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27 September 2014

Subject: Readymade Kandhal Pothole Patching Mix is now Indian Roads

Congress Standard Specification

Dear Highway Colleagues:
The Jaipur Development Authority (JDA)s so-called Readymade Kandhal Pothole
Patching Mix has recently been adopted as Indian Roads Congress (IRC) Standard
Specification IRC: 116-2014. This standard was officially released on 19 August 2014
in New Delhi by Hon. Nitin Gadkari, Minister of Road Transport and Highways
(MORTH). This has happened finally after persistent voluntary efforts by the writer
for the last 6 years.

It is hoped this idiot proof, economical, unpatented and highly durable readymade
pothole patching mix would now be implemented across India to eliminate the
menace of potholes throughout the year especially during monsoon season. All
government organizations such as State PWDs, Central PWD, MES, BRO, and city
municipalities should include this item in their Basic Schedule of Rates (BSR) for
easy implementation. Necessary nomenclature (G schedule), specifications, and rate
analyses used by JDA are attached to facilitate its inclusion in their BSR and calling
for tenders.

The following are background and facts (written in third person) on this highly
acclaimed and successful readymade pothole patching mix, which is most suited for

This readymade cold pothole patching mix was developed by Prof. Prithvi Singh
Kandhal while serving as Chief Asphalt Road Engineer for the US State of
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (Penn DOT). Pennsylvania has the fourth
largest highway network in the US. His R&D work on this mix was published by the
US Transportation Research Board in Transportation Research Record No. 821, 1981.

This mix was included in the Penn DOT Specification in Section 485 and has been
used in Pennsylvania and adjoining states with success for over 30 years. It is used
during harsh cold and rainy weather when hot mix cannot be used.

Readymade pothole patching mixes used in the US by different states with their own
recipes had mixed field performance and durability. Therefore, under the US Strategic
Highway Research Program (SHRP) it was decided to conduct a field performance
study of some 10 different pothole patching mixes/applications in 4 different extreme
climatic regions of the US. The Kandhal Mix (Section 485 material) was adjudged as
the best performing patching mix in the US because 78% patches made with this mix
survived after 4 years service in the field. Most other patches had failed miserably to
different degrees by that time and so the field study was terminated.

Prof. Prithvi Singh Kandhal attempted to introduce this mix in Jaipur in 2008.
Numerous pothole patches were made on city streets with the voluntary assistance of
the students and faculty of the Malviya National Institute of Technology at Jaipur.
The mix was also tried by IJM, contractor for National Highway 11 (Jaipur- Agra
Section). All patches were highly successful. Photograph 1 shows a patch made with
the Kandhal Mix on NH 11 after it was subjected to rains and traffic. It simply locks
itself in the cavity of the pothole and does not ravel out.

Photograph 1. Kandhal Mix patch on NH 11

This pothole patching mix was then introduced by Prof. Kandhal to Indian national
audience by publishing and presenting a technical paper in the Annual Session of the
Indian Roads Congress (IRC) held in Kolkata in 2008. This IRC paper titled, A
Simple and Effective Method of Repairing Potholes in India was published in the
Journal of the IRC, Volume 69-3, October-December 2008. The paper describes all
the logical research conducted in the US, which led to its development. The paper can
also be accessed and downloaded at the following link:


Faced with severe pothole problem during 2010 monsoon, JDA experimented with
this mix in October 2010 with the voluntary technical assistance/guidance of Prof.
Kandhal. [JDA has to maintain some 6000 km lane of roads and streets in Jaipur.]
Satisfied with its excellent performance even in very adverse circumstances, JDA has
been inviting tenders for this so-called Kandhal Readymade Pothole Patching Mix
since 2011 (about one crore rupees worth per year). The lowest bidder for this
unpatented patching material is awarded the contract. Kandhal Mix is supplied by the
local contractors in a 50-kg plastic lined bag (Photograph 2) to the JDA store
premises. It has a shelf life of at least 6 months and therefore it is used throughout the
year. Once all the supply is obtained before monsoon, JDA awards the contract of
laying and compaction of the mix in potholes to another contractor. That is why: two
separate specifications and tenders are needed (see attachments).

