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POND, SACRED GROVE
MANGROVES,WETLAND,FOREST






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EDU 09-THEORETICAL BASE OF NATURAL
SCIENCE EDUCATION- II






SUBMITTED BY SUBMITTED TO
ARIYA S GEETHA TEACHER
NATURAL SCIENCE
Reg No:13373003
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INDEX
SL NO
CONTENT PAGE NO
1 INTRODUCTION 6-7
2 POND 8
3 SACRED GROVE 9-10
4 MANGROVES 11-12
5 WETLAND 13-14
6 FOREST 15-16
7 CONCLUSION 17
8 REFERENCE 18
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Natural resources are materials and
components (something that can be used)
that can be found within the environment.
Every man-made product is composed of
natural resources (at its fundamental level).
A natural resource may exist as a
separate entity such as fresh water, and air,
as well as a living organism such as a fish,
or it may exist in an alternate form which
must be processed to obtain the resource
such as metal ores, oil, and most forms of
energy.
There is much debate worldwide over
natural resource allocations, this is partly
due to increasing scarcity (depletion of
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resources) but also because the exportation
of natural resources is the basis for many
economies (particularly for developed
nations such as Australia).
Some natural resources such as
sunlight and air can be found everywhere,
and are known as ubiquitous resources.
However, most resources only occur in
small sporadic areas, and are referred to as
localized resources. There are very few
resources that are considered inexhaustible
(will not run out in foreseeable future)
these are solar radiation, geothermal
energy, and air (though access to clean air
may not be).

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POND
A pond is a bodyof standing water, either
natural or man-made, that is usually smaller
than a lake. They may arise naturally in
floodplains as part of a river system, or they
may be somewhat isolated depressions
(examples include vernal pools and prairie
potholes). Usually they contain shallow
water with marsh and aquatic plants and
animals.
[1]
A few animals also make ponds,
including both alligators and beavers. The
type of life in a pond is generally
determined by a combination of factors
including water level regime (particularly
depth and duration of flooding) and nutrient
levels.



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Sacred grove

A sacred grove or sacred woods are
any grove of trees of special religious
importance to a particular culture. Sacred
groves were most prominent in
theAncientNear East and prehistoric
Europe,
ci
but feature in various cultures
throughout the world.
They were important features of the
mythological landscape and cult
practice ofCeltc Baltic, Germanic ancient
Greek, Near Eastern, Roman,
and cpolytheism, and were also used
in India, Japan, and West Africa.


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Around 14,000 sacred groves have been
reported from all over India, which act as
reservoirs of rare fauna, and more often
rare flora, amid rural and even urban
settings. Experts believe that the total
number of sacred groves could be as high
as 100,000. Threats to the groves include
urbanization, over-exploitation of resources,
and environmental destruction from Hindu
religious practices. While many of the
groves are looked upon as abode of Hindu
gods, in the recent past a number of them
have been partially cleared for construction
of shrines and temples.







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Mangroves
Mangroves are various types of trees
up to medium height and shrubs that
grow insaline coastal sediment habitats
in the tropics and subtropics mainly
betweenlatitudes 25 N and 25 S. The
remaining mangrove forest areas of the
world in 2000 was 53,190 square miles
(137,760 km) spanning 118 countries
and territories. The word is used in at
least three senses: (1) most broadly to
refer to the habitat and entire plant
assemblage or mangal,for which the
termsmangroveforest biome, mangro
ve swamp and mangrove forest are
also used, (2) to refer to all trees and
large shrubs in the mangrove swamp,
and (3) narrowly to refer to the
mangrove family of plants,
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the Rhizophoraceae, or even more
specifically just to mangrove trees of the
genus Rhizophoa. The term "mangrove
comes to English from Spanish
(perhaps by way of Portuguese), and is
likely to originate from Guarani.






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Wet land
A wetland is a land area that
is saturated with water, either permanently
or seasonally, such that it takes on the
characteristics of a
distinct ecosystem.Primarily, the factor that
distinguishes wetlands from other land
forms or water bodies is the
characteristic vegetation that is adapted to
its unique soil conditions. Wetlands consist
primarily of hydric soil, which
supports aquatic plants.
The water found in wetlands can
be saltwater, freshwater, or brackish Main
wetland types
include swamps marshes, bogs and fens
[5]

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Sub-types includemangrove, carr, pocosin,
and varzea.
Wetlands play a number of roles in the
environment, principally water purification,
flood control, and shoreline stability.
Wetlands are also considered the
mostbiologically diverse of all ecosystems,
serving as home to a wide range of plant
and animal life.
Wetlands occur naturally on every continent
except Antarctica They can constructed
artificially as a water management tool,
which may play a role in the developing
field of water-sensitive urban design.
The largest wetlands in the world include
the Amazon River basin and the West
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Siberian Plain Another large wetland is
the Pantanal, which straddles Brazil,Bolivia
and Paraguay in South America.







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FOREST
Forests (also referred to as a wood or
the woods) are communities of living
organisms characterized by the presence of
trees that have symbiotic relationships with
each other and the physical environment.
The trees of a forest constitute the larger
part of their biomass Different cultures have
varying definitions of what a forest may be,
in terms of size and of what the forest is
composed of.A forest is usually an area
filled with trees, but any tall densely packed
area of vegetation may be considered a
forest, even underwater vegetation such
as Kelp forests, or non-vegetation such
as fungi,and bacteria. Tree forests cover
approximately 9.4% of the Earth's surface
(30 percent of Earth's total land area); in
pre-industrial times they'd covered around
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15.6% (around 50 percent of total land
area). They function as habitats for
organisms, hydrologic flow modulators,
and soil conservers, constituting one of the
most important aspects of the biosphere.














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Conclusion
Natural resources are basic and essential
for the survival of people.Natural are
referred to as land or raw materials in
economic point of view,which occur
naturally in environment without human
intervention. It is our duty to protect the
natural resources by it using it judiciously
and in a proper manner if they break the
rules they are responsible for the problems
of it,and prohibited to offence and they
should punished by the law





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REFERENCE
1. A text book of environmental
biology , ethology and evolution.
K Vijaya kumaran Nair
M Jaya Prakash
TM Joseph
2. www.feelfriendly.com

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