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Performed Date Due Date* Submitted Date
June 2014 4
August 2014 4
August 2014
*Late submission penalty: Late 1 day: 10%, Late 2 days: 20%, Late 3 days: 30%, More than 3
days: 50%

Table of Content
Summary 3
Statement of Purpose 3
Theory 3 - 6
Equipment 7 - 9
Procedure 9
Data, Observation and Results 10
Analysis and Discussion 11-12
Conclusion 12
Reference 12

The main reasons the report are written, first is to understand the importance
of the vital system characteristics in the assessment of control loop efficiency.
Secondly, to know more to evaluate the PID control elements using the PCU
computer controlled flow cycle. A PID controller calculates an "error" value as the
difference between a measured process variable and a desired set point. The controller
attempts to minimize the error by adjusting the process control inputs. The PID values
consist of proportional control mode (proportional gain or proportional band), integral
mode (to remove proportional offsets error) and derivative control mode (to reduce
the response time of the system). The last part is System response, generally there are
three responds which are overdamped, underdameped and critical damped. We also
manage to determine the system reaction of the control system for every PID gain set
values. And at the end of this experiment, we can understand the importance,
advantages and disadvantages of this control system when it used to control other
system and also identify the best PID gain set values.


1) To learn the importance of the vital system characteristics in the assessment of
control loop efficiency.
2) To learn how to evaluate the PID control elements using the PCU computer
controlled flow cycle.


A. Introduction to Control System
In the industrial world the field of control engineering is very crucial. Control systems
are designed to achieve specified objectives within a given set of constraints. The
three common control strategies are open-loop, feed forward and closed-loop control.
The open-loop control cannot compensate for either disturbances to the system or
changes in plant parameters (Figure 7.1). For example an open-loop speed control
system cannot compensate for load variation (disturbance) and the bearings friction
variation (plant parameter).

The feedforward control attempts to compensate for disturbances before they have
any effect on the system output (Figure 6.2). This strategy can be effective if the
disturbance can be measured. However it cannot compensate for changes of the plant
parameters which cannot be measured and treated as a disturbance.

The most common control strategy is feedback or closed loop control, as illustrated in
figure 6.3. Here the process output is monitored, and control actions are taken to
counteract deviations from the required behavior. In the case of motor speed control
system, the speed is measured, and the applied voltage is modified as required.
However in practice, feedback and feedforward are often combined in a single

B. PID Controller
The term PID controller refers to proportional, integral and derivative controller. PID
controllers are the most common controller used in the industrial process control.
I) Proportional Control Mode
In this mode the output of the controller is proportional to the error between the set
point and the measured value. Proportional control may be expressed as either
proportional gain or proportional band. Mathematically ,
Mp =PG(SP-MV)+C = PG e(t) +C
Where, Mp = Controller Output
PG = Proportional Gain
SP = Set point
MV = measured value
C = Output with zero error
e(t) = Error as a function of time.
The error band where the output is between 0% and 100% is called the proportional
band (PB), and given by PB = 100/PG. Thus the higher the gain the smaller the band.
This control mode rarely produce adequate control, where there usually an offset
(permanent error).
II) Integral Mode
This mode of control is often used to remove proportional offsets errors. The integral
mode determines an output based on the history of error. It is calculated by finding
the net area under the error curve versus time and multiplying by a constant called the
integral action time (IAT) in seconds. The controller output equation is:
The integral Action time is defined as the time taken for the integral action to
duplicate the proportional action of the controller, if the error remains constant during
this period. It is used commonly to remove any steady state errors incurred when
using a proportional controller.
III) Derivative Control Mode
Derivative control mode is often used to reduce the response time of the system, it is
based on the time rate of the change of error. The time taken for the proportional
action to duplicate the instantaneous output of the derivative element is called
derivative action time


(DAT). The controller output equation is:
The derivative control mode is never used alone as there is no controller output
corresponding to zero rate of change. So it is commonly used with Proportional
controller (PD). However, it can also exaggerate high frequency noise in the system.
C. System Response
Figure 6.4 shows the typical system response of a control system. There are three
types of response for a second order system, which are overdamped, underdamped,
and critical damped response. The system response depends on the PID gains set in
the experiment. The characteristics of the response is shown in Figure 6.5.

