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ADDIS ABABA UNIVESITY SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES COLLEGE OF EDUCATION AND BEHAVIOURAL STUDIES EDUCATIONAL PLANNING AND

ADDIS ABABA UNIVESITY SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES COLLEGE OF EDUCATION AND BEHAVIOURAL STUDIES EDUCATIONAL PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT

THE PRACTICES AND PROBLEMS OF HUMAN RESOURCE TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT SCHEME IN SELAM CHILDREN`S VILLAGE AT ADDIS ABABA

BY YEMATAW KIBRET

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THE PRACTICES AND PROBLEMS OF HUMAN RESOURCE TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT SCHEME IN SELAM CHILDREN`S VILLAGE AT ADDIS ABABA

A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT IN PARTIAL FULFIMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR MASTER OF ARTS IN EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT

BY YEMATAW KIBRET

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THE PRACTICES AND PROBLEMS OF HUMAN RESOURCE TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT SCHEME IN SELAM CHILDREN`S VILLAGE AT ADDIS ABABA

BY

YEMATAW KIBRET

APPROVED BY BOARD OF EXAMINERS:

Hussien Kedir (PhD)

__________________

_____________

Chairperson, Department of Graduate Committee

Signature

Date

Alemayehu Debebe (Ato)

___________________

_____________

Advisor

Signature

Date

Dame Abera (PhD)

Zenebe Baraki (PhD)

___________________

________________

External examiner

Signature

Date

___________________

______________

Internal examiner

Signature

Date

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

My special thanks is extended to Ato Alemayehu Debebe, my thesis advisor, for his invaluable comments and unreserved intellectual and moral assistance.

My sincere and heartfelt gratitude goes to my lovely family, especially to my wife W/ro

Etsebeles Assefa who took the lion‟s share of responsibility in caring for our children, other

familial and social matters. I am also very appreciative of my children Minase Yemataw and Bereket Yemataw for their patience throughout the course of my study. I extend my thanks to my friends and management and employees of Selam Children`s Village at Addis Ababa who had a part in one way or another in the study. Lastly, my heartfelt appreciation goes to Ato Teshager Zelelew who was with me throughout my courses and helped me in editing and computer layout of this thesis.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

1

TABLE OF CONTENTS

2

ACRONYMS

5

ABSTRACT

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CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

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  • 1.1. Background of the Study

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  • 1.2. Statement of the Problem

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  • 1.3. Objectives of the Study

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  • 1.4. Significance

of the Study .................................................................................................................

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  • 1.5. Delimitation of the study

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  • 1.6. Operational Definition of Terms

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  • 1.7. Organization of the

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CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

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  • 2.1. Concept of Training and Development

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  • 2.1.1 Nature of Training and Development

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  • 2.1.2 Definitions of Training and Development

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  • 2.1.3. Human Resource Training and Development Policy

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  • 2.2. Systematic Approaches to Training and Development

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  • 2.2.1. Training and Development Needs Analysis

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  • 2.2.2. Establishing Training and Development Objectives

................................................................

19

  • 2.2.3. and

Training

Development

design ............................................................................................

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  • 2.2.4. Training and Development Delivery

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  • 2.2.5. and

Training

Development

Evaluation .....................................................................................

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  • 2.3. Benefits of Training and Development

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  • 2.4. Factors Affecting Training and Development

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  • 2.5. Human Resource Training and Development in Selam Children`s Village

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  • 2.5.1. Historical Background of Selam Children`s Village

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  • 2.5.2. Organizational Structure of Selam Children`s Village (SCV)

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CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

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  • 3.1 Research Design

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  • 3.2 Sources of Data and Collection Methods

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  • 3.3 Sampling Technique

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  • 3.4 Instruments of Data Collection

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  • 3.5. Procedure of Data Collection

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  • 3.6. Data

Analysis ...................................................................................................................................

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CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

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  • 4.1 Characteristics of the Respondents

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  • 4.2 Data Presentation and Analysis

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  • 4.2.1 Human Resource Training and Development Policy

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  • 4.2.2 Training and Development Needs Assessment

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  • 4.2.3 Human Resource Training and Development

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  • 4.2.4 Methods ...................................................................................

HR

Training

and

Development

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  • 4.2.5 Evaluations ..............................................................................

HR

Training

and

Development

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CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

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  • 5.1 Summary...........................................................................................................................................

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  • 5.2 Conclusions

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5.3.

Recommendations

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REFERENCES

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APPENDICES

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  • A. Questionnaires

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  • B. Interview questions

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  • C. Organizational Structure of SCV

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  • D. Populations and Respondents

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Tables

LIST OF TABLES

Pages

Table 1 Background of Respondents ---------------------------------------------------------------------28 Table 2 Responses of Employees on HRTD Policy ----------------------------------------------------29 Table 3 Existence of Training and Development Need Analysis (TNA) ----------------------------30 Table 4 Practice of Performance Appraisal--------------------------------------------------------------31 Table 5 Availability of Clear Training and Development Objectives -------------------------------32 Table 6 Methods of Training and Development --------------------------------------------------------33 Table 7 Evaluation of Training and Development ------------------------------------------------------35

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ACRONYMS

CYC ----------- Children, Youth and Community DGM ---------- Deputy General Manager ET -------------- Education and Training HRTD --------- Human Resource Training and Development HR ------------- Human Resource HRM ---------- Human Resource Management HRD ------------Human Resource Development IGA -------------Income Generating Activities IS ----------------Institutional Support MIS ---------------Management Information System KSA ----------- Knowledge, Skill and Ability OJT ----------- On-The-Job Training SCV ----------- Selam Children`s Village SHRM -------- Strategic Human Resource Management SMART------- Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant and time bound TD ------------ Training and Development TNA-----------Training Need Analysis

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ABSTRACT

This study was conducted with the objective of assessing the practices and problems of Human Resource Training and Development scheme in Selam Children`s Village at Addis Ababa. The study adopted the survey research method. The quantitative technique involved a questionnaire survey on first line managers and other non manager employees; while the qualitative technique involved an interview with middle and top level managers. The sampling technique employed to collect primary information was purposive sampling technique. Accordingly, a total of 193 top level managers, middle level managers, first line managers and employees were taken using availability sampling technique as an actual source of information. The data gathered were analyzed using descriptive survey. Instruments were pilot tested to make essential corrections and maintain their validity and reliability. After improving questionnaire on the basis of the feedback from the pilot test, it was administered to the respondents with the necessary explanations how to complete it. Finally the responses obtained through the questionnaires were coded, tabulated and analyzed. The findings of the study revealed that Selam Children`s Village has no well defined and written training and development policy, and the training given to employees is not based on training need analysis. Objectives and criteria are not set for providing Human Resource Training and Development. Although there are practices of using both on-the-job and 0ff-the-job training methods, the dominant method is on-the-job. Scientific training and development evaluation methods are not practiced yet. These implies that training and development policy is not practiced in Selam Children`s Village, the main reasons of not having training and development policy are; lack of relevant expertise, lack of guidelines, lack of concern with regards to its importance and lack of commitment of the top management. Training need analysis stage is the building block of a training programme and it is a tool used to identify the gap between the actual performance and the desired performance. On the contrary the findings of the study showed that Selam Children`s Village does not provide training and development based on need analysis. Training and development is given without objectives and criteria set before hand. By implication, trainees and trainers do not have objectives. Both on- the-job and off-the-job training method need to be practiced equally based on training and development need analysis.

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CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background of the Study

Human Resource Management, according to Mondy (2010), is the utilization of people to achieve the pre-set organizational goals/objectives. As some authors agree human resource management (RHM) comprises of five functions, these are: Staffing, Human Resource Training and Development, Compensation, Safety & Health, and Employee & Labour Relations (Mathis & Jackson, 2011; Mondy, 2010). From these major functions of Human Resource Management, Training and Development is the main focus of this research paper. Human Resource Training and Development is very crucial to keep employees up to date. Skills and knowledge can easily be obsolete in the same way as machines and technology. In order not to be obsolete, training and retraining are some measures to update the skills and knowledge of employees in these days of fast-changing technology (Murthy, 2003). Murthy (2003) discussed further the importance of training that periodic retraining will enable employees to update the skills and knowledge necessary to do their jobs more effectively and efficiently. Therefore, skills and knowledge need to be up to date and revised from time to time. This is not only to benefit employees but also to the survival and development of the organization. The main intention of training is to increase the expertise of trainees in a particular area (Desimone, Werner, & Harris. (2002). Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job (Banti, Messele & Yirgalem, 2006). Nowadays learning organizations are spending a good amount of money on training and development. Employers have recognized that training and development is not just a cost, it is rather an investment in human capital of the organization that benefits the entire organization (Mathis & Jackson, 2000). As it is described by Murthy (2003), investment in human resource training and development means that the management cares for the well-being of employees. Training provides employees with specific, identifiable knowledge and skills for use on their present jobs (Mathis & Jackson, 2000). According to them, training has two features, the first training provides specific knowledge and skills that are used for current (present) jobs and the second training is not future oriented but it is for immediate use. Decenzo and Robbins (2010) describe the importance of training as: “Every organization needs well-adjusted, trained, and experienced people to perform its activities. Mathis & Jackson describe training, as jobs in

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today`s dynamics organizations have become more complex, the importance of employee`s education has increased.” To have well-adjusted, trained and experienced employee training and development, for organizations, is not optional rather it is mandatory. This is because organizations can`t survive without skilled, knowledgeable and motivated employees (Mathis & Jackson, 2000).

