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Abstract This report is on about the Modal Analysis of Auto Simulation Rig to determine the dynamic characteristics of the structure of a Rig. The approach use is experimental modal analysis which is converting the original coordinates used in the structure vibration in to a principal coordinates which is much easier to analyze. The experiment approach is including making FRF measurements with FFT analyzer, modal excitation techniques, and modal parameters excitation from a set of FRF.

Summary

  • 1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Vibration

Vibration is the mechanical oscillations of an object about an equilibrium point. All vibration is a combination of both forced and free vibration. The forced vibration can be due to internally generated forces, unbalances, external loads and ambient excitation whereas free vibration occurs when one or more of the natural modes of vibration of the structure are excited. Modes are inherent properties of a structure. Each mode is defined by a natural frequency, modal damping, and a mode shape. These are the dynamic characteristics of a structure. There are two types of modes which are rigid body and flexible body modes. All structures can have up to six rigid body modes, three translational modes and three rotational modes.

1.2

Modal Analysis

Lightly damped structures are typically analyzed with the “normal modes” method, which is subjected to this report. The key to normal mode analysis is to develop tools which allow one to reconstruct the overall response of the system as a superposition of the responses of the different modes of the system. In analysis, the modal method allows on to replace the n-coupled differential equations with independent n-uncoupled equations, where each uncoupled equation represents the motion of the system for that mode of vibration.

  • 1.3 FRF Measurements

The Frequency Response Function (FRF) is a fundamental measurement that isolates the inherent dynamic properties of a mechanical structure. Experimental modal parameters which are the natural frequency, the damping and the mode shape are also obtained from a set of FRF measurements.

1.2 Modal Analysis Lightly damped structures are typically analyzed with the “normal modes” method, which is

Figure 1.1: Block Diagram of an FRF

Based on the figure 1.1, an FRF is a measure of how much displacement, velocity or acceleration response a structure has at an output DOF, per unit of excitation force at an input DOF.

  • 1.4 Reciprocal Theorem for Dynamics Loads

A reciprocal theorem for dynamic loads is similar to Maxwell’s theorem for static load which states that if a linear elastic body is kinematically supported and subjected to an external force at the point P, which produces a displacement U at another point Q, then the same force p which apply to point Q will give the same displacement U at point P. In the experiment, two points will be selected to prove this theorem by simply calculate the responses produce at each point are the same.

  • 2.0 Problem Statements Use MDTQ2 and ME’scope to determine the dynamic characteristics of the first 5 or 6 modes of the structure below.

(1)

(2)

Demonstrate the Reciprocal Theorem by selecting two points on the structure. Maintain one point as input and the other as output. Determine its Transfer function. Now, reverse the point for input and output and determine its Transfer function. Compare the two functions.

(3)

Determine the harmonic response of the structure, using normal mode method for damped vibration. MATLAB or other software can be used for matrix calculation and animation. Each student is given different problem as in Table 1.

  • 3.0 Methodology

(3) Determine the harmonic response of the structure, using normal mode method for damped vibration. MATLAB

Figure 3.1: Sources of Modal Parameters

  • 3.1 Analytical

The modal analysis method of analyzing linear mechanical systems and the benefits derived:

(1) Solve the undamped eigenvalue problem, which identifies the resonant frequencies and mode shapes (eigenvalues and eigenvectors).

(2)

Use the eigenvectors to uncouple or diagonalize the original set of couple

(3)

equations, allowing the solution of n-uncoupled sdof problems instead of solving a set of n-coupled equations. Calculate the contribution of each mode to the overall response. This also allows one to reduce the size of the problem by eliminating modes that cannot be excited and modes that have no outputs at the desired dof’s. Also, high frequency modes that have little contribution to the system at lower frequencies can be eliminated or approximately accounted for, further reducing the size of the system to be analyzed.

(4)

Write the system matrix A. Assemble the input and output matrices, B and C, using appropriate eigenvector terms.

3.2 Experimental The experimental technique used is exciting modes with impact testing. The following equipment is required to perform the impact test,

  • (a) An impact hammer with a load cell attached to its head to measure the input force.

  • (b) An accelerometer to measure the response acceleration at a fixed point and direction.

  • (c) A 4 channel FFT analyzer to compute FRFs.

  • (d) MDTQ2 and ME’scope post-processing modal software for identifying modal parameters and displaying the mode shapes in animation.

  • 3.2.1 Task 1

Determining the dynamic characteristics of the first 5 modes of the structure below,

Figure 3.2: Automobile Simulation Rig Steps: (1) The Automobile Simulation Rig is divided in to 15

Figure 3.2: Automobile Simulation Rig

Steps:

(1)

The Automobile Simulation Rig is divided in to 15 points to define the structure.

(2)

The accelerometer is attached at point 1 and the roving hammer is impacted at

(3)

fixed location near point 1 for 5 times to get the average response at point 1. Repeat steps (2) for point 2 to point 15 by varying the accelerometer location

(4)

and fixing the impact location at near point 1. 4 channel FFT analyzer is used to compute the FRFs between each impact DOF and the fixed response DOF. Results are recorded.

  • 3.2.2 Task 2

Demonstrating the Reciprocal Theorem by selecting two points on the structure. Steps:

(1) Two points are selected to demonstrate this task and maintain one point as input and the other as output.

(2)

Accelerometer is attached to one of the point and gives an impact to the other

(3)

point for 5 times to get the average response. Reverse the point for input and output and determine the response.

(4)

Compare the results.