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302 MISSILE CONTROL

MISSILE CONTROL
A missile control system consists of those components that
control the missile airframe in such a way as to automatically
provide an accurate, fast, and stable response to guidance
commands throughout the flight envelope while rejecting uncertainties due to changing parameters, unmodeled dynamics,
and outside disturbances. In other words, a missile control
system performs the same functions as a human pilot in a
piloted aircraft; hence, the name autopilot is used to represent the pilotlike functions of a missile control system. Missile
control and missile guidance are closely tied, and for the purposes of explanation, a somewhat artificial distinction between the two roles is now made. It must be remembered,
however, that for a guided missile the boundary between
guidance and control is far from sharp. This is due to the
common equipment and the basic functional and operational
interactions that the two systems share. The purpose of a
missile guidance system is to determine the trajectory, relative to a reference frame, that the missile should follow. The
control system regulates the dynamic motion of the missile;
that is, the orientation of its velocity vector. In general terms,
the purpose of a guidance system is to detect a target, estimate missile-target relative motion, and pass appropriate instructions to the control system in an attempt to drive the
missile toward interception. The control system regulates the
motion of the missile so that the maneuvers produced by the
guidance system are followed, thereby making the missile hit
or come as close as required to the target. The autopilot is the
point at which the aerodynamics and dynamics of the airframe (or body of the missile) interact with the guidance system. Instructions received from the guidance system are
translated into appropriate instructions for action by the control devices (e.g., aerodynamic control surfaces, thrust vecJ. Webster (ed.), Wiley Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.
Copyright # 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
MISSILE CONTROL 303
Figure 1. A block diagram describing the
functional relations among the compoGuidance
command
+

Controller Actuator
Sensor
Aerodynamic
control surface
Missile
dynamics
nents of the missile control system.
toring or lateral thrusters) that regulate the missiles flight- transmitter radia
tes a frequency-modulated wave toward the earth, and the reflected signal is received on path. A block diagram de
scribing these missile control system
operations is depicted in Fig. 1 where the function of each a separate antenna a
nd combined with the signal taken
directly from the transmitter. The frequency difference component is further exp
lained as following.
between the transmitted and the reflected signals indicates the height of the missile. Radio altimeters can be

COMPONENTS OF MISSILE CONTROL SYSTEMS


used to maintain automatically a missile at a preset altitude.
Sensor Units
Controller Units
Sensor units measure some aspects of the missiles motion.
Gyroscopes and accelerometers are the two primary sensor
Controller units can be regarded as the brain of a missile,
units used in any missile control system. They provide the
which tell a missile how to deflect the control surfaces or how
information of rotational and translational motions of a misto alter the thrust direction. The controller is in the form of
sile, respectively.
preprogrammed logic and/or numerical operations installed
in the on-board computer of a missile. There are two inputs
1. Gyroscope. A gyroscope is a mechanical device conto the controller units. One is from the sensor units, which
taining an accurately balanced rotor with its spin axis
provide the information about the actual motions of a missile,
passing through the center of gravity. When the rotor
and the other input is from the guidance system, which prorotates at a high speed, it assumes the rigidity characvides the information about the commanded motions of a misteristics that resist any force tending to displace the rosile. The commanded motion and the actual motions are comtor from its plane of rotation. The tendency of a gyropared and manipulated in the controller units via a series of
scope to maintain its spin direction in the inertial space
logic and/or numerical operations in order to output an intelallows us to measure, with respect to the spin direction,
ligent decision, which renders the actual motions of a missile
the angular motion of the missile on which the gyroto match the commanded motions as closely as possible when
scope is mounted. Some recent gyroscopes, such as
fed into the actuator units. The series of operations involved
fiber-optical gyroscopes and ring-laser gyroscopes, do
in the controller unit is called control law. The most widely
not use a spinning rotor. They calculate the body rate
used control laws include amplification, integration, and difby use of the Sagnac effect. Fiber-optical gyroscopes
ferentiation of the error signal between the commanded mohave an especially high specification with reasonable
tions and the actual motions.
cost.
2. Accelerometer. The basic principle of operation of an ac1. Amplification. The amplification of error signal imcelerometer consists of the measurement of the inertial
proves the robustness of the missile control system
reaction force of a mass to an acceleration. The inertial
against uncertainties present in missile dynamics.
reaction force of the mass causes a displacement of the
2. Integration. The integration of error signal effectively
mass, which is suspended in an elastic mounting sysincreases the closeness between the commanded motem within the missile, and the acceleration of the mistions and the actual motions.
sile can be read from the displacement of the suspended
3. Differentiation. The differentiation of error signal promass. Velocity and position information can be obtained
vides the trend of error propagation and decreases the

by integrating the accelerometer signal. One must avoid


required time for the actual motions to track the complacing the accelerometer near an antinode of the prinmanded motions.
cipal bending mode of the missile; otherwise, the vibration pick-up at this point may result in destruction of
With the increasing computation power of on-board comthe missile.
puters, more advanced control laws can be implemented in
3. Altimeter. The altimeter, which is an instrument used
the missile control loop to improve the agility of a missile.
to measure altitude, is another sensor unit frequently
This point is addressed in more detail later.
employed in cruise missile systems. There are two common types of altimeters. A pressure altimeter, which is
Actuator Units
simply a mechanical aneroid barometer, gives an approximate altitude from which a more accurate value Actuator units are energy tr
ansformation devices. They receive the command from controller units and transfer it into can be calculated;
on the other hand, radio altimeters
give absolute altitude directly. In radio altimeters, a enough power to operate
control surfaces in order to direct
304 MISSILE CONTROL
the missile to the right heading. There are three methods of changed by the acti
on of actuators, which exert forces on control surfaces or on exhaust vanes. Altering missile heading operating control su
rfaces: (1) by a pneumatic piston, (2) by a
hydraulic piston, or (3) by an electric motor. The selection of by deflecting co
ntrol surfaces is called aerodynamic control,
whereas altering missile heading by deflecting exhaust vanes actuating power dep
ends on factors such as the speed, size,
altitude, range, and weight of the missile. or by changing the jet direction is
called thrust vector control.
A control surface is not effective until the airflow across the
surface has attained sufficient speed to develop a force. When
1. Pneumatic Actuator. In a pneumatic system, air from a
missile speed is not high enough during the beginning of
pressure source passes through suitable delivery tubes,
launch, the aerodynamic control is not effective, and its role
valves, and pressure regulators to do work upon some
is taken over by thrust vector control. The following two secmechanical units such as a piston or a diaphragm,
tions are dedicated to missile aerodynamic control and missile
which is connected to the missile control surfaces. Unthrust vector control.
like a hydraulic system, a pneumatic system does not
reuse its transfer medium after it has performed work
on the load. For that reason, the air must be stored at
MISSILE AERODYNAMIC CONTROL
a pressure much higher than that necessary for actuating the load. Therefore, a pneumatic system that deTo control a missile accurately via aerodynamic forces, two
pends on tanks of compressed air is obviously limited in
general types of control surfaces (i.e., primary and secondary
range. The performance of a pneumatic system is also
controls) are used. Primary control surfaces include ailerons,
limited by the property of air compressibility. Because
elevators, rudders, and canards; secondary control surfaces
air is compressible, the movement of a pneumatic actua-