Training and development: it is important to differentiate between employees training and development, which are similar in learning methods, but different in time frame (Decenzo & Robbins, 2010). Development is part of training programme which is less skill-oriented but stresses on knowledge about business environment, management principles and techniques, human relations, and the like which is useful for better management of a company (Worku, 2009). Moreover, development is concerned with giving individuals the necessary knowledge, skills and experience to enable employees to undertake greater and more demanding roles and responsibilities. Developmental activities have a longer-term focus on preparing for future work responsibilities, while also increasing the capacities of employees to perform their current jobs (Desimone, Werner & Harris, 2002). From this statement, it is possible to conclude that although

the focus of development is enabling individuals for future demands, it plays a great role in improving the current job that the jobholders are doing. As it is described by Banti, Messret and Yirgalem (2006) „Development is the systematic process of education, training, and growing by which a person learns and applies information, knowledge, skills, attitudes and perceptions‟. On the other hand, Training is a systematic process of changing the behaviour, knowledge and motivation of present employees to improve the match between employee characteristics and employment requirements. As it is described by Buckley and Caple (cited in Andinet, 2008),

“training is a planned and systematic effort to modify or develop knowledge, skills and attitude

through learning experience to achieve performance in an activity or ranges of activities”. Therefore, training is not only acquiring knowledge, skills and attitude but also it motivates employees. Training typically involves providing employees the knowledge and skills needed to do a particular task or job (Desimone, Werner & Harris, 2002). And therefore, training is skills oriented that can be used in the present jobs. When we talk about training and development, it is worth mentioning about education and learning too. Education is concerned with imparting theoretical concepts and developing a sense of reasoning and adjustment. It is learning general knowledge of a particular subject (Worku;

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2009). Andinet (2008) describes education as “ … a process and a series of activities which aim at enabling an individual to assimilate and develop knowledge, skills, values, and understanding

that are not simply related to a narrow field of activity but allow a broad range of problems to be defined, analyzed and solved.” Education is not for immediate use and for specific present and future job; it is rather imparting overall understanding. Garavan (cited in Wilson 2004) investigated the nature of training, education, and development and came to a conclusion that they all are involved learning. Therefore, Wilson concluded that

“it is logical to suggest that all the four (i.e. education, training, development and learning) are

seen as complementary components of the same process, i.e. the enhancement of human potential or talent.” Human resource development programs of an organization should respond

to job changes and integrate the long term plans and strategies of the organization in order to ensure the efficient and effective use of resources i.e. the people. Organizations are recognizing that success and training are not independent, but they are closely lw3inked (Truelove, 2000). Good training is not a mere option for organization, but it is a means of survival. Learning is defined by Härtel, Fujimoto, Strybosch and Fitzpatrick (2007) as “… a lifelong change in attitudes, behaviours and cognition as a result of one`s interaction with the surrounding

environment.” Learning is an ongoing development and continuously adding to employees skills

and knowledge to meet the challenges that the organization could be faced both from internal and external environment (Mello, 2011). The main purpose of employee training and development is to maximize learning of new skills, knowledge, attitudes and behaviours to come up with the demands of a dynamic environment (Härtel el at., 2007).

1.2. Statement of the Problem

Organizations can benefit from training and development when they create more flexible and adaptable employees who can assume varied responsibilities and have a more general understanding of what the organization does (Mello, 2011). Employee training enhances an

organization‟s performance by changing the knowledge, skills, behaviours and attitude.

As it is discussed in the background of the study, there is always a need for training and

development to achieve the goals of the organization. The goals/objectives of firms can be accomplished only through the people who are working in it. Human resources are the means

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and ends for organizational goals` accomplishment. To these ends, training and development is the main tool to mobilize the workforce towards the accomplishment of organizational

objectives. But in most organizations training and development do not get due attention. Had it

gotten due attention, training and development would have decreased employees‟ turnover,

absenteeism, scraps, supervisions, customers‟ complaints; and could flourish employees` motivation, heighten morale, increased productivity, increased organizational stability (Mathis & Jackson, 2000; Melaku,2000). Therefore, even if organizations are providing training and development (TD), it is not based on training and development needs assessment. Before the TD is delivered, its` objectives and criteria should be set. As it is discussed by Mathis and Jackson (2000) before training begins it is

best to consider how training is to be evaluated. Organizations do not practice evaluation immediately after training and development. Thus, investing significant amount of money for

training and development as well as providing training and development do not guarantee for

organizational goals‟ achievement and employees motivation. Training and development should

be provided based on systematic training and development processes. Having these empirical problems the research attempts to address training and development problems. As far as

concerned the researcher‟s knowledge, research studies exclusively on employee training and development in the service giving organizations, like Selam Children`s Village are insufficient,

and in Ethiopia it is a less emphasized area of research. To achieve the intended objective as well as the research problem stated above the study has attempted to give responses to the following basic research questions.

  • 1. Are there well defined human resource training and development policies in Selam Children`s Village?

  • 2. How is human resource training and development needs analyses conducted?

  • 3. Are there objectives and criteria set for providing human resource training and development in Selam Children`s Village?

  • 4. What are the common methods of human resource training and development being used in Selam Children`s Village?

  • 5. What are the mechanisms used to evaluate the human resource training and development programmes in Selam Children`s Village?

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1.3.

Objectives of the Study

General Objective

The general objective of the study was to assess the problems and practices of human resource

training and development scheme of Selam Children`s Village (SCV).

Specific Objectives

The Specific objectives of the study are:

  • 1. To evaluate the policies, and practices of human resource training and development in Selam Children`s Village.

  • 2. To examine whether training needs analysis was exercised or not to determine training needs

  • 3. To identify the availability of well defined training and development objectives in Selam Children`s Village.

  • 4. To describe what kinds of training and development methods are in place in Selam Children`s Village.

  • 5. To identify mechanisms for human resource training and development evaluation.

  • 1.4. Significance of the Study

The significance of the study in a service giving organization like Selam is timely, in order to go in line with rapidly changing technology (environment). Thus, the study focuses on the assessment of practices and problems of human resource training and development in Selam Children`s Village at Addis Ababa. The student researcher believes that this study is useful and it will have the following contributions:

  • 1. The study may help the researchers as a resource document and as a stepping- stone for further study on the area.

  • 2. The finding of the study will draw some conclusions and identify human resource training and development practices and problems; thus, it may give valuable information to human resource management practitioners to take remedial actions.

  • 3. The finding of the study may initiate other researchers for in-depth study.

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1.5.

Delimitation of the study

This paper focuses on the practices and problems of human resource training and development scheme in Selam Children`s Village at Addis Ababa, and limited on this organization. Human resource training and development involves range of learning strategies and techniques intended to help individuals, groups and organizations to realize their full potentials in working towards corporate goals. The learning strategies include management development, learning organization, self development, and all learning that enables individual and organizational growth. The study, therefore, does not cover all these strategies. Rather, it is limited only to human resource training and development.

  • 1.6. Operational Definition of Terms

Development:

is learning for growth of the individual but not related to a specific present or

Education:

future job (Wilson, 2004). is developing the knowledge, skills, moral values and understanding required in all aspects of life rather than a specific knowledge and skill relating to only a limited field of activity (Wilson, 2004).

Human capital: is the total value of human resources to the organization. (Mathis & Jackson, 2000) Human resources: is the most valued assets of organization`s who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of organization`s objectives (Armstrong, 2006). Human Resource Management: is a strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization‟s most valued assets – the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of its objectives (Armstrong,

2006).

Training: Systematic and organized process to impart identifiable knowledge, skills and abilities to do their present task or job (Mathis & Jackson, 2000).

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1.7. Organization of the study

The study is organized into five chapters. The first chapter deals with the background of the study, statement of the problem, significance, objective and delimitation of the study and definitions of terms. The second chapter is about review of related literature. The third one focuses on the research design and methodology, these are: the method employed, data sources, sample size and sampling techniques, instrument and procedure for data collection, and data analysis. The fourth chapter discusses presentation, analysis and interpretation of data. The last chapter includes summary, conclusion and recommendations.

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CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1. Concept of Training and Development

In this part different literatures on human resource training and development are reviewed to give background information about the study. Nature, definitions of training, development, and HRTD policy are discussed in detail.

2.1.1 Nature of Training and Development

Training and development is one of the human resource management functions which is the foundations of learning, and an integral part of the overall strategic human resource management (SHRM) process (Härtel, Fujimoto, Strybosch & Fitzpatrick, 2007). These authors describe that training and development process plays a significant role in bridging the performance gap of the organization`s employees. This means that training and development fills the gaps of knowledge, skills, abilities and positive motivation. In most cases Training is related to operational and/or technical employees whereas development is for managers and professionals (Banti, Messeret & Yirgalem, 2006). Training is about developing people as individuals and helping them to become more confident in their lives and their jobs (Pont, 1996). As to Mondy (2010) training and development is the heart of a continuous effort designed to improve employee competency and organizational performance. Bringing about permanent change upon employees is the nature of training and development. The change is permanent, it is not temporary. This change reveals in behavioral and attitudinal changes. Human resource development encompasses activities and processes which are intended to have impact on organizational and individual learning. Training and retraining are some measures to update the skills and knowledge of employees in these days of fast-changing technology (Murthy, 2003). Mello (2011) considered training and development as an ongoing

investment like: “If organization considers its employees to be assets, training and development

represents an ongoing investment in these assets and one of the most significant investments an

organization can make”.

Mello (2011) further elaborated the concepts of training and development as it is increasingly

becoming a main strategic issue for organizations for many reasons because; rapid changes in technology continue to cause increasingly rates of skills and knowledge obsolescence. To be

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remaining competitive, organizations should continue training their employees so that the best and the latest technologies in the turbulent environment can be used and redesign of jobs having broader responsibilities requires employees to assume more challenge, take initiative, and further develop interpersonal skills ensure their performance and success.

