pm-tim | r-lof | r-los | r-oof | sm-bdi | sm-iae | sm-tim ] * command to check alarm
configuration on the interface.
l Run the display transmission-alarm threshold [ interface-type interface-number ]
command to view the thresholds of b3tca, sdbere, and sfbere alarms on interfaces.
----End
Example
Check the status and statistics on auais, b3tca, lais, lof, los, and trool alarms on POS 1/0/0.
<HUAWEI> display transmission-alarm pos 1/0/0 lais lof los
Interface: pos1/0/0
Filter function: enabled (Holdtime is 50)
Damping function: enabled
Suppress value: 1000
Ceiling value: 500
Reuse value: 6000
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OK half decay value: 1000
NG half decay value: 1000
Alarm lais
Status: Down
Figure of merit: 0.0000000e+00
Flapping count: 2
Suppressing count: 1
Alarm lof
Status: Up, If down
Figure of merit: 0.0000000e+00
Flapping count: 1
Suppressing count: 1
Alarm los
Status: Up, If down
Figure of merit: 0.0000000e+00
Flapping count: 1
Suppressing count: 1
Check the status and statistics on odu-ais, odu-lck and odu-oci alarms on WDM 1/0/0.
<HUAWEI> display transmission-alarm wdm 1/0/0 odu-ais odu-lck odu-oci
Interface: wdm1/0/0
Filter function: disabled
Damping function: enabled
Suppress value: 2000
Ceiling value: 6000
Reuse value: 750
OK half decay value: 1000
NG half decay value: 1000
Last reset time: 2011-3-11,13:42:38.717
Alarm odu-ais
Status: Up
Figure of merit: 0.00000e+00
Flapping count: 23
Suppressing count: 0
Alarm odu-lck
Status: Down
Figure of merit: 0.00000e+00
Flapping count: 0
Suppressing count: 0
Alarm odu-oci
Status: Up
Figure of merit: 0.00000e+00
Flapping count: 1
Suppressing count: 0
Check the thresholds of b3tca, sdbere, and sfbere alarms on POS 1/0/0.
<HUAWEI> display transmission-alarm threshold pos 1/0/0
Interface: Pos1/0/0
b3tca threshold: 10e-7
sdbere threshold: 10e-9
sfbere threshold: 10e-8
8.4 Configuring an Interval for Filtering Transmission
Alarms
This section describes the applicable environment of the transmission alarm filtering interval,
and the pre-configuration tasks and operation procedure for configuring the transmission alarm
filtering interval. If the lifetime (interval between alarm generation and alarm clearance) of an
alarm is shorter than the transmission alarm filtering interval, the alarm is regarded as a burr and
is filtered out. Otherwise, the alarm is processed as a normal alarm.
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Applicable Environment
In the scenario where transmission devices are connected to IP devices, if the network is unstable,
transmission devices on the network will generate a large number of burr alarms. As a result,
the physical status of interfaces on the transmission devices switch between Up and Down. After
a transmission alarm filtering interval is configured, the alarms whose lifetime is longer than the
interval will be ignored.
To configure transmission alarm filtering intervals on multiple interfaces, repeat step 2 and step
3.
Pre-configuration Tasks
Before configuring the transmission alarm filtering interval, complete the following tasks:
l Powering on the router and ensuring that the router detects no error during self-check
l routerInterface 8.3 Configuring Transmission Alarm Customization
NOTE
The filtering function on an interface can take effect only when the transmission alarm customization
function is enabled on the interface.
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface interface-type interface-number
The interface view is displayed.
The POS, 10GE WAN and WDM interfaces support the configuration of transmission alarm
filtering intervals.
Step 3 Run:
transmission-alarm holdoff-timer holdoff-time
The alarm filtering function is enabled and the filtering timer is set.
If the lifetime (interval from alarm generation to alarm clearance) of an alarm is smaller than
the transmission alarm filtering interval, the alarm is filtered out as a burr. Otherwise, the alarm
is a normal alarm signal.
By default, the transmission alarm filtering function is disabled.