It has been called an idiot proof mix because it does not require any preparation of
the pothole such as squaring and applying tack coat; the mix is simply taken out of the
50-kg bag, leveled, hit with a hand rammer by ordinary laborer (no roller), some light
sand or grass/leaves is sprinkled on surface to prevent pick up by vehicle tyres, and
opened to traffic right away. If there is water in the pothole simply sweep off the extra
water. The patch will outlast the adjacent road area.

Photograph 2. Kandhal Mix 50-kg bag

Kandhal mix can be made in a portable or stationary drum or batch asphalt mixing
plants by any contractor using local materials. However, since the MC-800 Cutback
bitumen is used which has some kerosene in it, stringent safety measures as given in
the specifications need to be followed. Portable asphalt mixing plant as shown in
Photograph 3 has been used in Jaipur. Cost of producing this mix can be reduced
significantly if a conventional batch or drum plant is used. All these plants are used
primarily to dry and warm the aggregate, which is then processed again through the
plant to mix with MC-800 Cutback. Under no circumstances, drying/heating and
mixing should be done in one operation because MC-800 Cutback has kerosene which
can cause explosion when exposed to flame.

Photograph 3. Kandhal Mix production in portable drum plant
(burner flame turned off)

Photographs 4 and 5 show typical patches made in Jaipur with the Kandhal Mix.

Photograph 4. Typical patch with Kandhal Mix

Photograph 5. Typical patch with Kandhal Mix (next to divider)

Photographs 6 and 7 show as to how a pothole on Raj Bhawan Road in Civil Lines,
Jaipur was simply cleaned, filled with Kandhal Mix, and hit with hand rammer.
Photograph 8 taken after several months of rain and traffic dramatically shows the
patch was still there but the SDBC hot mix asphalt road surrounding the patch had
eroded and was gone.

Rajasthan PWD followed JDA and used the Kandhal Mix successfully in 2012 on
state roads and national highways.

Photograph 6. Long pothole bring cleaned in Civil Lines, Jaipur

Photograph 7. Kandhal Mix being placed and compacted
in the long pothole in Civil Lines, Jaipur

Photograph 8. Long pothole patch in Civil Lines, Jaipur after rainfall
season; Kandhal patch is still there but hot mix road around it is gone

Rate analyses have shown the cost of unpatented, generic Kandhal Mix is about one-
third the cost of many patented ready made mixes such as Shelmac available in India.
Attached rate analyses show the cost of supplying Kandhal mix to JDA premises to be
Rs. 6.72 per kg and cost of laying in potholes and compacting it to be Rs. 0.35 per kg.
Thus the total cost in place of the Kandhal Mix including all leads is about 7 rupees
per kg based on Rajasthan Basic Schedule of Rates.

Cost analyses have also shown the cost of repairing potholes with readymade cold
mix is less than the cost of repairing with hot mix asphalt because the latter is more
labour intensive (squaring the pothole), material intensive (binder for tack coat), and
equipment intensive (need for roller). Moreover we cannot use hot mix during rainy
season any way. If we consider that potholes get larger and deeper during the three
months of monsoon and therefore will require much more hot mix, the cost of prompt
repair of potholes with cold Kandhal mix may be half that with the hot mix. A stitch
in time saves nine. Moreover, what is the cost of injuries/fatalities; vehicle repair
costs; and user delays resulting from unfilled potholes? It is very hard to estimate
these costs. If we are a civilized country we simply cannot wait and repair potholes
after monsoon ends as we have been doing for the last 65 years after independence.

Patches made with the Kandhal mix are also more economical and faster than those
made with the so-called automatic patching machines called by fancy names such
as road ambulance and road doctor in India. These machines which are really
white elephants require major capital outlay and are also difficult to maintain. By
the time these machines make one patch, one laborer can make 10 Kandhal Mix
patches with a hand rammer only. However, politicians, bureaucrats and technocrats
with their own self interest in mind, fool the public and sell them unrealistic dreams
by purchasing such machines.