include tabs, spoilers, and slots. An understanding of missile


tor is slow because of the time it takes to compress the
aerodynamics is needed before a discussion of how these two
air in the actuator to a pressure sufficient to move it.
groups of control surfaces work.
2. Hydraulic Actuator. The operation of a hydraulic system is similar to the pneumatic system. The most prom- Missile Aerodynamics
inent difference between the two systems is that the
Missile aerodynamics, like other flight vehicle aerodynamics,
medium of transfer in the pneumatic system is a gas,
is basically an application of Bernoullis theorem, which says
whereas the medium of the transfer in the hydraulic
that if the velocity of air over a surface is increased, the pressystem is a liquid. Hydraulic fluid is practically incomsure exerted by the air on the surface must decrease, thus
pressible and will produce a faster reaction on an actuakeeping the total energy constant. The top surface of a missile
tor, especially when the actuator must move against
wing section has a greater curvature than the lower surface.
large forces. This asset is evidenced by the fact that
The difference in curvature of the upper and lower surfaces
large, high-speed missiles are controlled by hydraulic
builds up the lift force. Air flowing over the top surface of the
actuators. The main drawback of a hydraulic actuator is
wing must reach the trailing edge of the wing in the same
its weight and the maintenance problems. A hydraulic
time as the air flowing under the wing. To do this, air passing
system normally weighs more because of the need for a
over the top surface must move at a greater velocity than air
pump, a reservoir, filters, and an accumulator. Also a
passing below the wing because of the greater distance the
hydraulic system is hard to maintain, requiring filling
air must travel via the top surface. The increased velocity
and bleeding operations.
means a corresponding decrease of pressure on the surface
3. Electric Actuators. Generally, motors are used as the
according to the Bernoullis theorem. Therefore, a pressure
actuators in the electrical energy transfer systems. Didifferential is created between the upper and lower surface of
rect current (dc) motors develop higher stall torque than
the wing, forcing the wing upward and giving it lift. Besides
alternating current (ac) motors and, therefore, are used
the wing, any other lifting surfaces and control surfaces of a
more often for driving heavy loads encountered in highmissile exhibit exactly the same function.
speed missile control. An ac motor is inherently a conThe three-dimensional motion of a missile can be described
stant-speed device that is not suitable for the requirein the body-axis coordinate system as shown in Fig. 2. The
ments of a servo motor where variation in rotation
longitudinal line through the center of the fuselage is called
speed is necessary. This factor also makes the dc motor
the roll axis (x axis), the line that is perpendicular to the x
more applicable than the ac motor as an electric actuaaxis and parallel to the wings is called the pitch axis (y axis),
tor in missile control. The use of all-electric missile conand the vertical line is considered as the yaw axis (z axis).
trol would simplify manufacture, assembly, and mainteThe origin of the body-axis coordinate system (x, y, z) locates
nance. Also, it would be easier to transmit information

at the center of gravity. The three-dimensional missile motion


or power to all parts of the missile by wires rather than
can be resolved into two planar motions: pitch plane motion
by hydraulic or pneumatic tubing. To enforce actuating
and yaw plane motion, where pitch plane is normal to the
efficiency, different methods of energy transfer (e.g.,
pitch axis, and yaw plane is normal to the yaw axis. The
electropneumatic and electrohydraulic actuators) can
angle, measured in the pitch plane, between the projected
be combined.
missile velocity and the roll axis is called the angle of attack
(AOA) denoted by ?. The angle, measured in the yaw plane,
between the projected missile velocity and the roll axis is The preceding introd
uction describes the components and
the operations of a missile control loop. A more detailed and called the angle o
f sideslip denoted by ?. The resultant force
on the wing or body can also be resolved into two components: fundamental introd
uction to the elements of missile control
system can be found in Refs. 1 and 2. A missiles heading is the component in the
pitch plane is called normal force, and
MISSILE CONTROL 305
Roll
rotates on
longitudinal axis
Pitch
rotates on
lateral axis
elevator tab
elevator
aileron tab
Canard
Relative wind
Wing

Center of Gr vity
Y w
rot tes on
vertic  xis
Rudder
Rudder
t 
ieron
y, Y, V
x, X, U
I yy , M, 
I xx , L, p
I zz , N, r
z, Z, W
Figure 2. Schem tic demonstr tion of the nomenc ture used in missie dyn mics.
The oc tions
of the prim ry contro surf ces (rudder, eev tor, ieron, nd c n rd) nd the
second ry contro
surf ce (t s) re shown. The definition of the ro, pitch, nd y w motions is
so shown.
the component in the y w p ne is c ed side force. The nor- coefficient C L de
pends on the wing sp n nd the profie
of the wing. Incre sing wing sp n or using the e ding- m  force c n e further

resoved into two components: the


component perpendicu r to the projected missie veocity (in edge sot or tr i
ing-edge f p to incre se the c mer of
wing profie m y effectivey incre se the ift coefficient. the pitch p ne) is
c ed ift nd the component ong the
projected missie veocity is c ed dr g. In m ny t ctic  mis2. Dr g Force. Dr g is the resist nce of ir to forw rd mosies (e.g., short-r nge ir-to- ir missies), the wing providing
tion nd is n dverse f ctor of contro effectiveness. It
the ift force is not prep red. They keep suit e AOA in the
is the force th t must e overcome y the thrust. The
fight, where the ift force is produced y contro fins or st idr g force in formu is
ity fins. Some fund ment  contro-re ted missie erodyn mics re surveyed in the foowing ist. Re ders who re
interested in dv nced missie erodyn mics c n refer to
D = C D

2
AV 2 (2)
Refs. 3 and 4 fo details.
whee C D is the coefficient of dag obtained fom chaac1. Lift Foce. Lift foce is the foce by which aeodynamic
teistic cuves of aifoils via wind-tunnel tests. Fo a
contol sufaces can change the attitude of a missile.
small AOA, C D changes vey little with the AOA. As the
Lift foce depends on the contou of a wing, AOA, ai
AOA inceases, C D inceases. The dag coefficient is
density, aea of the wing, and the squae of the aiusually quite small when compaed with the lift coeffispeed. The common equation fo lift is given as
cient. Thee ae thee souces of ai dag. The skin fiction of ai on the wing is called pofile dag; the ai
esistance of the pats of a missile that do not contibL = C L

2
AV 2 (1)
ute to lift is called paasite dag; and the pat of aifoil
dag that contibutes to lift is called induced dag. C L ,
whee L is the lift; C L is the lift coefficient, which deC D , and othe aeodynamic coefficients can be evaluated
pends on the wing contou and the AOA; ? is the ai
fom empiical techniques, computational fluid dynamdensity; A is the aea of the wing; and V is the aispeed.
ics (CFD) modeling, o by the pocessing of wind tunnel
The lift coefficient C L is detemined by wind-tunnel
test data. It should be noted that vaious degees of untests and is plotted vesus AOA as a chaacteistic
cetainty ae associated with each of these methods,
cuve fo the paticula aifoil. As the AOA inceases,
with wind tunnel measuements usually being accepted
the lift coefficient inceases linealy to a cetain maxias the most accuate.
mum value, which is the point whee the ai no longe
flows evenly ove the wing suface but tends to beak 3. Wingtip Votex. The asy
mmetic wingtip votex, which
has a emakable effect causing ow-yaw instability at away. This beaking away
is called the stalling angle.
Afte the stalling angle is eached, the lifting foce is a high AOA, is always

