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Letter of Transmittal

GLYDE Company
1000 Johnson Dr.
Port Arthur, TX 77640

April 24, 2006


Dr. George Rowell
Drexel University,
Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering
3141 Chestnut St.
Philadelphia, PA 19104

Dr. Rowell:
Enclosed you will find the feasibility study for the production of ethylene glycol by means of
direct oxidation of ethylene over a silver based catalyst followed by hydration of ethylene oxide
over a solid phase ion exchange resin.
The total capital investment is estimated at $124 million. With an Internal Rate of Return after a
16 year lifespan of 30%, this plant will exceed the hurdle rate of 13%. The break even period for
this project is 2 years which shows a highly feasible project. Further development for this plant
includes reducing utilities and recovering and purifying carbon dioxide byproduct for sale.
Our group greatly appreciates your consultation and guidance in this project.
Sincerely,

Suroor Manzoor

Chong McLaren

Nick Mitchell

Timre Segear

Letter of Transmittal
GLYDE Company
1000 Johnson Dr.
Port Arthur, TX 77640

April 24, 2006


Mr. Stevon G. Schon, P.E.
Archema Chemicals Inc.,
900 First Avenue
King of Prussia, PA 19406

Mr. Schon:
Enclosed you will find the feasibility study for the production of ethylene glycol by means of
direct oxidation of ethylene over a silver based catalyst followed by hydration of ethylene oxide
over a solid phase ion exchange resin.
The total capital investment is estimated at $124 million. With an Internal Rate of Return after a
16 year lifespan of 30%, this plant will exceed the hurdle rate of 13%. The break even period for
this project is 2 years which shows a highly feasible project. Further development for this plant
includes reducing utilities and recovering and purifying carbon dioxide byproduct for sale.
Our group greatly appreciates your consultation and guidance in this project.
Sincerely,

Suroor Manzoor

Chong McLaren

Nick Mitchell

Timre Segear

Production of Ethylene Glycol

Suroor Manzoor
Chong McLaren
Nick Mitchell
Timre Segear

Technical Advisor: Dr. George Rowell


Industrial Advisor: Mr. Stevon Schon, P.E.

April 24, 2006


Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering
Drexel University
Philadelphia, PA 19104

Production of Ethylene Glycol

Suroor Manzoor
Chong McLaren
Nick Mitchell
Timre Segear

Technical Advisor: Dr. George Rowell


Industrial Advisor: Mr. Stevon Schon, P.E.

April 24, 2006


Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering
Drexel University
Philadelphia, PA 19104

Abstract
Currently more than 65% of the ethylene oxide produced in industry is used in the
production of ethylene glycol. GLYDE will convert all of the ethylene oxide produced to
ethylene glycol to maximize profits, minimize inherently dangerous inventories, and increase
safety in handling and transporting products. This plant will be located in Port Arthur, Texas,
within a few miles of an existing ethylene pipeline and near major ports to cheaply transport both
raw materials and final products.
Based on the average production rates of the major suppliers, GLYDEs plant is designed
to produce approximately 890 million pounds per year of ethylene glycol based on 8,100 hours
of operation per year. This will allow GLYDE to occupy 3.2% of the US market for ethylene
glycol upon entry, and up to 13% at full capacity within three years. As there has been no
significant net addition of new capacity in the industry since 2001, there is a measurable shortfall
in the ethylene glycol supply. Overall, the ethylene glycol demand has increased by 6-7% per
year since 2001 and is expected to increase at this rate through 2010 (20). In the first year
GLYDEs plant is expected to run for half a year at 50% capacity. The second year is expected to
run for nine months at 67% capacity, and the plant will run at full capacity there after.
The direct oxidation technology is the dominant process to produce ethylene oxide
commercially today. It utilizes the catalytic oxidation of ethylene with pure oxygen over a silver
based catalyst to yield ethylene oxide. We have chosen to use pure oxygen as opposed to air as
an oxidizer to reduce the amount of inerts in the system, which reduces the total purge necessary
and minimizes operating costs. Also pure oxygen leads to higher selectivity to ethylene oxide.
The average selectivity ranges from 65-75% for the air-based process compared to 85-90% for
the oxygen-based process. Ethylene glycol is commercially produced by the hydrolysis of
ethylene oxide with or without a catalyst. As of right now, catalytic hydration of ethylene oxide
using an ion exchange resin is a new technology in industry and is gaining popularity. A highly
selective solid phase ion exchange resin as a catalyst allows us to convert 98% of the ethylene
oxide to monoethylene glycol with the other 2% converted to diethylene glycol. The catalyst also
allows for a reduction in the ratio of water to ethylene oxide and the temperature in the reactor
which in turn lowers operating costs.

Executive Summary
The scope of this project is to determine the feasibility of the production of ethylene
glycol through hydration of ethylene oxide which is produced by the direct oxidation of ethylene.
We have determined that the raw material cost of ethylene is by far the leading factor in the cost
of production of ethylene glycol. The raw materials alone contribute to 17.6 c/lb of the total 21
c/lb for the cost of ethylene glycol production. Because of this, the major process decisions were
all geared toward maximizing selectivity to our desired products, and minimizing the total
amount of wasted ethylene. We have chosen to use pure oxygen as opposed to air in the
oxidation of ethylene to reduce the amount of inerts in the system, which reduces the total purge
necessary and minimizes operating costs. This will also change the selectivity to ethylene oxide
from 65-75% for the air-based process to 85-90% for the oxygen-based process. This change
alone will increase profits by $15 million per year. Another major process decision was to change
the hydration process of ethylene oxide to ethylene glycol to include the use of a polystyrene
based ion exchange resin as the catalyst. Although the use of an ion exchange resin as a catalyst
is a new technology in this industry, it can increase the selectivity to monoethylene glycol over
diethylene glycol from approximately 90% to 99%. Since monoethylene glycol sells for 38 c/lb
while diethylene glycol sells for only 26c/lb. This change in selectivity will increase profits by
$9.7 million per year, which is well worth the risk for utilizing a new technology.
Overall, the capital investment for this project is estimated at $124 million. At an
estimated production rate of 890 million pounds per year of ethylene glycol at full capacity, the
plant will use 450 million pounds per year of ethylene provided by direct pipeline, and 380
million pounds per year of oxygen which will be generated by an oxygen generation plant. The
anticipated Internal Rate of Return after the 16 year lifespan is expected to be 30%, with a break
even period of 2 years.
This process seams very feasible according to this preliminary economic analysis, but a
few further studies can be done to improve the profitability further. This process can be
optimized to reduce the overall amount of heating and cooling used in the process, which could
potentially save a few million dollars per year, but would probably require a small increase in the
capital investment. Also, the carbon dioxide stream exiting the CO2 stripper could be purified

and sold to offset the cost of production for another few million dollars savings per year. One of
the most important recommendations would be to lock in the price of ethylene by entering into a
long term contract with the providers. A difference of 1 c/lb in the cost of ethylene would save
almost $9 million per year. At this stage, our recommendation is to proceed with this project to
the next stage of development.

Table of Contents
1.

Introduction..............................................................................................................................1
1.1.
Background......................................................................................................................1
1.2.
Proposed Plant.................................................................................................................2
1.3.
Ethylene Oxide Production..............................................................................................3
2. Design Basis............................................................................................................................7
2.1.
Project Scope Summary...................................................................................................7
2.1.1.
Products...................................................................................................................7
2.1.2.
Technology...............................................................................................................7
2.1.3.
Location...................................................................................................................7
2.1.4.
Plant Capacity..........................................................................................................7
2.1.5.
Raw Materials..........................................................................................................7
2.1.6.
Down Time..............................................................................................................7
2.2.
Location of Plant..............................................................................................................8
2.3.
Size of Plant.....................................................................................................................9
2.4.
Product Quality Specifications......................................................................................10
2.5.
Products Handled, Stored, and Shipped.........................................................................11
2.6.
Raw Materials................................................................................................................11
2.7.
Major Process Descriptions & Assumptions.................................................................12
2.8.
Ancillaries Design.........................................................................................................15
3. Process Description...............................................................................................................16
3.1.
Oxygen Mixing Station..............................................................................................16
3.2.
Ethylene Feed Prep....................................................................................................16
3.3.
EO Reactor.................................................................................................................16
3.4.
EO Absorber..............................................................................................................17
3.5.
EO Stripper................................................................................................................18
3.6.
EG Reactor.................................................................................................................18
3.7.
EG Dehydration.........................................................................................................19
3.8.
EG Purification..........................................................................................................20
3.9.
CO2 Absorber.............................................................................................................20
3.10.
CO2 Stripper...........................................................................................................20
4. Process Flow Diagrams.........................................................................................................21
5. Material & Energy Balance...................................................................................................33
6. Equipment..............................................................................................................................45
7. Plant Layout...........................................................................................................................61
8. Operating Requirements........................................................................................................62
8.1.
Utilities..........................................................................................................................62
8.2.
Waste Streams................................................................................................................64
9. Environmental and Safety Considerations.............................................................................65
9.1.
Environmental Concerns...............................................................................................65
9.2.
Safety Concerns.............................................................................................................66
9.3.
Waste Minimization.......................................................................................................68
10.
Economic Feasibility.........................................................................................................69
10.1.
Economic Assumptions.............................................................................................69
10.2.
Capital Equipment Costs...........................................................................................70

10.3.
Manufacturing Costs..................................................................................................72
10.4.
Year-by-Year Economic Analysis..............................................................................76
10.5.
Sensitivity & Cost Behavior Analysis.......................................................................78
11.
Conclusions and Recommendations..................................................................................86
12.
Appendices........................................................................................................................71
12.5.
Sample Calculations..................................................................................................72
12.6.
MSDS........................................................................................................................73
12.7.
Aspen Process Simulation.........................................................................................74
13.
Literature Cited..................................................................................................................75

EG Production

1. Introduction
1.1. Background
Ehylene oxide is a highly versatile commodity chemical, which is used as an
intermediate for the production of a variety of chemicals. It also kills bacteria, mold, and
fungi, and is therefore used as a sterilant. It is a highly reactive colorless gas with a
slightly sweet odor. Other names for it include E.O., oxirane, dimethylene oxide, and 1,2epoxyethane. During World War I, it gained importance in industry and was produced on
a small scale for its use in the production of ethylene glycol, an engine coolant, and the
chemical weapon mustard gas. Ethylene oxide was once used for the production of
acrylonitrile but that was discontinued in 1966 (13).
Ehylene glycol is a diol that is used as engine coolant, automotive antifreeze, and
used to manufacture polyester PET (polyethylene terephthalate). Its higher boiling point
allows for radiators to operate at higher temperatures. It can also be used as a chemical
dehydrator for natural gas production. It is an odorless, colorless, syrupy liquid with a
sweet taste. As little as a mouthful of antifreeze solution ingestion in either a child or
adult may lead to toxic signs and symptoms. Other names for ethylene glycol include
glycol; glycol alcohol; ethylene dehydrate, and 1,2-ethanediol (13).
More than 65% of the ethylene oxide produced in the industry is used in the
production of ethylene glycol and the remaining pure ethylene oxide is used as a sterilant
for food, cosmetics, surgical equipment, and plastic devices that cannot be sterilized by
steam. The major producers of ethylene oxide and ethylene glycol in North America are
DOW Chemical (1,313,000 ton EG/year & 1,502,000 ton EO/year), Shell Chemicals
(721,000 ton EG/year & 987,000 ton EO/year) and Huntsman (280,000 ton EG/year &
507,000 ton EG/year) (20).
More than 65% of the ethylene oxide produced in the industry is used in the
production of ethylene glycol and the remaining pure ethylene oxide is used as a sterilant

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for food, cosmetics, surgical equipment, and plastic devices that cannot be sterilized by
steam. The major producers of ethylene oxide and ethylene glycol in North America are
DOW Chemical (1,313,000 ton EG/year & 1,502,000 ton EO/year), Shell Chemicals
(721,000 ton EG/year & 987,000 ton EO/year) and Huntsman (280,000 ton EG/year &
507,000 ton EG/year) (20).
The demand for ethylene glycol is increasing with the increase of the demand of
its end use segments, like antifreeze additive, polyester fiber, PET bottles and film. As
there has been no significant net addition of new capacity in the industry since 2001,
there is a measurable shortfall in ethylene glycol supply. Overall, ethylene glycol is
expected to increase by 6%-7% per year through 2010 (20).
A small amount of diethylene glycol is made as a byproduct during the production of
ethylene glycol as a byproduct. The diethylene glycol production usually exceeds
demand; therefore, the price is generally low. It is used as an ingredient in unsaturated
polyester resins and in polyurethane manufacturing. To minimize production of
diethylene glycol, we have chosen to use a highly selective catalyst to convert the
majority of ethylene oxide to monoethylene glycol.

1.2. Proposed Plant


The proposed ethylene oxide plant is coupled with the production of ethylene
glycol to maximize profits, minimize inherently dangerous inventories and increase
safety in handling and transporting products. More than 98% of the ethylene oxide in the
plant is converted to ethylene glycol and the remainder is converted to di-ethylene and
tri-ethylene glycols. The plant is not producing pure ethylene oxide for sales and is not
storing any ethylene oxide on-site because ethylene oxide is a very hazardous material to
handle. The ethylene oxide vapor is very flammable and explosive; its flammability limit
in air ranges from 3-100%. It requires pressurized storage tanks padded with nitrogen,
low temperature, and to be kept away from all ignition sources or oxidizing agents. To
eliminate the hazards, a dilute stream of ethylene oxide in water is fed to the hydrolysis

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unit to make a safer product form ethylene glycol. In addition, the value of producing
only ethylene glycol is higher than converting a portion of the production to ethylene
glycol (18).

1.3. Ethylene Oxide Production


Ethylene oxide was first prepared in 1859 by Charles Wutz using a potassium
hydroxide solution to eliminate the hydrochloric acid from ethylene chlorohydrin. In
1914 the ethylene chlorohydrin process was the first technology to produce ethylene
oxide commercially. The process involves the reaction of ethylene with hypochlorous
acid followed by dehydrochlorination of the resulting chlorohydrin with lime to produce
ethylene oxide and calcium chloride. Although the selectivity of this process was
approximately 80%, the process itself was very inefficient and caused pollution problem
by generating large quantity of unwanted chlorinated hydrocarbon byproducts (11).
Chlorohydrin can be converted directly to ethylene glycol by hydrolysis with a base,
generally caustic or caustic/ bicarbonate mix. This process is unattractive because it
requires a difficult salt separation to purify the glycol (8). Union Carbide Corp. was the
first to commercialize this process in the United States in 1925. In 1931, Theodore Lefort
discovered a way to prepare ethylene oxide directly from ethylene and oxygen with a
silver catalyst, the direct oxidation processes. This process was more economically
competitive and soon replaced the ethylene chlorohydrin process (13).
The direct oxidation technology is the dominant process to produce ethylene
oxide commercially today. It utilizes the catalytic oxidation of ethylene with pure oxygen
over a silver based catalyst to yield ethylene oxide. The direct oxidation technology is
available from Dow Chemical, Nippon Shokubai, Scientific Design, and Shell. The
proposed plant is using technology licensed by Shell, which minimizes the formation of
unwanted products and increases the selectivity of the ethylene oxide. The main
disadvantage of this process is that the per pass conversion is lower hence giving us more
to recycle (reword this). An older version of the direct oxidation process uses air instead

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of pure oxygen. Air is still used in some older ethylene oxide plants, but most air-based
plants have been converted to use oxygen due the advantages.
For all plant capacities, the oxygen-based reactor yields a higher selectivity and
requires less catalyst (11). The average selectivity ranges from 65-75% for the air-based
process compared to 85-90% for the oxygen-based process. Furthermore, the
concentration of oxygen and ethylene in the reactor feed can be higher in oxygen-based
plant, which improves the catalyst selectivity (11). Therefore, the overall yield of
ethylene oxide for the oxygen-based process is more than an air-based process. The
length of silver based catalyst life is an important parameter to consider due to its high
cost. For the oxygen based oxidation process, the catalyst has a longer life and less
catalyst is required per unit weight of feed. Typically the air-based oxidation requires 1.5
times the catalyst in oxygen oxidation process (12). The required amount of catalyst and
length of catalyst life makes the oxygen-based process a more economically viable
choice.
The oxygen-based process may have a higher operating cost, but the initial capital
costs are much lower compared to an air-based plant. The air-based process requires more
catalyst, more reactors, air purification units, and a purge reactor system (12). This
process introduces a large amount of inert gas into the recycle stream, which must be
vented to maintain constant nitrogen concentration in the system. Consequently, the airbased process requires much higher initial construction cost for compression, piping, and
waste gas handling system than the oxygen-based plant. Alternatively, the pure oxygenbased process reduces the quantities of inert gases introduced into the cycle. As a result,
the majority of the unconverted ethylene is recovered from the system. Due to these
reasons, the oxygen-based process is a more attractive choice.