2.1.2 Definitions of Training and Development

Training is the process whereby people acquire capabilities to perform jobs. It provides employees with specific identifiable knowledge and skills for use in their present jobs (Mathis & Jackson; 2008). Training is the process of teaching employees the basic skills they need to perform their jobs. It is the main tool to acquaint employees with the basic skills and knowledge that is important to perform their current jobs. It can be designed to meet different objectives and can be classified in various ways (Mathis & Jackson). Having and maintaining the requisite employees` competence to perform in their roles at work is the primary objective of training (Boxall, Purcell & Wright, 2007). Its focus is on individual‟s current jobs enhancing those specific skills and abilities to immediately perform their jobs. Training typically refers to the teaching of lower level or technical employees how to perform their present job (Lunenburg; 1991). The main focus of training is organizational functions as opposed to development that focuses on employees. Training refers to the deliberate actions to increase knowledge, skills and attitudes of employees (Härtel, Fujimoto, Strybosch & Fitzpatrick; 2007). DeCenzo and Robbins (2010) define training aa learning experience that seeks a relatively permanent change in employees that improves job performance. It involves changing skills, knowledge, attitudes, or behaviour. This may mean changing what employees know, how they work, or their attitudes toward their jobs, co-workers, managers, and the organization. Mathis and Jackson (2008) classified training as:

  • a. Required and regular training: This complies with various mandated legal requirements and is given to all employees. e.g. to acquaint employee to new machine and technology.

  • b. Job /Technical Training: Enable employees to perform their jobs well by gaining Product knowledge, technical processes and produce, and customer relations.

  • c. Inter personal and problem solving training: addresses both operational and interpersonal problems and seeks to improve organizational working relationships.

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d. Departmental and career training: provides long term focus to enhance individual and organizational capabilities for the future like Bonus practice, Executive development, Organizational change, and Leadership. Development refers to those learning opportunities designed to help employees grow (Worku:

2099). Development involves learning that goes beyond today`s job and has long-term focus (Mondy; 2010). Development is not skill oriented that can be used for current jobholder; it is rather used for future and higher position or responsibilities. Worku (2009) brings a distinction between these two terms as: “Training is offered to operatives whereas developmental programmers are meant for employees in higher positions.”

Development is dealing with providing employees the necessary knowledge, skills and experience to enable them to demanding role and responsibilities. Development generally focuses on future jobs in the organization; hence it is not for immediate use. It enables leaders to being proactive than reactive. Development is broader in scope and focusing on individuals gaining new capabilities useful for both present and future jobs (Mathis & Jackson; 2000). Worku concludes that development is future oriented and can be used for demanding role and responsibilities, whereas Mathis & Jackson pointed out that development is useful both for present and future needs. HR development is the process of providing ongoing opportunities for employees to improve their knowledge and skills (Webb & Norton, 2009).

2.1.3. Human Resource Training and Development Policy

Organizations need to have well defined and clearly stated human resource training and development policy so that its training and development functions can be effective and efficient. As Kenny and Reid stated cited in Bogale (2007) policy can be thought as an expression of intention that gives general guidelines for conduct of affairs. Training and development policy establishes broad framework for its training that expresses the training and intervention priorities. According to Armstrong (2006) training and development policy could express the

organization‟s commitment to the continuous development of the skills and abilities of

employees in order to maximize their contribution and to give them the opportunity to enhance their skills, realize their potential, advance their careers and increase their employability both

within and outside the organization. Training and development policy shows the organization`s commitment and ensure continuous development of employees` skills and abilities.

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Armstrong (cited in Bogale, 2007) states that training and development policy is expression of the training philosophy of the organization. The policy provides guidelines on the amount of training to be given, scope and aims of training schemes. Policy statement tells what the organization is ready to do in terms of developing and upgrading employees (Bogale, 2007). As it is discussed by authors mentioned all training development policy governs the priorities, the standards, and the scope of training in the organization. Be it implicit or explicit organization need to have training and development policy. Every organization has policies with regard to training and development function: not all, however, have got these in a written form (Truelove, 2000). Truelove further discusses on the uses of training and development as follows: (1) enable organizations to define their objectives and the commitment for training and development; (2) provide operational guidelines for management; (3) provide information for all employees; (4) enhance public relation of the organization; (5) indicate the organization approach for training function; (6) helps organizations to communicate their intention regarding employees` career development; (7) give better prospects for employees. Organization that claimed to be committed to the concept of training and development should be confident enough to publish their policies for all employees to read (Truelove, 2000).

2.2. Systematic Approaches to Training and Development

Mathis and Jackson (2010) describe the systematic approaches to training and development has the following processes and these processes are discussed here under in details:

  • 1. Training and Development Needs Analysis,

  • 2. Establishing Training and Development Objectives,

  • 3. Training and Development Design,

  • 4. Training and Development Delivery and

  • 5. Training and Development Evaluation

2.2.1. Training and Development Needs Analysis

The first step in training assessment is analysis of what kind of training is needed. Training Needs Assessment is the process of gathering data to determine the right training needs of employees to be provided. Training needs assessment stage is the building block of a training

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programme (Eshetu, 2004). Training interventions have the potential to contribute to improving

the effectiveness of employees‟ performance and thereby help the organization meet its business

objectives. Training is just one possible aspect and should be selected only when it is most appropriate (Truelove, 2000). Training need analysis (TNA) is a tool used to identify the gap between the actual performance and the desired performance in the organization (Härtel et al., 2007). Truelove further described analysis of organizational training needs as it is a process of taking an overview of the performance of the organization. Its purpose is to identify where training can make major contribution to improve organizational performance. According to Truelove, analysis organizational training needs requires the collection of information from across the organization about current performance problems and future needs and plans. Training need analysis can be identified by different methods such as direct observation, interview, information searches, focus groups and inventory methods (Härtel et al., 2007). Training and development needs assessment is analyzing what type of training is needed (Mathis & Jackson, 2008; Mondy, 2010). Mathis and Jackson identify training needs by considering three sources: these sources are organization-wide sources, task/job analyses sources and individual employee sources.

Organizational Analysis:

Training and development needs can be diagnosed by analyzing organizational out comes and

looking at future needs (Mathis & Jackson, 2008; Mondy, 2010). Mondy further discusses this

as “… an overall organizational perspective, the firm‟s strategic mission, goals and corporate plans are studied along with the results of strategic human resource planning”. Organizations

with high turnover, high absenteeism, low performance, or other deficiencies can be pinpointed (Mathis & Jackson). Training should not take place for its own sake. It must be geared to the objectives of the particular organization. At organization level, the training is considered within the context of the organization`s culture, politics, structure, and strategy (Mello, 2011). Mello further describes organizational level of needs analysis by trying to answer the following

questions: How does the training relate to organizational objectives? How does the training impact day-to-day workplace dynamics? What are the costs and expected benefits of the training?

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Job/Task Analysis:

This is the second way of doing training and development needs analysis that can be identified with comparing knowledge, skills and ability (KSA) of employees. The current job specifications and job descriptions can be sources of analysis (Mathis & Jackson, 2008; Mondy 2010). According to Mello (2011) task level analysis can be explained by asking the following questions: What responsibilities are assigned to the job? What skills or knowledge are needed for successful performance? Should the learning setting be the actual job setting? What are the implications of mistakes? How can the job provide the employees with direct feedback? How similar to or different from the training needs of other jobs are the needs of this job?

Individual/person Analysis:

The third and the final level of needs analysis is individual/person analysis. Training need analyses eventually have to be dealt with at an individual level (Truelove, 2000). The useful questions to be asked here, as it is described by Mondy (2010) are: - Who needs to be trained? What kinds of KSA, do employees need? Performance appraisals and interviews or surveys of supervisors and job incumbents are helpful at this level. The most common approach for making this individual analysis is to use performance appraisal data (Mathis & Jackson, 2008). Analysis of training needs from person`s point of view, focusing on how the individuals perform their job; it measures the individual`s present performance with relation to the desired performance (Härtel et al, 2007). As to Härtel et al the source of data for person`s level of needs analysis includes: critical incidents, job diaries, direct observations and attitude surveys. The individual level of assessment recognized people to be trained. Mello (2011) considered some points to elaborate individual/person needs analysis as follows: What knowledge, skills, and abilities do trainees already have? What are the trainees learning styles? What special needs do the trainees have?

2.2.2. Establishing Training and Development Objectives

After training needs have been assessed, objectives for the training activities must be developed. The main objective of training is to ensure that all employees have and maintain the requisite expertise and competences to perform in their roles at work (Boxall, Purcell & Wright, 2009) .Mello (2011) described further as: these objectives should follow directly from the assessed

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needs and be described in specific, observable and measurable terms. Since training can have a wide range of results and expectations, it has to have observable and measurable learning objectives (Härtel et al., 2007). Tangible, specifiable, clear, measurable and timely training objectives are important so that trainees, trainers, managers and customers` expectations can be met; otherwise learning cannot be successfully planned or evaluated. Training and development objectives and priorities can be established by a “gap” analysis; Mathis and Jackson (2008) describe what a gap analysis means: it is the distance between where an organization is with its employee capabilities and where it needs to be. So training and development`s successes can be measured in terms of the objectives set. Training and development objectives consist of three elements: these are, as described by Mager

(cited in Härtel et al., 2007), a performance; a condition; and a standard. Härtel et al discuss these elements of training objectives as performance uses measurable and observable action words which are not open to interpretation. These action words are „add‟, „calculate‟, „collect‟, „identify‟, „illustrate‟, etc,. However; trainers should not use interpretative words like „know‟,

„understand‟, „believe‟ and „grasp the significance‟. Conditions must be stated under which the performance is to take place that can be specified to occur within a certain environmental conditions. A standard specifies some expected criteria, like quality, quantity or timeline, of performance. The same authors sum up these elements as “a complete learning objective might read: at the end of a training session, a trainee will be able to type 200 words (performance) in a quiet learning environment (condition) without any error (standard)”. Mathis and Jackson (2000) describe four dimensions by which objectives of training can be set: Quantity of work resulting from training, Quality of work after training, Timeliness of work after training and Cost saving as a result of training.

