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1. A great many problems facing the developing
nations can be solved by the ---- between
humanitarian actors and the governments of
developed nations.
A) competition B) consciousness
C) conflict D) escalation
E) engagement

2. A dislike for religious authority may explain
why the British are not so ---- concerning the
arrival of the Pope in their country.
A) hostile B) enthusiastic
C) populous D) critical
E) sudden

3. In law, a landowner is not responsible for the
furniture ---- left behind by a tenant as this is a
sign that the item is no longer desired by the
A) intentionally B) conclusively
C) relatively D) properly
E) sincerely
4. She was able to afford a huge mansion as she
was a wealthy woman who ---- a great deal of
wealth from her rich husband after his demise.
A) funded B) delayed
C) inherited D) destined
E) prescribed

5. The newly-established news agency
announced that they are not ---- any kind of
governmental institution and will work
completely independently.
A) affiliated with B) boastful for
C) reluctant to D) exposed to
E) imposed by

6. Within the western educational system,
students, in theory, are instructed to ---- for
their rights when confronted with any kind of
unjust behaviour.
A) rely on B) back off C) deal with
D) stand up E) fall in


7. When he ---- from the college towards the end
of coming June, Marcus ---- the first in his
family to have a diploma.
A) graduated / would be
B) has graduated / will be
C) is going to graduate / has been
D) is to graduate / will have been
E) will graduate / is being

8. The present discussion in the USA is not about
whether or not they ---- to Iraq in the first place,
as it is known that a lot of the soldiers ----
A) should have gone / would rather not have been
B) would rather have gone / must not have been
C) may have gone / could not have been
D) would rather go / might not have been
E) were going to go / need not have gone

9. Tsutomu Yamagochi is the only person ----
officially recognized by the government of
Japan as ---- both Hiroshima and Nagasaki
A) being / to survive
B) has been / having survived
C) to be / being survived
D) having been / to be surviving
E) to have been / surviving

10. In a cage, with no escape path, cockatoos can
be subjected ---- stress which often leads to
feather loss as ---- many pet birds.
A) by / for B) from / in
C) to / with D) through / off
E) towards / on
11. Susan opted ---- a peaceful menial job at a
coastal village, ---- the expense of earning more
in a big urban centre.
A) along / out B) for / at
C) about / beneath D) up / beyond
E) among / across

12. Nobody was expecting the lead actress to
deliver such a bad speech ---- the ceremony
held in honour of the children who died in the
A) since B) while C) during
D) that E) upon

13. The channel will air the documentary on
dolphins again ---- the students miss it due to
late broadcast hours.
A) in case B) despite
C) however D) even though
E) so that

14. The damages the employers will pay will
continue to increase ---- 2 in 10 industrial
accidents are due to fatigue caused by working
extra hours.
A) in view of B) in order that
C) much as D) since
E) therefore

15. There is an increase in the short-term and long-
term performance of firms ---- going public and
introducing their shares to the stock market.
A) no sooner B) formerly
C) only if D) but for
E) subsequent to

16. While looking for a house to rent, you should
tell the owner that you are ---- moving away
after only one year ---- planning to stay more
than five years.
A) neither / nor B) as / as
C) so / that D) not only / but also
E) both / and

Hawaiian Hula dancers often use their hands and
(17)---- parts of their bodies to tell a story of
Hawaii, such as their tales of kings, queens and
native animals. Often, hula dancers show their
audience (18)---- early Hawaiian life or civilization
came to be. (19)----, Tahitian dancers often dance
at a faster pace than hula and use more hip
movements. Both dancers are graceful and well
respected on the islands. Actually, dance in
Polynesia is used (20)---- their long lasting ties with
tradition and (21)---- for their own culture.

A) others B) other
C) another D) the others
E) each other

A) whichever B) how
C) while D) that
E) whose

A) Otherwise
B) Although
C) Consequently
D) On the other hand
E) To illustrate

A) to show B) to have shown
C) having shown D) showed
E) being shown

A) emergence B) betrayal
C) disobedience D) evaporation
E) appreciation
South Africa (22)---- by the English and Dutch in
the seventeenth century. English domination of the
Dutch descendants known as Boers resulted in the
Dutch (23)---- the new colonies of Orange Free
State and Transvaal. The discovery of diamonds in
these lands around 1900 resulted in an English
invasion which (24)---- the Boer War. Following
independence from England, an uneasy power-
sharing (25)---- the two groups held sway until the
1940's, when the Afrikaner National Party was able
to gain a strong majority. Strategists in the National
Party invented apartheid as a (26)---- to cement
their control over the economic and social system.