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1.4. Ethylene Glycol


Ethylene glycol has been produced commercially by hydrolyzing ethylene
carbonate, which is the product of reacting ethylene oxide with carbon dioxide. Each
reaction requires different operating conditions causing a need for more than one reactor,
which leads to higher capital and operating costs. Another method of producing ethylene
glycol is by direct oxidation of ethylene to ethylene glycol which is done with acetic acid
as the catalyst. The yield of ethylene glycol is greater than 90% which is higher than
hydrolysis of ethylene carbonate. However, the acid catalyst has a higher separation and
purification cost, and causes corrosion problems. Thus this method has been abandoned
(9).
Today the most common commercial source of producing ethylene glycol is by
direct oxidation of ethylene to ethylene oxide followed by hydrolysis of the ethylene
oxide to ethylene glycol. Widespread industrial production of ethylene glycol via this
method began in 1937, when cheap ethylene oxide became available (13). The ethylene
oxide is thermally hydrolyzed to ethylene glycol with either an acid or base catalysis or
uncatalyzed in a neutral medium (9).

If no catalyst is used with the reaction, a

considerable amount of excess water must be used to inhibit the side reactions and
prevent producing higher weight glycols. This increases the selectivity of ethylene glycol
but a large amount of water must be removed in order to recover pure ethylene glycol.
The excess water from the hydrolysis is removed in an evaporator and the ethylene glycol
is refined by vacuum distillation. Such separation of large amounts of water from the
product involves large expenditure and is economically unattractive (19).
Many catalysts have been proposed and researched to optimize selectivity, lower
the reaction temperature and reduced the amount of excess water required. The proposed
ethylene glycol plant is using the technology licensed by Shell. (reference missing) This
technology utilizes an anion ion-exchange catalyst, using a hydroxyl group as the anion,
to maximize profits by providing higher selectivity, minimizing production of higher
glycols, and reducing operating temperature and amount of excess water needed. This

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process allows roughly 97% conversion of ethylene oxide to ethylene glycol. Also, the
ion-exchange catalyst is relatively harmless and non-corrosive. The catalyst resin is solid
and requires no separation equipment other than a catalyst bed screen. Due to these
reasons, the anion ion-exchange catalyst based process is a more economically viable
choice.

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2. Design Basis
2.1

Project Scope Summary


2.1.1. Products
O Ethylene Glycol (MEG)
O DiEthylene Glycol
O TriEthylene Glycol

2.1.2. Technology
O Shell Technology Catalyst for oxidizing ethylene
O Ion Exchange Catalyst for Ethylene Glycol Reactor

2.1.3. Location
O Port Arthur, Texas
O Self sufficient unit including utilities adjacent to BASF/ATOFINA

2.1.4. Plant Capacity


O 896 MM lb/yr

2.1.5. Raw Materials


O Ethylene
O Oxygen
O Silver Based Catalyst (CRI catalysts)
O Potassium Carbonate
O Ion-exchange Catalyst
O Sodium hydroxide

2.1.6. Down Time


O One annual site-wide shutdown of up to 3 weeks for maintenance

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2.2.

Location of Plant

The proposed site of the ethylene oxide plant in conjunction with ethylene glycol
plant is Port Arthur, Texas. It is adjacent to the BASF/ATOFINA steam cracker which
produces 1.72 million lbs of ethylene per year (2). Ethylene will be directly transported
by existing underground pipeline systems under high pressures from BASF/ATOFINA to
the ethylene oxide process. Since the major expense for manufacture of ethylene oxide is
the acquisition of ethylene, tapping into an existing pipeline and transferring ethylene
approximately 5 miles from BASFT/ATOFINA will significantly reduce the cost of
transportation and expedite delivery time. See Figure 1-1 and Figure 1-2 for plant
location. Also, the contract between BASF/ATOFINA and GLYDE Company will include
a guaranteed continual supply of ethylene to eliminate the need for ethylene storage and
we plan to synchronize the shut down schedule of our ethylene oxide plant with the steam
cracker to avoid any unnecessary downtime.

Figure 1-1: Port Arthur, TX

Figure 1-2: GLYDE & BASF location in Port Arthur, TX

The proposed plant will be a grass-roots site, and will be a self sufficient unit
including all utilities and a waste water treatment plant. Since the average annual
production is 880 million lbs per year, the most economical transportation route can be
accomplished by either ground, marine, or railway transportation. Port Arthur is located
approximately 15 miles southeast of Beaumont and Interstate-10, a major road that

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connects other large transportation routes such as I-110 and I-95. Also, it is located 95
miles east of Houston, 280 miles from San Antonio, 25 miles from the Louisiana border
and 260 miles from New Orleans. Port Arthur is near major ports and major highways
entrances, which allows us to cheaply transport both raw materials and final products. In
addition, Port Arthur offers proximity and growth opportunity in the ethylene glycol
market.
Port Arthurs winter temperatures average in the mid 60s, while summers are
warm with monthly averages in the low 80s. The highest temperature is 105F and the
lowest is 30F(check). The typical wind speed in Port Arthur arranges between 7.1 knots
and 11.6 knots in the direction of south or southeast. These warm temperatures reduce the
need to insulate pipes or reactors to prevent massive heat loss. However, we still need to
consider some insulation for the heat loss due to wind. We also need to consider the
relative humidity to determine the highest temperature for cooling water, where the
average relative humidity ranges from 75 % to 80.5%.

2.3.

Size of Plant

The proposed plant is designed to produce approximately 880 million lbs per year
of ethylene glycol at 99.8% purity and 2.2 million lbs per year of diethylene glycol at
99.6% purity based on 8100 hours of operation per year. Approximately 484 million lbs
per year of ethylene at 98% purity and 370 million lbs per year of oxygen at 99% purity
are required to produce the expected quantity of products. The design operating rate is
108,000 lbs per hour, which is 10% higher than the hourly average annual rate to
compensate any unexpected downtime or maintenance. The anticipated downtimes
include one annual site-wide shutdown of up to 3 weeks for maintenance and an extra
shutdown every 3 years for ethylene oxide and ethylene glycol catalyst recharging.
Today approximately 15.6 million tons of ethylene glycol is produced worldwide per year
and 20% of this market is produced in United States. Worldwide Ethylene OxideEthylene Glycol (EO-EG) market has tightened significantly. World wide demand growth
has outpaced capacity increments. Prices are the highest level in 15 years. World wide the
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10

demand for EG is expected to increase by 6.5%-7% or approximately 1 million m.t., far


exceeding capacity additions. EG demand is expected to increase by 6%-7% through
2110.(20) GLYDE will be capturing 13% of the US market and 2.5% of the world
market.

2.4.

Product Quality Specifications

More than 50% of the total ethylene glycol produced goes into manufacturing
polyester, mostly PET (polyethylene terephthalate), and the majority of the rest is used in
antifreeze solutions for automotive applications (20). PET applications include fibers,
resins, and films. PET grade monoethylene glycol requires at least 99.8% purity, no more
than 0.10 wt% of diethylene glycol and less than 0.10 wt% of water content. The
industrial grade ethylene glycol is more suitable for manufacturing of antifreeze, which
requires a lower purity of 98.0%, no more than 0.50 wt% of diethylene glycol and less
than 0.50 wt% of water. Diethylene glycol requires approximately 99.6% of purity and
less than 0.20 wt% of water. See Table 2-3 for the summary of product quality
specifications.
Table 2-3: Product Quality Specifications(12)
MonoEthylene Glycol
Polyester
Property
Antifreeze Grade
Fiber Grade
Purity, %
>99.8
>98.00
Diethylene Glycol Content, wt % <0.10
<0.50
Boiling Range (101.3 kPa), C
196-199
195-200
Density (20 C), g/cm3
1.1135-1.1140
1.113-1.115
Refractive Index
1.4315-1.4320
1.431-1.433
Water Content, wt%
<0.100
<0.50

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Diethylene Glycol
99.6
242-247
1.1160-1.1175
1.4460-1.4475
<0.20

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2.5.

11

Products Handled, Stored, and Shipped

Ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol are transported in railway tank car, having
a total capacity of 10600 gl (chk this). The interior surfaces are finished with a protective
material that will not deteriorate the products quality. Also, the consumer can supply its
own road tank cars for transportation. Ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol are stored in
enclosed storage tanks made of acid-resistant or stainless steels and under a protective
nitrogen blanketing. When the temperature is less that 25-30 C, it is permissible to store
both products without nitrogen blanketing. In addition, these must not be stored with
oxidizing agent.

2.6.

Raw Materials

The following raw materials are required for the production of ethylene oxide,
ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol.
o Ethylene:

98% Purity (2% ethane & methane)

Receive in gas form by existing high-pressure (370 psia) underground pipeline

No on-site storage

o Oxygen:

99% Purity (1% nitrogen, argon)

Receive in gas form by pipeline from a satellite plant owned/operated by air plant
vendor such as Praxair

No on-site storage

o Silver-Based Catalyst:

Supplier: CRI

Cannot be regenerated

Ship spent catalyst to outside contractor to recover silver

Receive in bulk via road tanker

No on-site storage

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12

o DOWTherm (Heat Transfer Oil)

Supplier: DOW Chemical in Houston, TX

Receive in bulk via road tanker

Store in a dedicated isolated storage building

o Potassium Carbonate (CO2 scrubber):

Concentration: 15 mol% in water

Supplier: Cost Chemicals, Inc. (Coast Southwest) in Dallas, TX

Receive in bulk via road tanker

Store in a storage building

o Anion Ion-exchange Catalyst (OH- form)

Supplier: Sybron Chemicals Inc.

Start up requires washing the resin with CO 2 saturated water and CO2 gas and
washing with water.

Can be regenerated on-site every 3 years or so

Receive in bulk via road tanker

No on-site storage

o NaOH

Supplier: The Boyer Corporation

Shipping form: solid either beads or flakes

Depending on the amount needed shipped in bulk via road tanker.

2.7.

Major Process Descriptions & Assumptions

The following assumptions and process decisions are made based on literature
data and current industry practices.
o Overall heat transfer coefficient of 150 btu/hr sqft oF for liquid to liquid transfer or in
the presence of a boiling or condensing fluid, and 75 btu/hr sqft oF elsewhere.
o Pressure drop of 6 psi for positive pressure heat exchangers, 3 psi or less for vacuum
heat exchangers, and 15 psi for packed bed reactors.

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13

o Cooling Water Temperature comes into the process at 86 oF and leaves at 120 oF.
o The efficiency of the CO2 absorber is set to 85% CO2 removal by adjusting the liquid
flow rate.
o The oxygen that is used must be extremely pure (>99%) to maintain high selectivity
in ethylene oxide reactor. Oxygen is added in a special mixing device that ensures
rapid homogenization with the recycle gas. This is necessary because the explosive
limit is locally exceeded at the mixing point (12).
o The ethylene conversion is approximately 12.5%, and its catalyst selectivitys are
90% ethylene oxide, 9.9% carbon dioxide and 0.1% others.
o The typical lifetime of the silver-based catalyst is two to five years, depending on the
type of catalyst, the rate of ethylene oxide production, and the purity of the reaction
gases (11). Since the production rate of ethylene oxide is approximately 880 million
lbs per year using high-selectivity catalysts and pure oxygen, we expect the lifetime
of the catalyst to be approximately 3 years.
o A large amount of heat is released by the oxidation of ethylene since this reaction is
highly exothermic. Consequently, the energy recovery and its integration are prime
concerns in a process design. We decided to use an oil-cooled reactor, which removes
the heat of reaction by circulating hot oil such as DOWTherm on the shell side. Then,
the hot oil is cooled in a steam generator, producing considerable amounts of high
pressure steam for the ethylene glycol production and other processes at the plant site.
DOWTherm has properties at different temperature ranges as shown on Table 2-6.

Temperature
F
50
150
250
350
450
550
650

Table 2-6: DOWTHERM Properties(23)


Specific Heat Density Thermal Conductivity Viscosity
Btu/ lb F
lb/ft3
Btu/hr ft2
cP
0.380
64.76
0.0766
88.17
0.420
62.33
0.0725
6.10
0.459
59.88
0.0683
1.94
0.499
57.38
0.0642
0.99
0.538
54.82
0.060
0.62
0.578
52.18
0.0558
0.43
0.617
49.41
0.0517
0.32

Vapor Pressure
Psia

0.09
0.71
3.49
12.20

o We decided to use a packed-bed multi-tubular reactor instead of a fluidized bed


reactor or quench bed reactor even though oxidation of ethylene is highly exothermic.
Drexel University, CHE 483

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14

Also, no such reactors are used currently on a commercial basis since there is no
benefit in maximizing the selectivity and led to problems such as abrasion and
sintering (11). The standard practice in the industry is to employ packed-bed multitubular reactors.
o We decided to build one ethylene oxide reactor instead of two small reactors in
parallel. This will significantly reduce the construction and maintenance costs. Also,
we plan to leave enough space in the plant for a possible expansion to the site in the
future.
o The temperature or the pressure of ethylene oxide reactor must not exceed 570 F or
290 psia in order to sustain catalyst activity (11).
o At the present time, there is no known method to regenerate silver-based catalyst.
Therefore, we will be shipping spent catalysts to an outside source to recover silver.
o The ethylene oxide conversion is 98% and its catalyst selectivities are 98%
monoethylene glycol and 2% diethylene and tri ethylene glycol.
o

The ethylene glycol reactor will be a packed bed gas phase reactor with a residence
time of approximately 20-30 seconds. The residence time is an assumption based on
lab data for the ion-exchange catalyst (19).

o At this time the ion-exchange catalyst has not been used on a large scale, however lab
tests have shown that it doesnt significantly deteriorate over time. The catalyst will
need to be regenerated every three to four years. The regeneration can be done simply
and cheaply by either current or co-current washing with sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
and then rewashing with carbon dioxide (CO2), or washing with saturated water and
then rewashing with CO2 gas.
o The ethylene glycol catalyst restricts the reactor temperature to not exceed 320 oF
with a maximum pressure loss of 3 bar.
o By-Products

Carbon dioxide: The CO2 rich waste generated from the ethylene oxide reactor
(R-101) will be sent to a flare.

Purge stream from EO stripper (T-201): The purge stream containing mostly
ethylene, CO2, and impurities such as argon and ethane/methane will be sent to a
flare.

Drexel University, CHE 483

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2.8.
o

15

Ancillaries Design

The plant plot is a rectangular shape and has easy access to roads, railroads, and

water. The prevailing winds blow in the south, south-east direction.


o

The control room and lab are located at the west side of the plant. This will form

the process area. The main offices and parking lot are adjacent to the lab and give
employees easy access to the main roads.
o

The oxygen plant, oxygen mixing station and the ethylene prep station are located

at the south-east end of the plant. The location of these components takes into account the
wind direction and is far away from the control room to minimize human casualty in the
event of an explosion.
o

The loading station is located on the southern end of the plant and enables easy

loading and unloading of materials due to its proximity to the railroad tracks.
o

The maintenance building and warehouse are located in the north-western end of

the plant above the main office area.


o

Our production equipment is located in the main process plant which starts from

the northeastern boundary and extends into the south eastern side ending before the
oxygen plant area. All our equipment is laid out on concrete slabs.
o

The main flare for our plant is located on the south-western end of the facility

across the railroad tracks. The flare has a circular boundary around it at a radius of 75 ft.,
which is considered no-mans land.
o

The wastewater plant and utilities building are located adjacent to the flare on the

south eastern tip of the facility.


o

The railroad tracks located in the south end of the facility will be laid out by us

and will connect to major railroad systems.

Drexel University, CHE 483

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3.

16

Process Description
3.1. Oxygen Mixing Station
An outside contractor such as Praxair will be responsible for running the oxygen

generating plant on site to separate the oxygen from air and allowing high purity oxygen
to be produced. The oxygen that is used must be extremely pure (>99%) and is obtained
by air separation. This pure oxygen is added in a special mixing device that ensures rapid
homogenization with the compressed recycle gas from the EO stripper (T-201) and
carbon dioxide absorber (T-301) details of which are proprietary. This is necessary
because the explosive limit is locally exceeded at the mixing point (11).

3.2. Ethylene Feed Prep


Ethylene is continuously fed to our process through underground piping from
BASF/ATOFINA at 86 F and 353 psig. To achieve operating condition, ethylene is
processed through a turbine to recover power (175 KW) while reducing the pressure to
220 psig.Then, the mixture of ethylene recycle gas and oxygen is fed through a pre-heat
exchanger (E-101) to reach the temperature of 302 oF.