2.2.3. Training and Development design

Whether jobs are specific or broader in nature training must be designed to address the asserted specific needs. Different approaches are possible because learning is a complex psychological process. Mathis and Jackson (2008) describe the following three (3) primary considerations when designing training:

  • - Determining learner readiness refers to: Ability to learn, Motivation to learn, and Self- efficacy

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  • - Understanding different learning styles refers to: Adult learning, Behaviour modeling, Reinforcement and immediate confirmation

  • - Designing for transfer

2.2.4. Training and Development Delivery

Once training has been designed then the actual delivery of training can begin and a numbers of approaches and methods can be used to deliver it. Whatever the approach used, a variety of considerations must be balanced when selecting training delivery methods. The common methods which are considered by different authors are on-the- job training and off-the-job training. These methods are described as follows:

On-the-job training:

On-the-job training is learning by actually doing a job (Dessler, 2010). It places the employees in actual work situations and makes them appear to be immediately productive. Mathis and Jackson (2000) discussed on-the-job training (OJT) as a type of training which is common to every organization whether it is planned or not people learn from their job experience, especially if these experience change over time. OJT should be planned and the trainer must have know-how of teaching. Trainer need to know psychology of the learners. Mathis and Jackson state three types of training objectives, these are:

Knowledge: impart cognitive information and details to trainees. Skills: develop behaviour changes in how jobs and various tasks requirements are performed. Attitude: create interest in and awareness of the importance of training To achieve these objectives different methods are employed among which the most familiar OJTs are Job Rotation, Job Instruction, Special Assignment, Coaching and Understudy.

Job rotation: job rotation is generally expected to be learnt more by observing and doing than by receiving instruction. It involves a series of assignments to different positions or depths for specified period of time. It is used for the first-level management training (Desimone, Werner & Harris, 2002). Job rotation could be expensive in the short run, but it is an investment of a long-term in employees that can provide significant benefits to an organization. Job rotation entails the benefit of minimizing the

21

chance that specialized knowledge will be vested in only one individual in the organization which can cause disruptions when such employee resign, retires, or otherwise leaves the organization (Mello, 2011). Job rotation is the practice of moving employees and managers to various positions to enhance organizational effectiveness and employee development (Webb & Norton, 2009).

Job instruction training: It is a special and guided form of on the job training. As per Mathis and Jackson (2006) many jobs consists of a logical sequence of steps and are best taught steps-by-step. This steps-by-step process is known as job instruction training. This method of training lists all necessary step in the job and its proper sequences. In short, in JIT method trainer explains to the trainee the way how to do the job.

Coaching: in coaching the trainee is being controlled by supervisor who works as a coach in training the trainee. This is a method by which direct personal instruction and guidance as well as critical evaluation is implemented by boss (Melaku, 2000). It occurs typically between an employee (trainee) and that person`s supervisor and focuses on examining employee performance and taking actions to maintain effective performance and correct performance problems (Desimone, Werner & Harris, 2002).

Understudy: Under this method of training, employee works as an assistant/deputy to manager or supervisor. Finally the employee can assume full responsibilities and of the job. Here the trainee learns by experience and observation (Melaku, 2000).

Disadvantages of On-The-Job Training:

There are a number of disadvantages to on-the-job type of training because of the following reasons: Trainer may not be experienced enough to train, they may not have enough time to do the training, the training may not be systematically organized, in most cases OJT is given by internal trainers and supervisors and therefore they may not have the desired expertise to do the training, as trainees get to work on actual machines, the regular work could be disrupted there may be a potential damage of too

22

expensive equipments & materials during providing OJT and work environment may be a full of distractions that may interrupt training.

Off-the-Job Training:

Beside on-the-job training methods, there are many off-the-job training techniques to push the frontier knowledge, skills and attitudes of employees. Off-the-job training is an effective training system supplement of on-the-job training with various forms. As it is discussed by Anthony, Kacmer, and Perrewe (2010) This method requires trainees to devote their entire time away from their working stations. The training programme could be in the organization or outside the organization (Mathis & Jackson, 2008). These can be course work at local colleges or other training establishments like that of the Ethiopian Management Institute which have been specially equipped and staffed with variety of programmes and specific schedules. There are different types of off-the job training programmes. The most common ones are discussed briefly as follow.

Lecture: In a lecture a trainer presents material to a group of trainees; it is a unidirectional flow from trainer to trainees that ignores the difference in the trainees` experience, interests, expertise, and personalities (Pyne, 2009). Dessler (2011) describes lecture as although being boring, it is a quick and simple way to present knowledge to the large group of trainees.

Case study: It is a technique of studying a written document from which analyst wants to describe an actual situation. This method helps to increase reasoning power of trainees (Melaku; 2000). Case study facilitates simulating discussions among participants, and it is an excellent opportunity for individuals to defend their analytical and judgment abilities. It appears to be an ideal method to promote decision-making abilities (Worku, 2009).

Role Play: This is a type of off-the-job training that allows trainees to practice interpersonal and communication skills by applying the skills in lifelike situations (Pyne, 2009). The essence of role playing is to create a realistic situation (Worku, 2009). Worku further discusses that in role playing trainees assumed the parts of specific personalities in the situation. Role play helps to promote interpersonal relations and attitude change.

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Vestibule: System of training and development that takes place away from the normal working area on equipment that is exactly similar to equipment actually used on the job (Mondy; 2010). In vestibule training an attempt is made to duplicate the actual equipments, materials and conditions found in real work place (Nair, Banerjee & Agarwal 2005). Nair et al. express their idea further as vestibule training suitable for a large number of employees` training demand at the same time for the same work.

Simulation: Training and development system comprised of devices or programmes that replicate actual jobs demands (Mondy, 2010). It is a type of off-the-job training that reveals real working situations. A driver`s education use driving simulator that replicates a car`s dashboard, gas, and brake pedals; simulator brings realism to training situations (Pyne, 2009). Virtual reality is a type of simulated learning that puts the trainee in an artificial three-dimensional environment that simulates events and situations that might be experienced on the job (Dessler; 2010)

Disadvantages of Off-the-Job Training:

As it is explained by Desimone, Werner and Harris (2002), the following are the disadvantages of off-the-job training:

  • - Increase costs ( such as travel and the rental or purchase and maintenance of rooms and equipment)

  • - Dissimilarities to the job setting;

  • - Making transfer of training more difficult

2.2.5. Training and Development Evaluation

After delivery or implementation of training, it needs to be evaluated and feedback should be collected (Mello, 2011). Mathis and Jackson (2000) present evaluation as: the evaluation phase is crucial; it focuses on measuring how well the training is accomplished, what its originators expected. Evaluation of training and development process focuses on the assessments necessary to judge the extent to which the stated goals for the programme are being met (Webb & Norton; 2009). It is used to determine the success of the training programme itself (Härtel, Fujimoto, Strybosch & Fitzpatrick, 2007). It is best considered how training is evaluated before it begins (Mathis & Jackson, 2000). It compares the post-training result to the pre-training objectives of

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managers, trainers, and trainees. Training is both time consuming and costly and therefore it should be evaluated (Mondy, 2010) Worku (2009) highlighted the evaluation programme as it is the last stage in training and development processes. The main objective of evaluating the training programme is to determine if the organization has accomplished a specific training objective that is correcting performance efficiency. Mathis and Jackson (2000) and Mondy (2010) clarified training evaluation as follows: most valid training programme evaluation efforts to evaluate at least four levels, these levels form hierarchy that means the lower levels are prerequisites for higher levels. These are: reactions, learning, behaviour and results (Mello, 2011). Anthony (2010) identified these various forms of evaluation that should be performed for each, and the results taken from all four levels provide a clear picture of the effectiveness of the training programme. Boxall, Purcell and Wright (2007) discussed the four levels of evaluation. Training can be evaluated at four levels. Reaction-level evaluation provides information on what participants thought of a training programme and is of limited value. Learning-level evaluation is concerned with the effectiveness of the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and attitudes through training. Behavioral-level evaluation is concerned with how well skills or behaviors have been transferred to the job, according to participants, superiors, and subordinates. Results-level evaluation, measuring the impact of training on the organization‟s return on investment, cost savings, quality changes, and improvements in work output, is the most valuable but most challenging due to difficulties in attributing performance improvements to training interventions.

Levels of Evaluation:

Kirkpatrick (cited in Mathis & Jackson, 2000) identified four levels at which training and development can be evaluated. These levels are prerequisites one another. The levels of evaluation are discussed as follows:

Reactions: The first level of evaluation is to know the reaction of the participants. The reaction of training is all about what the trainees thought about the progeamme, the facilities, the training involved and the content of the programme (Anthony, 2010). It is basically to understand the reactions of the participants towards materials, instructors, facilities, pedagogy, content and presentation (Pattayak, 2009).

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Learning: Learning levels a measure of how well have learned facts, ideas, concepts, theories, and attitudes (Mathis & Jackson, 2000). Learning is to determine to what extent the trainees mastered the techniques, skills, and processes that were taught in the training programme (Anthony, 2010). Anthony further describes how learning can be administered to determine the level of competence achieved by the trainees, such as performance tests and pencil-and paper tests. It can be exercised through simulation and role playing. Whatever method is used, testing has to be done immediately after the training programme is concluded.

Behaviour: Behaviour examines whether the participants exhibit changes in their jobs. Data to evaluate the trainees` behaviour are usually collected from individuals, such as supervisors and coworkers who are very close enough to the trainees (Anthony, 2010). Even if behaviour changes are observed the management desires may not be obtained and behavior is more difficult than reaction and learning (Mathis & Jackson, 2000). Pattayak (2009) goes on discussing the behaviour as it can be determined based on before and after the comparison of the training observation from the participants, supervisors, subordinates and peers.

Results: It is the last level of the evaluation. Result measures the effects of training on the achievement of the organizational objectives. If the training is effective, the improvement of productivity, turnover, absenteeism, attitudes, quality, time, sales, and costs are relatively concrete (Mathis & Jackson, 2000). Evaluation at this level should relate directly to the goals of the organization outlined during the initial assessment stages of the training programme; but if the programme fail to meet the desired goals, adjustment need to be made (Anthony, 2010). This level attempts to gauge the overall effectiveness of the training event by assessing the impact on the wider organization. This is the ultimate measure of the success of the training intervention.

2.3. Benefits of Training and Development

Training and development is equally important to employers and employees. Mello (2011) describes the benefits of training and development as it involves some kind of change for employees; such as: Changes in how they do their jobs, how they relate to others, the conditions under which they perform, or changes in their job responsibilities. Organizations have no alternatives whether to train its human resources or not. As it is elaborated by Melaku (2000) training and development has the following benefits and objectives: Increased

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productivity; heightened morale; reduced supervision; increased organization stability; decreased employees turnover; decreased employees absenteeism; reduced accidents; decreased scraps and heightened customer satisfaction.