A) had colonized
B) has been colonized
C) was colonized
D) colonized
E) would have been colonized

A) establishing
B) to have established
C) having been established
D) to have been established
E) to be established

A) harassed B) astounded
C) scrapped D) implemented
E) sparked

A) amongst B) for C) between
D) beneath E) above

A) prominence B) submission
C) relapse D) means
E) direction


27. ---- the moment one is separated from the
A) The particles constituting the early universe
were given separate names to distinguish them
B) The twin babies born only a week ago to a
poor Indian family begin to cry
C) All students taking part in the excursion
complained about the food and the toilet on the
D) Anybody can make a delicious cake that does
not contain animal ingredients
E) The positive and the negative poles of the
Earth maintain a constant flow of magnetic

28. With the object of cutting costs, ----.
A) the team was not expecting such a terrible
defeat against the neighbour countrys weakest
B) some of the houses in the earthquake region
could no longer be sold due to huge damage
C) students may prefer to bring their own food to
school only at times of contagious diseases
D) the principal is planning to invite parents to
announce an extra reduction in the next years
E) NASA is planning to cancel some of the
projects that have been on the table for years

29. ---- such that it was only after he was declared
dead that the citizens could take a sigh of
A) The fear the terrorist leader created upon the
country was
B) The young man leading the company was to
become a hero
C) Some of his supporters still believe that the
kidnapped president is alive
D) King Charles was the only ruler to quit the
throne after losing a war
E) The attackers in the shopping mall were finally
arrested by the military forces
30. In contrast to the oil shocks experienced in
1970s, ----.
A) alternative fuels offer higher efficiency and
more environmental-friendliness
B) Turkeys potential oil reserves in the Black Sea
seems to keep her hopes high
C) todays high oil prices stem from a structural
problem in the global economy
D) pollution due to car exhausts is as high as ever
especially in the industrial countries
E) todays consumer demands cleaner oil with
less additives and still lower prices

31. ----, the banking sector is not happy to welcome
the separation of its retail banking from its
investment banking activities.
A) Because of the recent global climactic changes
around the tropics
B) As soon as the insurance policy is approved by
the governmental agencies
C) Wherever they may go to get more loans to
pay back their mortgage
D) In spite of the benefit to individual taxpayers
and customers
E) By the time we have decided to buy one more
building to expand our operations in the Middle

32. In the past few years countless small shops
have been forced to close ----.
A) although we cannot deny that supermarkets do
have certain advantages
B) since they provide a wide variety of goods at
unbeatably low prices
C) despite their extensive losses in their operation
in another country
D) because of changes in public shopping habits
E) that they create jobs for a greater number of

33. ----, Natoo was a very rational person who
could lead his native community towards a
better future.
A) Not believing in any of the superstitions his
peers do
B) Similar to many ancient tribes which
disappeared after a major disaster
C) As many of the tribes members could
understand the changes taking place around
D) While sociology attempts to analyse the way
human societies respond to their social
E) However unlikely it is for the board to accept
that times have changed

34. Because we believe that it is in our best
interest, ----.
A) it is scientifically not possible for a species to
fully understand another with an acceptable
level of empathy
B) we generally choose the activities that promise
the highest amount of pleasure and happiness
C) pain and pleasure are two interrelated subjects
that psychologists try to examine together
D) human beings should display agony and stress
towards the loss of a loved individual
E) the crocodile cannot be kept as a pet to be
teased within a residential house
35. ----, it may take the woman much longer to
digest it.
A) Whereas women are more prone to get fat
than men
B) Providing a woman experiences a significant
change in her digestive system
C) Even if a man and a woman eat the same thing
D) Although male and female brains may respond
differently to hormones
E) Though women experience pain more
frequently than men when they eat fast

36. In spite of the deadly clashes taking place
around the outer neighbourhoods of
Damascus, ----.
A) Syrians are still leaving their country for
relatively more peaceful areas
B) deadly nerve gas could be used against other
targets in the Middle East
C) Israel is worried that the conflict may result in
another border war for her
D) many journalists still want to go there to watch
the events
E) holiday resorts in Indian Ocean are enjoying a
better tourism season unusual for their location


37. She may have been offered various positions
in the firm but this did not prevent her from
choosing another company with better
retirement conditions.
A) Kendisine irkette eitli konumlar teklif edilmi
olabilir ama bu onu daha iyi emeklilik koullar
vaadeden baka bir irketi tercih etmekten
B) Daha iyi emeklilik koullar vaad eden bir
irkete gemesi ynnde onu engelleyen ey,
bu irkette kendisine sunulan alternatif
konumlarn ok sayda olmas olabilir.
C) Kendisine irkette ok sayda konum vaat
edilmi olsa da, bu onu baka bir irkette daha
iyi emeklilik koullar aramaktan alkoymad.
D) irkette ona ok deiik i kollarnda almas
nerilmi olabilir ama yine de bunlar arasnda
kendine en iyi emeklilik koullar salayan
tercih etti.
E) Kendisine sunulan onca i arasndan seim
yapmaktansa, baka bir irkette daha iyi
emeklilik koullar altnda almay tercih etti.