3.3. EO Reactor
Ethylene and oxygen are fed in roughly stoichiometric proportions in the gas
phase to the EO reactor (R-101), where ethylene is oxidized with oxygen over a silverbased catalyst to yield ethylene oxide. This packed-bed multi-tubular reactor consists of
large bundles of several thousand tubes that are 20ft long and have an internal diameter of
1 inch. The silver-based catalyst is packed in the tubes in the form of spheres with a
diameter of 0.27 inches (11). This system allows ethylene oxide selectivity of
approximately 90% and the ethylene conversion of 12.5% (11). The reaction has a
residence time of 0.2s.. In addition, the EO reactor is integrated with an oil system that
circulates through both the reactor and reactor trim cooler (E-102) to remove the heat of
reaction since the oxidation of ethylene is highly exothermic. Then, the hot oil is used to
Drexel University, CHE 483

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17

provide heat elsewhere in process. Also, the pressure of the EO reactor is controlled by
the flow rate of the purge stream after the EO absorber (T-201).
Ethylene is reacted at 230 F and 118 psig to produce ethylene oxide, carbon
dioxide, water, and heat as well as small amounts of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde. The
main reaction, formation of ethylene oxide from ethylene, is as follow:
O
H2C

CH2

H2C

CH2

1/2

H2C

CH2

O
H2C

CH2

O
H2C

HO
H

CH2

HO
C
H2

C
H2

H2
C

H2
C
OH

OH

HO

OH
O

OH

CH3

Molecular oxygen is adsorbed to the silver surface of catalyst and reacts with ethylene to
form ethylene oxide. With only 12.5% of ethylene conversion per pass, majority of
unreacted ethylene and oxygen will be recycled back into the feed.
The byproducts, carbon dioxide and water, are either formed by complete combustion of
ethylene:
O
H2C

CH2

H2C

CH2

1/2

H2C

CH2

O
H2C

CH2

O
H2C

HO
H

CH2

HO
C
H2

C
H2

H2
C

H2
C
OH

OH

HO

OH
O

OH

CH3

or by further oxidation of ethylene oxide:


O
H2C

CH2

H2C

CH2

1/2

H2C

CH2

O
H2C

CH2

O
H2C

HO
H

CH2

HO
C
H2

C
H2

H2
C

H2
C
OH

HO

OH

OH
O

OH
H

CH3

To prevent further oxidation of ethylene oxide, ethylene dichloride is added to the inlet of
the reactor to inhibit the oxidation of ethylene to carbon dioxide and improve selectivity.

3.4. EO Absorber
Ethylene oxide is recovered in the EO absorber (T-201) by scrubbing with water
at 176 oF. The absorber (T-201) has 12 theoretical stages. Ethylene oxide produced in the
reactor (R-101) and unreacted ethylene oxide recovered from EG dehydrator (T-501)
overhead goes through the shell side of EO absorber liquid cooler (E-201) to achieve the
operating temperature. Approximately 2800 gpm of makeup water mixed with the

Drexel University, CHE 483

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18

recovered process water from the bottom of the EO stripper (T-202) enter the absorber
from the top. Ethylene oxide is absorbed into the water along with some nitrogen and
carbon dioxide, and traces of ethylene, ethane, and aldehydes. The aqueous stream is
removed from the base of the absorber and sent to EO stripper (T-202). A small amount
of the vapor product from the absorber is purged to a flare to remove impurities and
prevent the buildup of inert compounds. Part of the stream is sent to carbon dioxide
absorber (T-301), and the remainder is sent directly back to the reactor system as a
recycle stream.

3.5. EO Stripper
The liquid product containing mostly water and ethylene oxide from EO absorber
(T-201) is heated to operating temperature of 325 oF in EO stripper pre-heater (E-204)
then sent to the flash drum (V-201) where the lights are flashed off and the remaining
liquid is sent to the EO stripper (T-202). The stripper (T-202) has 12 theoretical stages. In
the stripper partially purified ethylene oxide is separated overhead and mixed with the
vapor from the flash drum (V-201) after which it is sent to EG reactor for production of
ethylene glycol. As mentioned earlier, the water recovered as a bottom product and
cooled through a series of heat exchangers before it is recycled back to the EO absorber.

3.6. EG Reactor
The mixture of ethylene oxide and water from the EO stripper (T-202) has a ratio
of water to ethylene oxide of 4:1. This is fed into the EG reactor (R-401) at 118 psig and
194 oF. This packed-bed reactor contains the anion ion-exchange catalyst which are
spherical shaped polystyrene gels with bicarbonate as the anion. It is packed in the
reactor in the form of spheres with a diameter of .65 mm (19). The reactor has a residence
time of 4 seconds and an overall conversion of ethylene oxide to glycols of 98%, with
98% selectivity of monoethylene glycol while the other 2% is di-ethylene glycol.

Drexel University, CHE 483

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19

The reaction that takes place between the ethylene oxide and water is in the vapor
phase and is strongly exothermic. The main reaction, formation of ethylene glycol from
ethylene oxide, is as follow:
O
H2C

CH2

1/2

H2C

CH2

H2C

CH2

O
H2C

CH2

O
H2C

HO
H

CH2

HO
C
H2

C
H2

H2
C

H2
C
OH

HO

OH

OH
O

OH

CH3

This formation is a nucleophilic substitution reaction involving the opening of the


ethylene oxide ring by a nucleophile, in this case water (19). Because monoethylene
glycol also acts as a nucleophile, it reacts with the ethylene oxide in the same way as
water to form diethylene glycol as shown below:

To prevent a large formation of di- and triethylene glycols the anion in the catalyst
and ethylene oxide react to form an adduct. The formation of the adduct competes with
the reaction between monoethylene glycol and ethylene oxide reducing the formation of
higher glycols.

It is later hydrolyzed into ethylene glycol.

The selectivity to

monoethylene glycol is increased without having to supply excess water.

3.7. EG Dehydration
The mixture of water and ethylene glycol leaving the glycol reactor (R-401) is
sent through a flash drum (V-401) to remove the lights after which it is sent to the EG
dehydrator (T-501) for purification. The dehydrator operates at 192 oF and atmospheric
pressure. The liquid removed from the top of the dehydrator partial condenser (E-501) is
recycled back into the EO absorber (T-201) to provide absorbing water. The vapor from
the partial condenser is sent through a compressor (C-501) to recover any unreacted
ethylene and mixed with the EO reactor (R-101) effluent fed to the EO absorber. The
H2O concentration at the bottom is 410 ppm.The bottom stream from the EG dehydrator
is sent on through a series of distillation columns where the glycols are further separated
from each other.
Drexel University, CHE 483

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20

3.8. EG Purification
The column operates under vacuum at a pressure of 1.5psia or less to lower the
boiling point at the base of the column. The MEG purification column (T-502) is
designed to remove monoethylene glycol overhead. Diethylene glycol is removed in the
side stream. A mixture of Diethylene glycol and Triethylene glycol is removed from the
bottoms. This column has 20 theoretical stages. The monoethylene glycol removed from
the top of the column and the Diethylene glycol removed from the side is 99.9% pure
ethylene glycol and is pumped down stream to the storage tanks. The bottoms stream
containing mainly diethylene glycol and triethylene glycol is mixed with the distillate to
eliminate off-spec material that could not be otherwise sold while maintaining the purity
of the final MEG product.

3.9. CO2 Absorber


The effluent gas from the EO absorber (T-201) mostly consists of CO2, ethylene,
and impurities such as ethane and methane. A portion of the gas is sent to the CO 2
absorber column (T-301), operating at 176 psig. This column has 12 theoretical stages.
The carbonate solution consist of 11 wt.% potassium carbonate and 13 wt.% potassium
bicarbonate is pumped to the top of the column to absorb CO 2 from the gas and leaves at
the bottom of the absorber. The vapor product from the top of the CO2 absorber is mixed
back into the recycle stream which is fed into the EO reactor.

3.10. CO2 Stripper


The CO2 rich carbonate solution is sent through the CO2 stripper economizer (E301) where it is heated upto 214 oF and then pumped into the top of CO2 stripper (T-302)
column, where the solution is heated to 221 F at 2 psig in order to separate the carbonate
solution from the CO2. The CO2 Stripper column has 8 theoretical stages. The solution is
collected at the bottom is cooled down in the stripper economizer and recycled back into
the CO2 absorber (T-301) while the CO2 rich gas leaves the top of the stripper column to a
flare.
Drexel University, CHE 483

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EG Production

4.

21

Process Flow Diagrams


LEGEND
Plant Lettering

Plant Areas

Drawing Nos

P-000

Pump

100

EO Reaction Section

100-A

Feed Prep

T-000

Column

200

EO Removal Section

100-B

EO Reaction

300

CO2 Removal Section

200-A

EO Absorber

400

EG Reaction Section

500

EG Purification Section

V-000

Vessel

C-000

Compressor

E-000

Heat Exchanger

X-000

Special

Ancillaries
Main Process Flow

EO Stripper

300-A

CO2 Absorber

300-B

CO2 Stripper

400

EG Reaction

500-A

EG Dehydrator

500-B

MEG Purification

500-C

MEG Recovery

500-D

DEG Purification

600

Oil System

Temperature (F)

Process Flow
Control Line

200-B

Pressure (psig)
TIC
500

Temperature
Indicating Controller

Utility

PC
500

Pressure Controller

Stream Number

PI
500

Pressure Indicator

Flow Rate (lb/hr)

FC
500

Flow Controller

Drexel University, CHE 483

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22

Insert PFDs

Drexel University, CHE 483

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EG Production

5.

33

Material & Energy Balance


MASS & ENERGY BALANCE SHEET
Date:
4/9/2006

Project Title: EO/EG Plant


Stream
Description

101

102

103

Compiled by: NPM


Checked by: CHM
106

104

105

Ethylene Recycle From


Ethylene Feed to E-101

602,615
191
221
590,077
0
590,077
1.00
lb/hr
wt%
133
0.0002
21,541
0.0357
77,142
0.1280
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
73
0.0001
841
0.0014
442,848 0.7349
31
0.0001
8,032
0.0133
293
0.0005
248
0.0004
51,436
0.0854
0
0.0000

Ethylene Pipeline Feed

Ethylene Process Feed

Air Feed to O2 Plant

O2 Process Feed

Ethylene Recycle From


OMS to Ethylene Feed

55,309
86
353
30,928
0
30,928
1.00
lb/hr
wt%
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
11
0.0002
55,293
0.9997
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
4
0.0001
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000

55,309
53
221
45,419
0
45,419
1.00
lb/hr
wt%
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
11
0.0002
55,293
0.9997
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
4
0.0001
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000

195,134
86
0
2,651,198
0
2,651,198
1.00
lb/hr
wt%
0
0.0000
350
0.0018
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
149,417 0.7657
45,368
0.2325
0
0.0000

45,722
86
221
34,969
0
34,969
1.00
lb/hr
wt%
0
0.0000
350
0.0076
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
4
0.0001
45,368
0.9923
0
0.0000

547,307
206
221
544,560
0
544,560
1.00
lb/hr
wt%
133
0.0002
21,541
0.0394
77,142
0.1409
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
73
0.0001
829
0.0015
387,553 0.7081
31
0.0001
8,032
0.0147
289
0.0005
248
0.0005
51,436
0.0940
0
0.0000

Stream Properties
Mass Flow Rate (lb/hr)

Temperature (oF)
Pressure (psig)
Flow Rate (cfm)
Liquid Flow (gpm)
Vapor Flow (cfm)
Vapor Fraction
Component Flows
ACETALD
ARGON
CARBON DIOXIDE

DEG
EG
EO
ETHANE
ETHYLENE
FORM
WATER
METHANE
NITROGEN
OXYGEN
TEG

Drexel University, CHE 483

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EG Production

34

MASS & ENERGY BALANCE SHEET


Date:
4/9/2006

Project Title: EO/EG Plant


Stream
Description

107
EO Reactor Pre-Heater to
EO Reactor

108

109

EO Reacgtor to EO Trim EO Trim Cooler to EO PreCooler


Heater

Compiled by: NPM


Checked by: CHM
201

110

111

EO Trim Cooler to EO
Absorption Section

Ethylene Recycle from


Recycle Compressor

EO Rich Ethylene and


Lights from C-501 to EO
Asorber Gas Cooler

601,490
289
184
768,233
0
768,233
1.00
lb/hr
wt%
222
0.0004
20,394
0.0339
92,643
0.1540
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
78,314
0.1302
771
0.0013
388,092 0.6452
44
0.0001
14,343
0.0238
262
0.0004
238
0.0004
6,167
0.0103
0
0.0000

501,586
212
221
506,666
0
506,666
1.00
lb/hr
wt%
133
0.0003
21,191
0.0422
77,142
0.1538
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
73
0.0001
829
0.0017
387,553 0.7727
31
0.0001
8,032
0.0160
289
0.0006
244
0.0005
6,068
0.0121
0
0.0000

633,146
294
184
821,099
0
821,099
1.00
lb/hr
wt%
1,245
0.0020
20,867
0.0330
101,086 0.1597
0
0.0000
630
0.0010
80,845
0.1277
781
0.0012
394,201 0.6226
277
0.0004
26,245
0.0415
264
0.0004
245
0.0004
6,461
0.0102
0
0.0000

Stream Properties
602,615
302
213
713,106
0
713,106
1.00
lb/hr
wt%
133
0.0002
ACETALD
21,541
0.0357
ARGON
0.1280
CARBON DIOXIDE 77,142
0
0.0000
DEG
0
0.0000
EG
73
0.0001
EO
841
0.0014
ETHANE
442,848 0.7349
ETHYLENE
31
0.0001
FORM
8,032
0.0133
WATER
293
0.0005
METHANE
248
0.0004
NITROGEN
51,436
0.0854
OXYGEN
0
0.0000
TEG

Mass Flow Rate (lb/hr)

Temperature (oF)
Pressure (psig)
Flow Rate (cfm)
Liquid Flow (gpm)
Vapor Flow (cfm)
Vapor Fraction
Component Flows

Drexel University, CHE 483

601,490
482
198
899,263
0
899,552
1.00
lb/hr
wt%
222
0.0004
20,394
0.0339
92,643
0.1540
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
78,314
0.1302
771
0.0013
388,092 0.6452
44
0.0001
14,343
0.0238
262
0.0004
238
0.0004
6,167
0.0103
0
0.0000

601,490
392
191
842,634
0
842,634
1.00
lb/hr
wt%
222
0.0004
20,394
0.0339
92,643
0.1540
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
78,314
0.1302
771
0.0013
388,092 0.6452
44
0.0001
14,343
0.0238
262
0.0004
238
0.0004
6,167
0.0103
0
0.0000

Completed By:

Reviewed By:

EG Production

35

MASS & ENERGY BALANCE SHEET


Date:
4/9/2006

Project Title: EO/EG Plant


Stream
Description

Compiled by: NPM


Checked by: CHM
207

202

203

204

205

206

EO Absorber Gas Cooler


to EO Absorber

Liquid from EO Absorber


to Liquid Cooler

Absorber Liquid Cooler to


Absorber Gas Cooler

Absorber Gas Cooler to


Stripper Pre-Heater

Pre-Heater to Flash Vessel

Liquid from Flash to


Stripper Feed Pump

Stream Properties
633,146
253
176
806,493
0
806,493
1.00
lb/hr
wt%
1,245
0.0020
ACETALD
20,867
0.0330
ARGON
0.1597
CARBON DIOXIDE 101,086
0
0.0000
DEG
630
0.0010
EG
80,845
0.1277
EO
781
0.0012
ETHANE
394,201 0.6226
ETHYLENE
277
0.0004
FORM
26,245
0.0415
WATER
264
0.0004
METHANE
245
0.0004
NITROGEN
6,461
0.0102
OXYGEN
0
0.0000
TEG

Mass Flow Rate (lb/hr)

Temperature (oF)
Pressure (psig)
Flow Rate (cfm)
Liquid Flow (gpm)
Vapor Flow (cfm)
Vapor Fraction
Component Flows

Drexel University, CHE 483

1,224,356
220
176
32,520
158,007
11,398
0.01
lb/hr
wt%
1,352
0.0011
480
0.0004
8,425
0.0069
4
0.0000
23,345
0.0191
81,324
0.0664
10
0.0000
6,110
0.0050
298
0.0002
1,102,719 0.9007
2
0.0000
7
0.0000
281
0.0002
0
0.0000