  • 2.4. Factors Affecting Training and Development

There are numerous factors that both impact and are impacted by Training and Development. As it is describe by Mondy (2010), some of the factors which directly influence the delivery of training and development are:

Top Management Support: For training and development programmes to be successful top management support is required. Without it, training and development programme will not succeed. The most effective way to achieve success for executive is to take an active part in the provision of the needed resources. Technological Advances: Change is occurring at an amazing speed; with knowledge doubling every year perhaps no factors has influenced training development more than technology. World complexity: The entire world provides opportunities and threats that must be confronted. Organizations have to think of the entire workforce and how it will be staffed and trained in this global environment (Mondy 2010). Learning Style: Learners` programme is an area of learning only as far as they need to learn in order to achieve their purposes. Research indicates that unless there is relevance, meaning, and emotion attached to the material taught, the learner will not learn. Other human resource functions for instance, if recruitment and selection efforts attract only marginally qualified workers, a firm will need extensive training and development programmes. Organizations with competitive pay systems or progressive health and safety progammmes will find it easier to attract workers who are capable of hitting the ground running, and to retain employees who require less training (Mondy, 2010).

  • 2.5. Human Resource Training and Development in Selam Children`s Village

2.5.1. Historical Background of Selam Children`s Village

Selam Children`s Village (SCV) is a faith based local non- governmental organization established for child care, education and appropriate technology. These broad activities require well skilled, experienced, knowledgeable and motivated employees. Therefore, the organization

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needs to provide systematic and up to date training and development to its employees. This in turn assures quality services/products.

Selam Children‟s Village (SCV) has designed a child care system in which orphaned and

abandoned children find home. SCV was established with 48 orphans in July 1986 by a lady

called W/ro Tsehay Röschli (a philanthropist) to support orphaned children who were affected by the 1984 drought and famine that occurred in Ethiopia. Toward the end of 1986 nearly 70 boys and girls were on the institutional care.

Selam Children‟s Village is registered as Ethiopian Residents Charity (No. 1043) on 25

November 2009 to address the needs of vulnerable children (orphan boys and girls in communities) and to promote their rights. Selam performs to satisfy the basic needs of the

children by promoting access to certain basic goods and services such as food, water, shelter, sanitation, ensure the education, training, and overall well-being of the children of the village and youth from the community equip children and young people with the necessary tools to participate in the socio-economic development and become self-supporting independent and responsible citizens.

Selam Children`s Village has the following programmes: Child care (in two Children‟s Village).

Education (KG, Primary and Secondary Schools, Vocational Training), Appropriate Technology (General Metal Fabrication and Assembly, Machining, Electricity, Automotive, Building Metal

Work, Woodwork, Agriculture, Health care, Construction & building, and Restaurant), Street

children training program, Assistance to needy and women‟s handicrafts.

There are national and international (Swiss and German) boards to overlook the overall work of

Selam. The main sources of fund of Selam Children‟s Village are cash and kind donations and

sales. Cash and kind donations are both from foreign and local sources.

2.5.2. Organizational Structure of Selam Children`s Village (SCV)

As per the organizational structure of SCV, under the national Board of Directors, the Managing

director is responsible to coordinate all working units and develops the organization‟s short,

medium and long term strategic plans and follows up and monitors their proper and timely implementation. The Managing director leads and directs four major divisions which are lead by

division directors; these are: Children, Youth, and Community Support Division; Education & Training Division; Income Generating Activities Division; and Institutional Support Division.

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And four services namely, Internal Control and inspection, Quality Assurance, Partnership and Communication, and Corporate Planning and Project Development (surprisingly these services are vacant currently). Selam has four major divisions that facilitate the organization‟s major programmes. The divisions have departments under them. An outline of the management composition and structure is given below:

Children, Youth and Community Support Division:

Children and Youth Department Manager: This manager is responsible for two village directors. Village-1 and Village-2 Health and Community Support Service responsible for Clinic and Community Support. Education and Training Division: under this division, two departments are functioning; namely:

Selam David Roeschli Technical and Vocational College and general education. Under the general education, the following schools are functioning

Kindergartens number I and II

Primary schools number I

Primary school number II

High school

Income Generating Activities (IGA) Division consists of four departments under it, namely:

Industry Department; Agriculture Department; Engineering, design and Maintenance Deprtment and Sales and marketing Service Institutional Support division is responsible for HR and Administration Department, Finance and accounting Department, Logistics and Procurement Department, IT service and Legal Service Trainings and development in Selam Children`s Village is in its infancy. Although there was training and development unit under the HR and administration department and a senior HR officer was assigned, now the officer is no more there.

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CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

This chapter deals with the research design, sources of data, sampling technique, instruments for data collection and data analysis method.

  • 3.1 Research Design

The purpose of this study is to assess the practices and problems of human resource training and development scheme at Selam Children‟s Village. The descriptive survey design was selected for this particular study as it was found to be an appropriate technique for collecting vast information and opinions from quite a large number of respondents. As it is discussed by Krishnaswami and Ranganatham (cited in Getachew 2010) the method was selected because it produces reliable and validated data that represent and help the researcher to describe the situations. Descriptive survey research method is concerned with specific predictions, with narration of facts and characteristic concerning individuals, groups or situations which was in line with the purpose of the study undertaken.

  • 3.2 Sources of Data and Collection Methods

The major sources of data were general manager, deputy general managers, department managers, service heads, first line managers and a portion of non-management employees who are working in Selam Children`s Village, and served at least one year and above Sources of data were primary and secondary sources depending on the way they are collected. The primary source of data collection was questionnaires and interview. The researcher used questionnaire and interview to get direct information about the subjects under study. The researcher also used secondary sources as to have some background information about the issues. Related documents were revised. Documents like magazines, books, journals, and research papers, published and unpublished materials were examined.

  • 3.3 Sampling Technique

The researcher used purposive sampling technique for this study because of the relevance to the study. Currently there are 628 employees in the organization and 180 employees were selected using purposive sampling technique to have adequate and valuable results. From the sample, in which questionnaires were distributed, 97 and 43 were male and female

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respectively. Thirteen top and middle level managers for interview were selected through available sampling technique; this is because they are a few in numbers.

3.4 Instruments of Data Collection

Primary data were used for this study. These data were gathered from the staff members in the organization. In order to secure data for this study, two data collecting instruments were used. These are: Questionnaire and Interview

Questionnaire:

The questionnaire was prepared by the researcher and was used as a major data collecting instrument due to its convenience to collect adequate data from a large number of respondents. There were 24 questionnaires, both open and close-ended. To make the data manageable close ended questionnaires were prepared to collect data from management and non-management staffs. All questionnaires were pilot tested on 10 purposively selected officials. These officials were later excluded from the main sample. The main concern was to detect problems which may cause confusion to the respondents, which is to identify ambiguous or biased items in the questionnaire

for collecting the required data. After two weeks the respondents returned the questionnaires and depending on their response analysis has been made.

Interview:

Interview was prepared by the researcher for deriving data from managerial employees. For this purpose 12questions were prepared. The prepared interview schedule was verified and checked for its authenticity for the use. It was used to get supplementary data which would help

the researcher to have a more relevant data for the study. This would help the researcher to counter check the information obtained by questionnaire.

3.5. Procedure of Data Collection

The data gathering instruments, which were based on the reviewed related literature and the intended data to be collected, were dispatched to respondents. The questionnaires were pilot tested to make essential corrections and maintain their validity and reliability. After improving questionnaire on the basis of the feedback from the pilot test, it was administered to the

31

respondents with the necessary explanations how to complete it. Finally the responses obtained through the questionnaires and interviews were coded, tabulated and analyzed.

3.6. Data Analysis

The collected data through questionnaire and interview were analyzed and interpreted using both quantitative and qualitative research techniques. To analyze quantitatively, the obtained data were interpreted in terms of frequencies and percentage. After the collection of data through questionnaire, the raw data were tabulated depending on the kind of question to make it easily manageable and understandable. After it was tabulated, the issues were analyzed and interpreted based on the kind of question by using frequency and percentage. The data collected through questionnaire to identify the personal characteristics of respondents, such as age, sex, educational level, and work experience were analyzed using percentage. This method of analysis helped the researcher to easily identify the characteristics of the respondents. The data that were gathered through open- ended questionnaires and interview from top level and middle level managers as well as from non-managerial employees were analyzed using qualitative data analysis technique.

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CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

This chapter presents characteristics of the sample population and respondents, analysis and interpretation of the data collected from the management and non-management employees. Information gathered from secondary resource (Human Resource Documents) is indicated in the appendix D. One hundred eighty (180) questionnaires were distributed to the employees and one hundred forty (78%) were collected back. Forty (22%) of them were not returned. As it is portrayed in appendix D, thirteen managerial employees were interviewed with the objective of assessing the practices and problems of HR training and development scheme in Selam Children`s Village. Look at Appendix D for the table.

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4.1 Characteristics of the Respondents

Table 1 Respondents Background

No

Respondents

Categories

Frequency

Percent

   

Male

97

70.23

1

Sex

 

Female

43

29.77

Total

140

100

   

Below 21

3

2.29

21

30

 
  • 43 32.82

31

40

 
  • 62 41.99

2

Age

41

50

 
  • 20 14.29

51

-60

  • 11 7.86

 

Above 6o

1

0.76

Total

140

100

   

Certificate & below

11

7.86

College/TVET Diploma

65

46.43

3

Educational Background

B.A/ B.Sc

57

40.71

M.A/M.Sc

7

5

PhD

0

0

 

Total

140

100

 

Work experience

Below 2 years

21

15

3

8 years

45

32.14

4

9

14 years

43

30.71

15

20 years

21

15

21

& above

10

7.14

Total

140

100

Source: Own survey, 2013.