38. The analysis has shown that fewer than one-
third of all drivers involved in rear-end
collisions had attempted to steer clear of the
A) Analiz kazalara karan btn srclerin en
az te birinin arkadan arpmalara kar bir
hamle yapabildiini ortaya koymutur.
B) Analiz arkadan arpmal kazalara karan tm
srclerin te birinden daha aznn kazadan
kamak iin hamle yaptn gstermitir.
C) Arkadan arpmal tm kazalara karan her
srcden birisinin bu kazay atlatmak iin bir
eyler yapt analiz tarafndan ortaya
D) Analize gre, kendisine arkadan arpanlardan
kanabilmek iin srcden en az birisi
hamle yapacak frsat bulabilmitir.
E) Analizin arkadan arpmal kazalara karan
btn srclerin te birinin kazann
etkisinden kurtulabilmek iin bir eyler yapmay
denediini aa karmtr.
39. Nowhere in the world has violence been so
deadly and destructive as in North Africa and
East Asia under the colonial rule.
A) Dnyada hibir iddet biimi, koloni ynetimi
altndaki Kuzey Afrika ve Dou Asyada olduu
kadar lmcl ve yokedici bir ekilde ortaya
B) Koloni ynetimleri altndaki Kuzey Afrika ve
Dou Asya dnda dnyann hibir yerinde
iddet lmcl ve yokedici ekilde
C) Dnyann hibir yerinde Kuzey Afrika ve Dou
Asyada olduu kadar lmcl ve yokedici bir
iddete tank olunmamtr ve bunun nedeni
koloni ynetimleridir.
D) iddetin Kuzey Afrika ve Dou Asyada olduu
kadar lml ve zarar verici sonu veren bir
biimi dnyann hibir yerinde koloni
ynetimleri altnda gereklememitir.
E) Dnyann hibir yerinde, koloni ynetimleri
altndaki Kuzey Afrika ve Dou Asyada olduu
kadar lmcl ve yokedici bir iddet var

40. Gerek u ki, yeterli bte bulunursa, sera
gazlar salmn tam olarak lecek bir teknoloji
nmzdeki 10 ile 15 yl ierisinde
A) The truth is that, a technology to exactly
measure the greenhouse emissions could be
developed in the next 10 to 15 years if
sufficient funding is found.
B) It is a fact that the technology to precisely
measure the level of greenhouse emissions
can be improved in the coming 10 to 15 years
as the necessary funding is obtained.
C) In reality, a technology to fully determine the
exact greenhouse emissions could be
developed in the next 10 to 15 years only if an
adequately sized budget could be allocated.
D) If a sufficient budget can be created, the
technology to measure the greenhouse
emissions correctly can be put into reality
within the following 10 to 15 years.
E) Should sufficient funds be allocated, a realistic
technology to determine the greenhouse
emissions may be developed between 10 to 15

41. iek hastal 1997 ylndan beri doal yollarla
insanlara bulamadysa da, son derece dikkatle
kontrol edilen belirli laboratuvarlarda varln
A) While polio has not been transmitted to
humans by natural ways since 1997, it
continues its existence in certain laboratories
under extremely strict control.
B) Although naturally-transmitted polio has not
been recorded in humans since 1997, some
very carefully examined laboratories still
maintain the virus.
C) Even if polio has not been seen in humans in
its natural form since 1997, its continued
existence in some of the laboratories is being
kept under extremely strict control.
D) Polio has not been transmitted to humans in its
natural form since 1997, yet its existence
continues in some laboratories under close
E) Though it has continued its existence in certain
laboratories under exceptionally firm
regulations, polio has not been transmitted to
humans in its natural form since 1997.

42. Sahil anda kurulu rzgar enerjisi tesisleri
daha yava bir hzla gelimekte iken, kara
zerinde yeni kurulmu rzgar trbinleri ile
ilgili olumlu gelimeler istikrarla srmektedir.
A) While the positive developments concerning
the newly installed wind power turbines
continue at a steady rate, offshore wind power
plants improve at a slower pace.
B) Since the positive developments in the newly
established land based wind turbines continue
at an increasing rate, the marine based wind
power plants follow them at a slower speed.
C) The positive developments in the newly
installed wind turbines over land remain stable
whereas offshore wind energy plants are
growing at a slower pace.
D) As the developments in the newly installed
land based wind turbines continue to be more
positive than those for the marine based wind
power plants, the latter cannot follow them at
anything but a slower speed.
E) Although the offshore wind power plants can
develop at a slow speed, the positive
developments concerning the newly
established land power turbines continue at a
steady rate.