This mix is also very handy for contractors who are responsible for maintaining
national highways, state highways or PMGSY roads during the concession or
warranty or defect liability period. If there are a few potholes there is no need to
arrange hot mix; take some bags of this idiot proof mix and a labourer (with a hand
rammer) in a car or pickup and get the potholes repaired. It is also handy for filling
test/survey pits made on the road for testing and also for filling utility cuts in city

Kandhal mix can also be manufactured and sold commercially to township
developments and housing colonies to fix potholes on their internal roads; fixing
potholes with hot mix would be too expensive and cumbersome for them.

Again, nomenclature, specifications, and rate analyses used by the Jaipur
Development Authority for the last 4 years are attached for guidance so that highway
agencies across India can include this mix in their BSR as soon as possible without
doing any home work. Just substitute your organizations name in place of Jaipur
Development Authority (JDA). It is that simple!

With all preceding information and encouragement it would be unfortunate if
highway agencies and contractors do not adopt this generic, unpatented, economical
and effective patching technology to keep roads in India pothole free throughout the
year. Moreover, there is no excuse now this being an Indian Roads Congress

If still there are some excuses, those are really lame excuses from people who do not
wish to get the public out of the pothole misery and rut due to their own self interest
and/or downright incapability! May God save India from such people who always
have 100 excuses not to try new things which are really good for public! [Its good
they are not working for ISRO who sent the Mangalyaan and made us proud.]

I am not saying all this because I had the privilege of developing this mix but because
I believe this IS the answer to our pothole problems. This mix has been proven in the
field in US and India and its performance has been documented. No other certificate
in needed. If you have a better and economical alternative please let me know, I
would have everybody know about it if it is truly valid and does not serve your own


Prof. Prithvi Singh Kandhal
Jaipur, Rajasthan
Home page: www.eng.auburn.edu/users/kandhps

American roads are not good because America is rich, but America is rich
because American roads are good. - John F. Kennedy

Never doubt that a small group of citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is
the only thing that ever has. -Margaret Mead


Prof. Prithvi Singh Kandhal is Associate Director Emeritus of the National Center for
Asphalt Technology (NCAT) based at Auburn University, Alabama, U.S.A. NCAT is
the largest asphalt (bitumen) road technology center in the world.

Prior to joining NCAT in 1988, Prof. Kandhal served as Chief Asphalt Road Engineer
of the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation for 17 years. He is the first person
born outside North America, who has held the following three national and
international very prestigious positions in the asphalt road technology area:

President, Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists (with members from
all continents in the world)
Chairman, American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International
Committee on Road Paving Standards (responsible for over 200 standards
used worldwide)
Chairman, Transportation Research Board Committee on Asphalt Roads, U.S.
National Academy of Sciences
Prof. Kandhal has published over 120 technical papers and has co-authored the first
ever textbook on asphalt road technology, which is used by more than 25 universities
in the U.S. He has travelled to various countries in South America, Middle East,
China, Vietnam, Japan, Singapore, and Australia to provide training and consulting
services in asphalt (bitumen) technology. He has been to China three times to train
their highway engineers in building world-class roads.

Prof. Kandhal has been a practicing highway engineer in India for 20 years and in the
US for 30 years. Recently he has drafted many standards for the Indian Roads
Congress including specifications for dense graded bituminous mixes, stone matrix
asphalt and readymade pothole patching mix. He was also instrumental single-
handedly in introducing viscosity grading of bitumen in India in lieu of penetration
grading in 2005.

In August 2011, Prof. Kandhal was inducted on the Wall of Honour established at
the largest asphalt road research center in the United States. In April 2012, he
received the Lifetime Achievement Award in Asphalt Road Technology from the
International Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists during their annual
banquet held in Austin, Texas, USA.



