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Circular Measure

1
CIRCULAR MEASURE

1. RADIAN
1.1 Converting Measurements in Radians to Degrees and Vice Versa

Definition:
r
S
= rad
where S is the length of the arc AB,
r is the radius of the circle, and
is the angle subtended at the centre O by the arc AB.

For the full circle, the circumference is 2r and the angle is 360
o
.
rad 2
2
Therefore,

=
=
r
r
.
Hence, 2 rad = 360
o
=> rad = 180
o


For each of the following measurement in degree, change it to radian.
Example: 25.8
o


Since 180
o
= rad
rad 4504 . 0
180
8 . 25 8 . 25
=

=





(a) 30
o
=







[0.5237 rad]
(b) 45
o
=








[0.7855 rad]
(c) 81.5
o
=








[1.423 rad]
(d) 122.8
o
=








[2.144 rad]
(e) 154
o
20 =








[2.694 rad]
(f) 225
o
36 =








[3.938 rad]
(g) -50
o
=








[-0.02773 rad]
25.8
o
O
A
B
O
A
B
r
r
S

Circular Measure
2

For each of the following measurement in radian, change it to degree.
Example: 0.75 rad
Since rad = 180
o

=

=
97 . 42
180
75 . 0 rad 75 . 0



Always use = 3.142


(a) 0.6 rad =







[34.37
o
]
(b) 1.54 rad =









[88.22
o
]
(c) = rad
5
18









[206.24
o
]
(d) = rad
7
3
2








[139.13
o
]
(e) 1.2 rad =









[216
o
]
(f) = rad
3










[60
o
]
(g) -0.25 rad =









[-14.32
o
]
(h) - = rad
3
1
2









[-133.67
o
]
(i) (1 + ) rad =










[237.29
o
]
0.75 rad
O
P
Q
Circular Measure
3

2. ARC LENGTH OF A CIRCLE
2.1 Arc Length, Radius and Angle
r
S
= => S = r
For each of the following, find the length of the arc S given the values of r and .
Example:
r = 10 cm and = 1.5 rad
Since S = r
= 10 1.5
= 15 cm



(a) r = 20 cm and = 0.6 rad






[12 cm]
(b) r = 15 cm and = 1.4 rad





[21 cm]
(c) r = 30 cm and =
6

rad




[15.71 cm]
(d) r = 10 cm and = 60
o







[10.47 cm]
(e) r = 1.5 m and = 82.8
o






[2.168 m]

For each of the following, calculate the length of the radius r given the values of S and .
Example:
S = 4.5 cm and = 1.5 rad
Since S = r
4.5 = 1.5r

5 . 1
5 . 4
= r
= 3 cm

(a) S = 9 cm and = 1.5 rad






[6 cm]
(b) S = 4.5 cm and = 1.8 rad







[2.5 cm]
(c) S = 9 m and = 30
o








[17.19 m]
(d) S = 15 cm and = 32.8
o









[26.20 cm]
(e) S = 10 cm and =
8

rad







[25.46 cm]
O
P
Q
1.5 rad
S
1
0

c
m
O
A
B
1.5 rad
r
4
.
5

c
m
Circular Measure
4

For each of the following, find the angle in radian given the values of r and S.
Example:
r = 5 cm and S = 10 cm
Since S = r
10 = 5
=
5
10

= 2 rad

(a) r = 9 cm and S = 36 cm






[4 rad]
(b) r = 7 cm and S = 5.6 cm






[0.8 rad]
(c) r = 20 cm and S = 0.7 m






[3.5 rad]
(d) r = 1.2 cm and S = 20 cm





cm]
3
2
16 [
(e) r = 3.5 cm and S = 112 cm






[32 cm]

For each of the following, find the angle in degree given the values of r and S.
Example:
r = 8 cm and S = 20 cm
Since S = r
20 = 8
=
8
20
rad
=

180
5 . 2
= 143.22
o

(a) r = 10 cm and S = 6 cm







[34.37
o
]
(b) r = 5 cm and S = 5.4 cm








[57.29
o
]
(c) r = 5.6 cm and S = 12 cm








[122.76
o
]
(d) r = 7.15 cm and S = 0.28 m








[224.34
o
]
(e) r = 5.6 cm and S = 3 cm








[96.43
o
]
O
A
B
1
0

c
m
5

c
m
O
A
B
2
0

c
m

8

c
m
Circular Measure
5
3. AREA OF SECTOR
3.1 Area of Sector, Radius and Angle

Area of a circle, A = r
2

Area for a sector OPQ of angle
o
,
2
360
r A

=
Converting to radian,
2
rad 2
rad
r

=
A =
2
1
r
2
, must be in radian.