Beautiful, peaceful music is thought to have a
wonderful, even healing effect on man's mind and
spirit. It is known to have a leading effect on the
human soul, as it leads it to certain states, either
joyful, or sad, more or less profound. The same
thing is likely to happen to animals. You might
have noticed your cat leaving the room when you
listen to a hard rock piece, or see it relaxing on a
chill out tune. So what is it with music and living
creatures? If they like that particular music,
animals would come closer to the source it
produces it, in order to fully enjoy those pieces of
art. Music can even have a soothing effect for a
suffering, ill animal. The same thing is known to
happen to plants, which can blossom to certain
beautiful musical works. One explanation to this
phenomenon might be that, since we as human
beings, plants and animals are part of the same
process, we are likely to respond to the same
stimuli and to find peace, bliss, beauty and joy in
the very same things. Apparently, tranquility
inducing music can ease both physical pain in an
animal, and psychological disturbances caused by
abandonment, abuse, loneliness, sadness,
different traumas or any other negative emotions.

43. According to the passage, music ----.
A) can be used to reveal ones inner world to
outside, thus aiding in diagnosing mental
B) may act as a means for humans to establish
interspecies communication
C) is primarily used by religions and belief
systems to reach the mans soul
D) has an adverse influence on human mind as it
may create conflicting states of mind
E) has the potential to direct and mold the human
mind into different and even opposite moods
44. It is clearly stated in the passage that animals
A) are overly sensitive towards and are influenced
more by music
B) prefer relaxing on soft music to listening to
hard rock as their owners do
C) might be confused by the contrasting effects of
music played
D) may be calmed by the music if they have a
health trouble
E) do have a soul which has similar qualities to
that in humans

45. According to the writer of the passage, ----.
A) all living beings share the same essence,
which explains why they are affected by the
same music
B) the positive influence of music can be
observed on plants much better than it does on
C) animals approach the works of art if they derive
pleasure from them
D) humans, plants and animals have similar
sensory organs that respond similarly to any
external stimuli
E) music primarily produces positive effects on
living beings

46. It can be inferred from the passage that ----.
A) animals treat each other the same way human
beings do
B) music that has a calming effect on animals
may have a different effect on other living
C) animals who are deserted by their owners
suffer from psychological problems
D) plants who are abandoned may also display
symptoms of trauma
E) physical pain in animals has different
characteristics than it does in humans

Namaste has been the traditional Hindu greeting to
both family as well as strangers. However, with
cordiality escaping from our hearts, the use of the
term is becoming more like a burdensome ritual,
and at some instances the greeting is considered
an inferior version of Hi! The biggest evidence
comes from the fact that many Indians do not
bother to reply back to a Namaste with a Namaste.
Some would just nod, while others may simply
ignore you. Though the ideal response to Namaste
in Indian culture involves repeating the same term
with folded hands, even if the initial greeting comes
from a child or a financially disadvantaged person,
some hesitate to use the greeting for even elder
relatives. Because Namaste means I bow to the
Lord in you, the few that do respond may not
mean it when they utter it. In such an environment,
has the greeting become obsolete? While this
greeting is physically spoken to a human being, it
is actually directed towards God, who resides in all
and when your communication (or any other
karma) is for the Lord, whether the person you
communicate to reciprocates with a good wish
should never be a concern.

47. In his discussion of the main issue, the writer
generally ----.
A) informs the reader about the origins and the
proper use of the term Namaste
B) talks about the loss of traditions and its
negative outcomes
C) proudly describes the diversity of the society
he lives in
D) complains about the gradual ignorance of the
use of a traditional Hindu greeting phrase
E) mainly focuses on the practical aspects of the
social interactions rather than verbal
48. The author of the passage makes the point
that, ----.
A) the term Namaste has lost its original
meaning and assumed a completely different
B) people are no longer as polite and considerate
as they used to be in the past
C) it is perfectly acceptable to respond to
Namaste with a slight move of the head
D) Namaste can only be used to greet people in
Hindu faith, not strangers
E) Hi! may be a more appropriate word to use
while greeting people today in India

49. We learn from the passage that, when someone
greets another saying Namaste, ----.
A) the age of this person determines the kind of
response he ought to receive from the other
B) the response depends on the others financial
and social status
C) it is acceptable not to say anything back
D) the other must nod first but may only say Hi!
E) the other is supposed to bring his hands
together and say the same thing back

50. The writer makes the point that the importance
of term Namaste ----.
A) lies in the fact that it is a unifying element in
many cultures
B) resides in the fact that a bow accompanies it
which shows utter respect for the addressee
C) comes from the fact that it is actually
addressed to the God not to the addressee
D) comes from its meaning, which makes it a
burdensome ritual that people begin to leave
E) is gradually decreasing, which is a positive
development for a culture that is moving