Name of Work: Production and Supply of Kandhal Readymade Bituminous
Pothole Patching Mix to JDA Zone Number ..
Location (Godown) (Rate Contract)

S.N. Particulars Qty. Unit Rate to be

Producing and supply of Kandhal
readymade cold bituminous
patching mix in 50-kg plastic
lined, sturdy bags for repair of
potholes in adverse climatic
conditions including the
bituminous mix with a minimum
of 5.6% MC-800 cutback bitumen
(containing a suitable anti-
stripping agent) by weight of mix
and in strict conformance to
gradation and other requirements
such as 6-month storage life as
per the enclosed specification
dated 1 February 2013; transfer
with all leads and lift complete in
all respects as per direction of
of 50-

Special conditions:
1. Specification for Kandhal readymade bituminous mix dated 1 February 2013
is enclosed. Its strict compliance is required in production and supply. The
contractor shall be solely responsible if the mix is not workable and is not
usable for a period of 6 months for making durable patches.
2. All 50-kg bags shall be transported to a storage facility designated by the
Executive Engineer. Since the mix contains volatile kerosene, sealed bags
shall not be stored in a closed building or warehouse. Storage shall be made
under an open shed or in a well ventilated warehouse. No open flame or
smoking shall be allowed in the vicinity of the stored mix.

Executive Engineer
JDA, Jaipur

I/we agree to do the above work on rate as quoted above.


Indian Roads Congress Version as of
1 February 2013 for Rajasthan PWD and JDA

Specification for Kandhal Readymade Bituminous
Pothole Patching Mix

1. Scope

The material shall consist of plant mixed readymade pothole patching bituminous
mixture composed of mineral aggregate coated with bituminous material. The
material shall be capable of being stocked for at least six months without stripping
and shall be workable at all times. Unless specified otherwise, this mix shall be
supplied in 50-kg plastic lined, sturdy bags. This material is intended for patching
potholes up to 75 mm (3 inches) deep. For deeper potholes, patching mix shall be
placed and compacted in 75 mm thick layers.

2. Materials

2.1 Bitumen

Medium Curing Cutback Bitumen MC-800 conforming to Indian Standards
Specification IS: 217 Specification for Cutback Bitumen shall be used in preparing
the patching mix and shall be supplied by a certified manufacturer of this product. For
proper mixing, the bitumen shall be heated as specified in Section 3.

MC Cutback Bitumen shall be treated with a proper type and amount of an anti-
stripping agent by the approved bitumen supplier so that when combined with the
proposed job aggregate the resulting mix shall pass the Wet Coating Test, Static
Immersion Test and Stripping Test as given in Annexure I. The antistrip agent shall
conform to IS 14982. The contractor shall furnish the sample of the job aggregate
each year to the bitumen supplier for these coating and stripping tests and obtain a
certificate that the bitumen material has been treated to suit the job aggregate. This
yearly certificate must be on file and shall be available at the asphalt mix plant when
required by the Engineer. The contractor shall also forward a copy to the Engineer.
Under no circumstances, the contractor or the department shall be permitted to
manufacture the MC cutback by blending paving bitumen and kerosene.

2.2 Coarse Aggregate

2.2.1 The coarse aggregate shall consist of crushed rock, crushed gravel or other
hard material retained on 2.36 mm sieve. It shall be clean, hard, durable and cubical
shape, free from dust and soft organic and other deleterious substances. The aggregate
shall satisfy the physical requirements specified in Table 1.

2.2.2. Where crushed gravel is proposed for use as aggregate, not less than 90%
by weight of the crushed material retained on 4.75mm sieve shall have at least two
fractured faces resulting from crushing operation.