For each of the following, find the area of the sector A given the values of r and .
Example:
r = 3 cm and = 1.8 rad
Since
2
2
1
r A =
8 . 1 3
2
1
2
=
= 8.1 cm
2




(a) r = 5 cm and = 0.8 rad








[10 cm
2
]
(b) r = 2.11 cm and = 1.78 rad









[3.962 cm
2
]
(c) r = 2.7 cm and =
3
2
1 rad








[6.075 cm
2
]
(d) r = 12 mm and =
5
4
rad








[180.98 mm
2
]
(e) r = 1.5 m and = 122.8
o










[2.411 m
2
]
(f) r =
5
3
m and = 85
o









[0.2671 m
2
]
(g) r = 13.2 cm and = 67.2
o










[102.19 cm
2
]
O
P
Q
1.8 rad
3

c
m
3

c
m
O
r
r
P
Q

Circular Measure
6

For each of the following, find the length of the radius r given the values of and A.
Example: = 1.2 rad and A = 15 cm
2

Since
2
2
1
r A =
15 2 . 1
2
1
2
= r

2 . 1
2 15
2

= r
= 25
r = 5 cm



(a) = 3 rad and A = 6 cm
2











[2 cm]
(b) = 1.4 rad and A = 118.3 cm
2













[13 cm]
(c) =
6

rad and A = 3 m
2











[6 m]
(d) =
7
3
1 rad and A = 78.25 cm
2












[109.55 cm]
(e) = 102
o
and A = 215 cm
2













[15.54 cm]
(f) = 65
o
and A = 78 cm
2













[11.73 cm]
(g) = 102
o
and A = 1215 cm
2













[36.94 cm]

O
P
Q
r r
1.2 rad
Circular Measure
7
For each of the following, find the angle in radian given the values of r and A.
Example: r = 5 cm and A =
8
3
9 cm
2

Since
2
2
1
r A =
=
2
5
2
1
8
3
9

25 8
2 75

=

4
3
= rad
(a) r = 2.4 cm and A = 1.44 cm
2












[0.5 rad]
(b) r = 8 cm and A = 64 cm
2












[2 rad]
(c) r = 0.6 m and A = 3.24 m
2












[18 rad]

For each of the following, find the angle in degree given the values of r and A.
Example: r = 4 cm and A = 16 cm
2

Since
2
2
1
r A =
=
2
4
2
1
16

16
2 16
=
= 2 rad
=
142 . 3
180
2


= 114.58
o




(a) r = 15 cm and A = 50 cm













[80
o
]
(b) r = 8 cm and A = 48 cm
2












[85.93
o
]
(c) r = 3.2 m and A = 5 m
2












[55.95
o
]
O
A
B

16 cm
2
4

c
m
4

c
m
5 cm
A
B
O
cm
2
9
3
8
_ 5

c
m
Circular Measure
8
2.2 Perimeter of Segments of a Circle

Example:
For the shaded segment in the given diagram beside, find its perimeter.

The perimeter of the shaded segment is the total length of the arc AB
and the chord AB.
S
AB
= r
= 10 1.2
= 12 cm
To find the length of the chord AB, consider
the triangle OAB in the diagram beside.
)
142 . 3
180
6 . 0 sin( 10
2
1
rad 6 . 0 sin
10
2
1

=
=
AB
AB

AB = 2 5.646
= 11.292 cm
perimeter of shaded segment = 12 + 11.292
= 23.292 cm


3.2 Area of Segments of a Circle

Example:
With reference to the sector in the same diagram beside,
find the area of the shaded segment.