1,224,356
248
169
41,187
160,122
19,781
0.01
lb/hr
wt%
1,352
0.0011
480
0.0004
8,425
0.0069
4
0.0000
23,345
0.0191
81,324
0.0664
10
0.0000
6,110
0.0050
298
0.0002
1,102,719 0.9007
2
0.0000
7
0.0000
281
0.0002
0
0.0000

1,224,356
255
162
45,311
160,584
23,844
0.01
lb/hr
wt%
1,352
0.0011
480
0.0004
8,425
0.0069
4
0.0000
23,345
0.0191
81,324
0.0664
10
0.0000
6,110
0.0050
298
0.0002
1,102,719 0.9007
2
0.0000
7
0.0000
281
0.0002
0
0.0000

Completed By:

1,224,356
325
162
127,647
162,339
105,946
0.04
lb/hr
wt%
1,352
0.0011
480
0.0004
8,425
0.0069
4
0.0000
23,345
0.0191
81,324
0.0664
10
0.0000
6,110
0.0050
298
0.0002
1,102,719 0.9007
2
0.0000
7
0.0000
281
0.0002
0
0.0000

1,141,006
318
132
21,212
158,673
0
0.00
lb/hr
wt%
909
0.0008
28
0.0000
67
0.0001
5
0.0000
23,278
0.0204
44,692
0.0392
0
0.0000
223
0.0002
217
0.0002
1,071,561 0.9391
0
0.0000
1
0.0000
25
0.0000
0
0.0000

Reviewed By:

EG Production

36

MASS & ENERGY BALANCE SHEET


Date:
4/9/2006

Project Title: EO/EG Plant


Stream
Description

208

211

212

Feed Pump to EO Stripper

EO Stripper Distillate

Vapr From EO Flash

147,888
344
132
387,170
0
387,170
1.00
lb/hr
wt%
909
0.0061
28
0.0002
67
0.0005
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
44,692
0.3022
0
0.0000
223
0.0015
217
0.0015
101,726 0.6879
0
0.0000
1
0.0000
25
0.0002
0
0.0000

83,675
318
132
168,271
0
168,271
1.00
lb/hr
wt%
535
0.0064
426
0.0051
8,368
0.1000
0
0.0000
30
0.0004
36,649
0.4380
9
0.0001
5,888
0.0704
102
0.0012
31,399
0.3753
2
0.0000
6
0.0001
262
0.0031
0
0.0000

215

216

Compiled by: NPM


Checked by: TAS
217

Bottoms from EO Stripper Recycle Pump to Stripper


Pre-Heater to Liquid Cooler
to Recycle Pump
Pre-Heater

Stream Properties
1,141,006
318
133
21,212
158,673
0
0.00
lb/hr
wt%
909
0.0008
ACETALD
28
0.0000
ARGON
67
0.0001
CARBON DIOXIDE
5
0.0000
DEG
23,278
0.0204
EG
44,692
0.0392
EO
0
0.0000
ETHANE
223
0.0002
ETHYLENE
217
0.0002
FORM
1,071,561 0.9391
WATER
0
0.0000
METHANE
1
0.0000
NITROGEN
25
0.0000
OXYGEN
0
0.0000
TEG

Mass Flow Rate (lb/hr)

Temperature (oF)
Pressure (psig)
Flow Rate (cfm)
Liquid Flow (gpm)
Vapor Flow (cfm)
Vapor Fraction
Component Flows

Drexel University, CHE 483

992,984
358
134
18,913
141,479
0
0.00
lb/hr
wt%
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
4
0.0000
23,093
0.0233
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
969,887 0.9767
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000

Completed By:

992,984
359
201
18,917
141,505
0
0.00
lb/hr
wt%
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
4
0.0000
23,093
0.0233
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
969,887 0.9767
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000

992,984
260
201
17,566
131,404
0
0.00
lb/hr
wt%
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
4
0.0000
23,093
0.0233
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
969,887 0.9767
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000

Reviewed By:

EG Production

37

MASS & ENERGY BALANCE SHEET


Date:
4/9/2006

Project Title: EO/EG Plant


Stream
Description

Compiled by: NPM


Checked by: TAS
301

218

219

220

221

222

Liquid Cooler to Absorber


Trim Cooler

Trim Cooler to Water


Recycle

Liquid Feed to EO
Absorber

Absorber Make-up Water

Vapor Product from EO


Absorber

Purge Stream from EO


Absorber

23,310
86
172
372
2,781
0
0.00
lb/hr
wt%
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
23,310
1.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000

515,742
248
172
682,863
0
682,863
1.00
lb/hr
wt%
167
0.0003
21,219
0.0411
92,842
0.1800
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
81
0.0002
830
0.0016
388,087 0.7525
31
0.0001
5,876
0.0114
289
0.0006
244
0.0005
6,076
0.0118
0
0.0000

686
248
172
908
0
908
1.00

Stream Properties
992,984
226
194
17,164
128,397
0
0.00
lb/hr
wt%
0
0.0000
ACETALD
0
0.0000
ARGON
0
0.0000
CARBON DIOXIDE
4
0.0000
DEG
23,093
0.0233
EG
0
0.0000
EO
0
0.0000
ETHANE
0
0.0000
ETHYLENE
0
0.0000
FORM
969,887 0.9767
WATER
0
0.0000
METHANE
0
0.0000
NITROGEN
0
0.0000
OXYGEN
0
0.0000
TEG

Mass Flow Rate (lb/hr)

Temperature (oF)
Pressure (psig)
Flow Rate (cfm)
Liquid Flow (gpm)
Vapor Flow (cfm)
Vapor Fraction
Component Flows

Drexel University, CHE 483

992,616
176
172
16,627
124,381
0
0.00
lb/hr
wt%
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
4
0.0000
22,721
0.0229
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
969,890 0.9771
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000

1,106,173
175
172
18,533
138,635
0
0.00
lb/hr
wt%
379
0.0003
0
0.0000
5
0.0000
4
0.0000
22,721
0.0205
562
0.0005
0
0.0000
3
0.0000
84
0.0001
1,082,412 0.9785
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
1
0.0000
0
0.0000

Completed By:

lb/hr
0
28
123
0
0
0
1
516
0
8
0
0
8
0

Reviewed By:

wt%
0.0003
0.0411
0.1800
0.0000
0.0000
0.0002
0.0016
0.7525
0.0001
0.0114
0.0006
0.0005
0.0118
0.0000

EG Production

38

MASS & ENERGY BALANCE SHEET


Date:
4/9/2006

Project Title: EO/EG Plant


Stream
Description

302
Ethylene Recycle

303

304

Ethylene Recycle Feed to


CO2 Absorber Vapor Feed
Recycle Compressor

Compiled by: NPM


Checked by: TAS
307

305

306

CO2 Absorber Vapor


Product

CO2 Absorber Liquid


Product

Liquid to CO2 Strippe


Feed Pump

89,541
239
148
143,421
0
143,421
1.00
lb/hr
wt%
0
0.0000
4,238
0.0473
2,967
0.0331
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
8
0.0001
166
0.0019
77,498
0.8655
6
0.0001
3,338
0.0373
58
0.0006
49
0.0005
1,213
0.0135
0
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000

304,697
194
156
15,075
28,246
11,299
0.02
lb/hr
wt%
33
0.0001
0
0.0000
15,577
0.0511
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
8
0.0000
0
0.0000
16
0.0001
0
0.0000
219,175 0.7193
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
1
0.0000
0
0.0000
32,033
0.1051
37,855
0.1242

304,697
236
148
21,222
28,605
17,398
0.03
lb/hr
wt%
33
0.0001
0
0.0000
15,577
0.0511
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
8
0.0000
0
0.0000
16
0.0001
0
0.0000
219,175 0.7193
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
1
0.0000
0
0.0000
32,033
0.1051
37,855
0.1242

Stream Properties
515,056
248
172
681,955
0
681,955
1.00
lb/hr
wt%
167
0.0003
ACETALD
21,191
0.0411
ARGON
0.1800
CARBON DIOXIDE 92,718
0
0.0000
DEG
0
0.0000
EG
81
0.0002
EO
829
0.0016
ETHANE
387,570 0.7525
ETHYLENE
31
0.0001
FORM
5,868
0.0114
WATER
289
0.0006
METHANE
244
0.0005
NITROGEN
6,068
0.0118
OXYGEN
0
0.0000
TEG
0
0.0000
K2CO3
0
0.0000
KHCO3
Mass Flow Rate (lb/hr)

Temperature (oF)
Pressure (psig)
Flow Rate (cfm)
Liquid Flow (gpm)
Vapor Flow (cfm)
Vapor Fraction
Component Flows

Drexel University, CHE 483

412,044
248
172
545,564
0
545,564
1.00
lb/hr
wt%
133
0.0003
16,953
0.0411
74,175
0.1800
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
65
0.0002
664
0.0016
310,055 0.7525
25
0.0001
4,694
0.0114
231
0.0006
195
0.0005
4,855
0.0118
0
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000

103,011
248
172
136,391
0
136,391
1.00
lb/hr
wt%
33
0.0003
4,238
0.0411
18,544
0.1800
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
16
0.0002
166
0.0016
77,514
0.7525
6
0.0001
1,174
0.0114
58
0.0006
49
0.0005
1,214
0.0118
0
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000

Completed By:

Reviewed By:

EG Production

39

MASS & ENERGY BALANCE SHEET


Date:
4/9/2006

Project Title: EO/EG Plant


Stream
Description

Compiled by: NPM


Checked by: TAS
313

308

309

310

311

312

CO2 Stripper Feed

CO2 Stripper Distillate

CO2 Stripper Bottoms

Stripper Bottoms from


Recycle Pump

Liquid from Pre-Heater

CO2 Absorber Liquid Feed

25,035
221
15
214,378
0
214,378
1.00
lb/hr
wt%
36
0.0014
0
0.0000
15,594
0.6229
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
8
0.0003
0
0.0000
16
0.0006
0
0.0000
9,381
0.3747
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
1
0.0000
0
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000

279,702
252
16
3,699
27,673
0
0.00
lb/hr
wt%
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
209,814 0.7501
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
32,033
0.1145
37,855
0.1353

279,702
252
163
3,701
27,684
0
0.00
lb/hr
wt%
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
209,814 0.7501
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
32,033
0.1145
37,855
0.1353

279,702
199
156
3,575
26,743
0
0.00
lb/hr
wt%
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
209,814 0.7501
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
32,033
0.1145
37,855
0.1353

291,122
194
156
3,757
28,103
0
0.00
lb/hr
wt%
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
221,235 0.7599
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
32,033
0.1100
37,855
0.1300

Stream Properties
304,737
214
16
164,019
27,427
160,353
0.06
lb/hr
wt%
36
0.0001
ACETALD
0
0.0000
ARGON
0.0512
CARBON DIOXIDE 15,594
0
0.0000
DEG
0
0.0000
EG
8
0.0000
EO
0
0.0000
ETHANE
16
0.0001
ETHYLENE
0
0.0000
FORM
219,195 0.7193
WATER
0
0.0000
METHANE
0
0.0000
NITROGEN
1
0.0000
OXYGEN
0
0.0000
TEG
32,033
0.1051
K2CO3
37,855
0.1242
KHCO3
Mass Flow Rate (lb/hr)

Temperature (oF)
Pressure (psig)
Flow Rate (cfm)
Liquid Flow (gpm)
Vapor Flow (cfm)
Vapor Fraction
Component Flows

Drexel University, CHE 483

Completed By:

Reviewed By:

EG Production

40

MASS & ENERGY BALANCE SHEET


Date:
4/9/2006

Project Title: EO/EG Plant


Stream
Description

314

315

CO2 Make-up Water After


CO2 Make-up Water Feed
Pump

Compiled by: NPM


Checked by: SSM
404

401

402

403

EO Stripper Distillate to
EG Cooler

EG Cooler to EG Trim
Cooler

EG Reactor Feed

EG Reactor Product

231,563
337
132
555,422
25
555,419
0.00
lb/hr
wt%
1,444
0.0062
454
0.0020
8,435
0.0364
0
0.0000
30
0.0001
81,341
0.3513
9
0.0000
6,111
0.0264
319
0.0014
133,125 0.5749
2
0.0000
7
0.0000
287
0.0012
0
0.0000

231,563
327
125
448,812
5,609
448,062
0.00
lb/hr
wt%
1,444
0.0062
454
0.0020
8,435
0.0364
0
0.0000
30
0.0001
81,341
0.3513
9
0.0000
6,111
0.0264
319
0.0014
133,125 0.5749
2
0.0000
7
0.0000
287
0.0012
0
0.0000

231,542
194
118
66,312
24,251
63,070
0.00
lb/hr
wt%
1,402
0.0061
473
0.0020
8,448
0.0365
0
0.0000
30
0.0001
81,342
0.3513
10
0.0000
6,111
0.0264
317
0.0014
133,106 0.5749
2
0.0000
7
0.0000
295
0.0013
0
0.0000

231,542
194
110
26,501
25,917
23,037
0.00
lb/hr
wt%
1,402
0.0061
473
0.0020
8,448
0.0365
295
0.0013
109,921 0.4747
3,094
0.0134
10
0.0000
6,111
0.0264
317
0.0014
101,160 0.4369
2
0.0000
7
0.0000
295
0.0013
8
0.0000

Stream Properties
Mass Flow Rate (lb/hr)

Temperature (oF)
Pressure (psig)
Flow Rate (cfm)
Liquid Flow (gpm)
Vapor Flow (cfm)
Vapor Fraction
Component Flows
ACETALD
ARGON
CARBON DIOXIDE

DEG
EG
EO
ETHANE
ETHYLENE
FORM
WATER
METHANE
NITROGEN
OXYGEN
TEG

11,420
88
156
182
1,364
0
0.00
lb/hr
wt%
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
11,420
1.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000

Drexel University, CHE 483

11,420
86
1
182
1,362
0
0.00
lb/hr
wt%
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
11,420
1.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000

Completed By:

Reviewed By:

EG Production

41

MASS & ENERGY BALANCE SHEET


Date:
4/9/2006

Project Title: EO/EG Plant


Stream
Description

Compiled by: NPM


Checked by: SSM
507

405

406

407

503

504

EG Cooler to EG Flash
Drum

EG Flash Vapor to Lights


Compressor

EG Flash Liquid to EG
Dehydrator

EG Dehydrator Lights to
Lights Compressor

Vapor Product from Lights


Compressor

EG Dehydrator Liquid
Distillate

30,384
319
103
79,762
0
79,762
1.00
lb/hr
wt%
884
0.0291
463
0.0152
8,382
0.2759
0
0.0000
630
0.0207
2,221
0.0731
10
0.0003
5,982
0.1969
211
0.0069
11,310
0.3722
2
0.0001
7
0.0002
283
0.0093
0
0.0000

201,158
319
103
3,451
25,815
0
0.00
lb/hr
wt%
517
0.0026
10
0.0000
66
0.0003
295
0.0015
109,291 0.5433
873
0.0043
0
0.0000
129
0.0006
106
0.0005
89,850
0.4467
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
11
0.0001
8
0.0000

1,271
191
0
23,527
0
23,527
1.00
lb/hr
wt%
139
0.1091
10
0.0075
62
0.0487
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
310
0.2441
0
0.0001
126
0.0990
22
0.0175
592
0.4657
0
0.0000
0
0.0002
11
0.0083
0
0.0000

31,655
392
184
53,978
0
53,978
1.00
lb/hr
wt%
1,023
0.0323
473
0.0149
8,444
0.2667
0
0.0000
630
0.0199
2,531
0.0800
10
0.0003
6,108
0.1929
233
0.0074
11,902
0.3760
2
0.0001
7
0.0002
294
0.0093
0
0.0000

90,247
192
172
1,535
11,480
0
0.00
lb/hr
wt%
379
0.0042
0
0.0000
5
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
562
0.0062
0
0.0000
3
0.0000
84
0.0009
89,213
0.9885
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
1
0.0000
0
0.0000

Stream Properties
231,542
319
103
83,213
25,815
79,762
0.14
lb/hr
wt%
1,402
0.0061
ACETALD
473
0.0020
ARGON
8,448
0.0365
CARBON DIOXIDE
295
0.0013
DEG
109,921 0.4747
EG
3,094
0.0134
EO
10
0.0000
ETHANE
6,111
0.0264
ETHYLENE
317
0.0014
FORM
101,160 0.4369
WATER
2
0.0000
METHANE
7
0.0000
NITROGEN
295
0.0013
OXYGEN
8
0.0000
TEG

Mass Flow Rate (lb/hr)

Temperature (oF)
Pressure (psig)
Flow Rate (cfm)
Liquid Flow (gpm)
Vapor Flow (cfm)
Vapor Fraction
Component Flows

Drexel University, CHE 483

Completed By:

Reviewed By:

EG Production

42

MASS & ENERGY BALANCE SHEET


Date:
4/9/2006

Project Title: EO/EG Plant


Stream
Description

Compiled by: NPM


Checked by: SSM
519

509

510

515

516

518

EG Dehydrator Bottoms
Product

Feed Pump to EG
Purificaiton

EG Distillate Product

EG Product

DEG Side Stream

DEG Final Product

109,640
398
0
1,836
13,733
0
0.00
lb/hr
wt%
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
295
0.0027
109,291 0.9968
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
45
0.0004
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
8
0.0001

109,352
270
-13
1,695
12,680
0
0.00
lb/hr
wt%
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
16
0.0001
109,291 0.9994
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
45
0.0004
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000

109,352
270
0
1,695
12,681
0
0.00
lb/hr
wt%
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
16
0.0001
109,291 0.9994
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
45
0.0004
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000

265
372
-12
4
33
0
0.00

265
372
0
4
33
0
0.00

Stream Properties
109,640
398
3
1,836
13,734
0
0.00
lb/hr
wt%
0
0.0000
ACETALD
0
0.0000
ARGON
0
0.0000
CARBON DIOXIDE
295
0.0027
DEG
109,291 0.9968
EG
0
0.0000
EO
0
0.0000
ETHANE
0
0.0000
ETHYLENE
0
0.0000
FORM
45
0.0004
WATER
0
0.0000
METHANE
0
0.0000
NITROGEN
0
0.0000
OXYGEN
8
0.0001
TEG

Mass Flow Rate (lb/hr)

Temperature (oF)
Pressure (psig)
Flow Rate (cfm)
Liquid Flow (gpm)
Vapor Flow (cfm)
Vapor Fraction
Component Flows

Drexel University, CHE 483

Completed By:

lb/hr
0
0
0
265
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

wt%
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.9999
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0001

lb/hr
0
0
0
265
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Reviewed By:

wt%
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.9999
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0001

EG Production

43

MASS & ENERGY BALANCE SHEET


Date:
4/9/2006

Project Title: EO/EG Plant


Stream
Description

520

521

523

DEG/TEG Bottoms
Product

DEG/TEG Product

EG Final Product

23
397
0
0
3
0
0.00

109,375
270
0
1,695
12,681
0
0
lb/hr
wt%
0
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
30
0.0003
109,291 0.9992
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
45
0.0004
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
8
0.0001

Compiled by: NPM


Checked by: SSM

Stream Properties
Mass Flow Rate (lb/hr)

Temperature (oF)
Pressure (psig)
Flow Rate (cfm)
Liquid Flow (gpm)
Vapor Flow (cfm)
Vapor Fraction
Component Flows
ACETALD
ARGON
CARBON DIOXIDE

DEG
EG
EO
ETHANE
ETHYLENE
FORM
WATER
METHANE
NITROGEN
OXYGEN
TEG

23
397
-12
0
3
0
0.00
lb/hr
Mass %
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
14
0.6320
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
8
0.3680

Drexel University, CHE 483

lb/hr
0
0
0
14
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
8

wt%
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.6320
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.3680

Completed By:

Reviewed By:

EG Production

6.

45

Equipment

Equipment
Catalyst

Item #
Description
R-101 Catalyst
Reactor Catalyst
R-401 Catalyst
Reactor Catalyst

Material
Silver
Resin

Column

T-201
T-202
T-301
T-302
T-501
T-502

EO Absorber
EO Stripper
CO2 Absorber
CO2 Stripper
EG Dehydrator
EG Purification

CL
CL
CL
CL
CS
CS

Compressor

C-101
C-501

Recycle Compressor
Lights Compressor

SS
SS

Furnace

E-601

Hot Oil Furnace

CS

Heat exchanger

E-101
E-102
E-201
E-202A
E-202B
E-202C
E-203
E-204A
E-204B
E-204C
E-204D
E-204E
E-205
E-206
E-301
E-302
E-401
E-402A
E-402B
E-501A
E-501B
E-501C
E-502A
E-502B
E-503
E-504

EO Reactor Pre-Heater
EO Reactor Trim Cooler
EO Absorber Gas Cooler
EO Absorber Liquid Cooler
EO Absorber Liquid Cooler
EO Absorber Liquid Cooler
EO Absorber Trim Cooler
EO Stripper Pre-Heater
EO Stripper Pre-Heater
EO Stripper Pre-Heater
EO Stripper Pre-Heater
EO Stripper Pre-Heater
EO Stripper Condenser
EO Stripper Re-Boiler
CO2 Stripper Economizer
CO2 Stripper Re-Boiler
EG Reactor Pre-Cooler
EG Reactor Trim Cooler
EG Reactor Trim Cooler
EG Dehydrator Condenser
EG Dehydrator Condenser
EG Dehydrator Condenser
EG Dehydrator Re-Boiler
EG Dehydrator Re-Boiler
EG Purification Condenser
EG Purification Re-Boiler

Shell: SS Tube: SS
Shell: CS Tube: SS
Shell: SS Tube: SS
Shell: SS Tube: CS
Shell: SS Tube: CS
Shell: SS Tube: CS
Shell: CS Tube: SS
Shell: SS Tube: SS
Shell: SS Tube: SS
Shell: SS Tube: SS
Shell: SS Tube: SS
Shell: SS Tube: SS
Shell: CS Tube: SS
Shell: CS Tube: SS
Shell: SS Tube: SS
Shell: SS Tube: CS
Shell: CS Tube: CS
Shell: CS Tube: CS
Shell: CS Tube: CS
Shell: CS Tube: CS
Shell: CS Tube: CS
Shell: CS Tube: CS
Shell: CS Tube: CS
Shell: CS Tube: CS
Shell: CS Tube: CS
Shell: CS Tube: CS

Packing

T-201 Packing
Packing
T-202 Trays Tray
T-301 Packing
Packing
T-302 Trays Tray
T-501 Trays Tray
T-502 Packing
Packing

Drexel University, CHE 483

(blank)
(blank)
(blank)
(blank)
(blank)
(blank)

Completed By:

Reviewed By:

EG Production

46

Pump

P-201
P-202
P-203
P-301
P-302
P-303
P-501
P-502
P-503
P-504
P-505
P-506
P-601
P-602

EO Stripper Feed Pump


EO Stripper Reflux Pump
EO Absorber Recycle Pump
CO2 Stripper Feed Pump
CO2 Absorber Recycle Pump
CO2 Absorber Make-up Pump
EG Dehydrator Reflux Pump
EG Purification Reflux Pump
EG Purification Feed Pump
MEG Product Pump
DEG Product Pump
DEG/TEG Product Pump
Hot Oil Pump
Hot Oil Pump

SS
SS
SS
SS
SS
SS
CS
CS
CS
CS
CS
CS
CS
CS

Reactor

R-101
R-401

EO Reactor
EG Reactor

SS
SS

Special

X-102
X-103
(blank)

Oxygen Generation Plant


Oxygen Mixing Station
Cooling Water System
Piping

CS
CS
(blank)
SS

Turbine

X-101

Ethylene Feed Prep

CS

Vessel

TK-101
TK-102
TK-103
TK-104
TK-105
V-201
V-202
V-401
V-501
V-502
V-601

MEG Storage Tank (1)


MEG Storage Tank (2)
MEG Storage Tank (3)
MEG Storage Tank (4)
DEG Storage Tank
EO Absorber Flash Drum
EO Stripper Reflux Drum
EG Reactor Flash Drum
EG Dehydrator Reflux Drum
EG Purification Reflux Drum
Hot Oil System (tank)

CS
CS
CS
CS
CS
SS
SS
CS
SS
CS
SS

Drexel University, CHE 483

Completed By:

Reviewed By:

EG Production

47

COLUMN SPECIFICATION SHEET


Project Title: EO/EG Plant
Item #
T-201
Item Descriptioin
EO Absorber
Column
Internal Diameter (ft)
10
Wall Thickness (in.)
0.3125
Height,T-T (ft)
50
Number of Trays
20
Tray Spacing (in.)
24
Tray Type
Structured Packing
Feed Tray # (from top)
n/a
Side Stream Plate #
n/a
Design Pressure (psig)
200
Material of Construction
CL
Fluid:
Phase (V,L,V/L)
V/L
o
Feed Temperature ( F)
176
o
Ovhd Temperature ( F)
248
o
Bttms Temperature ( F)
221
Ovhd Pressure (psig)
172
Bttms Pressure (psig)
176
Remarks:

Drexel University, CHE 483

Date:
4/9/2006

Liquid Feed

Compiled by:
Checked by:
SKETCH

NPM
SSM

Vapor Product

D =10 ft
HETP = 24 in.
Packing = 40 ft
T-T H = 50 ft

Vapor Feed

Completed By:

Liquid Product

Reviewed By:

EG Production

48

COLUMN SPECIFICATION SHEET


Project Title: EO/EG Plant
Item #
Item Descriptioin
Column
Internal Diameter (ft)
Wall Thickness (in.)
Height,T-T (ft)
Number of Trays
Tray Spacing (in.)
Tray Type
Feed Tray # (from top)
Side Stream Plate #
Design Pressure (psig)
Material of Construction
Fluid:
Phase (V,L,V/L)
o
Feed Temperature ( F)
o
Ovhd Temperature ( F)
o
Bttms Temperature ( F)
Ovhd Pressure (psig)
Bttms Pressure (psig)
Remarks:

Date:
4/9/2006

T-202
EO Stripper

Drexel University, CHE 483

10
0.3125
50
20
24
Sieve
10
n/a
160
CL

Compiled by:
Checked by:
SKETCH

NPM
SSM

D istillate to
C ondenser
Reflux Return

1
Feed

L
194
239
194
148
162

10

20

D = 10 ft
# of Trays = 20
Feed Tray = 10
T-T H = 50 ft
Boil-up Return
To Re-boiler
Bottoms
Product

Completed By:

Reviewed By:

EG Production

49

COLUMN SPECIFICATION SHEET


Project Title: EO/EG Plant
Item #
T-301
Item Descriptioin
CO2 Absorber
Column
Internal Diameter (ft)
4
Wall Thickness (in.)
0.3125
Height,T-T (ft)
60
Number of Trays
20
Tray Spacing (in.)
24
Tray Type
Structured Packing
Feed Tray # (from top)
n/a
Side Stream Plate #
n/a
Design Pressure (psig)
190
Material of Construction
CL
Fluid:
Phase (V,L,V/L)
V/L
o
Feed Temperature ( F)
248
o
Ovhd Temperature ( F)
239
o
Bttms Temperature ( F)
194
Ovhd Pressure (psig)
162
Bttms Pressure (psig)
176
Remarks:

Drexel University, CHE 483

Date:
4/9/2006

Liquid Feed

Compiled by:
Checked by:
SKETCH

NPM
SSM

Vapor Product

D = 4 ft
HETP = 24 in.
Packing = 40 ft

Vapor Feed

Completed By:

Liquid Product

Reviewed By:

EG Production

50

COLUMN SPECIFICATION SHEET


Project Title: EO/EG Plant
Item #
Item Descriptioin
Column
Internal Diameter (ft)
Wall Thickness (in.)
Height,T-T (ft)
Number of Trays
Tray Spacing (in.)
Tray Type
Feed Tray # (from top)
Side Stream Plate #
Design Pressure (psig)
Material of Construction
Fluid:
Phase (V,L,V/L)
o
Feed Temperature ( F)
o
Ovhd Temperature ( F)
o
Bttms Temperature ( F)
Ovhd Pressure (psig)
Bttms Pressure (psig)
Remarks:

Date:
4/9/2006

T-302
CO2 Stripper

Drexel University, CHE 483

4
0.3125
40
15
24
Sieve
1
n/a
40
CL

Compiled by:
Checked by:
SKETCH

NPM
SSM

Distillate to
Condenser

Feed

1
D = 4 ft
# of Trays = 15
Feed Tray = 1
T-T H = 40 ft

L
214
221
252
15
17

15

Boil-up Return
To R e-boiler
Bottoms
Product

Completed By:

Reviewed By:

EG Production

51

COLUMN SPECIFICATION SHEET


Project Title: EO/EG Plant
Item #
Item Descriptioin
Column
Internal Diameter (ft)
Wall Thickness (in.)
Height,T-T (ft)
Number of Trays
Tray Spacing (in.)
Tray Type
Feed Tray # (from top)
Side Stream Plate #
Design Pressure (psig)
Material of Construction
Fluid:
Phase (V,L,V/L)
o
Feed Temperature ( F)
o
Ovhd Temperature ( F)
o
Bttms Temperature ( F)
Ovhd Pressure (psig)
Bttms Pressure (psig)
Remarks:

Date:
4/9/2006

T-501
EG Dehydrator

Drexel University, CHE 483

10.5
0.3125
85
38
24
Sieve
15
n/a
40
CS

Compiled by:
Checked by:
SKETCH

NPM
SSM

Distillate to
Condenser
Reflux R eturn

1
Feed

15

35

L
318
192
397
0
1

D = 10.5 ft
# of Trays = 38
Feed Tray = 15
T-T H = 85 ft

Boil-up Return
To Re-boiler
Bottoms
P roduct

Completed By:

Reviewed By:

EG Production

52

COLUMN SPECIFICATION SHEET


Project Title: EO/EG Plant
Item #
T-502
Item Descriptioin
EG Purification
Column
Internal Diameter (ft)
14
Wall Thickness (in.)
0.3125
Height,T-T (ft)
80
Number of Trays
35
Tray Spacing (in.)
24
Tray Type
Structured Packing
Feed Tray # (from top)
14
Side Stream Plate #
26
Design Pressure (psig)
40
Material of Construction
CS
Fluid:
Phase (V,L,V/L)
L
o
Feed Temperature ( F)
397
o
Ovhd Temperature ( F)
270
o
Bttms Temperature ( F)
397
Ovhd Pressure (psig)
-11.8
Bttms Pressure (psig)
-11.5
Remarks:

Drexel University, CHE 483

Date:
4/9/2006

Compiled by:
Checked by:
SKETCH

NPM
SSM

Distillate to
Condenser

D = 14 ft
R eflux Return

1
Feed

HETP = 24 in.
Packing = 70 ft
T-T H = 80 ft
Feed @ 28'
Side Product @ 52'

26
35

Boil-up Return

To Re-boiler
Bottoms
Product

Completed By:

Reviewed By:

EG Production

53

COMPRESSOR SPECIFICATION SHEET


Project Title: EO/EG
Plant
Item #

Date:
4/9/2006

Item Description
Performance
Flow (cfm) Normal
Flow (cfm) Design
Suction Pressure (psig)
Discharge Pressure (psig)
TDH Normal
TDH Design
Hydraulic HP
Number of Stages
Type of Pump
Speed (rpm)
Material of Construction

Compiled by:
Checked by:
C-101
Recycle
Compressor

NPM
TAS
C-501
Lights
Compressor

8,600
10,750
148
221
20,000
25,000
2,920
2
Centrifugal
3600
SS

1,600
2,000
0
184
130,000
162,500
636
4
Centrifugal
3600
SS

C-101
Stage
Pressure Ratio
Hydraulic HP
Exit Pressure (psig)
Exit Temperature
Feed Flow (lb/hr)
Total Flow (lb/hr)
Electricity (kW)
Cooling Water (lb/hr)
Cooling (Btu/hr)

1
1
298
172
261
89,541
89,541
222
139,925
7,411,392

2
1
2,622
221
249
412,044
501,585
1,955
136,214
7,215,644

C-501
Stage
Pressure Ratio
Hydraulic HP
Exit Pressure (psig)
Exit Temperature
Feed Flow (lb/hr)
Total Flow (lb/hr)
Electricity (kW)
Cooling Water (lb/hr)
Cooling (Btu/hr)

1
2
24
15
325
1,271
1,271
18
668
35,397

2
2
31
44
547
0
1,271
23
1,620
85,826

Drexel University, CHE 483

Completed By:

3
2
31
103
547
0
1,271
23
14,367
761,039

4
2
550
184
547
30,384
31,655
410
28,559
1,512,993

Reviewed By:

EG Production

54

HEAT EXCHANGER SPECIFICATION SHEET


Date:
4/9/2006
E-201

Project Title: EO/EG Plant


Item #

E-101

E-102

Item Description

EO Reactor PreHeater

EO Reactor Trim
Cooler

Compiled by: NPM


Checked by: TAS
E-202

EO Absorber Gas
Cooler

EO Absorber Liquid
Cooler

Exchanger Side

SHELL

TUBE

SHELL

TUBE

SHELL

TUBE

SHELL

TUBE

Fluid Circulating

Ethylene
Vapor
Mixture

Ethylene
Vapor
Mixture

Hot Oil

Ethylene
Vapor
Mixture

EO Rich
Water

Ethylene
Vapor
Mixture

EO Rich
Water

EO Lean
Water

191
392
289
86
0.01
31.2

221
191
302
73
0.02
29.8

30
302
464
741
0.93
236.4

198
482
392
87
0.01
31.2

169
248
255
193
0.47
19.2

184
294
253
108
0.01
30.9

176
220
248
195
0.59
19.2

201
260
226
198
0.89
18.3

0
0

0
0

273,231
273,231
0.50
0.31

0
0

1,207,448
1,205,139

0
0

0
0
0

601,490
601,490
0.467

Process Conditions
Pressure (psig)
Temperature IN (F)
Temperature Out (F)
Dew or Bubble Pts (F)
Specific gravity
Molecular Weight
Liquid Flows
Flow IN (lb/hr)
Flow OUT (lb/hr)
Specific heat (Btu/lb/F)

Viscosity (cp)
Vapor Flows
Flow IN (lb/hr)
Flow out (lb/hr)
Specific heat (Btu/lb/F)

Performance
Heat Duty (Btu/hr)
Overall Coeff. (Btu/hr/ft/F)

Correction Factor
Log Mean T (F)
Surface Area (ft)
Fouling Factor
Design
Number of Shells
Surface Area Per Shell
Tube Length (ft)
Tube diameter (in.)
Number of Tubes

601,490
601,490
0.437

16,907
19,216
0.326

633,146
633,146
0.401

1.06
0.26

1.14
0.22

10,567
16,907
0.321

0
0

23,601,499
50
0.9
94
5,580
0.0010
0.0010

22,131,708
50
0.9
45
10,994
0.0015
0.0010

10,013,676
50
0.9
17
13,042
0.0015
0.0010

37,158,187
150
0.9
8
32,657
0.0030
0.0030

1
5,580
20
1.00
1,066
1,066
221
246
BES
442
horiz.