TABLE 1. Physical Properties of Coarse Aggregate

Property Test Requirement

Test method
Cleanliness Grain size analysis Max. 2% passing
0.075 micron
IS 2386 Part I
Particle shape Flakiness & Elongation
Index (combined)
Max. 35% IS 2386 Part I

Strength * Los Angeles Abrasion
Max. 40% IS 2386 Part IV
Aggregate Impact Value Max. 30% IS 2386 Part IV

Durability Soundness (Sodium or Magnesium), 5 cycles
Sodium Sulphate Max. 12% IS 2386 Part V

Magnesium Sulphate Max. 18% IS 2386 Part V

Water absorption Water absorption Max. 2% IS 2386 Part III

* The coarse aggregate may satisfy either of the two strength tests.

2.3 Fine Aggregate

Fine aggregate shall consist of crushed mineral material passing 2.36 mm sieve and
retained on 75-micron sieve. It shall be clean, hard, durable, and free from dust and
soft organic and other deleterious substances. No natural sand shall be permitted.

2.4. Composition of Mixtures

When tested in accordance with IS:2386 Part 1 (wet sieving method), the combined
aggregate grading shall fall within the limits shown in Table 2. As far as possible an
aggregate with water absorption of 1.0 or less shall be used. The amount of residual
bitumen binder (total cutback bitumen minus diluent such as kerosene) in the mix
shall be as shown in Table 3. The readymade patching mix shall be rejected if it does
not meet the grading (especially the 0.075 mm sieve) and the minimum residual
bitumen content. The produced mix shall be tested by an independent approved
testing laboratory before its acceptance by the Engineer.

Table 2. Gradation of Stockpile Patching Mix
Sieve size, mm Percent passing
9.5 100
4.75 40 100
2.36 10 40
1.18 0 - 10
0.075 0 2

Table 3. Minimum Residual Bitumen Content by Weight of Mix
Aggregate water absorption,
Minimum residual bitumen content,
Less than 1.0 4.5
1.1 to 1.5 5.0
1.6 to 2.0 5.5

Based on the characteristics of the aggregate and the performance of the mix, the
Engineer can specify amount of residual bitumen higher than that shown in Table 3.

The contractor shall ascertain from the supplier of MC-800 as to how much residual
bitumen it contains. For example, if the MC-800 contains 80% bitumen and 20%
kerosene and a total of 6.0% MC-800 is used by weight of the mix, the residual
bitumen content in the mix will be 4.8 percent.

3. Preparation and Storage of Mixture

The Kandhal readymade patching mix shall preferably be produced in a conventional
batch type hot mix plant. However, if a portable or stationary asphalt drum plant is
used, under no circumstances drying/heating of aggregates with a burner flame and
mixing with MC-800 shall be carried out simultaneously because MC-800 containing
volatile kerosene will catch fire and pose a safety hazard. The contractor and the
engineer shall ensure there is no open flame inside or outside the drum when
MC-800 is added for mixing.

The mix should be such that it can be stocked, handled, placed, and finished without
stripping of the bitumen from the aggregate. To help prevent stripping and avoid heat
buildup in a stockpile (which may burn the entire stockpile), the mixed material
should not be stockpiled no higher than 1.5 m for the first 48 hours. The stockpile
then can be raised in height and made conical in shape. Unless specified otherwise,
the readymade cold mix shall be placed and sealed in plastic lined, sturdy 50-kg bags
on cooling.

The mineral aggregate should be clean and surface dry before mixing. The
temperature of aggregate and bituminous material should comply with those shown in
Table 4.

Table 4. Temperature Ranges for Producing Stockpile Patching Mix
Bituminous material Aggregate temperature, C Bitumen temperature, C
MC-800 25 65 75 - 95

Since the range of aggregate temperature is rather low and the maximum aggregate
temperature is restricted to 65 C, it may not be possible to dry the aggregate within
this temperature range. Therefore, the aggregate can be processed in a dryer at high
temperatures and allowed to cool before the bituminous binder is added. Pre-drying
the aggregate at high temperatures will also help in reducing the fines (material
passing 0.075 mm sieve), which will go into the baghouse. The resulting mix then
would have fines less than 2 % as required in the stringent gradation specifications.
High aggregate temperature while mixing with the cutback bitumen will not only
cause excessive loss of kerosene from the cutback but will also pose a safety
hazard in the plant pug mill. Proper and adequate venting of the pug mill is
necessary. Under no circumstances there shall be any open flame in the vicinity
of MC-800 cutback because it contains volatile kerosene.