a challenge to missile contol system design. As ai flows about a wing, the pessue of apidly lost, as is the a
ispeed. Fo a fixed AOA, the lift
306 MISSILE CONTROL
the ai immediately above the uppe suface is less than This of couse is the 
eason why feathes ae placed at
the ea end of an aow to move the c.p. aft. If a missile the ai pessue imm
ediately below the suface. With
the ai at a highe pessue below the wing, ai will has no autopilot (i.e., no
instument feedback), a sizable
static magin, say 5% o moe of the oveall length, has spill by the wingtips t
o the uppe suface. This flow of
ai fom the lowe suface combines with the nomal to be allowed to ensue stab
ility. Howeve, if the static
magin is excessively positive, the missile is unneces- flow of ai, causing a s
wil of ai at the wingtips. This
swil is called a wingtip votex. At each side of the saily stable, and contol
moments will be elatively ineffective in poducing a sizable maneuve. On the othe wingtip, the action of t
he votex is to thow the ai inwad and downwad. Induced dag is elated to the hand, although a missile with
negative static magin
is statically unstable, it may exhibit geat agility when downflow caused by the
wingtip votices.
autopilot is installed. It is woth noting that the static
4. Downwash. Because of the cambe shape of the wing
magin of a missile is not a fixed value, because of the
aifoil, ai flow ove the wing is deflected downwad toc.p. vaiation fo diffeent flight conditions and the c.g.
wad the elevato. This angle of deflection is called the
vaiation caused by popellant usage. A challenging
downwash angle. When missile tail contol is considmissile contol poblem is to ensue the stability of the
eed, the downwash effect caused by the wing must be
aifame fo all possible c.p. and c.g. locations.
seiously taken into account because downwash can sig2. Yaw Stabilize. Missile stability about the vetical nificantly educe the ef
fective AOA of the tail suface
(yaw) axis is usually povided fo by a vetical fin. If a and educe the elevat
o ability of pitch contol.
missile tends to tun to the left, the pessue on the
5. Shock Wave Effect. Shock wave is a pominent aeodyight side of the fin is inceased. This inceased pesnamic phenomenon when missile speed is at the tansue esists the otation and foces the tail in the opposonic o supesonic anges. As the speed of a missile
site diection. In some missiles, the fin may be divided
inceases, thee comes a point at which the ai can no
and have a movable pat called the udde that is used
longe get out of the way fast enough. The ai tends to
fo diectional contol. Besides the fin, the vetical sides
pile up o compess in font of the missile, setting up
of the fuselage also act as stabilizing sufaces. Anothe
what is known as shock waves. In a shock wave, the
way to incease the yaw stability is via sweepback of
pessue of ai vaies shaply, seiously alteing the
wings.
foces and pessue distibution on a missile. When
3. Row Stabilize. Missile stability about the longitudinal shock waves ae fom
ed on the wings o contol su-

(ow) axis is achieved by a dihedal and by the position- faces, the ai flow ac
oss the shock waves tends to sepaing of the wing. A dihedal angle is the angle fomed by ate, causing dag to 
ise suddenly much as in a lowa efeence line though the wing suface and the lat- speed stall. At cetain m
issile speeds, especially nea
eal axis of the missile. Dihedal poduces stability by the tansonic ange, th
e deflection of contol sufaces
causing a change of lift on the wing sufaces. As a mis- may deteioate the sho
ck wave effect, which poduces
sile stats to oll, it will sideslip slightly and thus ceate a peculia vibat
ion called flutte on contol sufaces
a elative wind component. This component inceases and can make contol suface
s ineffective and even disthe lift on the lowe wing and deceases the lift on the integated.
highe wing. Hence, an opposite toque is geneated to
stop owing. The positioning of the wings at the time Missile Stability
a missile is constucted is anothe means of obtaining
A stable missile can ecove fom the petubed states spontastability about the ow axis. A missile has geate ow
neously without contol. Such stability is made possible by
stability if the wings ae placed above the cente of
devices that stabilize a missile about its thee axes. Accodgavity than if they ae placed below the cente of
ingly, these devices ae called stabilizes. The simplest stabigavity.
lize is the featheed fins at the ea of an aow because it
povides fo a stable line of flight. Thee types of stabilizes
Pimay Contol Sufaces
ae equied to stabilize a missile about its thee axes.
Aileons, uddes, elevatos, canads, and thei vaious combinations ae consideed pimay contols. These contol su1. Pitch Stabilize. Missile stability about the lateal
faces ae shown schematically in Fig. 2. As these contol su(pitch) axis is achieved by a hoizontal suface at the
faces ae deflected, they pesent a suface to the existing ai
tail of the missile. This hoizonal suface consists of two
flow at an angle that will cause a foce to exist. This foce
pats: the stationay pat as the pitch stabilize and the
pushing against the contol suface moves the wing o tail to
movable pat as the elevato. The degee of pitch stabilwhich the contol suface is attached in a diection opposite
ity can be quantitatively expessed by an index called
to the contol suface movement.
static magin, which is the distance of the cente of
pessue (c.p.) to the cente of gavity (c.g.). The c.p. is
1. Aileons. A conventional aileon is attached to the
the point though which the combined aeodynamic
oute tailing edge of the wings to contol the missile
foces caused by body, wings, and contol sufaces ae
ow motion in a manne that when one aileon is lowacting. If c.p. is behind the c.g. (i.e., the static magin is
eed, the opposite one is aised.
positive), the missile is said to be statically stable. In
this case, any petubation of the body away fom the 2. Elevatos. Elevatos a
e attached to the pitch stabilize
on the tail to contol pitch motion. They ae aised and diection of the veloci
ty vecto esults in a moment
about the c.g. that tends to decease this petubation. loweed togethe.
MISSILE CONTROL 307

3. Ruddes. A udde is attached to the ea pat of the 3. Spoiles. As the nam
e indicates, a spoile is used to
geneate tubulence flow and spoil the lift on a wing. vetical stabilize and is us
ed to maintain diectional
(yaw) contol. When not used, spoiles ae ecessed into the uppe
cambe of the wings and allow the flow of ai ove the
4. Canads. A canad is basically a fowad wing located
wing to be smooth and uninteupted. If, howeve, a
ahead of the cente of gavity of the missile fo the pugust of wind has caused the ight wing to dop, the conposes of stabilization and pitch contol. One type of catol system instantly calls fo the spoile on the left
nad stuctue consists of a fixed stabilizing plane with
wing to extend. As the spoile extends, the lift on the
a suface contol attached to the tailing edge. Anothe
left wing is spoiled and educed a consideable amount.
type of canad stuctue uses a pivoted mechanism that
The wings then tend to etun to the oiginal position.
allows the entie stabilizing plane to otate up o down.
5. Dual-Pupose Contol Sufaces. The peceding contol
sufaces can be popely combined to give multipupose
MISSILE THRUST VECTOR CONTROL
contol functions. Feasible combinations include elevons, ailevatos, and udde-vatos. As the names indiA completely diffeent method of steeing a missile is to alte
cate, they consist of contol sufaces that accomplish
the diection of the efflux fom the populsion moto. This
two puposes. Fo instance, an elevon takes the place of
method is known as thust vecto contol (TVC). TVC is
an elevato and an aileon, giving contol of pitch and
clealy not dependent on the dynamic pessue of the atmooll.
sphee and is geneally used in the phase of flight whee mis6. Vaiable-Incidence Contol Sufaces. This type of consile speed is so low that the aifoil sections do not have
tol otates the position of an entie wing athe than
enough aeodynamic stabilizing effect. On the othe hand,
just pat of it. The vaiable incidence contol can oveTVC is inopeative afte populsion moto bun-out, but at
come the poblem of flutte and the need fo stuctual
this time aeodynamic foces become lage enough to take
stength of contol sufaces and yet have a contol that
ove the ole of TVC. Thee ae seveal methods of diecting
is sensitive and effective at vaious speed anges. The
the thust of a ocket moto, and each has advantages and
vaiable incidence contol can be used on the wing, hoidisadvantages, which may o may not ecommend it fo a pazonal stabilize, o vetical stabilize.
ticula application. Refeences 1 and 5 povide moe infomation on TVC.
Seconday Contol Sufaces
1. Exhaust Vanes. Exhaust vanes ae sufaces that ae inPimay contol sufaces can be looked upon as the main constalled diectly in the exhaust path of the jet engine.
tolling facto of the missiles path; howeve, by using secondWhen the position of the vane is changed, it deflects the
ay contol sufaces, a missile can be contolled much moe
exhaust and causes the thust to be diected in opposiaccuately and efficiently. A seconday goup of aeodynamic
tion to the exhaust vane. The opeation of exhaust