Nations have begun signing a legally binding treaty
designed to curb mercury pollution and the use of
the toxic metal in products around the globe.
Mercury can produce a range of adverse human
health effects, including permanent damage to the
nervous system. The UN treaty was formally
adopted at a high level meeting in Japan. The
Minamata Convention was named after the
Japanese city that, in the 1950s, saw one of the
world's worst cases of mercury poisoning. In
January, four years of negotiations concluded with
more than 140 countries agreeing on a set of
legally binding measures to curb mercury pollution.
UN data showed that mercury emissions were
rising in a number of developing nations. One
recent assessment said the concentration of
mercury in the top 100m of the world's oceans had
doubled over the past century, and estimated that
260 tons of the toxic metal had made their way
from soil into rivers and lakes. Another
characteristic, it added, was that mercury became
more concentrated as it moved up the food chain,
reaching its highest levels in predator fish that
could be consumed by humans. Mercury is highly
toxic to human health, posing a particular threat to
the development of the unborn child and early in

51. It is clearly stated in the passage that, mercury
A) has been finally banned thanks to a recent
treaty signed in Japan
B) was adopted as the common issue of a recent
high level gathering on dangerous and toxic
C) may cause unwanted industrial outcomes
especially in advanced industrial nations
D) is known to have irreversible detrimental
effects on human nervous system
E) had been already banned in 140 countries that
took part in the convention
52. It is clearly stated in the passage that, the
Minamata Convention ----.
A) took its name from the city which was home to
a disaster involving mercury toxicity
B) hosted the convention that took years and in
which more than 140 countries participated
C) was first held in the 1950s in the city of
D) focused on the declining use of the mercury in
a number of developing countries
E) was a manifestation of the worlds dwindling
supply of mercury

53. The passage makes the point that ----.
A) 260 tons of mercury was wasted due to misuse
of soil resources
B) the exact measurement of mercury in worlds
seas could only be made within the past
C) the top 100m of the worlds oceans now
contain twice as much mercury as did 100
years ago
D) the Earths soil contains an abundant amount
of mercury that slowly mixes with river waters
E) the primary cause of worry concerning mercury
stems from the use of water contaminated with

54. It is pointed out the passage that ----.
A) animals that eat other animals are less likely to
suffer from mercury due to indirect intake of the
B) pregnant women are more vulnerable to the
threat of mercury than do infants
C) higher concentrations of mercury in lakes and
rivers may also contaminate animal habitats
D) the higher the elevation of the land where food
is raised, the higher the amount of mercury it
may contain
E) people may eat fish that have eaten other fish
and thus increased the amount of mercury in
their bodies

The English language that is spoken today is the
direct result of the Norman Conquest that started
in 1066. Modern English is vastly different from
that spoken by the English prior to the Conquest,
both in its vocabulary and its grammar. After the
war, the Normans brought with them an alien
culture and language. Add to this their social status
as the new ruling class, and it is no shock to find
that assimilation was slower, and the new society
and language that emerged was so radically
changed from that which they found when they
arrived uninvited in 1066. English, which had been
a written language since the conversion to
Christianity, was rapidly dropped as the language
for royal and legal charters and proclamations, not
reappearing until 1258. The replacement language
was usually Latin, though often duplicated in
French. French was the language of the royal
court, the legal system and the church. The use of
French was reinforced by the fact that many of the
new aristocracy and religious houses had
extensive holdings in France. This state of affairs
changed slightly in 1204 when King John lost
Normandy, but did not really end until after the
English were finally expelled from France at the
end of the Hundred Years War in 1453.

55. According to the writer of the passage, the
Norman invasion ----.
A) had a corrupting effect on the English language
B) was inevitable considering the fact that the
British were attacking Normandy
C) changed the way English is written and the
words it uses
D) brought the English language close to its
origins as it purified it
E) led to the removal of a great number of Latin
words from the English language
56. It is clearly stated in the passage that, the
Normans ----.
A) already had cultural impact on the British
Islands even before 1066
B) treated the British harshly as they found them
C) tried to peacefully embrace the British culture
but failed to do so
D) belonged to a different religious order, which
made it impossible to adapt to the British
E) could not blend in the British culture due to
their social class differences

57. According to the information presented in the
passage, English ----.
A) quickly lost its position to Latin and French as
the official language
B) continued to be spoken and widely used
among the aristocrats of British origin
C) was replaced by Latin, which was later
replaced by French
D) continued to be used among the British men of
E) was brought back into daily use only after Latin
took control of the French language

58. It is understood from the passage that the
French language took hold in Britain ----.
A) mainly because of the ruling class keeping
their ties with France for financial reasons
B) as it has great similarities to the English
language in terms of both grammar and
C) only after the end of the Hundred Years War in
D) despite the alliance of the aristocrats and the
E) owing to its close relationship with the Latin

City of God is an exhilarating, fast-paced action
film set in the oppressive confines of a favela in
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. I love the way the movie
depicts the slum because it compels viewers not
just to confront the desperation, poverty and
violence of life there, but to enter that nightmarish
world so utterly for the duration of the film that
leaving it at the end is a relief, and yet a wrench,
making it impossible to forget. Directed by
Fernando Meirelles, the 2002 film portrays life in
the City of God, a favela known by the same name
for over three decades, starting in the 1960s when
it was a new housing project and its main
characters were children and petty thieves, and
ending in the early 1980s, by which time the slum
is a war zone and most of the protagonists are
either dead or engaged in a bloody war over drugs
turf. Narrated by Rocket, a boy who dreams of
becoming a photographer, the story focuses on the
escalating battle between rival gangs led by the
murderous Lil Z and Carrot. The favela itself is a
central character in the film, which traces its
deterioration into anarchic bloodbath.