Step 4 (Optional) Run:
transmission-alarm holdup-timer holdup-time
The alarm filtering function is enabled, and the alarm filtering interval is configured to be the
alarm clearance interval.
By default, the transmission alarm filtering function is disabled.
Step 5 Run:
commit
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The configuration is committed.
----End
Checking the Configuration
Running the following commands to check the previous configuration:
l If an interface is a POS or 10GE WAN interface, run the display transmission-alarm
{ pos | wan } interface-number [ auais | b3tca | lais | lcd | lof | lom | lop | los | lrdi | lrei |
oof | pais | prdi | prei | pplm| puneq | rdool | rrool | sdbere | sfbere | trool | wlnk ] *
command to check alarm configuration on the interface.
l If the interface is a WDM interface, run the display transmission-alarm wdm interface-
number [ odu-ais | odu-lck | odu-oci | otu-ais | otu-lom | otu-sd-ber | otu-sf-ber | pm-
bdi | pm-tim | r-lof | r-los | r-oof | sm-bdi | sm-iae | sm-tim ] * command to check alarm
configuration on the interface.
l Run the display transmission-alarm configuration [ interface-type interface-number ]
command to view the configuration of alarm customization and suppression on the
specified interface.
If the alarm filtering function has been configured, you can view that the filtering function has
been enabled.
<HUAWEI> display transmission-alarm configuration pos 1/0/0
Interface: pos1/0/0
Filter function: enabled (Holdtime is 50)
Damping function: enabled
Suppress value: 1000
Ceiling value: 500
Reuse value: 6000
OK half decay value: 1000
NG half decay value: 1000
8.5 Configuring Transmission Alarm Suppression
This section describes the applicable environment, pre-configuration tasks, and configuration
procedure for transmission alarm suppression. After a transmission alarm suppression threshold
is configured, the alarms that reach the threshold will be reported to the system.
Applicable Environment
In the scenario where transmission devices are connected to IP routing devices, if the network
is unstable, transmission devices on the network will generate a large number of burr alarms.
As a result, the physical status of interfaces on the transmission devices will switch between Up
and Down. To suppress frequent networking flapping caused by transmission alarms, or enable
IP devices to ignore burr alarms, enable transmission alarm suppression on IP devices.
Pre-configuration Tasks
Before configuring transmission alarm suppression, complete the following tasks:
l Powering on the router and ensuring that the router detects no error during self-check
l routerInterface 8.3 Configuring Transmission Alarm Customization
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NOTE
Transmission alarm suppression can take effect on an interface only after transmission alarm customization
is enabled on the interface.
Procedure
Step 1 Run:
system-view
The system view is displayed.
Step 2 Run:
interface interface-type interface-number
The interface view is displayed.
The POS, 10GE WAN and WDM interfaces support the configuration of transmission alarm
suppression.
Step 3 Run:
transmission-alarm damping [ ceiling ceiling | reuse reuse | suppress suppress |
decay-ok decay-ok | decay-ng decay-ng ] *
Transmission alarm suppression is enabled, and suppression parameters are set.
By default, transmission alarm suppression is disabled.
Step 4 Run:
commit
The configuration is committed.
----End
Checking the Configuration
Running the following command to check the previous configuration:
Run the display transmission-alarm configuration command to view the transmission alarm
configuration of an interface.
<HUAWEI> display transmission-alarm configuration pos 1/0/0
Interface: pos1/0/0
Filter function: enabled (Holdtime is 50)
Damping function: enabled
Suppress value: 1000
Ceiling value: 500
Reuse value: 6000
OK half decay value: 1000
NG half decay value: 1000
8.6 Maintaining Transmission Alarm Customization and
Suppression
Maintenance tools can be used to locate the faults in transmission alarm customization and
suppression.
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8.6.1 Clearing the Information About Transmission Alarms
Before re-collecting information about transmission alarms on an interface, clear the existing
information about transmission alarms on the interface.
Context
CAUTION
After information about transmission alarms has been cleared, all statistics on alarms will be
reset. Exercise caution when running the alarm clearance command.
Procedure
Step 1 To clear the information about transmission alarms, run the reset transmission-alarm
statistics command in the interface view.
----End
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