contol sufaces is composed of tabs, slots, and spoiles, which


vanes is sketched in the middle pat of Fig. 3. Because
ae schematically demonstated in Fig. 2. Fo the convenience
of the sevee eosion poblem caused by the temendous
of compact illustation, all six pimay contol sufaces and
heat in the exhaust, the life of exhaust vanes is genethe thee seconday contol sufaces ae put togethe in one
ally shot. Gaphite and moe ecently tungsten and
missile, as shown in Fig. 2; howeve, a missile may not be
molybdenum have been used as the mateials of the exequipped with all types of pimay and seconday contol suhaust vanes. To educe the complexity of the actuato
faces. Fo example, missiles in geneal do not have both tail
design, the actuating mechanism of an exhaust vane ofand canad contols, and conventional missiles do not have
ten shaes with that of aeodynamic contol sufaces;
seconday contol sufaces, which ae almost exclusively used
theefoe, when contol sufaces move in the ambient
in lage cuise missiles.
ai path, an exhaust vane moves, simultaneously and
with the exact same manne, within the exhaust path 1. Tabs. Tabs ae small piec
es of movable o fixed metal
of the jet engine. The device jetavatos is the outcome attached to the tailing edg
e of the pimay contol suof such a design idea, which can contol jet and elevato faces. They help to t
im the missile o to alleviate the
simultaneously. Pehaps the oldest TVC is the exhaust loading of the pimay con
tol sufaces, but they do not
vane used in the Geman V2 in Wold Wa II. Many in themselves detemine the di
ection of missile motion.
suface-to-suface missiles, including the Ameican Pe- Tabs can be divided int
o thee types: fixed, tim, and
shing, have used exhaust vanes to contol the jet diec- booste. A fixed tab ca
n be bent unifomly in the etion. quied diection to tim the missile. A tim tab is movable and contollable, and is used to tim the missile
2. Gimbaled Engine. By mounting the combustion chamwith vaying attitude, speed, o altitude. A booste tab,
bes in gimbals and contolling its position by sevos,
sometimes known as a sevo tab, is used to assist in
the diection of thust can be alteed. The opeation of
moving pimay contol sufaces with lage aea.
gimbaled engine is sketched in the lowe pat of Fig. 3.
Two seious objections to this method ae that all the 2. Slots. A slot is a hig
h-lift device located along the leading edge of the wing. The slot is ineffective in the egion vaious fuel lines m
ust be made flexible, and the sevo
system that actuates the jet must be extemely stong. of a nomal AOA, but when
a missile eaches a high
AOA, the slot can be opened to allow ai to spill though Howeve, gimbaled liqu
id-popellant engines have been
used successfully fo many yeas. Fo example, the Vik- and hence delay the fom
ation of tubulence flow ove
the top suface of the wing. ing eseach vehicles have been successfully flown
many
308 MISSILE CONTROL
deflection of up to 12? has been obtained by injecting
hot gas bled diectly fom the combustion chambe.
5. Reaction Contol Thuste. An easie system of jet contol is accomplished by placing seveal small thustes

at vaious points about the missile body. Contol is accomplished by using one o anothe of these jets as desied, thus giving diffeent diections of thust. The opeation of eaction contol thuste is sketched in the
uppe pat of Fig. 3. This method eliminates the use of
the outside contol sufaces, affoding a cleane missile
suface. When eaction contol thustes ae used, thee
will be an inteaction of the jet plume with the fee
steam flow. This jet inteaction is vey nonlinea with
the AOA and dominates the effective moment poduced
by the eaction thustes. The poduced moment may
be lage o smalle than the jet thust foce times its
moment am, depending on the height by which the jet
penetates into the fee steam. Refeence 6 discusses
missile attitude contol using eaction contol thuste.
6. Jet-Diving Contol Sufaces. This method employs jet
o ai injection ove aeodynamic sufaces fo actuating
augmentation.
MISSILE CONTROL CONFIGURATION
Accoding to the afoementioned vaious missile contol
methodologies, we can now give a classification of missile configuation with espect to the location of contols. If the contols ae located well behind the cente of gavity of the missile, the tem tail contol applies. If the contols ae placed
fowad of the cente of gavity, the tem canad contol applies. When the contol is mounted on the main lifting suface
Deflection
chages
Auxilay
diectional
thust
Changes
diection of
thust
Gimbaled
engine
Jet vans
Deflects
jet steam
Jet contol
nea the cente of gavity, the tem wing contol applies.
Figue 3. Thee thust vecto contol methods. The uppe pat
What type of contol suface to be used depends on the type
sketches the opeation of eaction contol thuste; the middle pat
of missile configuation in question. Regading missile consketches the opeation of exhaust vane; and the lowe pat sketches
figuation, Refs. 1, 5, and 7 seve as good efeences.
the opeation of gimbaled engine.
Wing-Contol Configuation
times using this type of contol duing phases of flight
A wing-contol configuation consists of a elatively lage allwheein aeodynamic contol is inadequate.
moving wing located close to the cente of gavity of the mis3. Moving Nozzles. Instead of moving the entie combus- sile and a set of tail o
 stabilizing sufaces at the aft end
tion chambe, we can also alte the diection of thust of missile. This all-mov
ing wing seves as an afoementioned
by changing the oientation of the nozzle. This can be vaiable-incidence conto
l suface. This type of contol is used
accomplished by using a flexible nozzle o a ball-and- mostly in an ai-to-ai m

issile because of its extemely fast


socket nozzle. A flexible nozzle is fomed by attaching esponse chaacteistics
. If the ight and left moving wings
the nozzle to the moto case by means of a flexible ub- ae contolled by sepa
ate sevos, they can be used as aileons
be mounting that is vey stiff axially but elatively and elevatos; the wod e
levons as mentioned ealie is apcompliant in the pitch and yaw planes. Thust deflec- plied to such a dual-pupo
se contol suface. Thee ae two
tion of 4? to 5? is feasible by this method, but a lage main advantages in usin
g wing-contol configuation:
esistance to movement is encounteed when an inceasingly lage deflection angle is equied. Anothe
Ai Inlet Consideation. Instantaneous lift can be develway of attaching the nozzle to the populsion moto is
oped as a esult of wing deflection via a pivoted mechavia a ball-and-socket joint with some fom of low-ficnism with little incease of missile AOA. This low value
tion seal. Although thee will be some coulomb fiction
of AOA is advantageous paticulaly fom the standin this type of connection, the actuation toque will not
points of inlet design fo ai-beathing powe-plant and
incease with the deflection angle.
guidance-seeke design. Fo example, if the populsion
system is a am jet, the ai inlet is likely to choke if the 4. Injection Method
. By injecting a liquid o gas into the
moto ventui, we can obtain a sideways component of body AOA is lage, say 15?
o moe. The use of wing contol can geatly educe the chance of inlet choke and esultant thust. The maxi
mum jet deflection by using
inet liquid as the injection fluid was found to be 4?. Jet maintain the engine
efficiency by keeping the body AOA
MISSILE CONTROL 309
to a minimum. This point will be futhe addessed in Tail Contol Configuation
the late sections.
Many missiles employ tail contol fo its convenient packag Sevo Location Consideation. The sevos used in winging. Usually it is desiable to have the populsion system
contol configuation ae located nea the cente of the
placed centally in the missile so that the cente of gavity
missile body. Thee ae some occasions when the sevos
movement caused by popellant usage is minimized. It is conae most conveniently placed nea the cente of the misvenient and sometimes essential to have the wahead and
sile. Fo example, if a medium-ange missile has two sepfuse at the font togethe with any associated electonics inaate motos, a boost moto and a sustain moto, the focluding the guidance eceive. This leaves the contol system
me may occupy the whole of the ea end of the missile
to occupy the ea end with the populsion blast pipe passing
and the sustaine moto may occupy most of the ethough its cente.
maining ea half of the body. In such a case, thee is
just no oom to install sevos at the ea. If the missile
Advantages. Advantages of tail contol include the folcaies a homing head, the sevos cannot be placed at the
lowing:
font eithe.
The tail loads and hinge moments can be kept elatively
Howeve, thee ae some distinct penalties involved in the

low as the total AOA on the tail is educed.