59. The writer of the passage likes the film City of
God ----.
A) due to the fantastic elements it introduced into
the harsh reality of favela
B) for its gripping realism in the portrayal of the
Brazilian slum life
C) despite its trial to cover up the ugly sides of the
favela life
D) for its focusing on boys of the favela rather
than the other people
E) because of the way it justifies certain types of
crimes people commit
60. According to the passage, the film ----.
A) describes life in a slum area in the early 2000s
and how drug trade took over the region
B) predominantly talks about the war-time
experiences of a group of young men
C) is told by a first-person narrator who spent
some of his life in war
D) traces three decades in the life of some
individuals living in a slum
E) is open-ended and leaves the end to the
imagination of the audience

61. According to the passage, the plot of the film
A) covers the rivalry between two gangs whose
violence increases continuously
B) takes place in housing projects where Brazils
well-to-do live
C) is based on a true story which the director
himself has witnessed as a boy
D) also includes some autobiographical elements
by the writer
E) contains some supernatural elements as it also
has a religious dimension

62. The writer of the passage points out that ----.
A) the film starts marvelously but as time passes it
goes worse and worse towards the end
B) he is happy to see that the two villains, Lil Z
and Carrot, die and order is restored
C) everybodys life in the film goes worse and
eventually the favela is destroyed
D) the favela in the film itself can be seen as a
character which goes through changes
E) the final scenes depict incidents that seems to
give hope for all the characters


63. Dennis:
- What do you think about your countrys
- ----
- I find this very strange as almost everybody
else I talked about said positive things
about it.
- I wish I could do the same but the internal
ethnic differences are taking us to a point
which I do not wish to be.
A) I am not so sure about such questions about a
future which we cannot predict at the moment.
B) Sadly, the country is heading for a division in
my opinion and well all suffer from it.
C) As a matter of fact, I am quite optimistic about
it and believe that it will be an example of
D) Regrettably, we may experience an inflow of
refugees from the wars in our neighbours.
E) The economy is doing well especially in the
second quarter but it may not last long.

64. Ned:
- This columnist just gets on my nerves! The
same conspiracy theory again and again
every day.
- ----
- Yes, it is and whats more, this time he
claims that our government is behind it all.
- I think he has lost all his ties with reality
A) Like it or not but his ideas concerning the
economic frauds and crises are very credible
according to many economists.
B) In our age, conspiracy theories are
manufactured by the mass media to lead
people into believing that everything around us
is fake.
C) Yet, the probability that his theories are right is
very high if you ask many people.
D) I personally believe that he may be right
concerning the release of radioactivity from
some of the power plants.
E) Is it about the idea that the recent earthquakes
are actually performed by some people with
strange powers?

65. Okan:
- Tell me one word in English that means
something very special for you.
- ----
- Sounds very melodic indeed and I got
curious about that special reason now.
- It is very close to the concept of fate and
coincidence with positive expectations.
A) I have always found the word Kismet very
musical for no explainable reason whatsoever
and use it as my bumper sticker.
B) I find the word Chatoyant very lovely and
funny as it means like a cats eye and I am a
C) Without a second thought, Serendipity with all
its harmony comes to my mind with a very
special reason.
D) Well, not for me but my sister loves the word
Gossamer and tries to use it whether it is
relevant or not.
E) I cannot tell you for sure but I heard that the
word Mellifluous means sweet sounding and
may be the word you are looking for.

66. Ralph:
- The animals in captivity suffer immensely
from stress and we must do something
about it.
- We can start with our zoo and the Dolphin
Show at the harbour then.
- ----
- Yes, then a couple of more letters to the
local newspapers will create some publicity
for the case.
A) Dolphins are the animals that are most
vulnerable to stress but many people think that
they are always happy.
B) We must do more than writing letters and such
passive things and instead prepare a
demonstration in front of these places.
C) However, some of these animals can no longer
survive in the wild once they are set free and
this must be taken into consideration.
D) The latter is private and we may not have a
chance but the former is a public institution and
we can write to the local council.
E) All the zoos in the world must be abolished and
the animals in them should be returned to their
natural habitat as quickly as possible.