Since the mix contains volatile kerosene it is not safe to store the loose mix or
sealed bags in a closed building/warehouse. Store under an open shed or in a well
ventilated warehouse. No open flame or smoking shall be allowed in the vicinity
of the stored mix.

4. Quality Control and Acceptance of Mixture

The composition of the produced mix (gradation and bitumen content) shall be tested
by an independent, approved testing laboratory before acceptance by the Engineer.
Before conducting the bitumen extraction test to determine residual bitumen content
in the Kandhal patching mix, the sample shall be cured completely to remove all
kerosene. Curing shall be done as follows. Place the loose mix in an open metal
container and heat slowly on a hot plate with frequent stirring until a constant weight
is achieved.

The following two tests shall be performed by the contractor (in presence of a
Department representative) on the mixture, freshly prepared or taken from a stockpile
or sealed bag at any time during its storage life (usually 6 months).

Water Resistance Test (See Annexure I, Test C)
Workability Test (See Annexure I, Test D)

The water resistance test would indicate whether the patching mix has a potential for
stripping in the pothole in presence of water. If the mix fails this test, it means a
proper type and/or amount of an antistrip agent has not been used in the bituminous

If the mix fails in workability it could be due to improper bitumen type, low bitumen
content, excessive fines or improper gradation. Even one-half percent lower bitumen
content can make the patching mix unworkable and useless.

Stocked patching material may be rejected, at any time during the six month period if,
in the opinion of the Engineer, the patching material has stripped (more than 10%
uncoated particles) or otherwise become unfit or unworkable for use.

5. Measurement for Payment

The tonnage of the Kandhal readymade pothole patching mix shall be measured and
determined from the actual plant batch reports as recorded by a representative of the
Engineer assigned to the work. In case the Kandhal mix is supplied in plastic lined,
sturdy bags, each bag must weigh at least 50 kg and the number of bags shall be
counted for payment.
6. Rate

The Kandhal readymade bituminous patching material shall be paid for at the contract
unit price per ton or per 50-kg bag, FOB the asphalt mix plant, at the work site, or at
other destination as specified in the contract. A reasonable amount of earnest money
will be kept by the Department for 6 months or on depletion of the stockpile,
whichever is earlier, to ensure the product is satisfactory for use and meets all tests
specified earlier during the life of the product.


A. Wet Coating Test

Heat the unwashed job aggregate, cutback bitumen and distilled water to 40 C in a
suitable oven. Weigh 100 g of dry aggregate into a suitable mixing container (such as
seamless tin can, 16 oz capacity). Add 3 ml of distilled water. Mix thoroughly with a
spatula until the aggregate particles are uniformly wetted. Add cutback bitumen
equivalent to 5.0 +/ 0.2 g of bitumen residue. Mix rigorously with the spatula until all
aggregate is coated, but not more than 5 minutes. Transfer the contents into a 400 ml
beaker containing 150 ml of distilled water (22 32 C). Let stand for 15 minutes and
visually determine the percent of retained coating, which should be at least 98

B. Static-Immersion Test

The coated aggregate as prepared in the preceding wet coating test shall remain
immersed in the beaker of distilled water (22 32 C) for 24 hours. At the end of this
period, visually determine the percent of retained coating while the sample remains
immersed in water, which should be at least 95 percent.

C. Water Resistance Test

Fifty grams of patching mix, whether freshly prepared or taken from the stockpile or a
sealed bag, shall be heated at 120 C in a laboratory oven for 1 hour, cooled to 95 C in
laboratory air, and then placed in 400 ml of boiling water in a 600-ml glass beaker
and stirred with a glass rod at the rate of 1 revolution per second for 3 minutes. The
water shall be decanted and the mix shall be spread on an absorbent paper for visual
observation of the coating. The aggregate shall be at least 90 % coated with a
bituminous film.