use of wing contol.
The wing-tail intefeence effects ae educed because
the fowad main lifting suface is fixed (i.e., no down Pitch contol effectiveness fom the wings is geneally
wash caused by wing deflection). Theefoe, the aeodyvey low as a esult of shot pitching moment am benamic chaacteistics ae moe linea than those fo
cause the lift developed is located close to the cente of
wing-contol design.
gavity of the missile.
Lage aeodynamic hinge moments ae equied because Disadvantages. Disadvantage
s include the following:
of the lage wing aea.
With this type of contol, it is obvious that the tail de Relatively lage loss will be induced in tail effectiveness
flection must be opposite in diection to the AOA. This
as a esult of downwash.
featue esults in elatively slow esponse chaacteistics
Nonlinea aeodynamics is esulted fom downwash
because the initial lift is in a diection opposite to the
caused by both wing deflection and AOA.
desied one.
Sevee advese olling moments is induced on the tail
Deficiency of tail sufaces to povide the desied lateal
sufaces fom combined effects of AOA and wing decontol.
flection.
Wing Aangements
Canad-Contol Configuation
Wing aangements have a significant influence on the types
A canad-contol configuation consists of a set of small conof missile contol to be used. Thee types of wing aangetol sufaces called canads located well fowad on the body
ments ae discussed hee.
and a set of lage sufaces (wing o tail) attached to the middle o aft section of the missile. Its advantages and disadvan1. Cucifom. The most commonly used configuation in
tages follow.
missile design is the cucifom, which possesses fou
wing sufaces and fou tail sufaces. Thee ae seveal
Advantages. Advantages of canads include the following:
majo advantages in the use of this type of configuation: (i) fast esponse in poducing lift in any diection,
Canads, because of thei small size, do not geneate a (ii) identical pitch and
yaw chaacteistics, and (iii) simsignificant amount of downwash to affect the longitudi- ple contol system as t
he esult of item (ii). One of the
nal stability advesely. Thus elatively lage static-sta- most impotant aspect
s associated with a cucifom debility magins can easily be obtained by simple changes sign is the oientation
of the tail suface with espect to
in wing location. the wing planes. The significant conclusion fom consideable expeience and expeimental data was that an
Canad configuation has the inheent simplicity of packin-line tail suface (i.e., all the fou tail sufaces ae in
aging because the contol system is small.
the same oientations as the fou wing sufaces) povides the best oveall aeodynamic chaacteistics fo
Disadvantages. Disadvantages include the following:

most missile applications. The othe possible wing-tail


geometical elation is called intedigitated configua Roll stabilization is difficult when the canad suface is
tion whee thee is a 45? sepaation between the wing
used because of thei size and downwash effect on the
and tail oientation. Fo a cucifom missile, the most
wings. Usually a sepaate set of lateal contols such as
difficult paamete to detemine accuately is the inwing-tip aileons is needed fo canad configuation.
duced olling moment. The olling moments aise wheneve the missile simultaneously executes pitch and yaw Relative high contol-su
face ates ae equied to obtain
the desied ate of esponse because AOA must be gene- maneuves that ae unequ
al in magnitude. Such maneuves esult in unequal o asymmetic flow pattens ated befoe any lift is de
veloped.
310 MISSILE CONTROL
ove the aeodynamic lifting suface; consequently, oll- Up to now, the existin
g missile contol stategies in vaious mission phases include two majo categoies: skid-to-tun ing moments ae in
duced on the aifame. Hence, oll
(STT) stategy and bank-to-tun (BTT) stategy. It is inteest- stabilization o
contol is a citical issue fo cucifom
ing to note that the pogess in contol stategy fo cewed missiles.
aicaft is fom BTT to diect sideslip contol (i.e., STT),
2. Monowing. The monowing aangements ae geneally
wheeas the pogess in missile contol stategy is fom STT
used on cuise-type missile (i.e., missiles design to
to BTT. The applications and limitations of STT and BTT will
cuise fo elatively a long ange like cewed aicaft).
be intoduced in the following sections.
This type of design is geneally lighte and has less
dag than the cucifom configuation. The wing aea
Skid-to-Tun Stategy
and span ae, howeve, somewhat lage. Although the
monowing missile must bank to oient its lift vecto in In STT the missile oll
angle may be eithe held constant o
the desied diection duing maneuveing flights, the uncontolled; in eithe ca
se, the magnitude and oientation of
esponse time may be sufficiently fast and acceptable the body acceleation vect
o is achieved by pemitting the
fom a guidance-accuacy standpoint. The induced-oll missile to develop both an
AOA and a sideslip angle. The
pesence of the sideslip impats a skidding motion to the poblem fo the monowing c
onfiguation is substantially
missile; hence the name skid-to-tun. The STT missile autopi- less sevee than t
hat associated with the cucifom conlot eceives the guidance command intepeted in tems of figuation. A sepaate
set of lateal contol sufaces,
the Catesian system. In the Catesian system, the missile- such as flaps, spoil
es, and wing-tip aileons, is geneguidance system poduces two signals, a leftight signal and ally used in a monow
ing design. This stems fom the
an updown signal, which ae tansmitted to the missile-con- fact that the canad
o tail sufaces that ae usually
tol system by a wie o adio link to udde sevos and eleva- employed fo pit
ch contol on monowing design ae gento sevos, espectively. If a cucifom missile adopts STT con- eally inadequa
te fo lateal contol.
tol stategy, the two sevo channels can be made identical

3. Tifom. This type of wing aangement, which embecause of the identical pitch and yaw chaacteistics of a cuploys thee wings of equal aea spaced 120? apat, is
cifom missile as mentioned ealie. Hence, in STT missiles,
seldom used because no noticeable advantage can be eboth pitch contol and yaw contol ae called lateal contol,
alized. Results of a bief peliminay analysis indicate
which is diffeent fom the definition of aicaft contol.
that the total wing aea of the tifom is equal to that
The othe contol loop of the STT missile is oll contol,
used on a cucifom aangement and that consequently
which is used to stabilize the missile oll position. Fo a peno noticeable change in dag may be ealized. In addifect pefomance of the STT missile, it is assumed that the
tion, little o no weight saving will be ealized, even
missile will emain in the same oll oientation as at launch
though one less aangement o fitting is equied beduing the whole flight. In this ideal case, updown signals,
cause the total load emains the same.
if sent to the elevato sevos, should then esult in a vetical
maneuve only; and leftight signals, if sent to the udde
MISSILE CONTROL STRATEGY
sevos, should esult in a hoizontal maneuve only. Howeve,
a missile, except fo a monowing missile, is not designed like
Because the missile contol system (autopilot) is commanded
an aiplane and thee is no tendency to emain in the same
by the missile guidance system, the autopilot command stucoll oientation. In fact, it will tend to oll fo many easons
tue is dependent on guidance equiements fo vaious missuch as accidental igging eos, asymmetical aeodynamic
sion phases.
loadings, and atmospheic distubances. Two methods ensue
that leftight commands ae pefomed by udde sevos and
Sepaation (Launch) Phase. A body ate command sysupdown commands ae pefomed by elevatos. The fist
tem is typically used duing launch because of its omethod applies a quick oll sevo (with bandwidth lage than
bustness to the uncetain aeodynamics.
that of lateal sevos) to stabilize the oll dynamics and to
ecove the missile to the oiginal oll oientation. The second Agile Tun. Du
ing an agile tun, diectional contol of
method allows the missile to oll feely but installs a oll gyo the missiles ve
locity vecto elative to the missile body
and esolve in the missile to ensue that the commands ae
is desied. This amounts to commanding AOA o sideslip,
mixed in the coect popotions to the elevatos and uddes.
and egulating oll to zeo.
Howeve, oll stabilization (the fist method) is geneally
Midcouse and Teminal Phases. An acceleation commoe pefeed fo the following easons:
mand autopilot is commonly employed in these two
phases.
Thee ae many occasions when oll position contol is
End of Homing Phase. At the end of teminal homing,
necessay, fo example, to ensue that the wahead o
the missile attitude may be commanded to impove the
altimete always points downwad.
lethality of the wahead.
If the missile is fee to oll, high oll ates may cause
coss-coupling between the pitch and yaw channels and