1
10,994
20
1.00
2,100
2,100
198
223
BES
532
horiz.

1
13,042
20
1.00
2,491
2,491
184
209
BES
344
horiz.

3
10,886
20
1.00
6,237
2,079
201
226
BES
270
horiz.

Numbe of Tubes per Shell

Operating Press. (psig)


Design Press. (psig)
TEMA Type
Design Tempe. (F)
Position(horiz./vertical)
Materials of Construction

602,615
602,615
0.367

1.10
0.23

1,213,790 992,984
1,207,448 992,984

SS

Drexel University, CHE 483

SS

CS

SS

Completed By:

SS

SS

SS

Reviewed By:

CS

EG Production

55

HEAT EXCHANGER SPECIFICATION SHEET


Date:
4/9/2006
E-205

Project Title: EO/EG Plant


Item #

E-203

E-204

Item Description

EO Absorber Trim
Cooler

EO Stripper PreHeater

Exchanger Side
Fluid Circulating

SHELL
Cooling
Water

TUBE
EO Lean
Water

Process Conditions
Pressure (psig)
30
194
Temperature IN (F)
86
226
Temperature Out (F)
140
176
240
197
Dew or Bubble Pts (F)
Specific gravity
0.98
0.91
Molecular Weight
18.0
18.3
Liquid Flows
Flow IN (lb/hr)
962,730 992,984
Flow OUT (lb/hr)
962,730 992,616
1.00
1.08
Specific heat (Btu/lb/F)
Viscosity (cp)
0.22
0.26
Vapor Flows
Flow IN (lb/hr)
0
0
Flow out (lb/hr)
0
0
Specific heat (Btu/lb/F)
0
Performance
Heat Duty (Btu/hr)
50,994,691
Overall Coeff. (Btu/hr/ft/F)
150
Correction Factor
0.9
Log Mean T (F)
88
Surface Area (ft)
4,297
Fouling Factor
0.0030
0.0030
Design
Number of Shells
1
Surface Area Per Shell
4,297
Tube Length (ft)
20
Tube diameter (in.)
1.00
Number of Tubes
821
Numbe of Tubes per Shell
821
Operating Press. (psig)
194
Design Press. (psig)
219
TEMA Type
BES
Design Tempe. (F)
136
Position(horiz./vertical)
horiz.
Materials of Construction
CS
SS

Drexel University, CHE 483

SHELL

TUBE

Compiled by: NPM


Checked by: TAS
E-206

EO Stripper
Condenser

SHELL

TUBE

EO Stripper Re-Boiler

SHELL

TUBE

EO Rick
Water

EO Lean
Water

Cooling
Water

EO Rich
Distillate

Hot Oil

EO Lean
Boilup
Water

162
255
325
191
0.43
19.2

201
359
260
198
0.83
18.3

30
86
140
240
0.98
18.0

133
174
174
174
0.01
22.1

30
531
302
741
0.93
236.4

133
251
251
251
0.83
18.3

1,205,139 992,984
1,159,529 992,984

1.11
0.22

1.33
0.15

19,216
64,828
0.331

0
0

394,212
394,212
1.00
0.22
0
0
0

1,464,893 196,498
1,464,893 196,498

95,430
95,430
0.006016

108,947,287
150
0.9
15
52,077
0.0030
0.0030

19,308,504
50
0.9
57
7,556
0.0030
0.0010

5
10,415
20
1.00
9,946
1,989
201
226
BES
305
horiz.

1
7,556
20
1.00
1,443
1,443
133
158
BES
136
horiz.

SS

SS

Completed By:

CS

0.50
0.31

1.33
0.15

0
0
0

0
0
0

167,478,806
150
0.9
134
9,233
0.0015
1
9,233
20
1.00
1,763
1,763
133
158
BES
581
horiz.

SS

CS

Reviewed By:

SS

EG Production

56

HEAT EXCHANGER SPECIFICATION SHEET


Date:
4/9/2006
E-401

Project Title: EO/EG Plant


Item #

E-301

E-302

Item Description

CO2 Stripper
Economizer

CO2 Stripper ReBoiler

Exchanger Side
Fluid Circulating

SHELL
CO2 Rich
Water

TUBE

SHELL

CO2 Lean
Water

CO2 Lean
Boilup
Water

Process Conditions
Pressure (psig)
156
163
Temperature IN (F)
194
252
Temperature Out (F)
236
199
186
189
Dew or Bubble Pts (F)
Specific gravity
0.25
0.89
Molecular Weight
18.8
18.0
Liquid Flows
Flow IN (lb/hr)
222,968 209,814
Flow OUT (lb/hr)
219,258 209,814
1.05
1.13
Specific heat (Btu/lb/F)
Viscosity (cp)
0.31
0.22
Vapor Flows
Flow IN (lb/hr)
11,841
0
Flow out (lb/hr)
15,551
0
Specific heat (Btu/lb/F)
0.225
Performance
Heat Duty (Btu/hr)
11,930,570
Overall Coeff. (Btu/hr/ft/F)
150
Correction Factor
0.9
Log Mean T (F)
10
Surface Area (ft)
9,049
Fouling Factor
0.0030
0.0030
Design
Number of Shells
1
Surface Area Per Shell
9,049
Tube Length (ft)
20
Tube diameter (in.)
1.00
Number of Tubes
1,728
Numbe of Tubes per Shell
1,728
Operating Press. (psig)
163
Design Press. (psig)
188
TEMA Type
BES
Design Tempe. (F)
244
Position(horiz./vertical)
horiz.
Materials of Construction
SS
SS

Drexel University, CHE 483

TUBE

Compiled by: NPM


Checked by: TAS
E-402

EG Reactor PreCooler

EG Reactor Trim
Cooler

SHELL

TUBE

SHELL

TUBE

Hot Oil

EG Liquid
Mixture

EO/Water
Vapor
Mixture

Cooling
Water

EO/Water
Vapor
Mixture

15
252
252
230
1.00
18.0

30
531
302
741
0.90
236.4

110
194
319
230
0.14
29.2

132
337
327
169
0.01
23.8

30
86
140
240
0.98
18.0

125
327
194
167
0.01
23.8

12,530
12,530
1.13
0.22

102,649
102,649
0.50
0.31

217,120
201,158
0.84
0.49

174
40,033
1.29
0.16

0
0
0

0
0
0

14,422
30,384
0.306

231,389
191,530
0.419

2,167,158 40,033
2,167,158 184,044

1.00
0.22

1.27
0.16

0
0
0

191,530
47,498
0.409

11,735,679
150
0.9
133
653
0.0030
0.0015

34,962,442
50
0.9
57
13,523
0.0030
0.0010

114,793,280
50
0.9
144
17,735
0.0030
0.0010

1
653
20
1.00
125
125
30
55
BES
302
horiz.

1
13,523
20
1.00
2,583
2,583
132
157
BES
244
horiz.

2
8,868
20
1.00
3,387
1,694
125
150
BES
136
horiz.

SS

CS

Completed By:

CS

CS

CS

Reviewed By:

CS

EG Production

57

HEAT EXCHANGER SPECIFICATION SHEET


Date:
4/9/2006
E-503

Project Title: EO/EG Plant


Item #

E-501

E-502

Item Description

EG Dehydrator
Condenser

EG Dehydrator ReBoiler

Compiled by: NPM


Checked by: TAS
E-504

EG Purification
Condenser

EG Purification ReBoiler

Exchanger Side

SHELL

TUBE

SHELL

TUBE

SHELL

TUBE

SHELL

TUBE

Fluid Circulating

Cooling
Water

Water
Distillate

EG Boilup
Liquid

Hot Oil

Cooling
Water

EG Distillate

DEG Boilup

Hot Oil

15
397
397
397
0.94
62.1

30
572
407
741
0.93
236.4

30
86
140
240
0.98
18.0

-13
270
270
270
1.02
62.0

-13
397
397
397
0.95
119.0

30
572
407
741
0.93
236.4

978,153
978,153
1.00
0.22

0
0
0.00
0.00

0
0
0.00
0.00

520,876
520,876
0.50
0.31

0
0
0

22,417
22,417
0.673

167,931
167,931
0.692

0
0
0

Process Conditions
Pressure (psig)
30
15
Temperature IN (F)
86
192
Temperature Out (F)
140
192
240
230
Dew or Bubble Pts (F)
Specific gravity
0.98
1.00
Molecular Weight
18.0
18.0
Liquid Flows
Flow IN (lb/hr)
1,770,042
Flow OUT (lb/hr)
1,770,042
1.00
Specific heat (Btu/lb/F)
Viscosity (cp)
0.22
Vapor Flows
Flow IN (lb/hr)
0
6,380
Flow out (lb/hr)
0
6,380
Specific heat (Btu/lb/F)
0
0.926512
Performance
Heat Duty (Btu/hr)
93,758,223
Overall Coeff. (Btu/hr/ft/F)
50
Correction Factor
0.9
Log Mean T (F)
76
Surface Area (ft)
27,479
Fouling Factor
0.0030
0.0030
Design
Number of Shells
3
Surface Area Per Shell
9,160
Tube Length (ft)
20
Tube diameter (in.)
1.00
Number of Tubes
5,248
Numbe of Tubes per Shell
1,749
Operating Press. (psig)
15
Design Press. (psig)
40
TEMA Type
BES
Design Tempe. (F)
136
Position(horiz./vertical)
horiz.
Materials of Construction
CS
CS

Drexel University, CHE 483

237,545 1,068,533
237,545 1,068,533
0.76
0.50
0.60
0.31
0
0
0

0
0
0

88,153,978
150
0.9
58
11,327
0.0030
0.0015

52,820,275
50
0.9
155
7,551
0.0030
0.0030

42,972,272
150
0.9
58
5,522
0.0030
0.0015

2
5,664
20
1.00
2,163
1,082
30
55
BES
447
horiz.

1
7,551
20
1.00
1,442
1,442
-13
40
BES
136
horiz.

1
5,522
20
1.00
1,055
1,055
30
55
BES
447
horiz.

CS

CS

Completed By:

CS

CS

CS

Reviewed By:

CS

EG Production

58

PUMP SPECIFICATION SHEET


Item #

P-201

P-202

Date:
4/9/2006
P-203
P-301

Item Description

EO Stripper
Feed

EO Stripper
Reflux

EO Absorber CO2 Stripper


Recycle
Feed

318
0.85
0.17
1,141,006

345
0.83
0.15
224,402

2619
3274
132
133
100
125
96

48
60
122
142
160
200
30

Project Title: EO/EG Plant

Fluid Circulating
Temeprature (F)
Specific Gravity
Viscosity (cp)
Flow (lb/hr)
Performance
Flow (gpm) Normal
Flow (gpm) Design
Suction Pressure (psig)
Discharge Pressure (psig)

TDH Normal
TDH Design
Hydraulic HP
Design
Type of Pump
Speed (rpm)

358
0.83
0.15
992,984

236
0.17
0.24
219,258

Compiled by:
Checked by:
P-302
P-303

NPM
CHM
P-501

CO2
Absorber
Recycle

CO2
Absorber
Make-up

EG
Dehydrator
Reflux

252
0.89
0.22
209,814

86
0.99
0.82
11,420

192
0.93
0.32
96,627

2335
472
457
22
2919
590
571
28
134
148
16
1
201
16
163
156
333.6348 372.4959 638.3022 605.8205
417
466
798
757
279
69
113
6

200
250
162
182
400
500
33

Centrifugal Centrifugal Centrifugal Centrifugal Centrifugal Centrifugal Centrifugal


1,800
1,800
3,600
3,600
3,600
3,600
3,600
SS
SS
SS
SS
SS
SS
SS
Materials of Construction

PUMP SPECIFICATION SHEET


Project Title: EO/EG Plant
Item & Flowsheet #

Fluid Circulating
Temeprature (F)
Specific Gravity
Viscosity (cp)
Flow (lb/hr)
Performance
Flow (gpm) Normal
Flow (gpm) Design
Suction Pressure (psig)
Discharge Pressure (psig)

TDH Normal
TDH Design
Hydraulic HP
Design
Type of Pump
Speed (rpm)

Date:
4/9/2006
P-504
P-505

P-502

P-503

EG
Purification
Reflux

EG
Purification
Feed

270
1.02
1.17
221,169

86
0.99
0.82
109,640

270
1.02
1.17
109,352

72
90
-23
-3
225
281
42

227
283
3
0
225
281
21

209
262
-13
0
100
125
9

Compiled by:
Checked by:
P-506
P-601

NPM
CHM
P-602

DEG/TEG
Product

Hot Oil Pump Hot Oil Pump

372
0.96
0.90
265

397
0.95
0.84
23

302
398
0.93
0.93
0.31
0.31
1,376,000 1,781,000

1
1
-12
0
100
125
0

0
0
-12
0
100
125
0

MEG Product DEG Product

3000
3750
18
30
100
125
116

4000
5000
18
30
100
125
150

Centrifugal Centrifugal Centrifugal Centrifugal Centrifugal Centrifugal Centrifugal


3,600
3,600
3,600
3,600
3,600
3,600
3,600
CS
CS
CS
CS
CS
CS
CS
Materials of Construction

Drexel University, CHE 483

Completed By:

Reviewed By:

EG Production

59

REACTOR SPECIFICATION SHEET


Date:
4/9/2006
R-101
EO Reactor
SHELL
TUBE

Project Title: EO/EG Plant


Item #
Item Description
Exchanger Side

Hot Oil

Ethylene Vapor
Mixture

Cooling Water

EO Rich Water

1,103,074
30
302
540
0.93
0.50
0

602,615
213
302
572
0.013
0.407
1

1,537,523
30
86
140
1.000
1
0

47,498
118
194
194
0.055
0.306
0

Fluid Circulating
Process Conditions
Flow (lb/hr)
Pressure (psig)
Temperature IN (F)
Temperature Out (F)
Specific gravity
Specific heat (Btu/lb/F)
Vapor Fraction
Performance
Heat Duty (Btu/hr)

Compiled by:
NPM
Checked by:
CHM
R-401
EG Reactor
SHELL
TUBE

Overall Coeff. (Btu/hr/ft/F)

Correction Factor
Log Mean T (F)
Surface Area (ft)
Fouling Factor
Design
Reactor Type
Catalyst Type
Tube Length (ft)
Tube diameter (in.)
Number of Tubes
Design Press. (psig)
Design Tempe. (F)
Position(horiz./vertical)
Materials of Construction

Drexel University, CHE 483

131,265,859
50
0.9
32
91,157
0.0030
0.0010

83,026,236
150
0.9
78
7,894
0.0030
0.0030

Shell & Tube


Silver Based
20
1.25
13,928
238
352
horiz.