In table 1, 70.23% of the respondents were male and 29.77% o were female. The majority of the respondents are diploma (46.43%) and B.A/B.Sc (40.71%) holders. Only 7.86% and 5% are certificate & below, and MA/MSc holders respectively. There are no PhD holders at all among the respondents. With regard to work experience, the largest groups of respondents (32.14%) have a working experience of 3 to 8 years. The second portions (30.71%) of respondents have served in SCV between 9 - 14 years. And the rest 15%, 15% and 7.14% have served in the organization below 2 years, 1520 years and above 21 years respectively.

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4.2 Data Presentation and Analysis

Under this section the basic research questions has addressed in detail. These are questions: are there well defined human resource training and development policies in SCV, How are HR training and development needs analyses conducted? Are there objectives and criteria set for providing HR training and development in SCV? What are the common methods of human resource training and development being used in SCV? And what are the mechanisms used to evaluate the human resource training and development programmes in SCV?

4.2.1 Human Resource Training and Development Policy

Table 2 Responses of employees on HR Training and Development policy

No

Questions

Responses

Frequency

Percent

 

Availability of

Yes

 
  • 30 21.43

1

clearly stated written training

No

 
  • 60 42.86

and development policy?

I have no idea

 
  • 50 35.71

Total

140

100.00

   

Excellent

3

2.14

Very good

 
  • 12 8.57

Employees` Understanding on training and Development

Good

 
  • 28 20.00

2

Policy

Average

  • 33 23.57

 

Poor

 
  • 64 45.72

Total

140

100.00

Source: Own survey, 2013.

In table 2, majority of the respondents (42.86%) claimed that there is no training and development policy and 50 (35.71%) employees are not sure whether there is training and development policy or not. Only 30(21.43%) employees have responded that there is training and development policy in Selam Children`s Village. Most of the respondents agreed that the main reasons of not having training and development policy are; lack of relevant expertise, lack of guidelines, lack of concern with regards to its importance and lack of commitment of the top management. These are the reasons for not having training and development policy in SCV.

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The majority (45.72%) of the respondents have reported that their understanding of human resource training and development (HRTD) is poor. The rest of the respondents rated their understanding as average (23.57%), good (20.00%), very good (8.57%), and excellent (2.14). This means employees` knowledge about the training and development policy is poor. This can be because either there is no policy or it is not communicated.

4.2.2 Training and Development Needs Assessment

Table 3 Existence of Training and development need analysis (TNA)

No

Questions

Responses

Frequency

Percent

 

Existence of Training and

Yes

 
  • 35 25.00

  • 1 development need

     

analysis

No

  • 51 36.43

I have no idea

 
  • 54 38.57

Total

140

100.00

   

Organizational analysis

 
  • 25 17.86

Task/Job analysis

 
  • 40 28.57

Training and

  • 2 Development need

Person/Individual

analysis

   
  • 22 15.71

 

analysis method

None

 
  • 53 37.86

Total

140

100.00

   

Highly relevant

 
  • 25 17.86

The contents of Training

Moderately relevant

 
  • 28 20.00

and Development

     

programme given to

Relevant

  • 34 24.29

  • 3 employees so far

Less relevant

 
  • 24 17.14

Not relevant

 
  • 29 20.71

Total

140

100.00

Source: own survey 2013.

The highest percentage (38.57%) of participants responded that they are not sure whether SCV is doing TNA or not. Fifty one (36.43%) of respondents have indicated that the organization does not carry out TNA. And the remaining 35(25%) respondents have replied that SCV conducts TNA.

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As far as the theory is concerned, the dominant frame work for identifying organization's human resource training and development needs has three categories, namely, organizational analysis, task/Job analysis and person/individual analyses (Mathis & Jackson; 2000). As portrayed in table, some (28.57 %) of the respondents revealed that task/job analysis is mostly used in identifying training and development need analysis; but majority (37.86%) of respondents replied that SCV used none of these TNA methods. The rest 17.86% and 15.71% respondents reply organizational and person/individual analyses respectively. As it is shown in table 3, the contents of the training and development that employees took so far are highly relevant (17.86%) , moderately relevant (20%) and relevant (24.29%) in improving the current job performance, in sum most (62.15%) of the respondents replied as the content of training and development programmes are relevant. Only the rest of the respondents reported that the content is less relevant (17.14%) and not relevant (20.71%).

Table 4 Practice of performance Appraisal

No

Questions

 

Responses

Frequency

Percent

     

Yes

66

47.14

Does SCV have good practices

 

No

50

35.71

1

in performance appraisals?

I

have no Idea

24

17.15

 

Total

140

100.00

     

Yes

46

32.86

Do you think that performance

     

appraisals are used in selecting

 

No

70

50.00

2

staffs for training?

I

have no Idea

24

17.14

 

Total

140

100.00

Source: Own survey 2013

Table 4, Sixty six (47.14%) respondents have responded that Selam Children`s Village has a very good practice of performance appraisal, the remaining 50 (35.71%) employees have replied that there is no performance appraisal. And lastly 24 (17.15%) employees have responded that they do not have any idea whether SCV is doing performance appraisal or not. Table 4 Portrayed that 70 (50%) participants have replied that Selam Children`s Village does not use performance appraisal in selecting staffs for training and development whereas 46(32.86%) of them have responded that performance appraisal is used for selecting employees for training

37

and development. Twenty four 24 (17.14%)

respondents have replied that they have no idea

about performance appraisal whether it is used to select staffs for training and development or

not.

4.2.3 Human Resource Training and Development Objectives

The majority (48.57%) of the respondents have answered that there are no clear training and development objectives. The rest 26.43% of the respondents have replied that they are not sure whether there are objectives or not. But 25% of them have responded that there are training and development objectives.

Table 5 Availability of clear Training and Development Objectives

No

Questions

Responses

Frequency

Percent

   

Yes

35

25.00

Does SCV formulate clear Training and

No

68

48.57

1

Development objectives?

I

have no idea

37

26.43

Total

140

100.00

   

Yes

10

28.57

2

Does SCV have SMART Training and

No

18

51.43

development Objectives

I

have no idea

7

20.00

Total

35

100.00

Source: Own survey 2013.

As it is shown in table 5, the majority (51.57%) of the respondents have replied that training and development objectives are not SMART, but 10 (28.57%) employees have replied that the objectives are SMART. The remaining employees have responded that, they have no idea about the objectives.

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4.2.4 HR Training and Development Methods

Table 6 Methods of Training and Development

N0

Questions

Responses

Frequency

Percent

1

 

On-The-Job training

67

47.85

Which methods of training and

Off-The-Job training

27

19.29

development do SCV practiced

Both training methods

32

22.86

more?

None

14

10.00

Total

140

100.00

   

Job instruction training

62

44.29

Job rotation

17

12.14

Which of the following on-the-job

Special assignment

13

9.29

training programme have practiced so far?

Coaching

12

8.57

2

Understudy

11

7.86

All of the above

25

17.86

Total

140

100.00

   

Responses

Frequency

Percent

Lectures

42

30.00

Conferences

33

23.57

Which of the following off-the-job

Case studies

14

10.00

method of training programme have

     

3

you taken for?

Role play

14

10.00

Vestibule

12

8.57

Group works

25

17.86

Total

140

100.00

Source: Own survey 2013.

Table 6 indicated that majority (47.85%) of the respondents replied that SCV is using on-the-job training method, 22.86% replied that both methods of training have been used, and 19.29% have responded that SCV is used off-the-job training method. The remaining 10% answered that SCV used other method of training.

39

Table 6 depicts that the majority (44.29%) of the respondents have responded that job instruction training is the dominant method of on-the-job training. The rest 12.14%, 9.29%, 8.57%, and 7.86% of employees have responded that job rotation, special assignment, coaching and understudy respectively are used some or other. Only 25(17.86%) employees have replied that all of the above methods are used. In the above table 6, the majority (30%) has responded that lecture is the more used method of off-the-job training. The rest 23.57%, 10%, 10%, 8.57% and 17.86% of the employees have replied that conference, case study, role play, vestibule and group work are the commonly used respectively.

4.2.5 HR Training and Development Evaluations

Table 7 (below) depicts that the majority (45.71%) of the participants have no idea about training and development evaluation and 51 (36.43%) employees have reported that there is no HRTD evaluation in SCV. Only 25(17.86%) employees have replied that there is evaluation. As it is shown in table 7, 68% of the participants have replied that none of the evaluation criteria has been used in Selam Children`s Village human resource training and development scheme. Three (12%) employees have responded that all evaluation criteria are used. The rest 8%, 8% and 4% have replied learning, behavior, and result respectively are used as criteria of evaluation of training and development.

40

Table 7 Evaluation of Training and Development

No

Questions

Responses

Frequency

Percent

 

Does SCV evaluate the

Yes

 
  • 25 17.86

1

effectiveness of HR training and

No

 
  • 51 36.43

development programmes?

I have no idea

 
  • 64 45.71

Total

140

100

 

Which evaluation criteria are used

Reaction

 
  • 0 0.00

2

in evaluating the worth of a

Learning

 
  • 2 8.00

specific programme?

Behaviour

 
  • 2 8.00

Result

 
  • 1 4.00

All of the above

 
  • 3 12.00

None of the above

17

68.00

Total

25

100.00

 

Which of the following steps of

Before training

6

4.29

3

training and development

After training

 
  • 25 17.86

evaluations have SCV used?

During training

 
  • 41 29.29

None of the above

 
  • 68 48.57

Total

140

100.00

Source: Own survey, 2013

As can be observed from Table 7, the majority (48.57%) of the respondents believed that none of the steps of training and development evaluation have been practiced in SCV. The rest of the steps of evaluation before training (4.29%), after training (17.86%) and (29.29%) during training are used rarely as respondents concluded.

41

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on the data presented and analyzed in chapter four of the study, the following summary, conclusions and recommendations are drawn.

5.1 Summary

The purpose of the study was to analyze the practices and problems of human resource training and development schemes at Selam Children‟s Village at Addis Ababa. To realize the following basic research questions were formulated.