Among these fou autopilot stuctues, sepaation, midcouse,


tend to unstabilize the system.
and endgame autopilots ae in geneal well undestood and
have been implemented in poduction missiles. Autopilot deAn STT missile with popely contolled oll motion may
signs fo agile tuns ae significantly less well undestood.
povide the following advantages:
Refeence 8 gives a detailed discussion of the challenges involved in agile tun, and seveal solution techniques wee Same degee of vetic
al and hoizontal maneuveability
can be achieved. povided thee.
MISSILE CONTROL 311
With STT contol it is possible to esolve thee-dimen- 3. BTT Autopilot Design.
If a amjet missile has two fixed
wings and is contolled with fou cucifom tails, the sional taget and missile
motion into two independent
plana motions and to conside the pitch and yaw chan- best solution is to adopt
a BTT autopilot, which can ensue small values of AOA and sideslip angle. nels as an independent two-dimensio
nal poblem. Hence,
both guidance law and contol system design can be done
Only the technique in item 3 is discussed hee. The design via two-dimensional a
nalysis. This simplification makes
of a highly maneuveable BTT autopilot poses a sevee chal- it possible to apply
the classic contol theoy, which
lenge to the contol designe. High maneuveability means teats single-input si
ngle-out (SISO) system to the misnot only high aeodynamic acceleation but also the ability to sile autopilot de
sign.
change the oientation of the acceleation apidly. This means
that the oll ate can be expected to be much lage (pehaps
Bank-to-Tun Stategy
by an ode of magnitude) than they would be in a STT misThe concept of BTT stems fom the motion of cewed aicafts,
sile. The lage oll ates induce substantial coss-coupling bewhich use aileons to bank (oll) to the left o ight. Duing a
tween the pitch and the yaw axes, wheeas in a typical STT
left o ight tun, a small amount of udde is also applied in
missile this coss-coupling is negligible. The main advantage
an attempt to make the ai flow diectly along the longitudiof BTT stategy is its adaptability to amjet missile contol,
nal axis of the aicaft. Hence, in BTT motion, thee is no
but thee ae many difficulties that cannot be conqueed by
sideslip and no net side foce. Fom a passenges point of
the techniques used in STT stategy:
view, this method of maneuveing is the most comfotable because the total foce expeienced is always symmetically
The coss-coupling between the pitch and yaw axes ethough the seat. When BTT concept is applied to missile conquies the designe to conside both axes togethe as a
tol, the missile is olled fist so that the plane of maximum
single multi-input/multi-output (MIMO) system. The
aeodynamic nomal foce is oiented to the desied diection
classic SISO contol appoach becomes inadequate fo
and the magnitude of the nomal foce is then contolled by
BTT application, and moden MIMO contol theoy
adjusting the pitch attitude (AOA). If we conside the guidneeds to be consideed.
ance command fo an STT missile as being expessed in the
The coss-axes couplings ae popotional to the oll ate,

Catesian coodinates (x, y) whee x is the ightleft comwhich is a dynamic vaiable. This means that the dynammand and y is the updown command, then the guidance
ics of the pitch and yaw axes ae not only coss-coupled
command fo a BTT missile can be consideed as being exbut also nonlinea. Theefoe, a single fixed-coefficient
pessed in the pola coodinates (, ? ) whee ? is the angle to
linea autopilot may be unable to cove the whole flight
oll and  is the distance to be steeed in the pitch plane.
envelope, and linea autopilot with gain scheduling o
Theefoe,BTT stategy is sometimes called pola contol o
nonlinea autopilot design should be taken into account.
twist-and-stee contol.
The thee-dimensional motion of a BTT missile cannot
Although BTT contol has been used in cewed aicaft fo
be esolved into two plana motions. Hence, the guidance
a long time, the inteest in BTT missile contol only began in
law design fo a BTT missile needs detailed thee-dimenthe late 1970s. The pinciple motivation fo developing the
sional analysis.
BTT missile autopilot stems fom the successful application
of amjet populsion technology to missile system. Seveal
In summay, a BTT missile can be consideed as a MIMO
amjet missiles wee developed in the late 1970s, including
system with nonlinea dynamics and with thee-dimensional
amjet intelab ai-to-ai technology (RIAAT pogam,
kinematics, wheeas a STT missile can be well appoximated
Hughes), advanced common intecept missile demonstation
as an integation of thee SISO systems with linea dynamics
(ACIMD pogam, Naval Weapons Cente), advanced stateand with two-dimensional kinematics. Refeence 8 summagic ai-launched multi-mission missile (ASALM pogam,
izes some status and concens of BTT missiles. How moden
McDonnell Douglas and Matin-Maietta). These BTT pocontol theoy can be used to design BTT autopilots is disgams ae thooughly suveyed in Ref. 9. All these amjet
cussed in Ref. 10.
missile pogams equie autopilot to pevent missile maneuves fom shading the inlet (i.e., the AOA needs to be small
and positive) and to limit sideslip ? in ode to incease enMISSILE AUTOPILOT DESIGN
gine efficiency and theeby maximize ange. The conventional
STT stategy cannot satisfy these limitations on ? and ?. The
Equations of Motion
applicability of the amjet missile equies investigation in
The equations of motion of a missile with contols fixed may
the following aeas:
be deived fom the Newtons second law of motion, which
states that the ate of change of linea momentum of a body
1. Monowing Configuation. Ramjet missiles have two inis popotional to the summation of foces applied to the body
lets extenal to the main body and thee is oom fo
and that the ate of change of the angula momentum is poonly one pai of wings (i.e., monowing).
potional to the summation of moments applied to the body.
2. Vaiable-Incidence Wing Contol. Because the inlets
Mathematically, this law of motion may be witten as
could accept only a small AOA as a esult of intefeence fom the body, the use of vaiable-incidence wing
contol, which can povide instantaneous lift without in-

ceasing the AOA of the body, is vey suitable fo amjet


engines.
d
dt

mU
mV
mW
=

X
Y
Z
,
d
dt

H x
H y
H z
=

L
M
N
(3)
312 MISSILE CONTROL
whee (X, Y, Z) and (L, M, N) ae the esultant foces and of inetia about the
y axis is geneally equal to that about the
z axis (i.e., I yy ? I zz ). Hence, the esulting equations become moments cause
d by aeodynamic foces, gavity, and populsive foces, along the body axes (x, y, z). (U, V, W) and (H x ,
H y , H z ) ae the components of the velocity and angula momentum of the missile about the x, y, and z axes, espectively.
The two main easons fo the use of body axes in the dynamic
analysis of the missile ae (1) the velocity along these axes
ae identical to those measued by instuments mounted in
the missile and (2) the moments of inetia (i.e., I xx , I xy , etc.)
ae independent of time. Equation (3) and (4) can be expessed in tems of the moments of inetia and the missile
m( U + QW RV) = X (6a)
m( V + RU PW) = Y (6b)
m( W + PV QU) = Z (6c)

PI xx = L (6d)

QI yy + PR(I xx I zz ) = M (6e)

RI zz + PQ(I yy I xx ) = N (6f)
angular velocity P, Q, and R as follows:
These are the general equations used in the analysis of STT
control strategy, especially for agile STT missiles with sub
stantial induced roll. When rolling rate P is relatively small
when compared with Q and R, further simplification of Eq.
(6) is possible by dropping the terms relating to P, and the
result is the three decoupled servo channels used in the con
ventional STT autopilots.
1. Pitch dynamics:
m( W QU 0 ) = Z, I yy

Q = M (7a)
m

U + QW RV

V + RU PW

W + PV QU
=

X
Y
Z
(4a)