D. Workability Test

Approximately 2.5 kg of the patching mix shall be cooled to 7 C in a freezer. After
cooling, the mixture shall be capable of being broken up readily with a spatula that
has a blade length of approximately 200 mm. This test shall be performed when the
mix is produced and thereafter anytime during storage. If the mix is not workable at
7 C, it shall be rejected and the composition of the mix shall be properly modified (for
example, by increasing the bitumen content and/or gradation changes). This test is
also applicable in areas with hot climate because it amplifies the workability
characteristics of the mix by using a lower test temperature.



Name of Work: Placing and Compacting Kandhal Readymade
Bituminous Patching Mix in potholes on various roads in JDA
ZoneArea.. Jaipur (Rate Contract)


S.N. Particulars Qty. Unit Rate to be


Placing and compacting Kandhal
readymade cold bituminous
patching mix in potholes in
adverse weather as per enclosed
specifications including cleaning
of potholes; placing and
compacting the mix; sprinkling
sand to prevent pick up by traffic;
and documentation of patches,

of 50-


with all leads and lifts complete in
all respects as per attached
specifications and direction of

Special conditions:
3. Specification for placing and compacting the Kandhal readymade bituminous
mix dated 1 February 2013 is enclosed. Its strict compliance is required.

Executive Engineer
JDA, Jaipur

I/we hereby agree to do the above work on rates as quoted above.

Signature of the Contractor
With full postal address and Mobile Number

Indian Roads Congress Version as of 1 February 2013 for JDA

Specifications for Placing and Compacting Kandhal Readymade
Cold Bituminous Mix in Potholes

1. Scope

These specifications cover placing and compacting the Kandhal readymade
patching mix in potholes including transportation of the mix from the designated
storage facility to road sites as directed by the engineer. The work involves
cleaning and preparation of potholes; placing and compacting the mix; applying
sand to prevent pick up by traffic; and documenting the number and sizes of the
patches. The Kandhal readymade cold patching mix is suitable for patching
potholes only and shall not be used for patching long stretches of deteriorated
road surface.

2. Preparation of Potholes

Pothole shall be cleaned with a stiff wire brush and all loose material including
dust shall be removed with a soft brush. Pothole need not be dry. However, excess
water shall be swept off the pothole.

If the pothole is deep and extends to WMM or granular base, it is recommended to
apply a prime coat consisting of MC-30 Cutback before placing the patching mix.
If angular aggregate (nominal size 25 mm) is used to partially fill deep potholes,
the aggregate should be compacted thoroughly and primed with MC-30 before
placing the patching mix. At least 50 mm thick pothole patching mix shall be
placed at the top.

3. Placing Kandhal mix in Potholes

The Kandhal mix is intended for patching potholes up to 75 mm (3 inches) deep.
For deeper potholes, patching mix shall be placed and compacted in 75 mm thick

Sufficient material shall be placed in the pothole so that after compaction the
patch is about 10 mm above the existing road surface.

4. Compacting the Kandhal mix

First the outside edge or periphery of the patch shall be compacted with a hand
rammer and then compaction shall proceed inwards. To prevent initial pick up of
the loose mix by the hand rammer either continue to wet the hand rammer with
water or place empty plastic lined bags on the loose mix.

For deep potholes, place the patching mix and compact in 75 mm thick layers.
After compaction, the compacted patch shall be about 10 mm higher than the
existing road surface to allow for further compaction by traffic.
If there are numerous closely spaced patches, it is preferred to use a small roller
rather than a hand rammer.

5. Applying Sand to Prevent Pick up by Traffic

Before opening the compacted patch to traffic, sufficient amount of clean sand
shall be sprinkled on the patch to prevent pick up by traffic.