67. Brigitte:
- My son just does not listen to me and I
dont know what to do! He has a problem
with authority.
- Its all normal at this age, unless it leads to
some sort of a legal problem.
- ----
- If so, you may seek some professional
assistance and I can give you a number to
A) Thats the problem; he has just been
suspended from school for one month for
unruly behavior.
B) Thank you for the advice but the school advisor
and the social workers told me that it is not that
C) I am already talking to a lawyer to solve the
problem with that principal who suspended my
D) Teenagers in our age are misled by their peers
and they can easily commit crimes.
E) He said he was the victim of bullying at the
school but the problem has been solved.


68. Upon my return from abroad, my mother smiled
as though she was amused at seeing me as a
grown up man.
A) I dont quite know why but I guess my now
being a grown-up man was the reason why my
mother was laughing at me as I returned from
B) It was probably seeing me as an adult man that
made my mother smile when I came back
home from abroad.
C) As soon as I returned home from abroad, my
mother met me with a smiling face, which
meant that she was happy to see me as an
adult now.
D) As she greeted me when I arrived back from
abroad, my mother had a smiling face due to
my now being a fully grown-up man.
E) My mother was smiling when I returned from
abroad because she couldnt believe that I was
an adult now.

69. The troops entered the city hoping that none of
the residents had any weapons to shoot at
them at close range.
A) The citizens of the city were lurking in the
shadows of the city to shoot at the troops by
directly aiming at them and the soldiers were
not expecting this.
B) It was expected by the soldiers, as they were
entering the city, to be met by armed citizens
who were willing to kill them by shooting from
very close distances.
C) The troops hoped that people in the city
dropped their weapons and were hiding and
were not able to fight against them in the
closed buildings.
D) Troops had been expecting the people in the
city had none of the weapons they had but may
be able shoot at them using small weapons.
E) Moving in to the city, the troops wished that the
city people had no weapons to attack them
from short distances.

70. As is the case with many people who start a
new job, Marilyn was also welcomed by a small
party followed by a bad joke.
A) When Marilyn started her new job, her
colleagues threw her a party and made a bad
joke after it since this is the company tradition.
B) A bad joke made after a small party is what
awaits many new employees but for Marilyn
this was not the case.
C) It is customary to greet a new recruit to a
company with a bad joke after a small party
and Marilyn was no exception.
D) On Marilyns first day at her new job, she was
surprised to see a party prepared for her but
the following bad joke reminded her that she is
just like anybody else in the company.
E) The habit of greeting new employees with a
bad joke made during a small party was also
practiced for Marilyn as her case made this

71. As far as we can tell, taxation began in Sumeria
around 5,000 years ago and it seems to have
been a creation of the combination of religion
and government.
A) We know that the Sumer was the first
civilization to develop a tax system which both
addressed the needs of their religion and
political system at around 5,000 years ago.
B) Approximately 5,000 years before the present,
the Sumer emerged and began to practice
taxation together with the development of their
religious and political systems.
C) It looks as if the Sumer were the first people to
use taxes in the maintenance of their religious
and political bodies founded 5,000 years ago
but this is a bit questionable.
D) As far as known in history, taxation emerged in
the Sumerian civilization nearly 5,000 years
ago and it appears that the clergy and the
government created it as a practice together.
E) Sumeria was the birthplace of what we today
call taxation and in human history their
clergymen and rulers were the first to use it as
a combination method almost 5,000 years ago.

72. During the late twentieth century, a dominant
aim of the historical profession was to write
deeper and more nuanced social histories. ----
In the history study outside Europe, the
profession retreated from imperial history,
replacing it with an area studies approach.
Historians now drew their inspiration from
indigenous language sources and local
colonial archives.
A) Well before world history or global history
became recognised courses in American
universities, Robin Palmer had written of The
Age of Atlantic Revolutions.
B) This was done through studies of localities and
institutions and by revealing the experience of
people without history or people without
C) Perhaps the revolutionary age in history was a
truly global phenomenon with causes and
consequences in Asia, Africa and the Pacific.
D) The present day seems a good time to direct
more of the professions energies to the study
of global connections and comparisons such
as these.
E) The American civil war, for instance, was a
unique event, not really comparable with
contemporary rebellions and wars in Europe.

73. A new paper published in the USA argues that
dinosaurs must have been warm-blooded like
birds and mammals--and not cold-blooded like
reptiles, as many scientists believed in years
past. Why is that? ---- However, they dominated
over mammals in terrestrial ecosystems
throughout the Mesozoic and to do that they
must have had more muscular power and
greater endurance than a crocodile-like
physiology would have allowed.
A) Modern birds are fundamentally different from
non-avian dinosaurs in terms of abdominal
soft-tissue morphology, and they cannot be
modified dinosaurs.
B) The dinosaur mouth was too small compared
to their body and their teeth also werent very
long which meant chewing was tough practice
for them.
C) As the number of carnivores in a community
increases, they eat more and more of the
herbivores, decreasing the herbivore
D) Good eyesight, a keen sense of smell, and a
large brain to plan hunting strategies were very
important for successful hunting for a dinosaur.
E) Because if dinosaurs had been cold-blooded,
they wouldn't have had enough muscle power
to capture their prey and be the dominant
animals of their time.