Shell & Tube


Anion Ion Exchange Resin
20
1.25
1,206
143
244
horiz.
CS
SS

CS

SS

Completed By:

Reviewed By:

EG Production

60

VESSEL SPECIFICATION SHEET


V-201

V-202

Date:
4/9/2006
V-401

EO Absorber
Flash Drum

EO Stripper
Reflux Drum

EO Reactor
Flash Drum

EG
Dehydrator
Reflux Drum

EG
Purification
Reflux Drum

Hot Oil
Storage Tank

325
162

345
132

319
103

192
0

270
-13

302
18

375
187

395
157

369
128

242
40

320
40

352
43

6.7
20.0
0.3125
0.1

3.1
9.2
0.3125
0.1

5.8
17.5
0.3125
0.1

3.1
9.2
0.3125
0.1

5.0
14.6
0.3125
0.1

10.0
38.0
0.3125
0.1

Ellip.
0.3125

Ellip.
0.3125

Ellip.
0.3125

Ellip.
0.3125

Ellip.
0.3125

Ellip.
0.3125

8
18

8
18

8
18

8
18

8
18

8
18

SS

SS

CS

SS

CS

SS

Project Title: EO/EG Plant


Item #
Item Description

V-501

Compiled by:
Checked by:
V-502

NPM
SSM
V-601

Operating Conditions
Temperature ( F)
Pressure (psig)
Design Conditions
Temperature ( F)
Pressure (psig)
Shell
I.D. (ft)
Tan.-to-Tan. (ft)
Wall Thick. (in.)
Corrosion Allow (in.)
Heads
TYPE
Min. Thick. (in.)
Connections
Nozzles, size, in.
Manholes, diam.,in
Materials
Shell & Heads

Drexel University, CHE 483

Completed By:

Reviewed By:

EG Production

7.

61

Plant Layout

(Insert Plant layout 11*17)

Drexel University, CHE 483

Completed By:

Reviewed By:

EG Production

8.

62

Operating Requirements
8.1.Utilities
Table 8-1 shows the utility usage summary throughout the entire plant. The first section

shows the summary on for cooling water. The plant uses 8.09 million pounds per hour of cooling
water. The Largest user being the EG Reactor Trim Cooler (E-402) followed by the EG
Dehydrator Condenser (E-501). Cold oil is used in the EO reactor (R-101) and the EO reactor
trim cooler (E-102) to provide cooling. The hot oil can then be used to provide elsewhere in the
plant to provide heat in the distillation re-boilers. The difference in energy between what is
generated in the reactor and trim cooler and what is used in the re-boilers is generated in the hot
oil furnace. A summary of the electricity usage is also shown along with the electricity
generation in the ethylene feed prep.

Drexel University, CHE 483

Completed By:

Reviewed By:

EG Production

63

Table 8.1: Utility Requirement

Utility
Cooling Water

Item #
C-101
C-501
E-203
E-205
E-402
E-501
E-503
R-401

Description
Recycle Compressor
Lights Compressor
EO Absorber Trim Cooler
EO Stripper Condenser
EG Reactor Trim Cooler
EG Dehydrator Condenser
EG Purification Condenser
EG Reactor

Cooling Water Sum

Drexel University, CHE 483

Mass Flow (lb/hr)


276,139
2,289
962,730
394,212
2,167,158
1,770,042
978,153
1,537,523
8,088,246

Completed By:

Duty (Btu/hr)
14,627,036
121,223
50,994,691
19,308,504
114,793,280
93,758,223
88,153,978
83,026,236
464,783,171

Reviewed By:

EG Production
Utility
Hot Oil

64
Use or Make

Make

Item #
E-102
R-101

Description
EO Reactor Trim Cooler
EO Reactor

E-206
E-302
E-502
E-504

EO Stripper Re-Boiler
CO2 Stripper Re-Boiler
EG Dehydrator Re-Boiler
EG Purification Re-Boiler

Make Total

Use

Use Total
Hot Oil Sum

Utility
Electricity

Use or Make

Make

Mass Flow (lb/hr)

273,231
1,103,074
1,376,305
1,464,893
102,649
1,068,533
520,876
3,156,951
1,780,646

Item #
X-101

Description
Ethylene Feed Prep

C-101
C-501
P-201
P-202
P-203
P-301
P-302
P-303
P-501
P-502
P-503
P-504
P-505
P-506

Recycle Compressor
Lights Compressor
EO Stripper Feed Pump
EO Stripper Reflux Pump
EO Absorber Recycle Pump
CO2 Stripper Feed Pump
CO2 Absorber Recycle Pump
CO2 Absorber Make-up Pump
EG Dehydrator Reflux Pump
EG Purification Reflux Pump
EG Purification Feed Pump
MEG Product Pump
DEG Product Pump
DEG/TEG Product Pump

Make Total

Use

Use Total
Electricity Sum

Drexel University, CHE 483

Completed By:

Duty (Btu/hr)
22,131,708
131,265,859
153,397,567
167,478,806
11,735,679
88,153,978
42,972,272
310,340,735
156,943,168

Energy (kW)
175
175
2177
474
33
78
97
24
39
4
22
39
14
2
1
1
3003
2827

Reviewed By:

EG Production

65

8.2.Waste Streams
Waste Streams
Date:
Compiled by:
Project Title: EO/EG Plant
4/9/2006
Checked by:
Stream #
301
309
Purge

CO2 Stripper
Distillate

Mass Flow Rate (lb/hr)


Temperature (oF)
Pressure (psig)
Flow Rate (cfm)
Liquid Flow (gpm)
Vapor Flow (cfm)
Vapor Fraction
Component Flows (lb/hr)

686
248
172
908
0
908
1.00

25,035
221
15
214,378
0
214,378
1.00

ACETALD
ARGON
CARBON DIOXIDE
DEG
EG
EO
ETHANE
ETHYLENE
FORM
WATER
METHANE
NITROGEN
OXYGEN
TEG
Total

0
28
123
0
0
0
1
516
0
8
0
0
8
0
686

Stream Description

NPM
SSM

Stream Properties

Drexel University, CHE 483

36
0
15,594
0
0
8
0
16
0
9,381
0
0
1
0
25,035

Completed By:

Total
36
28
15,718
0
0
8
1
532
0
9,389
0
0
9
0
25,721

Reviewed By:

EG Production

66

9. Environmental and Safety Considerations


9.1.Environmental Concerns
Ethylene Oxide: Ethylene oxide rapidly breaks down when released to the environment.
Because ethylene oxide is a gas, most is expected to be released to the air where it reacts with
water vapor and sunlight and breaks down within a few days. Ethylene oxide will dissolve in
water, but most of it will quickly evaporate to the air. The ethylene oxide remaining will be
broken down by bacteria, or by reacting with water and other chemicals. When released to soil,
most will evaporate to air and some may be broken down by bacteria or by reacting with water in
the soil. Ethylene oxide does not persist long in the environment and is not expected to build up
in the food chain.
Ethylene Glycol: Ethylene glycol is a colorless, odorless, relatively non-volatile liquid.
Ethylene glycol is not expected to deplete the ozone layer, it has a low potential to contribute to
ground-level ozone formation, and its potential contribution to climate change is negligible.
Ethylene glycol has been found to biodegrade rapidly in the aquatic environment and therefore
has the potential to induce depletion of the dissolved oxygen (DO) in receiving waters.
Diethlyene Glycol: DEG is a colorless, sweet smelling, relatively non-volatile liquid.
DEG is readily biodegradable and breaks down when released to the environment. It is
practically non-toxic to aquatic organisms on an acute basis.
Triethylene Glycol: TEG is a colorless odorless clear liquid. When released into the soil,
it is expected to readily biodegrade. When released into the soil, TEG is expected to leach into
groundwater and is not expected to evaporate significantly. When released into water, this
material is expected to readily biodegrade and not expected to evaporate significantly. TEG is not
expected to significantly bioaccumulate. When released into the air, this material is expected to
be readily degraded by reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals and is
expected to have a half-life of less than 1 day.

Drexel University, CHE 483

Completed By:

Reviewed By:

EG Production

67

9.2.Safety Concerns
Ethylene Oxide : EO is very toxic and a suspected human carcinogen. Even in lower
concentrations, long-term exposure of ethylene oxide leaves lasting effects on humans. The
chemical is generally regarded as dangerous for the central nervous system, reproduction, genetic
effects, and cancer. Laboratory research has shown the substance to increase the risk of leukemia,
stomach, and brain cancer in animals. A Materials Safety Data sheet has been issued describing
the health, safety and environmental properties of this product, identifying the potential hazards
and giving advice on handling precautions and emergency procedures. This must be consulted
and fully understood before handling storage or use.
Ethylene Glycol : The major danger from ethylene glycol is from its ingestion. Due to its
sweet taste, children and animals will sometimes consume large quantities of it if given access to
antifreeze. Symptoms of ethylene glycol poisoning follow a three-step progression. Initially,
victims may appear to be intoxicated, exhibiting symptoms such as dizziness, slurred speech, and
confusion. Over time, the body metabolizes ethylene glycol into another toxin, oxalic acid.
Buildup of this substance results in irregularities in the victim's heartbeat and breathing. In the
final stage, the victim suffers kidney failure. In developed countries, denatonium is generally
added to ethylene glycol preparations in order to offset the sweet taste.
DiEthylene Glycol : DEG is harmful if swallowed. Care should therefore be exercised in
all handling operations. Precautions should also be taken to prevent entry into the eyes and to
prevent prolonged or repeated contact with the skin. The use of goggles or PVC or rubber gloves
is recommended with additional protective clothing where necessary. Excessive exposure to mist
or vapor should be minimized by provision of adequate ventilation. A Materials Safety Data
sheet has been issued describing the health, safety and environmental properties of this product,
identifying the potential hazards and giving advice on handling precautions and emergency
procedures. This must be consulted and fully understood before handling storage or use.
TriEthylene Glycol : So far there have been no adverse health effects from the inhalation
or ingestion of TEG. Prolonged exposure to the skin may cause skin irritation. Splashing in eye
will cause irritation with transitory disturbances of corneal epithelium. However, these effects
Drexel University, CHE 483

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68

diminish and no permanent injury is expected. Vapors are non-irritating. Chronic exposure to
TEG may cause possible skin irritation. Materials Safety Data sheet has been issued describing
the health, safety and environmental properties of this product, identifying the potential hazards
and giving advice on handling precautions and emergency procedures. This must be consulted
and consulted and fully understood before handling storage or use.
Leaks and Spills: In case of any leaks, we will ventilate area of leak or spill. Personal
protective equipment will be used as specified in Material Safety Data Sheets. The hazard are
will be isolated and unnecessary and unprotected personnel will be prohibited to enter the area.
The spill will be contained and liquid will be recovered when possible. The liquid will be
collected in an appropriate container or absorb with an inert material (e. g., vermiculite, dry sand,
earth), and placed in a chemical waste container. Precautions will be taken so that none of the
spills will be flushed down the sewers.
Utilities Consideration: In case of loss of power, we will shut off the supply of ethylene,
CO2 section and the purge. A back up generator will convert all the unreacted ethylene oxide into
ethylene glycol after which we will shut down the plant until power is restored.
Fire Prevention: Our plant will be equipped with a state of the art fire
suppression/prevention system. In the event of a fire, all gas streams will be shut off. Fire
fighting personnel will be required to wear a full-body encapsulating chemical resistant suit with
positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus.

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69

9.3.Waste Minimization
All the plants waste streams will be handled according to the policies and regulations of
the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
Process Recycle: A majority of the streams are recycled to optimize the process and
minimize waste. The ethylene oxidation process produces a considerable amount of carbon
dioxide (CO2). The waste CO2 is sent to the carbonate scrubber (T-301) and the resulting CO 2
gas can be further purified and sold. Since the purification and sale of carbon dioxide is out of
our scope, we have listed it as a future improvement to the overall plant, which can bring added
profit to the company. For the process proposed, we will send the waste CO 2 to a flare to remove
the remaining hydrocarbons and impurities, releasing it to the atmosphere. In addition, our
process has no waste water streams since all the water circulates in the process loop, but waste
water created during cleaning will be sent to a waste water treatment plant. Finally, the bottoms
product from the EG Purification Column are mixed
Emissions: All waste gas steams will be sent through a flare, and emissions will be in
compliance with the EPA standards.
Leaks: Chemical leaks will be sent to a chemical sewer rather than a storm drain.

Drexel University, CHE 483

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10.

70

Economic Feasibility

10.1. Economic Assumptions


Economic Assumptions
Sales:

2008

224

MM lbs

2009

448

MM lbs

896

MM lbs

2010

Ethylene Glycol Selling Price:

& on

2008

38

c/lb (2 years contract)

2009

38

c/lb (2 years contract)

39

c/lb (then inc. 2%/yr)

2010

& on

Variable Cost :

18

c/lb

(2010 $, inflate @ 2% /yr)

Fixed Cost:

23

$MM/yr

(2010 $, inflate @ 2% /yr)

Administration & Sales:

% of sales

R&D:

% of sales

Fixed Capital:

124

$MM

Start - Up:

Federal and State Taxes:

Working Capital:

Drexel University, CHE 483

15

$MM in 2007

12

% of Fixed Capital in 2007

$MM in 2008

% of Fixed Capital in 2008

$MM in 2009

% of Fixed Capital in 2009

39%

18

% of sales

Completed By:

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71

10.2. Capital Equipment Costs


Costs for capital equipment were calculated using the equipment cost spreadsheet
provided to us by Arkema Chemicals Inc. The specialty equipment was priced based on the
following assumptions:
1) Five miles of piping will be needed at a cost of $1MM uninstalled, with a cost factor of 5 for
installation.
2) The Oxygen Mixing Station was assumed to be $1MM uninstalled, with a cost factor of 4.44
for installation.
3) The Oxygen Generation Plant was assumed to be $1MM uninstalled, with a cost factor of 5.2
for installation.
Literature data found in Product and Process Design Principles by Seader, Seider and Lewin
estimated capital cost for a 600 MMlb/yr ethylene oxide plant in 1995 to be $80MM.
Considering increase in capacity and inflation the estimated capital costs would increase to
$123MM in 2006. Our calculated capital cost is $124 MM, which is reasonable based on the
above literature data.

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Equipment
Catalyst

72

Item #
R-101 Catalyst
R-401 Catalyst

Description
Reactor Catalyst
Reactor Catalyst

Material
Silver
Resin

Capital Cost
2,274,000
9,000
2,283,000

Cost Factor
3.09
3.09
6.18

Installed Cost
7,035,000
27,000
7,062,000

T-201
T-202
T-301
T-302
T-501
T-502

EO Absorber
EO Stripper
CO2 Absorber
CO2 Stripper
EG Dehydrator
EG Purification

CL
CL
CL
CL
CS
CS

276,000
276,000
151,000
130,000
426,000
519,000
1,778,000

5.20
5.20
5.20
5.20
5.20
5.20
31.21

1,435,000
1,435,000
785,000
676,000
2,216,000
2,699,000
9,246,000

C-101
C-501

Recycle Compressor
Lights Compressor

SS
SS

804,000
1,048,000
1,852,000

3.48
3.48
6.95

2,795,000
3,644,000
6,439,000

Furnace
Furnace Sum

E-601

Hot Oil Furnace

CS

Heat exchanger

E-101
E-102
E-201
E-202A
E-202B
E-202C
E-203
E-204A
E-204B
E-204C
E-204D
E-204E
E-205
E-206

EO Reactor Pre-Heater
EO Reactor Trim Cooler
EO Absorber Gas Cooler
EO Absorber Liquid Cooler
EO Absorber Liquid Cooler
EO Absorber Liquid Cooler
EO Absorber Trim Cooler
EO Stripper Pre-Heater
EO Stripper Pre-Heater
EO Stripper Pre-Heater
EO Stripper Pre-Heater
EO Stripper Pre-Heater
EO Stripper Condenser
EO Stripper Re-Boiler

Shell: SS Tube: SS
Shell: CS Tube: SS
Shell: SS Tube: SS
Shell: SS Tube: CS
Shell: SS Tube: CS
Shell: SS Tube: CS
Shell: CS Tube: SS
Shell: SS Tube: SS
Shell: SS Tube: SS
Shell: SS Tube: SS
Shell: SS Tube: SS
Shell: SS Tube: SS
Shell: CS Tube: SS
Shell: CS Tube: SS

Catalyst Sum
Column

Column Sum
Compressor
Compressor Sum

Drexel University, CHE 483

1,800,000
1,800,000

Completed By:

171,000
304,000
352,000
301,000
301,000
301,000
137,000
290,000
290,000
290,000
290,000
290,000
221,000
303,000

4.63
4.63
4.63
4.63
5.63
6.63
4.63
4.63
5.63
6.63
7.63
8.63
4.63
4.63

Reviewed By:

791,000
1,406,000
1,628,000
1,392,000
1,693,000
1,994,000
633,000
1,341,000
1,631,000
1,921,000
2,211,000
2,501,000
1,022,000
1,402,000

EG Production
Equipment

73

Item #
E-301
E-302
E-401
E-402A
E-402B
E-501A
E-501B
E-501C
E-502A
E-502B
E-503
E-504

Description
CO2 Stripper Economizer
CO2 Stripper Re-Boiler
EG Reactor Pre-Cooler
EG Reactor Trim Cooler
EG Reactor Trim Cooler
EG Dehydrator Condenser
EG Dehydrator Condenser
EG Dehydrator Condenser
EG Dehydrator Re-Boiler
EG Dehydrator Re-Boiler
EG Purification Condenser
EG Purification Re-Boiler

Material

Capital Cost
258,000
33,000
363,000
253,000
253,000
260,000
260,000
260,000
302,000
302,000
221,000
305,000
6,911,000

Cost Factor
4.63
4.63
4.63
4.63
5.63
4.63
5.63
6.63
4.63
5.63
4.63
4.63
138.31

Installed Cost
1,193,000
152,000
1,679,000
1,170,000
1,423,000
1,203,000
1,463,000
1,723,000
1,397,000
1,699,000
1,022,000
1,411,000
37,101,000

T-201 Packing
T-202 Trays
T-301 Packing
T-302 Trays
T-501 Trays
T-502 Packing

Packing
Tray
Packing
Tray
Tray
Packing

(blank)
(blank)
(blank)
(blank)
(blank)
(blank)

454,000
177,000
72,000
58,000
285,000
1,557,000
2,603,000

3.09
4.24
3.09
4.24
4.24
3.09
22.00

1,404,000
750,000
222,000
245,000
1,208,000
4,817,000
8,646,000

P-201
P-202
P-203
P-301
P-302
P-303
P-501
P-502
P-503
P-504
P-505
P-506
P-601
P-602

EO Stripper Feed Pump SS


EO Stripper Reflux Pump SS
EO Absorber Recycle Pump SS
CO2 Stripper Feed Pump SS
CO2 Absorber Recycle Pump SS
CO2 Absorber Make-up Pump SS
EG Dehydrator Reflux Pump CS
EG Purification Reflux Pump CS
EG Purification Feed Pump CS
MEG Product Pump
CS
DEG Product Pump
CS
DEG/TEG Product Pump CS
Hot Oil Pump
CS
Hot Oil Pump
CS

16,000
2,000
66,000
10,000
16,000
8,000
9,000
5,000
6,000
3,000
2,000
2,000
15,000
15,000
175,000

4.05
4.05
4.05
4.05
4.05
4.05
4.05
4.05
4.05
4.05
4.05
4.05
4.05
4.05
56.73

64,000
8,000
267,000
40,000
64,000
32,000
36,000
20,000
24,000
12,000
8,000
8,000
60,000
60,000
703,000

R-101
R-401

EO Reactor
EG Reactor

SS
SS

259,000
230,000
489,000

5.39
5.39
10.79

1,397,000
1,240,000
2,637,000

X-102
X-103
(blank)

Oxygen Generation Plant


Oxygen Mixing Station
Cooling Water System
Piping

CS
CS
(blank)
SS

1,000,000
1,000,000
1,000,000
5,000,000
8,000,000

5.20
4.44
5.10
5.00
19.74

5,200,000
4,440,000
5,100,000
25,000,000
39,740,000

Turbine
Turbine Sum

X-101

Ethylene Feed Prep

CS

2,245,000
2,245,000

3.48
3.48

7,812,000
7,812,000

Vessel

TK-101
TK-102
TK-103
TK-104
TK-105
V-201
V-202
V-401
V-501
V-502
V-601

MEG Storage Tank (1)


MEG Storage Tank (2)
MEG Storage Tank (3)
MEG Storage Tank (4)
DEG Storage Tank
EO Absorber Flash Drum
EO Stripper Reflux Drum
EG Reactor Flash Drum

Vessel Sum

96,000
96,000
96,000
96,000
18,000
44,000
18,000
38,000
18,000
31,000
26,000
577,000

4.63
4.63
4.63
4.63
4.63
4.63
4.63
4.63
4.63
4.63
4.63
50.90

444,000
444,000
444,000
444,000
83,000
203,000
83,000
175,000
83,000
143,000
120,000
2,666,000

Grand Total

26,913,000

346.30

123,852,000

Shell: SS Tube: SS
Shell: SS Tube: CS
Shell: CS Tube: CS
Shell: CS Tube: CS
Shell: CS Tube: CS
Shell: CS Tube: CS
Shell: CS Tube: CS
Shell: CS Tube: CS
Shell: CS Tube: CS
Shell: CS Tube: CS
Shell: CS Tube: CS
Shell: CS Tube: CS

Heat exchanger Sum

Packing

Packing Sum
Pump

Pump Sum
Reactor
Reactor Sum
Special

Special Sum

CS
CS
CS
CS
CS
SS
SS
CS
EG Dehydrator Reflux Drum SS
EG Purification Reflux Drum CS
Hot Oil System (tank)
SS

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74

10.3. Manufacturing Costs


Cost of manufacturing includes both variable and fixed costs. Variable cost includes raw
materials and 20% utility costs.

Fixed cost includes labor, supplies and indirect costs.

Theoretical usage was calculated based on stoichiometry, while actual usage was based on our
calculated annual consumption. All calculations were based on an annual capacity of 896
MMlb/yr.

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75
Product:
Capacity:
Location:

Ethylene Glycol
896 MMlbs/ yr
Gulf Cost

Stream Factor:

92% (8100 hrs)

Stoichiometry
Ethylene

Oxygen

Ethylene Oxide

CH2CH2
28 g/mol
EO

1/2 O2
16 g/mol
H2O

C2H4O
44 g/mol
EG

C2H4O
44 g/mol
EG

H2O
18 g/mol
H2O

OHCH2CH2OH
62 g/mol
DEG

OHCH2CH2OH
62 g/mol

H2O
18 g/mol

OHCH2CH2OCH2CH2OH
106 g/mol

Raw Material
Ethylene
Oxygen
DEG (credit)

Annual or Daily
Comsumption
(Mlb/yr)
451000
377200
2132

Utilities
Fuel
Power
Cooling Water

Average
Consumption
(Mlb/yr)
157
2830
8

Drexel University, CHE 483

YIELD
89%
68%

Units
MM btu/hr
kW/yr
MM lb/yr

Theor.
Usage lb/lb
0.45
0.26
-1.71

Price
2
0.06
10

Actual
Usage lb/lb
0.51
0.38
0.00

Units
$/MMBTU
$/kWhrs
c/1000 gal
Total

Delivered
Price
$0.35
$0.00
$0.26
Total

Cost of Manuf.
($M/yr)
$157,000
$0
-$554
156,000

Cost of
Manuf.
(c/lb)
17.68
0.00
-0.06
17.61

Cost Of
Manuf.
($M/yr)
2575
1392
97
4,000

Cost of Manuf.
(c/lb)
0.29
0.16
0.01
0.45

%
Variable
40
20
0
20

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% Variable
100
100
100
100

EG Production

76

Labor

(including
overhead)
Operating
- Board
- Field
Supervisor
Maintenance
- 2 Mechanical
- 1 Instrumentational
Quality Control
- 2 Techs
Engineer
- 1 EO System
- 1 CO2 System
- 1 EG System
- 1 OSBL
Total

Drexel University, CHE 483

Cost
($M/yr)

Manuf.
(c/lb)

% Variable

500

0.06

250

0.03

800

0.09

15000 hrs @ $40/hr


15000 hrs @ $40/hr

1200
600

0.13
0.07

0
0

8000hrs @ $50/hr
1 per major unit(s)
1 Engineer @
$460M
1 Engineer @
$460M
1 Engineer @
$460M
1 Engineer @
$460M

800

0.09

460

0.05

460

0.05

460

0.05

460
5990

0.05
0.67

0
0

Basis
2 Operators/shift @
$250M/shift
position
1 Operators/shift @
$250M/shift
position
2 Operators/shift @
$400M/shift
position

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77

Supplies
Operating Supplies
Maintenance Supplies
Total Supplies

Indirect Costs
Depreciation
Taxes & Insurance
Total Indirect Costs

Drexel University, CHE 483

Basis
10% Operating
Labor
60% Maintenance
Labor

Basis
11 yr. straight line
2% of Fixed Capital

Cost of
$M/yr

Manuf c/lb

% Variable

75

0.01

1080
1155

0.12
0.13

0
0

Cost of
$M/yr
11315
2
11317

Manuf c/lb
1.26
0.00
1.26

% Variable
0
0
0

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78

10.4. Year-by-Year Economic Analysis


The year-by-year analysis can be seen in the Cash Flow Model. The Internal Rate of Return
is 30%, with a Hurdle Rate of 12%. Based on this data, the project is recommended to proceed
further.

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Insert Cash flow table 11x17 (1 pg)

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80

10.5. Sensitivity & Cost Behavior Analysis

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81

Graph 1: Ethylene Cost Sensitivity

The above graph represents the sensitivity of the cost of ethylene. For our base case the cost of
ethylene is 35 cents/lb which yields a 30% IRR. It is apparent that the IRR follows a negative
trend with increase in price of ethylene. Hence the price of ethylene should not go above 53
cents/lb in order to stay above the hurdle rate of 12%.

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Graph 2: Volume Sensitivity

The above graph represents the sensitivity of the volume of Ethylene Glycol produced. For our
base case the cost of ethylene is 35 cents/lb which yields a 30% IRR. The IRR decreases with cut
down in our capacity. Hence our capacity should not go below 70% of the maximum capacity
(896 MMlb/yr) in order for us to stay above the hurdle rate of 12%.

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Graph 3: Cost-Behavior -Volume Impact

The above graph represents the costbehavior-volume impact. As the capacity of the plant
increases, the total cost, which includes the fixed and variable cost, also increases.

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Graph 4: Break Even Chart

The break-even chart shows the plants break even point at 13% capacity at the selling price of 38
cents/lb of ethylene glycol.

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Graph 5: Price/Capacity Sensitivity

Lowering the plant capacity by approximately 30% would cause the IRR to reach the hurdle rate
at a price of 40 cents/lb. This would not be recommended. Raising the plant capacity by
approximately 12% would increase our IRR for current market price. This is desirable as long as
there is demand for ethylene glycol. This graph also shows the effect of change in IRR to the
change in price of ethylene glycol. We can conclude that the change in capacity has a greater
effect than a change in product price.

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Graph 6: Volume impact on cost behavior

As the capacity of the plant increases, the operating costs exponentially decreases. The operating
cost per lb of product goes to infinity as the plant capacity goes to zero because the total product
cost reaches the fixed cost.

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Graph 7: Breakdown of Cost Factors vs. Revenue

This graph compares the cost of manufacturing to the sale price of ethylene glycol. The graph
shows that the raw materials contribute to majority of the cost. Because the product revenue is
significantly higher than the cost of manufacturing, even with a fluctuation in raw material costs,
the plant would still be profitable.

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88

11.

Conclusions and Recommendations


Overall, the capital investment for this project is estimated at $124 million. At an

estimated production rate of 890 million pounds per year of ethylene glycol at full capacity, the
plant will use 450 million pounds per year of ethylene provided by direct pipeline, and 380
million pounds per year of oxygen which will be generated by an oxygen generation plant. The
anticipated Internal Rate of Return after the 16 year lifespan is expected to be 30%, with a break
even period of 2 years, and this exceeds the hurdle rate of 13%. This process seams very feasible
according to this preliminary economic analysis, but a few further studies can be done to
improve the profitability further.

Also, this process can be optimized to reduce the overall amount of heating and cooling used
in the process, which could potentially save a few million dollars per year, but would probably
require a small increase in the capital investment. Also, the carbon dioxide stream exiting the
CO2 stripper could be purified and sold to offset the cost of production for another few million
dollars savings per year. One of the most important recommendations would be to lock in the
price of ethylene by entering into a long term contract with the providers. A difference of 1 c/lb
in the cost of ethylene would save almost $9 million per year. At this stage, our recommendation
is to proceed with this project to the next stage of development.

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12.

Appendices

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12.5. Sample Calculations

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12.6. MSDS

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12.7. Aspen Process Simulation

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13.

Literature Cited

1)

ATSDR-ToxFAQs: Etheylen Oxide. Agency for Toxid Substances and Disease


Registry.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/tfacts137.html

2)

"BASF/ATOFINA Steam Cracker, Port Arthur, TX, USA".


http://www.chemical s-technology.com/proj ect-printable.asp?ProjectID=165

3)

Bishnoi, S. 2000. Carbon dioxide absorption and solution equilibrium in piperazine


activated methyldiethanolamine. The University of Texas at Austin.

4)

Buckles, Carey. Chipman, Pete. Cubillas, Mary. Lakin, Mike. Slezak, Dan. Townsend,
David. Vogel, Keith. Wagner, Mike. Regulations. Ethylene Oxide User's Guide.
http://www.ethyleneoxide.com/html/regulations.html

5)

"Carbon Dioxide Recovery and Disposal From Large Energy Systems"


http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1 146/annurev.energy.21.1.145

6)

Cheminfo: Ethylene. Chemical Profiles Created by CCOHS. Canadian Centre for


Occupational Health and Safety.
http://www.intox.org/databand/documents/chemical/ethylene/cie89.htm

7)

"Climate Information for Port Arthur, TX".


http://www.rssweather.com/climate/Texas/Port%20Arthur/

8)

"Ethylene Glycol". Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley &


Sons, Inc, 2004.
http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com.ezproxy.library.drexel.edu/kirk/articles/et hyfor
k.a01 /pdf fs.html

9)

"Ethylene Glycol". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH Verlag


GmbH & Co, 2002.
http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com.ezproxy.library.drexel.edu/ueic/articles/a 10_10
1/pdf fs.html

10)

"Ethylene Glycol" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethylene -glycol

11)

"Ethylene Oxide". Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley &


Sons, Inc, 2004.

Drexel University, CHE 483

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EG Production
http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com.ezproxy.library.drexel.edu/kirk/articles/et hydeve.
a01/sect4-fs.html .
12)

"Ethylene Oxide". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH Verlag


GmbH & Co, 2002.
http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com.ezproxy.library.drexel.edu/kirk/articles/et hydeve.
a01 /sect4-fs.html

13)
14}

"Ethylene Oxide" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethylene oxide


"Global ethylene glycol and ethylene oxide capacity in metric tons per year for each of 58
producers, facilities or countries, reported as of March 29, 2000", Chemical Week, p 49,
March 29, 2000.

15)

"Hazardous Substance Fact Sheet". New Jersey Department of Health and Senior
Servies. http://www.state.nj.us/health/eoh/rtkweb/0882.pdf

16)

McKetta, John J. and Cunningham, William A. Encyclopedia of Chemical


Processing and Design, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1983, Volume 20, pp. 282303.

17)

Oxygen.-1910.104. U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Safety & Health


Administration. http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/

18)

Process Economics Program Report 2 Ethylene Oxide and Ethylene Glycol. SRI Report,
January 1997.

19)

"Process for the preparation of alkylene glycols" United States Patent 5,488,184
http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nphParser?Sect1=PTO 1
&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1 &u=/netahtml/srchnum.ht
m&r=1&f=G&1=50&s1=5,488,184.WKU.&OS=PN/5,488,184&
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20)

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21)

Registration Eligibility Document: Ethylene. United States Environmental Protection


Agency. Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances. 22)

Seider,

Warren, Seader, J.D., Lewin, Daniel R. Product and Process Design Principles. John
Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2004.

Drexel University, CHE 483

Completed By:

Reviewed By:

EG Production
23)

Synthetic Organic Heat Transfer Fluid-Liquid Phase Data: DOWTHERM RP.


http://www.dow.com/heattrans/family/dowrp/index.htm?
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24)

Toxicology profile for Ethylene Oxide,Agency for toxic substances and Disease
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25)

"US ethylene capacity in pounds per year by company, with plant locations". Chemical
Market Reporter, p 27, September 29, 2003.

Drexel University, CHE 483

Completed By:

Reviewed By:

1.

Introduction

2.

Design Basis

3.

Process Description

4.

Process Flow Diagrams

5.

Material & Energy Balance

6.

Equipment

7.

Plant Layout

8.

Operating Requirements

9.

Environmental and Safety Considerations

10.

Economic Feasibility

11.

Conclusions and Recommendations

12.

Appendices

12.1 Sample Calculations

12.2 MSDS

12.3 Aspen Process Simulation

13.

Literature Cited