The area of the shaded segment is the difference between
the area of the sector OAB and the triangle OAB.
Area of sector OAB =
2
1
r
2

2 . 1 10
2
1
2
=
= 60 cm
2

To find the area of the triangle OAB,
please refer to the diagram beside.
AC is perpendicular to the radius OB.


=
=
142 . 3
180
2 . 1 sin
rad 2 . 1 sin
AO AC
AO
AC

2
cm 60 . 46
9320 . 0 10 10
2
1
75 . 68 sin
2
1
2
1
of Area
=
=
=
=
OA OB
AC OB OAB


Area of shaded segment = 60 46.60
= 13.40 cm
2
Note:
The length of the chord
AB =
2
sin 2

r
Area of segment
( )

sin
2
1
sin
2
1
2
1
2
2 2
=
=
r
r r

O
A
B
1
0

c
m
1
0

c
m
=
=
0
.6
r
a
d
0
.6

r
a
d
O
A
B
1
0

c
m
1
0

c
m
1.2 rad
C
Note:
Area of triangle OAB
= sin
2
1
2
r
O
A
B
1
0

c
m
1
0

c
m
1.2 rad
O
A
B
1
0

c
m
1
0

c
m
1.2 rad
Circular Measure
9

For each of the following diagrams, find
(i) the perimeter and
(ii) the area of the shaded segment.

(a)























[Perimeter = 4.974 cm, Area = 0.2579 cm
2
]
(b)
























[Perimeter = 9.472 cm, Area = 1.489 cm
2
]
(c)

























[Perimeter = 10.19 cm, Area = 1.145 cm
2
]
(d)

























[Perimeter = 8.599 cm, Area = 4.827 cm
2
]

O
P
Q
6

c
m
6

c
m
0
.
8

r
a
d
O
A
B
5

c
m
5

c
m
0.5 rad
O
P
Q
3
.
8

c
m
3.8 cm
1 rad
O
A
B
4.2 cm
4
.
2

c
m
60
o
Circular Measure
10
1. SPM 2003 Paper 2 Compulsory Question No. 4

The diagram beside shows a sector POQ with centre O
and radius 10 cm. Point R lies on the straight line OP
with condition that OR : OP = 3 : 5. Calculate
(a) the value of , in rad, [ 3 ]
(b) the area, in cm
2
of the shaded region. [ 4 ]

Answer: (a) 0.9274 rad (b) 22.37 cm
2

_________________________________________________________________________________________

2. SPM 2004 Paper 1 Compulsory Question No.19

The diagram beside shows a circle with centre O.
Given that the length of the major arc AB is 45.51 cm,
find the length, in cm, of the radius.
(Use 6 = 3.142) [ 3 ]

Answer: 7.675 cm
2

_________________________________________________________________________________________
3. SPM 2004 Paper 2 Selective Question No. 9

The diagram beside shows a circle PQRT with centre O
and radius 5 cm. JQK is the tangent to the circle at Q.

The straight lines JO and KO, intersect with the circle
at P and R respectively. OPQR is a rhombus. JLK is an
arc of the circle with centre O. Calculate

(a) the angle , in terms of 6, [ 2 ]
(b) the length, in cm, of the arc JLK, [ 4 ]
(c) the area, in cm
2
, of the shaded region. [ 4 ]

Answer: (a)
3
2
(b) 20.95 cm (c) 61.43 cm
2

_________________________________________________________________________________________

4. SPM 2005 Paper 1 Compulsory Question No.18

The diagram beside shows a circle with centre O.
The length of the minor arc AB is 16 cm and the
angle of the major sector AOB is 290
o
.
Using 6 = 3.142, find
(a) the value of , in radians,
(Give your answer correct to four significant figures.)
(b) the length, in cm, of the radius of the circle. [ 3 ]

Answer: (a) 1.222 rad (b) 13.09 cm
_________________________________________________________________________________________
O
P
Q
R

0.354 rad
A
B
O
K
L
O
T
P
Q
R
J
rad

A
B
O
Circular Measure
11
5. SPM 2005 Paper 2 Selective Question No. 10

The diagram beside shows a sector POQ of a circle, centre O.
The point A lieson O P, the point B lies on OQ and AB is
perpendicular to OQ. The length of OA = 8 cm and POQ =
6

radian.
It is given that OA : OP = 4 : 7.
(Use 6 = 3.142) Calculate
(a) the length, in cm, of AP, [ 1 ]
(b) the perimeter, in cm, of the shaded region, [ 5 ]
(c) the area, in cm
2
, of the shaded region. [ 4 ]