6. Documenting the Number and Sizes of Patches

The contractor shall document and the engineer shall verify the following on a
daily basis: (a) Number of 50-kg bags used; (b) Name of road and chainages
where patches were made; and (c) Average sizes of potholes patched by
measuring their average length, average width and average depth.

7. Measurement for Payment

The total number of 50-kg bags of Kandhal mix placed and compacted by the
contractor shall be recorded by the engineer for payment. Payment shall be made
at the contract price per 50-kg bag.


Cost Analysis of Supplying Kandhal Readymade Bituminous Pothole Patching
Mix to Department Godown
(Revised 16 March 2013)

Assume one ton (1000 kg) of the mix is to be made and filled in 20 bags of 50 kg
each, which will be supplied to Department Godown for use later.

A. Cost of Materials

1. Aggregate of specified gradation; rate of Rs. 300/ton;
Add extra cost 10% for special size; total rate is
Rs. 330/ton
Aggregate 940 kg @ Rs. 330 per ton.. 310.20

2. Bitumen MC-800 Cutback supplied in drums:
60 kg @ Rs. 60,000 per ton. 3600.00

3. Anti Stripping Agent @ 0.3 % by weight of MC-800
1.8 kg @ Rs. 165 per kg. 297.00

Total for A 4,207.20

B. Production Cost

1. Portable Mini Hot Mix Plant with capacity of 8 tons/day
Rent for one day = Rs. 1000. Rent to produce one ton will be
one-eighth of Rs. 1000, that is, Rs. 125 125.00

2. Fuel costs: 24 liters per day; 3 liters per hour
3 liters @ Rs. 50 per liter 150.00

3. Labour: 8 labourers needed per day to produce 8 tons
1 labourer needed per ton @ Rs. 300 per day. 300.00

Total for B 575.00

C. Packing, Handling and Transport to Department Godown

1. Cost of 50-kg empty bags
20 bags @ Rs. 12 per bag.. 240.00

2. Labour for filling, weighing and sealing bags;
3 labourers can fill 160 bags in one day (20 bags in one hour)
Cost of labourers for one day = 3 times Rs. 300 = Rs. 900
Cost of filling 20 bags in one hour = 900/8.. 112.50

3. Transport of bags from plant to department godown
(average 10 km lead) 1 ton@ Rs. 200 per ton . 200.00

Total for C 552.50

D. Total of A + B + C. 5,334.70

Contractors overhead @ 10% of D........................................................... 533.47

Royalties, sales tax, income tax etc. @ 4.5% of D....................................... 240.06

Total 6,108.23

Add 10% contractors margin 610.82

Total Cost per ton (20 bags of 50 kg each)..Rs. 6,719.05

Cost per kg..Rs. 6.72

Cost per 50-kg bag..Rs. 335.95

Revised 16 March 2013

Cost Analysis of Laying Kandhal Readymade Bituminous Pothole Patching Mix
(As of 16 March 2013)

Assume Eight (8) tons of the Kandhal mix will be laid
in potholes in one day. Costs for one day operation are as follows:

1. 4 Labourers @ Rs. 300 each 1,200.00

2. Transportation of bags from Department Godown to
laying site (average one-way lead of 20 km)
(a) Rent of tractor = Rs. 600
(b) Cost of diesel = Rs. 400 (tractor will consume one liter
per 5 km; 8 liters for 40 km @ Rs. 50 per liter = Rs. 400
Total transportation cost = 600 + 400 = 1000 1,000.00

3. Sand bags for sprinkling sand on patches to avoid pickup:

2 sand bags @ Rs. 10 per bag20.00

Total 2,220.00

Add 10% contractor overhead... 222.00

Add 4.5% for royalty, sales tax, income tax, etc.. 99.90

Total 2,541.90

Add 10% contractor margin.. 254.19

Total 2,796.09

This is the cost for 8 tons.

Cost per ton = Rs. 349.51
Cost per kg = Rs. 0.35
Cost per 50-kg bag = Rs. 17.48

(As of 16 March 2013)