I xx I xy I xz
I xy I yy I yz
I xz I yz I zz

R
+

0 R Q
R 0 P
Q P 0

I xx I xy I xz
I xy I yy I yz
I xz I yz I zz

P
Q
R
=

L
M
N
(4b)
2. Yaw dynamics:
For a missile with monowing configuration, the xz plane is a
plane of symmetry. Consequently, I yz ? I xy ? 0 from the defi
m( V + RU 0 ) = Y, I zz R = N (7b)
nition of moment of inertia. Hence, Eqs. (4) may be simplified
as follows:
3. Roll dynamics:
I xx P = L (7c)
where the forward speed U is assumed to be a constant U 0
because U

is generally small. It can be observed that each


servo channel is decoupled, linear, and SISO (i.e., each chan
nel has a single input and a single output: the pitch dynamics
with elevator input and AOA [?(t) ? W(t)/U 0 ] output, the yaw
dynamics with rudder input and sideslip [?(t) ? V(t)/U 0 ] out
m( U + QW RV) = X (5a)
m( V + RU PW) = Y (5b)
m( W + PV QU) = Z (5c)

PI xx + QR(I zz I yy ) I xz ( R + PQ) = L (5d)

QI yy + PR(I xx I zz ) + I xz (P 2 R 2 ) = M (5e)

RI zz + PQ(I yy I xx ) I xz ( P QR) = N (5f)


put, and the roll dynamics with aileron input and roll rate P
output). This formulation is rather simplified, but very prom
These differential equations govern the motion of a monowing
ising results had been recognized in an STT autopilot appli
missile with BTT control. It can be seen that these equations
cation.
are nonlinear and crosscoupled; none of the equations can be
In general, the resultant forces X, Y, Z, and moments L,
isolated from the others. Taking Eq. (5b) as an example, the
M, N in Eq. (6) are nonlinear functions of U, V, W, P, Q, R,
term ?mPW says that there is a force in the y direction
and of the control surface deflections. However, a linear con
caused by the incidence in pitch (i.e., ? ? W/U) and the roll
trol system is designed under the condition that the missile
motion P. In other words, the pitching motion (W) of the mis
is exercised through small perturbations about some trim con
sile is coupled to the yawing motion (Y force) on account of
ditions (equilibrium conditions). From the viewpoint of auto
roll rate P. Equation (5a) does not really concern us because,
pilot design, a linear Taylor expansion of the resultant forces
in most cases, we are interested in the acceleration normal to
and moments about the trim conditions is adequate. We will
the velocity vector as this will result in a change in the veloc
use the symbol with subscript zero (0) to stand for trim condi
ity direction. In any case, in order to determine the change in
tion and the symbol with a lowercase letter to denote the per
the forward speed U, we need to know the magnitude of the
turbation quantities. For example, V is expressed by V(t) ?
propulsive and drag force. Nevertheless, except for power V 0 ? v(t) where V 0 i
s the steadystate side speed and v is the
phase, the variation of U is generally very small. perturbed side speed which is
a function of time. The other
For a missile with cruciform configuration, further simpli variables can be exp
ressed in the same way. The deflection
fications can be made because (1) the xy plane (as well as xz) angles of aileron
, elevator, and rudder, will be denoted by ? a ,
? e , and ? r , respectively. is also a plane of symmetry (i.e., I xz ? 0) and (
2) the moment
MISSILE CONTROL 313
Forces and moments can also be expanded in a perturbed followup units as a comp
lete missile control system as de
scribed at the beginning of this article. form. For example, assume that the sid
e force Y(V, R, ? r ) is a
function of V, R, and ? r . It can be expanded as
Classic Control Design
Figure 4 depicts the block diagram of a lateral autopilot per
forming side force control, where a rate gyro measuring yaw
Y(V,R, r ) = Y(V 0 ,R 0 , r 0 ) +
Y
v
v +
Y
r
r +
Y
r
r
= Y 0 + y v v + y r r + y r r
(8)

rate an an accelerometer measuring sie acceleration are


use as feeback sensors. The missiles aeroynamic transfer
where Y 0 is the steay-state sie force; y v ? (?Y/?v (V 0 , R 0 ,
function in Fig. 4 are obtaine from Eq. (10). The controller
? r 0 ), y r ? (?Y/?r) (V 0 , R 0 , ? r 0 ), y ? r ? (?Y/? ? r ) (V 0 , R 0 , ?
r 0 ) are calle
is in the form of proportion an integration (PI). The problem
aeroynamic erivatives evaluate at the specifie trim conof autopilot esign is to esign properly the seven parameters
ition. Aeroynamic erivatives with respect to state variK P , K I , K a , K g , ? s , ? s , an K s such that the actual missile sie
ables are also calle stability coefficients such as y v , an y r ;
force y follows the commane sie force y  as quickly as poserivatives with respect to control surface eflection are also
sible. Among the seven parameters, the two controller gains
calle control coefficients such as y ? r . Remaining forces an
K P an K I can be further tune to satisfy ifferent flight conimoments can be linearize in a similar way as in Eq. (8).
tions. The remaining five parameters have fixe values an
Substituting these linearize quantities into Eq. (7) yiels the
cannot be tune on line. The selection of the seven paramecontrol equations for a STT missile as
ters is aie by such tools as root locus, Boe, Nyquist, or
Nicholls plots that enable visualization of how the system y1. Pitch ynamics:
namics are being moifie. The performance specifications of
the sie force response may be given in the frequency omain
(e.g., banwith an gain/phase margins) or in the time omain (e.g., overshoot, amping ratio, rise time, an settling
?
w
q
?
=
?
z w U 0 + z q
m w m q
??
w
q
?
+
?
z e
m e
?
e (9)
time).
2. Yaw ynamics:
The classic control esign process of missile autopilot can
be summarize in the following steps. Detaile proceures
an practical esign examples can be foun in Refs. 5 an
11. How aeroynamic erivatives affect the missile autopilot
?
v
r
?
=
?
y v U 0 + y r

n v n r
??
v
r
?
+
?
y r
n r
?
r (10)
esign is iscusse in Ref. 12. A useful review of classically
esigne autopilot controllers may be foun in Ref. 13, where
3. Roll ynamics:
the relative merits of proportional an PI autopilot controllers
are iscusse an the novel cubic autopilot esign is intro p = l p p + l a a (11)
uce.
The Laplace transfer function from the aileron input ? a to
the roll rate output can be foun from Eq. (11) as
1. Base on the system requirements analysis, the esigner selects a flight control system time constant, a
amping ratio, an an open loop cross-over frequency
that will meet the system requirements for homing acp
a
=
l a /l p
T a s + 1
(12)
curacy an stability.
where ?l ? a /l p can be regare as the steay state gain an
2. The autopilot gains are calculate. The gains such as
T a ? ?1/l p can be regare as the time constant of the roll
K P an K I in Fig. 4 are obtaine in a variety of linearchannel. The Laplace transfer function from the ruer input
ize flight conitions an must be scheule by appro? r to the boy yaw rate r can be obtaine from Eq. (10) as
priate algorithms to account for the changing environment.
3. A moel of the flight control system is evelope. Inir
r
=
n r s n r + n v y r
s 2 (y v + n r )s + y v n r +U 0 n v
(13)
tially the flexible body dynamics are neglected and the
rigid body stability is analyzed to determine if adequate
Let ? and ? n be the damping ratio and the undamped natural
phase and gain margins have been achieved. If not, the
frequency of the yaw channel, respectively, then we have
response characteristics are modified and the design is
iterated.
2 n = (y n + n r ), 2
n = y n n r +U 0 n v
(14)
4. When the lofrequency design is complete, the fleible
body dynamics are incorporated into the frequency mod It can be seen that the c
haracteristics of the openloop re

sponses in Eqs. (12) and (14) are determined by the related els, and the stabili
ty is reeamined. For typical tactical
homing missiles, the fleible body model should include aerodynamic derivatives.
For eample, to ensure that the
openloop yaing motion (i.e., ithout control) is stable, e the first, second,
and third resonant mode dynamics of
the pith and ya channels and at least the first mode must have y v ? n r ? 0. I
f the openloop motion is unstable or
is near the margin of instability, then autopilot must be in of the roll channe
l. Depending upon the characteristics
of the roll airframe structure, additional modes may stalled to form a closedlo
op system that integrates missile
dynamics, sensor units, controller units, actuator units, and have to be modeled
.
314 MISSILE CONTROL
+
+
+
+
+