  • 1. Are there well defined human resource training and development policies in SCV?

  • 2. How are HR training and development needs analyses conducted?

  • 3. Are there objectives and criteria set for providing HR training and development in SCV?

  • 4. What are the common methods of human resource training and development being used in SCV?

  • 5. What are the mechanisms used to evaluate the human resource training and development

programmes in SCV? For this purpose a descriptive survey method of data analysis was employed. Respondents were selected using purposive sampling techniques and findings were analyzed using frequency count and percentage. A total of 180 respondents have drawn from first line managers and other non managerial employees. The data were collected by means of questionnaire, interview and examination of available and relevant documents. The data collected through questionnaire to answer these basic research questions were analyzed and interpreted in frequencies and percentages. Accordingly based on the analyzed and interpreted data, the following findings were obtained. Results indicated that the existence of training and development policy at Selam Children‟s Village is under estimated. This is because most of the respondents (78.57%) agreed that the main reasons of having training and development policy are; lack of relevant expertise, lack of guidelines, lack of concern with regards to its importance and lack of commitment of the top management.

42

As far as the theory is concerned, the dominant framework for identifying organization's human resource training and development needs has three categories, namely, organizational analysis, task/Job analysis and person/individual analyses (Mathis & Jackson; 2000). Before carrying out the actual training, training need analysis must be conducted. But training need analysis did not conduct using methods need analyses. Since training and development can have a wide range of results and expectations, it has to have observable and measurable learning objectives. Training and development`s successes can be measured in terms of the objectives and criteria set. Objectives of training and development must be formulated well before the actual training and development launched. As it is claimed by nearly half of the respondents; training and development were found out to be not specific, measurable, achievable, relevant and time bound. On- the- job training method is dominantly used. Whereas, in practice both on-the-job and off- the-job training need to be used proportionally based on need analyses. Practice of training and development evaluation is not yet implemented in Selam Children`s Village. This implies

5.2 Conclusions

In light of the foregone major findings of the study, the following conclusions are drawn.

  • 1. Selam Children`s Village has no written and well communicated training and development

policy.

  • 2. Tthe findings of the study showed that Selam Children`s Village does not provide training and

development based on need analysis. And it doesn‟t use training need analysis methods fully and

as per the standards (systematically).

  • 3. As it is shown in the finding of the study Selam Children`s Village does not have objectives

and criteria for human resource training and development. Moreover, there is no specific,

measurable, achievable, relevant and time bound training and development objectives and criteria.

  • 4. On-the-job training is the most popular method that has been frequently used in Selam

Children`s Village so far. Although off-the-job training is not being used equally with that of on-

the-job training, the findings of the study showed that it is practiced in the organization under

43

study. But on-the-job or off-the-job training methods are not conducted based on systematic training need analysis. 5.Regarding to training and development evaluation Selam Children`s Village has no evaluation mechanisms for its employees training and development up to now, even though training and development evaluation helps to know how well the training is accomplished and judge the extent to which the stated goals for the programmes are being met.

5.3. Recommendations

Based on the findings and conclusions made, the following recommendations are forwarded.

  • 1. As no modern organization in the world affords to ignore the importance of training and

development for its survival and achieving of its goals, Selam Children`s Village management need to formulate training and development policy and communicate it. Communicate to its

employees so that all staffs will be aware of it and have adequate knowledge to employees in the organization.

  • 2. Since training need analysis (TNA) is the building block of training and development, and a

tool to identify the gap between the actual performance and the desired performance in the

organization, it has to be institutionalized in SCV. Training and development should take place based on proper TNA. Training needs analysis methods have to be practiced. These methods are:

Organizational, task/job and person/individual analyses. Since these methods of analyses are equally important, management of SCV shall use them as effectively as possible.

  • 3. SMART Training and development objectives and priorities should be explicitly stated, set

and communicated to each trainee, and should answer these questions: What should the trainees

be able to do after training? Under what conditions should the trainee be able to perform the trained behavior? How well should the trainee perform the trained behavior?

  • 4. Both on-the-job and off-the-job training and development are equally important to

organization. And hence Selam Children`s Village management shall practice these methods equally, but based systematic training need analysis.

  • 5. Training and development evaluation is the last and phase of systematic approach that

measure how well the training is accomplished. Therefore SCV need to evaluate its training programmes at least at four levels. These levels are reaction, learning, behavior and result levels.

44

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Fitz-enz, J. & Davison, B. (2002). How T o Measure Human Resource Management USA: McGraw-Hill. Frank et al. (2001). Advances in Human Resource Management in Africa. New York: Palgrave. Getachew Tilaye. (2010). Major Factors Influencing Farmers` Participation in Skill Training Programme in Assosa Zone. Addis Ababa University: (Master`s Thesis, Unpublished) Gomez-Mejia L.R., Balkin, D. B. and Cardy, R. L. (1995). Human Resource Management. USA: Practice Hall, Inc. Grugulis, I. (2007). Skill, Training and Human Resource Development: A Practical Text. China: Palgrave Macmillan Ltd. Graham, H.T. and Bennet, R. (1998). Human Resource Management. (9 th ed.). Harlow: Essex (Eng). Guta Fekadu. (2008). Evaluation of Human Resource Development Practice in Commercial Bank Ethiopia. Addis Ababa University: (Master`s thesis, Unpublished) Harrison, R. (2000). Employee Development. (2 nd ed). London: CIPD House. Hartel, C.E.J., Fujimoto, Y., Strybosch, V.E., and Fitzpatrick, K. (2007). Human Resource Management: Transforming Theory into Innovative Practice. Australia: Pearson Prentice Hill. Hayes, J. (1996). Developing the Managers as a Helper. New York: Routledge. Ingham, J. (2007). Strategic Human Management: Creative Value through People.(1st ed). Amsterdam, Boston: Betterworth-Heinemann. Ivancevich, J. M. (2007). Human Resource Management (10th ed.). Singapore: McGraw- Hill Lunenburg, F. C., Ornstein, A. C. (1991). Educational Administration: Concepts and Practices. Beimont,CA: Wadsworth, Inc. Mabey, C., Salaman, G., & Storey, J. (1998). Strategic Human Resource Management. London:

Sage Publication Inc. Mathis, R. L., and Jackson, J. H. (1997). Human Resource Management. (8 th ed.). USA: South- West Publishing Company. Mathis, R. L., and Jackson, J. H. (2000). Human Resource Management. (9 th ed.). USA South-western College Publishing. Mathis, R. L., and Jackson, J. H. (2006). Human Resource Management (11 th ed.).New Jersey:

Thomson South-Western.

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Mathis, R. L., and Jackson, J. H. (2008). Human Resource Management. (12 th ed). USA:

South-Western CENGAGE Learning. Mathis, R. L., and Jackson, J. H. (2011). Human Resource Management. (13 th ed). Mexico:

South-Western CENGAGE Learning. Maund, L. (2001). Introduction to Human Resource Management: Theory and Practice. London: Palgrave Macmillan. Melaku Yimam. (2000). Reading on human resource management in education. Addis Ababa University: (teaching material, Unpublished). Mello, J. A. (2011). Strategic Management of Human Resource. (3rd ed.). Canada: South Western CENGAGE Learning. Mondy, R. W. (2010). Human Resource Management. (11th ed). New York,NY: Pearson Education. Murthy, .D. B. N. (2003). Managing Human Resource: A Practical Guide to Mobilizing Manpower. New Delhi: UBS Publishers` Distributors PLC. Nair, R.K., Banerjee, A.K., and Agarwal,V.K. (2005). Human Resource Management. Indian:

Pragati Prakashan. Netsanet Waleign (1997). Human Resource Development and Economics Growth in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa University: (Master`s thesis, Unpublished) Norton, M. S. (2008). Human Resource Administration for Educational Leaders. USA: Sage Publication, Inc. Pattanayak, B. (2009). Human Resource Management (3rd ed.). New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. Pont, T. (1996). Developing effective training Skills: a practical guide to designing and delivering group training (2nd ed.). England: McGraw-Hill book Company. Prokopenko, J. (Ed). (1998). Management Development: A Guide for Profession. London:

International Labour Office. Pualos, M. (1988). World Education Encyclopedia. Vol.1. New York: Facts on File Publications. Pynes, J.E. (2009). Human Resource Management for Public and non Profit Organizations:

A strategic Approach. (3rd edn). USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rowley, C., and Jackson, K. (2011). Human Resource Management: Key Concepts. London: Routledge.

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Senyucel, Z. (2009). Managing the Human Resource in the 21st Century. Ventus Publshing Aps Taylor, S. (1998). Employee Resourcing. London: Institute of Personnel and Development. Thomson, R., & Mabey, C.(1994). Developing Human Resources. Better worth. London: Heinemann Ltd. Truelove, S.(2000). Training and Development: A Hand Book. New Delhi: Maya Blackwell.Plc. Webb, L. D., and Norton, M. S. (1999). Human Resource Administration: Personnel Issue and Needs in Education. Boston: Practice Hall, Inc. Wilson, J. P. (Ed.). (2005). Human Resource Development): learning and training for individuals & organizations (2nd ed.). London & Philadelphia: Kogan Page Ltd Wilson, J. P. (Ed.). (2004). Human Resource Development. (2nd ed.). London: Kogan Page Ltd. Worku Mekonnen. (2009). Human Resource Management in Management of Vocational Education .AAU Teaching Material (Unpublished) Wubet Kifle (2006). Human Capital and Economic Growth in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa University (Master`s thesis, Unpublished)

48

APPENDICES

49

A. Questionnaires

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT QUESTIONNAIRE

Dear Respondents:

I would like to express my sincere appreciation for your time, honest and prompt responses. Objective:

This questionnaire is designed to undertake a study on the practices and Problems of Human Resource Training and Development scheme in Selam Children`s Village (SCV). The information shall be used as a primary data in my case research which I am conducting as a partial requirement of my study at Addis Ababa University for completing my MA under the Educational Planning and Management Department. Please fill out all of the questions to the best of your knowledge. The information you provide will be kept confidential and will be used for this research undertaking only and under no circumstances will be used for any other purposes.

