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he effects of auditory perception and musical preference on anxiety in

naive human subjects.

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Salamon E, Bernstein SR, Kim SA, Kim M, Stefano GB
The Long Island Conservatory, 1125 Willis Avenue, Alberton, NY 11507, USA.
Medical Science Monitor : International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research [2003, 9(9):CR396-9]
Type: Clinical Trial, Journal Article
Abstract Highlight Terms
Diseases(1) Species(1)
BACKGROUND: The use of music as a method of relieving anxiety has been studied extensively by researchers
from varying disciplines. The abundance of these reports focused on which genre of music best aided in the relief of
stress. Little work has been performed in the area of auditory preference in an attempt to ascertain whether an
individual's preferred music type aids in their anxiety reduction at levels greater than music that they have little or
no propensity for. MATERIAL/

METHODS: In the present report we seek to determine whether naive human subjects exposed to music of their
preference show a decrease in anxiety, as measured by systolic and diastolic blood pressure values. We furthermore
contrast these values to those obtained during non-preferred music listening.

RESULTS: We found statistically significant reduction of anxiety levels only when subjects were exposed to their
preferred musical selections.

CONCLUSIONS: Students participating in the study already had knowledge of what genre of music would best
relax them. It is our belief, that within the general population, many people do not have this self understanding. We
conclude that music therapy may provide a mechanism for this self-understanding and subsequently help alleviate
anxiety and stress.

Salamon, E., Bernstein, S. R., Kim, S. A., Kim, M., & Stefano, G. B. (2003). The effects of auditory
perception and musical preference on anxiety in naive human subjects. Medical science monitor:
international medical journal of experimental and clinical research, 9(9), CR396-9.

Sound therapy nduced relaxation
Salamon, E., Kim, M., Beaulieu, J., & Stefano, G. B. (2003). Sound therapy induced relaxation: down
regulating stress processes and pathologies. Medical Science Monitor, 9(5), RA96-RA101.

Importance of music to adolescents
Aims. The study aims to determine the importance of music to adolescents in England, and investigates why they
listen to and perform music. Sample. A total of 2465 adolescents (1149 males; 1266 females; 50 participants did not
state their sex) between 13 and 14 years of age who were attending Year 9 at one of 22 secondary schools in the
North Staffordshire region of England. Method. A questionnaire asked participants (a) about their degree of
involvement with musical activities; (b) to rate the importance of music relative to other activities; and (c) to rate the
importance of several factors that might determine why they and other people of their age and sex might listen
to/perform pop and classical music. Results. Responses indicated that i) over 50% of respondents either played an
instrument currently or had played regularly before giving up, and the sample listened to music for an average of 2.45
hours per day; ii) listening to music was preferred to other indoor activities but not to outdoor activities; iii) listening
to/playing pop music has different perceived benefits to listening to/ playing classical music; iv) responses to
suggested reasons for listening to music could be grouped into three factors; and v) responses to suggested reasons
for playing music could be grouped into four factors. Conclusions. These results indicate that music is important to
adolescents, and that this is because it allows them to (a) portray an image to the outside world and (b) satisfy their
emotional needs.

North, A. C., Hargreaves, D. J., & O'Neill, S. A. (2000). The importance of music to adolescents. British
Journal of Educational Psychology, 70(2), 255-272.

reduce stress in school with music
Scott, E. (2007). Reduce Student Stress and Excel in School.

Source: American Journal of Health Studies . 2000, Vol. 16 Issue 1, p41. 11p. 5 Charts.
Author(s): Misra, Ranjita; McKean, Michelle
Subject Terms: *STRESS (Psychology) *ANXIETY *TIME management *COLLEGE students -- Psychology
Abstract:Abstract: This paper investigated the interrelationship among academic stress, anxiety, time management,
and leisure satisfaction among 249 university, undergraduates by age and gender. Time management behaviors had a
greater buffering effect on academic stress than leisure satisfaction activities. Significant gender differences existed
among all the measures. Females had more effective time management behaviors than males, but also experienced
higher academic stress and anxiety. Males benefited more than females from leisure activities. Freshmen and
sophomore students had higher reactions to stress than juniors and seniors. Anxiety, time management, and leisure
satisfaction were all predictors of academic stress in the multivariate analysis. Anxiety reduction and time
management in conjunction with leisure activities may be an effective strategy for reducing academic stress in
college students.
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SATISFACTION. American Journal of Health Studies, 16(1).

An Examination of the Relationship
Among Academic Stress, Coping,
Motivation, and Performance in College
C. Ward Struthers,
Raymond P. Perry,
Verena H. Menec
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Empirical evidence suggests that a domain-specific coping style may play an important role in the way
students manage stressful academic events and perform at college. The purpose of this research was to
examine the extent to which college students' academic coping style and motivation mediate their
academic stress and performance. A structural equation analysis showed that the relationship between
college students' academic stress and course grade was influenced by problem-focused coping and
motivation but not emotion-focused coping. As expected, greater academic stress covaried with lower
course grades; however, students who engaged in problem-focused coping were more likely to be
motivated and perform better than students who engaged in emotion-focused coping. Strategies for
promoting more effective coping in college students are discussed.
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An Examination of the Relationship Among Academic Stress, Coping, Motivation, and
Performance in College
Research in Higher Education
Volume 41, Issue 5 , pp 581-592

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