Figure 6.4

Figure 6.5
Some of the important system performance parameters are:
Peak overshoot : is often expressed as percent overshoot at the first peak and given
by (Peak value- input value)/input value * 100
Settling time: The time taken to settle within 2% of the final value
Rise time: The time taken for the system to respond to a fraction of the final value on
the initial part. Typically 5-95% or 10-90%.
Steady state error : Any error between the set point and the controlled variable once
the system has stabilized.

1) The System Rig
The System Rig is the hardware for the process, which is to be controlled by the
microcomputer. This reflects a typical process control situation such as in the food
and drink manufacturing petrochemical industry.
Each feature on the System Rig has a manual or computer control option. Users may
select either of the modes allowing a comparison between human and computer
control operation to be made. This allows a rapid appreciation of the advantages and
disadvantages under both modes of control.

2) Description

A - Mains switch G - Overflow pipe
B - Water pump switch H - Proportional valve
C - Bottom reservoir tank I - Water inlet port
D - Bypass valve J - Water drain port
E - Return valve K - Water pump
F - Water level tank L - Control panel
M - Level foot

1. Ensure that there are sufficient water in the bottom reservoir tank before
conducting the experiments.
2. Make sure there are no leakages in the piping system before conducting the
3. Open the bypass valve before switching on the water pump and close it only after
the flow is fully circulated through the entire system for a brief period.

1. Place the LS-33039 PID Controller Experiment Rig. on a level table and adjust the
levelling foot if necessary.
2. Connect the main power plug to electrical supply.
3. Connect the RS-485 cable from the computer to the control box.
4. Run the Data Acquisition Software from the computer
5. Switch on the mains switch on the control box
6. Ensure there is enough water in the bottom reservoir tank before switching on the
7. The LS-33039 apparatus is ready to be used.

1. Please check for signs of leakage in the piping system from time to time. Besides
that there is no major maintenance required for this apparatus
2. Kindly seek the assistance from the manufacturer if necessary.

3) Feedback
Feedback is an essential requirement for the control of any process. It consists of
various transducers measuring the conditions on the rig and feeding this information
back to the controlling microcomputer.
On the Process Control Unit the temperature at the sump, flowline and process tank
are measured using platinum resistance thermometers. The flowrate is measured by an
in-line flowmeter. These analogue signals are fed back to the signal conditioners on
the Computer Control Module (CCM) from where they are sampled by the
microcomputer via an analogue to digital converter (ADC). LED meters are used to
display the temperatures and flowrate on the system rig. Indicators are provided for
the cooler, tank full sensor and drain/divener solenoids, giving a status check when
the Process Control Unit is in operation.

4) Flow measurement
The flow rate of the fluid is measured by means of a flow meter of the impeller type.
The fluid flows through the meter rotating the impeller, which has six blades.
Mounted either side of the impeller is an infra red transmitter and receiver producing
an infra red beam which is broken by the rotating impeller. Six pulses are therefore
produced for one revolution of the rotor, thus producing a frequency output 'which is
proportional to the flowrate.
The approximate full-scale frequency is 570Hz (pulses/sec) which is converted to a
voltage by the signal conditioning circuit. This voltage is used to drive the flowrate
LED display on the rig and also converted into a digital word by the Data Acquisition

5) Pump
The pump used is a centrifugal type. It is not a positive displacement type and thus its
output is not necessarily linearly proportional to speed, though variation in speed will,
of course, vary the output flow rate.
Activating Voltage : 12V D.C; Maximum Continuous Current: 6 Amps

6) Water Drain Port
This is used to drain the bottom reservoir tank


Software Operation
a) Turn on both the computer system and the process control unit.
b) In the Windows desktop, select the LS-330390 PID icon.
c) In the program, follow the instructions in section 1 to familiarize yourself with the

Section 1 : Assessment of System Performance
1. By operating the controls in the Process Control Unit, the vital characteristics can
be easily demonstrated by varying the values of the PID controller.
2. Select the Flow Control tab and in the Control select the Closed Loop tab
3. Set the Set point to 6 liter/min and set the controller setting as in the table below.
4. Click the Enabled button to start the flow.
5. Set the PID controller using the given values. Use your own values to complete the
6. Print out your results and observe the graphs. Label the graphs.