General Instructions

There is no need of writing your name.

Where alternative answers are given, please mark your answer using a tick mark () in

the appropriate box. Please be as brief as possible in answering the open-ended questions.

50

Thank you again!

  • A. General Information

Please fill in the blanks, and put this mark () to indicate your choice for these items that have

alternative responses.

1. Sex:

A. Female

B. Male

  • 2. Age: Which of the following age categories do you belong to?

    • A. Below 21years

    • D. From 41 50

  • 3. Educational background:

  • C. B.A/ B.Sc

    B. From 21 30

    E. From 51 60

    A. Certificate and below

    D. M.A. /M.Sc.

    C. From 31 40

    F. Above

    60

    B. College/ TVET diploma E. PhD

    • 4. Work experience, in SCV and Other organization(s) (you can have two answers)

    A. Below 2years

    • D. From 15 20years

    B. From 3 8years

    C. From 9 14years

    E. 21years and above

    • B. Issues with regard to HR Training and Development Policy

      • 5. Does Selam Children`s Village have clearly stated written training and development policy?

    A. Yes

    B. No

    C. I have no idea

    • 6. If your answer for question N o 5” is no, what is (are) the main reason(s) for that? (You can

    have more than one answer)

    N o

    Possible reasons

    Yes

    No

    6.1.

    Lack of relevant expertise to write such policy

       

    6.2.

    Lack of guidelines to formulate such policy

       

    6.3.

    Budgetary constraints

       

    6.4.

    Lack of concern with regards to its importance

       

    6.5.

    Because of lack of commitment the top management

       

    6. 6. Please mention if there are other reasons …………………………… .......................... ……………………………………………………………………………………………

    ...............

    • 7. How would you rate your understanding of the Human Resource Training and Development

    policy in Selam Children`s Village?

    A. Excellent

    B. Very good

    C. Good

    D. Average

    E. Poor

    51

    • C. Issues with Regard to Training and Development Needs Assessment

      • 8. Is there a practice of conducting Training and Development needs analysis (assessment)

    (TNA) before delivering training programmes, in the last three years?

    A. Yes

    B. No

    C. I have no idea

    • 9. Which of the following techniques is being mostly used for identifying the organization`s

    Training and Development need analysis (TNA)?

    • A. Organizational analysis

    B. Task/job analysis

    C. Person/individual analysis

    • D. None of the above techniques are used as of TNA .

    • 10. To what extent are the contents of training and development programmes that you have taken

    relevant to your current job?

    • A. Highly relevant

    B. Moderately relevant

    • D. Less relevant

    E. Not relevant

    C. Relevant

    • 11. Do you think that SCV has good practices in performance appraisals?

    A. Yes

    B. No

    C. I have no idea

    • 12. Do you think that performance appraisals are used in selecting staffs for training? A. Yes

    B. No

    C. I have no idea

    • 13. If your response for question no “12” is yes, what are the selecting criteria used in selecting

    staffs for training and development? Please specify: ………………………………………… .. .…………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………….

    • D. Issues related to HR Training and Development Objectives

      • 14. Does Selam Children`s Village formulate clear Training and Development objectives? A. Yes

    B. No

    C. I have no idea

    • 15. If your answer to question number “14” is yes, were the training objectives specific,

    measurable, achievable, relevant and timely (SMART)?

    A. Yes

    B. No

    C. I have no idea

    52

    16.

    If your response for question number “14” is no, what could be the possible reason(s) for

    that?....................................................................................................................................................

    ............................................................................................................................................................

    ............................................................................................................................................................

    ...............................................................................................

    • E. Issues with Regard to HR Training and Development Methods in SCV

      • 17. Which of the following methods of training and development does SCV have practiced

    more?

    • A. On-the-job training

    B. Off-the-job training

    C. Both training methods

    • D. Other(s) (specify)………………………………………………………………………

    • 18. Which of the following on-the-job training programme have you taken so far? A. Job instruction training

      • D. Coaching

    B. Job rotation

    E. Understudy

    C. Special Assignment F. All of the above

    H. Mention others (if any) ………………………………………………………………….

    • 19. Which of the following off-the-job method of training programme have you taken for the last

    three years?

    • A. B. Conferences

    Lectures

    • D. E. Vestibule

    Role plays

    C. Case studies F. Group works

    • H. Mention other(s) (if any): …………………………………………………………………

    • F. Issues related to HR Training and Development Evaluations

      • 20. Does SCV evaluate the effectiveness of HR training and development programmes?

    A. Yes

    B. No

    C. I have no idea

    • 21. If your response for question no “20” is yes, which evaluation criteria are used in evaluating

    the worth of a specific programme?

    A. Reaction

    B. Learning

    C. Behaviour

    D. Result

    E. All of the above have been used

    F. None of the above has been used

    • 22. Which of the following steps of training and development evaluations have SCV used?

      • A. Before training

    B. During training

    C. After training

    D. None of the above

    53

    23. In your opinion, what are the real problems that you observe regarding human resource training and development practices of Selam?

    ………………………………………………………………………………………………………

    ………………………………………………………………………………………………………

    ………………………………………………………………………………………………………

    ………………………………………………….

    24. Would you please suggest if there are things to be changed with regard to the current human resource training and development problems and practices of Selam Children`s Village?

    ………………………………………………………………………………………………………

    ………………………………………………………………………………………………………

    ………………………………………………………………………………………………………

    ……………………………………………………………………….

    54

    B. Interview questions

    ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF EDUATIONAL PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Interview Questions to be answered by Managerial Staffs of SCV

    • 1. Does SCV have Human Resource Training and Development policy? Why? If yes, has it been communicated to concerned staffs?

    • 2. How are training and development needs determined in Selam Children`s Village? What are the methods of training need analyses (TNA) practiced in SCV?

    • 3. How are employees selected for training and development? Does training needs assessment precede selection for training programmes?

    • 4. In your opinion, do you think that Selam Children‟s Village provides equal opportunities for all its employees in terms of designing a training and development scheme?

    • 5. What are the methods adopted for training and development? Please specify all the methods of training and development that are used in Selam Children`s Village.

    • 6. Do you think that the methods used in the human resource training and development programmes at SCV have achieved the desired results/ goals?

    • 7. Does each training and development programme have specific objective and criteria that it tries to achieve?

    • 8. How does Selam Children`s Village evaluate its HR training and development programmes?

    • 9. In your opinion, what is the view of the top management towards training and development? Do you think that the top management gives enough emphasis for employees‟ training and development?

    10. Does the Village allot sufficient budget to carry out training and development programme effectively and efficiently, so that employees‟ motivation flourish and increase market value? 11. How much SCV is spending on training and development in proportion to the payroll cost of the organization per year? 12. How do you think human resources training and development at SCV can be improved?

    55

    Board of Directors General Manager Internal Control & inspection Quality Assurance Partnership & Communication Corporate Planning
    Board of Directors
    General Manager
    Internal Control &
    inspection
    Quality Assurance
    Partnership &
    Communication
    Corporate Planning &
    Development
    DGM IS
    DGM CYC
    DGM IGA
    DGM ET
    Legal & Contract
    Administration,
    service
    TVET
    MIS
    Engineering ,
    College
    service
    Marketing
    & Sales service
    design &
    Maintenance
    service
    General
    HR & Administration
    Department
    Children & Youth
    Department
    education
    Agriculture
    Department
    Department
    Health &
    Procurement &
    Finance & Accounting
    Department
    Community servi
    Logistics
    ce
    Department
    Industrial
    Department

    C. Organizational Structure of SCV

    56

    General Information of the Population and Respondents

    • D. Populations and Respondents

       

    Number of Employees(N)

     

    Sample Size (n)

     

    Divisions

    Department

    Non-

       

    Non-

         

    Manager

    Manager

    Total

    Manager

    Manager

    Total

    Remark

     

    HR & Administration:

    28

     
    • 2 30

     
    • 3 4

    1

       

    Institutional Support

    Finance & Accounting

    25

     
    • 1 26

     
    • 4 5

    1

       

    Logistic & Procurement

    14

     
    • 1 15

     
    • 9 10

    1

       
     

    Village I

    51

     
    • 2 53

     
    • 9 11

    2

       

    CYC Support Division

    Village II

    18

     
    • 1 19

     
    • 3 4

    1

       

    Community support

    18

     
    • 1 19

     
    • 5 6

    1

       
     

    TVET College

     
    • 114 41

    • 2 116

     

    1

    42

     

    Training & Education Division

    General Education

     
    • 145 60

    • 1 146

     

    1

    61

     
     

    Industrial

     
    • 105 24

    • 1 106

     

    1

    25

     

    Design & Engineering Service

    7

     
    • 1 3

    8

     

    1

    4

     

    IGA Division

    Maintenance Service

    15

     
    • 1 8

    16

     

    1

    9

     

    Sales & Customer Service

    9

     
    • 1 5

    10

     

    0

    5

     

    Agriculture

    57

     

    58

    • 1 3

     

    0

    3

     
     

    Internal Audit

    1

     
    • 0 1

    1

     

    0

    1

     

    GM Office

    Project & Corporate Management

    0

     
    • 0 0

    0

     

    0

    0

     

    Communication & Partnership

    2

     
    • 0 2

    2

     

    0

    2

     
     

    Grand total

    611

    17

    628

    180

    13

    193

     

    57

    LETTER OF CERTIFICATION

    This is to certify that Yemataw Kibret carried out his project on the topic entitled “Assessment of

    Practices and Problems of Human Resource Training and Development Scheme in Selam

    Children`s Village” under my supervision. This work is original in nature and is suitable for

    submission for the award of Master`s Degree.

    ___________________

    Alemayehu Debebe (Ato)

    University Advisor

    58

    DECLARATION

    I, the undersigned, declare that this thesis is my original works, which has not been presented for a degree in any other university and that all source of materials used for the thesis have been duly acknowledged.

    Name: Yemataw Kibret

    Signature: _________________

    Date: ___________________

    59