Answer: (a) 6 cm (b) 24.403 cm (c) 37.463 cm
2

_________________________________________________________________________________________

6. SPM 2006 Paper 1 Compulsory Question No.16

The diagram beside shows sector OAB with centre O and
sector AXY with centre A. Given that OB = 10 cm, AY = 4 cm,
POQ = 1.1 radians and the length of the arc AB = 7 cm, calculate
(a) the value of , in radian,
(b) the area, in cm
2
, of the shaded region. [ 4 ]

Answer: (a) 0.7 rad (b) 26.2 cm
2

_________________________________________________________________________________________

7. SPM 2006 Paper 2 Selective Question No. 10

The diagram beside shows the plan of a garden. PCQ is a semicircle
with centre O and has a radius of 8 m. RAQ is sector of a circle with
centre A and has a radius of 14 m. Sector COQ is a lawn. The shaded
region is a flower bed and has to be fenced. It is given that AC = 8 m
and POQ = 1.956 radians.
(Use 6 = 3.142) Calculate
(a) the area, in m
2
, of the lawn, [ 2 ]
(b) the length, in m, of the fence required for fencing
the flower bed, [ 4 ]
(c) the area, in m
2
, of the flower bed. [ 4 ]

Answer: (a) 62.592 m
2
(b) 38.252 m (c) 14.71 m
2

_________________________________________________________________________________________

8. SPM 2007 Paper 1 Compulsory Question No. 18

The diagram beside shows a sector BOC of a circle with centre O.
It is given that (AD = 8 cm) AOD = 1.85 radians and
BA = AO = OD = DC = 5 cm. Find
(a) the length, in cm, of the arc BC,
(b) the area, in cm
2
, of the shaded region. [ 4 ]

Answer: (a) 18.5 cm (b) 80.5 cm
2

_________________________________________________________________________________________
O
P
Q
A
B
8 cm
rad
_
6

A
Y
X
B
O
O
P Q
A
C
R
B
A
D
C
O
1.85 rad
Circular Measure
12
9. SPM 2007 Paper 2 Selective Question No. 9

The diagram beside shows a circle, centre O and radius 10 cm
inscribed in a sector APB of a circle, centre P. The straight lines,
AP and BP are tangents to the circle at point Q and R, respectively.
[Use 6 = 3.142] Calculate
(a) the length, in cm, of the arc AB, [ 5 ]
(b) the area, in cm
2
, of the shaded region. [ 5 ]

Answer: (a) 31.41 cm (b) 88.6 cm
2

_________________________________________________________________________________________

10. SPM 2008 Paper 1 Compulsory Question No. 18

The diagram beside shows a circle with centre O and
radius 10 cm. Given that P, Q and R are points such
that OP = PQ and OPR = 90
o
, find
[Use 6 = 3.142]
(a) QOR, in radians,
(b) the area, in cm
2
, of the shaded region. [ 4 ]

Answer: (a) 1.047 (b) 30.72 cm
2

_________________________________________________________________________________________

11. SPM 2008 Paper 2 Selective Question No. 9

The diagram beside shows two circles. The larger circle has centre X
and rdius 12 cm. The smaller circle has centre Y and radius 8 cm.
The circles touch at point R. The straight line PQ is a common tangent
to the circles at point P and point Q.
[Use 6 = 3.142]
Given that PXR = radian,
(a) show that = 1.37 (to two decimal places), [ 2 ]
(b) calculate the length, in cm, of the minor arc QR, [ 3 ]
(c) calculate the area, in cm
2
, of the shaded region. [ 5 ]



Answer: (b) 14.176 cm (b) 40.616 cm
2

_________________________________________________________________________________________




A
P
B
Q
R
O
60
o
1
0

c
m
P
Q
R
O 10 cm
=
=
.
.
.
P
Q
R
1
2
c
m
8
c
m
X
Y