Section 2 : Evaluation of the PID Control Elements
The PID control elements may be easily evaluated using the PCU computer controlled
flow cycle.
Identify the best PID value to control the flow rate at 6 liter/min.
General Guidelines
The selection range of the PID elements is:
Proportional Gain: Between 1 to 10
Integral Action: Between 0 to 5
Derivative Action: Between 0 to 10
Analysis and Discussion
1) Comment on the difference between under damped, over damped and critical?
Under damped, over damped and critical damped are three different types of response
in natural response or transient response. The difference between these three types of
response depends on the damping ratio, a dimensionless measure to show how a
oscillations in a system decay after a disturbance is induced.
Under damped response takes longer time to reach steady state. The damping ratio is
more than 1.
Critically damped response reaches the steady-state value the fastest among all three
The damping ratio of critically damped response is always 1.
Lastly, the over damped response decays exponentially and takes longer to reach than
the critically damped case. The damping ratio is always more than 1.
Based on the graph obtained for the result, none of it shows an over-damped
oscillating graph, which means the output value has not reached the given steady state
value, thus oscillating below the steady state value. Moreover, over-damped takes a
longer time to reach the steady state value.
Graph of result 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 shows the under-damped response. Under-damped
response occurs when the output value has shoot up over the given steady state value,
which is 6 L/min.
Graph 1 and 6 showed critically damped response. Critically-damped occurs when the
output value is rise to a certain value but below the steady state value and reaching the
steady state value with smallest time taken
2) Compare and discuss the function of different types of controller
Based on the theory stated above, there is proportional, integral and derivative type of
controllers. Each type of controller has different functions.
Proportional controllers
In this mode the output of the controller is proportional to the error between the set
point and the measured value. Proportional control may be expressed as either
proportional gain or proportional band
Integral controllers
This mode of control is often used to remove proportional offsets errors. The integral
mode determines an output based on the history of error
Derivative control mode
This type of controllers produces derivative actions based on the rate of error.
Derivative control mode is often used to reduce the response time of the system.

3) Which type of controllers or combination of controller will give ideal control
system that you will recommend?
Based on the experimental results, we think that proportional integral controller (PI)
will give ideal control system that we would recommend. This is due to the fact that
the output is closer to the flow rate at 6L/min is when we use proportional and
integral controller. The derivative controller is set to zero so that it does not oscillate
and control loop run unstable.
4) What is the optimum tuned PI controller?
The optimum PI controller for this experiment was determined. The condition that
influences this value is the fluid flow, the source of error and the surrounding factor.
In order to get more precise optimum value, it is recommended that the experiment is
repeated for few in order to minimize the error. It can be summarized that the
optimum proportional gain is 7, optimum integral action is 1 and lastly the optimum
derivative action is 5.
5) I nclude error analysis
The sources of errors are as follows
There is no sufficient water in the tank at the beginning of the experiment
There is possible leakage in the piping system that might have altered the flow

It is clear to us that the system need to have the best and most suitable values
of the proportional, integral and derivative controller in order to achieve the desirable
output. By comparing the steady state error produced by each value, we were able to
find the best value for each controller. Besides, by finding the best values of PID, the
steady state error can also be minimised. Not only that, the disturbance applied into
the system with appropriate PID values will only cause small effects on the graph as
the stability of the graph will be recovered quickly. In this experiment, the best values
are P=7.0, I=1.0 and D=5.0. However, the results and data from this experiment are
slightly different from the theoretical data. This is actually due to the fact that some
possible errors, as stated in the discussion, occurred during the experiment. The
importance of the vital system characteristics in the assessment of control loop
efficiency has been learned. Also, evaluation of the PID control elements using the
PCU computer controlled flow cycle has been done. Hence, the objective of the
experiment is achieved.

1) Engineering Measurement Lab Manual MESB 333, 2014/15