74. In the middle of the twentieth century
universities attempted to divide physics and
mathematics. ---- Whole generations of
mathematicians grew up without knowing half
of their science and, of course, in total
ignorance of any other sciences. Since
scholastic mathematics that is cut off from
physics is fit neither for teaching nor for
application in any other science, the result was
the universal hate towards mathematicians.
A) The consequences of the divide turned out to
be catastrophic.
B) Mathematics is the part of physics where
experiments are cheap.
C) The construction of a mathematical theory is
exactly the same as that in any other natural
D) It is obvious that in any real-life activity it is
impossible to wholly rely on such deductions.
E) Calculus is a subject many students complain
about in their first years at college.

75. ---- It allows artificial light to shine outward and
upward into the sky, where it's not wanted,
instead of focusing it downward, where it is. Ill-
designed lighting washes out the darkness of
night and radically alters the light levels and
light rhythms to which many forms of life,
including ourselves, have adapted. Wherever
human light spills into the natural world, some
aspect of life for other beings, such as their
migration, reproduction and feeding is affected.
A) For most of human history, the phrase "light
and sound painting" would have made no
B) In most cities, the sky looks as though it has
been emptied of stars, leaving behind a vacant
C) We've lit up the night as if it were an
unoccupied country, when nothing could be
further from the truth.
D) A relatively recent development, light pollution
is largely the result of bad lighting design.
E) Scientists have shown that long artificial days
and artificially short nights induce early
breeding for many birds.


76. (I) In early 1930, George Beauchamp, a Hawaiian
guitar player and Adolph Rickenbacker, an
electronics engineer, met at the Dopera Brothers
guitar manufacturer in Los Angeles. (II) Together,
they eventually developed the schematic for a
revolutionary idea: an electronic guitar. (III) The
premise was simple: by fitting the guitar with two
magnets, a magnetic field was created which could
pick up the vibrations from a string and transfer it
to a resonating wire coil. (IV) In a Jazz setting, the
guitar was purely for rhythm: the volume of an
acoustic instrument other than a piano could never
outplay the cries of a full brass section. (V) By
allowing an electric current through, the magnets
could pick up vibrations and then send it through
the coiled wire and through separate resistors for
tone and volume to a loudspeaker.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

77. (I) Shakespeare wasnt exactly a horror writer, but
he was rather fond of using ghosts in his plays. (II)
Poe was a master of the horror tale too, and some
of the ghosts in his stories are so vivid in our
brains that we just couldnt leave them out. (III) To
our minds, the King Hamlet is by far the creepiest
ghost in drama, sneaking up on Hamlet with blood
trickling from his ear, demanding revenge. (IV) Is
he a spirit of health or goblin damned or is he a
figment of Hamlets twisted imagination? (V) Well
never truly know, but he always makes us shudder
throughout the play.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
78. (I) The beauty of making pickles at home is that
you can tailor them to suit your tastes, making
them sweet or sour, and adding as much or as little
flavoring as you wish. (II) The trick with pickling is
to create an environment that is inhospitable to
harmful bacteria while preserving the integrity of
the vegetables. (III) The acid environment in
pickles keeps away the bacteria which otherwise
cause the food to decay. (IV) Blanching, that is
briefly cooking the ingredients in boiling water, is
the first step to make delicious and healthy pickles.
(V) The 1:1 ratio of vinegar to water keeps
vegetables crisp in the fridge, but is also acidic
enough that they can be canned safely if you
choose to.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

79. (I) Many people resolve for some reason that they
can swim to shore after an accident at sea. (II) The
number one cause of fatalities in boating accidents
is capsizing. (III) It is normally the result of
improper loading or overloading, but also can be
caused by other things such as foul weather. (IV)
When a boat capsizes, the occupants should stay
with the boat as most boats float upside down, or
full of water, even with outboard motors attached.
(V) The upturned vessel can easily be seen from
the air or as you draw near and the victims can
quickly be rescued.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

80. (I) The Bangladesh garment industry is the largest
employer of women in the formal manufacturing
sector. (II) The workplace owners have been
described both as risk-taking entrepreneurs of a
modernizing economy and as oppressors of
women in exploitative sweatshops. (III) The
conditions of the 1971 war, in fact, created the
proto-capitalists, and the post-1975 economic
policies of the military regime enabled them to
become capitalists. (IV) The reason is that, women
from various class backgrounds are employed
because they can be molded into compliant
workers. (V) Further, the multi-class character of
the workforce combined with the threat of layoffs
prevents solidarity and makes unionization of
female workers difficult.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V