K p +
y d
r

K g
Rate gyro
Accelerometer
Lateral acceleration
Side force
response
Missile dynamics Rudder angle
Actuator
Controller Side force
command
y
Ya rate
r
Is
K I
s
2
s
+ +1
K s
s 2
s 2
s
s
y

s
n

r s 2

2 (y
r s +

r s 2

y r n r s U 0 (n r y v n v y r )
v + n r )s + y v n r + U 0 n v
n v y n r y v
y r n r s U 0 (n r y v n v y r

Figure 4. An utopiot structure performing side force comm nd tr cking. Both mi


ssie nd
rudder servos re modeed s second-order dyn mics; the gyro nd cceerometer
re modeed s
const nt g ins; nd the controer is in the form of proportion nd integr tion
with tuning g ins
K P nd K I .
5. In c ses where the st iity m rgins do not meet the Ref. 16. The techniue h
s een ppied to the contro of the
extended medium-r nge ir-to- ir missie in Ref. 17. design criteri the utopi
ot design is modified through
djustment of the utopiot g ins nd/or the incusion
of structur  fiters th t djust the g in or ph se in the
LQR Autopiot Design. LQR contro theory is we-est re of the n tur  reson nces.
ished contro system design techniue (18). The LQR contro
g ins re  ot ined simut neousy from the minimiz tion
Modern Contro Design
of suit e perform nce index (usu y the integr  of u dr tic cost function). The design is synthesized in the time
C ssic contro techniues h ve domin ted missie utopiot
dom in s opposed to the compex freuency dom in. Referdesign over the p st dec des. Autopiot design for future misence 14 demonstr tes the effectiveness of LQR design techsie systems wi e domin ted y the reuirement of utim te
niues for the missie fight contro proemdescriing the
giity in the entire fight enveope of the missie. Critic  isppic tion of v rious LQR formu tions to the design of sinsues in the next gener tion utopiot wi incude (1) f st rege-p ne  ter  cceer tion utopiot controers. Reference
sponse to the comm nded cceer tions, (2) high m neuver19 further considers the dv nt ges ot in e y comining
iity nd gu r nteed roustness over wide r nge of
c ssic  PI nd modern LQR methodoogies for mutiv rimission profies t  speeds nd titudes, (3) perform nce
e irfr me mode with high freuency structur  modes.
roustness g inst uncert inties in the erodyn mic deriv tives, in the thrust profie, in the effectiveness of the contro
Roust Autopiot Design. Roust contro methods provide
surf ces, nd in the v rying m ss nd moment of inerti , (4)
the me ns to design mutiv ri e utopiots th t s tisfy perc nce tion or ttenu tion of highy nonine r nd couped
form nce specific tions nd simut neousy gu r ntee st imissie dyn mics s resut of high AOA. The deveopment of
ity when the missie devi tes from its nomin  fight condition
eigenstructure ssignment, ine r u dr tic regu tor (LQR)
or is suject to exogenous distur nce. Sever  investig tions
contro, roust contro, nonine r contro, d ptive contro,
h ve een undert ken specific y to rese rch missie utopind inteigent contro techniues h ve revoutionized missie
ot roustness. E ry work w s directed tow rd specific concontro system design consider y. They provide power toos
figur tions nd proems (20), with more recent work using
to re ize the forementioned critic  issues. Reference 14
the roust contro system synthesis techniues of u ntit provides n exceent discussion of v rious ppic tions of
tive feed ck theory (QFT) (21), H ? contro (22), ?-synthesis
modern contro theory to fight contro systems.
(23), norm ized coprime f ctor oop-sh ping H ? contro (24),
nd ine r m trix ineu ity (LMI) sef-scheduing contro

Eigenstructure-Assignment Autopiot Design. Eigenstructure


(25). Rese rch h s so een c rried out on
numer of ressignment is the mutiv ri e extension of the root ocus
 ted w ys of ssessing the roustness of missie utopiot
method. The eh vior of MIMO system is ch r cterized y
controer design (26). A good iter ture survey in roust ueigenv ues nd eigenvectors. The eigenv ues determine st topiot design c n e found in Ref. 15. The roust contro deiity, nd the eigenvectors ch r cterize the sh pe nd cousign is formu ted to minimize the foowing effects:
ping of different modes. The techniue is concerned with the
p cing of eigenv ues nd their ssoci ted eigenvectors y
feed ck, to s tisfy directy cosed oop d mping, setting P r meter V ri tion.
Aerodyn mic deriv tives, moment
of inerti , nd the center of gr vity m y h ve signific nt time, nd decouping
specific tions. A review of eigenstructure ssignment for erosp ce ppic tions c n e found in v ri tions over the e
ntire missie fight enveope.
MISSILE CONTROL 315
Couping Dyn mics. The residu  error c used y inex- tr st, direct d ptive con
tros such s the sef-tuning regu tor (33) nd mode reference d ptive contro (34) upd te the ct c nce tion i
n decouping pitch nd roy w dyn mics for BTT missies needs to e ddressed. utopiot g ins directy on the  si
s of the history of system
inputs nd tr cking errors.
Unmodeed Dyn mics. Most missie utopiot design consider missie rigid-ody dyn mics ony, nd the missie
fexie modes re reg rded s unmodeed dyn mics. RoInteigent Autopiot Design. Missie utopiot design t sk
ust contro design ows the unmodeed dyn mics to e
reuires tuning p r meters to chieve desir e perform nce.
t ken into ccount to void structur  vir tion or inst By ugmenting neur  network in the tuning process, the
iity.
p r meter djustment process c n e st nd rdized. This c n
Sensor Noises. Autopiot needs to ttenu te the effects e done s foows. Firs
t, uid the desired fying u ities into
c used y sensor noises, c ir tion errors, drifts, nd the perform nce mode.
The utopiot structure is prefixed
p r sitic dyn mics. with the p r meters undetermined. Then y comp ring the
ctu  system perform nce with the desired fying u ities,
Tr cking Error. A successfu missie interception dethe neur  network is tr ined to e rn the rues of tuning.
pends on the iity of utopiot to tr ck the guid nce
Accordingy, the utopiot p r meters c n e upd ted to meet
comm nds. The uncert inties nd noises in the seeker
the reuirements. Appic tion of neur  network techniues
output nd in the prediction of t rget m neuvers m y
to missie utopiot design nd to future gener tion fight conffect the utopiot tr cking perform nce.
tro system w s investig ted in Refs. 35 nd 36.
Nonine r Autopiot Design. Nonine r contro techniues
used in missie utopiot design incude feed ck ine riz BIBLIOGRAPHY tion (27), v ri e structure contro (VSC) with siding mode
(28), nd nonine r H ? contro (29). The motiv tions of nonin1. C. T. Myers, Guided MissiesOper tions, Design nd Theory. e r utopiot desig
n come from the concerns of the three comNew York: McGr w-Hi, 1958.
mon kinds of missie nonine rities: dyn mic coupings, non-

ine r erodyn mics, nd ctu tor imit tions. 2. B. D. Rich rd, Fund ment s of
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Wiey, 1958.
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tron utics, 1992.
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ssie Aerodyn mics. New York: McGr w-Hi,
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p ths, nd
c ndid te feed ck contro structure. Refer- 12. F. W. Nesine nd
M. L. Nesine, How utopiot reuirements
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 ws: direct nd indirect. A re tivey simpe indirect d ptive


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C IANN -D ONG Y ANG
C HI -C HING Y ANG
H SIN -Y UAN C HEN
N tion  Cheng Kung University