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General Model for Steady State Analysis of Three Phase Self Excited Induction Generator

A. Alsalloum A.I. Alolah R.M. Hamouda


EE Dept, College of Eng, King Saud University
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
alolah@ksu.edu.sa
EE Dept, College of Eng, Ain Shams University
Cairo, Egypt
rhamouda@ksu.edu.sa


Abstract: A model of a delta-connected three-phase self-
excited induction generator (SEIG) feeding a delta-connected
load is derived and presented. This model includes the core losses
where the core resistance is modeled as a function of the
magnetizing reactance. Furthermore, the magnetizing reactance
nonlinearities has been included in the negative sequence
equivalent circuit. The model is applicable to all kinds of loads
with any degree of unbalance. The model for other connections of
SEIG and load are also derived and listed. Furthermore, a
generalized model for any type of connection of SEIG and/or
load is presented. The SEIG performance has been computed for
different unbalanced loading conditions. The simulation results
are verified experimentally.

Keywords: induction generator, unbalance, stand alone, SEIG.

NOMENCLATURE

SYMBOLS:
a
Operator
o
120 1
R, X, Z Resistance, reactance, and impedance respectively.
C, X
C
Excitation capacitance and its reactance.
F, v Per unit frequency and speed respectively.
V, I Voltage and current respectively.

SUBSCRIPTS:

0, 1, 2
Zero, Positive, and negative sequence components
respectively.
s, r Stator and rotor respectively.
m Magnetizing quantity.
ab, bc, ca Phases of the system.
an, bn, cn Phases of the Y system.
P, n Positive and negative, respectively.
g Air gap quantity.
c Core quantity
G, L Generator and load respectively.

1. Introduction

Due to the increased emphasis on the energy issues and
problems, concentration has been focused upon developing
autonomous electric power supplies to be operated in
remote and rural areas where electric services is
unavailable from existing or nearby grids. These types of
power sources can be used even in regions supplied by
network grids in the event of power interruptions. Among
such types that have received a notable attention and
importance is the three-phase self-excited induction
generator due to its numerous advantages such as simple
design, robustness, and low installation and maintenance
costs [1-5]. Experimental works and computer simulations
have been extensively performed in order to model and
analyze both steady state and transient performance of the
SEIG under balanced operating conditions. However, the
unbalanced operation of the SEIG has been given little
attention despite its practical needs. There are two main
methods to predict the steady state performance of the
SEIG under balanced operating conditions. The first
method is based on the generalized machine theory [5].
The second method is based on the analysis of the
generalized per-phase equivalent circuit of the induction
machine by applying either the loop impedance or the
nodal admittance concept [7, 8]. Furthermore, other studies
have concentrated only on the single-phase self-excited
induction generator [9, 10] and its voltage regulation
improvement [11]. Most of the previous studies have
centralized mainly on modeling and analyzing the
performance of SEIG under only balanced operating
conditions and little attention has been given to analyze the
performance of the SEIG under unbalanced conditions
[12]. In this paper, modeling and performance analysis of
SEIG under balanced and unbalanced loading conditions in
the steady state are presented. A model of a delta-
connected SEIG feeding a delta-connected load is derived
in detail. The effect of the machine core losses is
considered. Furthermore, the positive and negative
sequence equivalent circuits are used to model the SEIG.
The magnetizing reactance has been included in the
negative sequence equivalent circuit as a variable. The
final characteristic equation is reached by equating both
the positive-sequence and negative-sequence voltages
across the SEIG and the load. Finally, a general model for
any type of connection of SEIG and/or load is presented.
MathCAD software has been used for simulation [13].
The obtained results are in good agreement with those
recorded experimentally.

2. System Modeling
Fig.1 shows a -connected SEIG feeding a -connected
load. This load may be defined as follows:

Z
ab
= Z
Lab
//X
Cab
, Z
bc
= Z
Lbc
//X
Cbc
, Z
ca
= Z
Lca
//X
Cca
,

where, Z
Lab
=R
Lab
+jX
Lab
, Z
Lbc
=R
Lbc
+jX
Lbc
, Z
Lca
=R
Lca
+jX
Lca


The symmetrical components for this type of load
connection are obtained from [14]:

2
1
0

=
3
1

a a 1
a a 1
1 1 1
2
2

ca
bc
ab
Z
Z
Z
(1)



Fig. 1. -connected SEIG feeding a -connected load

Since the load as well as the generator is connected in
delta, hence, the phase and the line voltages of both the
generator (VabG) and the load (VabL) are equal. The
symmetrical components of the phase voltage (Vab) at the
load side are obtained from [14]:

2 abL
1 abL
0 abL
V
V
V
=

0 1 2
2 0 1
1 2 0
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
Z Z Z

2 abL
1 abL
0 abL
I
I
I
(2)

It is known that for a -connected load, V
abL0
= 0, so
substituting in (2), yields:

0 2 abL 1 1 abL 2 0 abL
) / Z I Z I - (Z I + =

(3)


Also from (2),

2 abL 2 1 abL 0 0 abL 1 1 abL
I Z I Z I Z V + + = (4)
2 abL 0 1 abL 1 0 abL 2 2 abL
I Z I Z I Z V + + = (5)

From Fig. 2, the terminal voltages of the SEIG are:

p 1 ab p
Z - I F / V =

(6)
n 2 ab n
Z I F / V =

(7)

It can be shown that the sequence components of phase
and line currents shown in Fig.1 are related as follows
[14]:
1 ab 1 a
I ) a 1 ( I = (8)
2 ab
2
2 a
) I a - 1 ( I = (9)

Since self-excitation is assumed to occur, i.e., I
a1
0 and
using equations 3-9, yields:

0 A A A A
4 3 2 1
= ( 1 0 )
where,

p 0
0
2 1
1
Z Z )
Z
Z Z
( A =
n
0
2 1
0 2
Z )
Z
Z Z
( Z A + =
)
Z
Z
( Z A
0
2
1
2 3
=
1
0
2
2
4
Z )
Z
Z
( A =
This characteristic equation is complex. Accordingly,
both real and imaginary parts must equal to zero.
Substituting the machine parameters, speed, and excitation
capacitors values, yields two nonlinear equations with
constant coefficients in F and X
m
. Solving iteratively to
find the real roots of the equations that satisfy the
constraints, the values of F and X
m
can be found. Hence,
the performance of the generator may be determined. The
derivation was repeated for other different connections of
SEIG and/or load and a general formula is presented as:
(a)
(b)
Fig. 2. Sequence equivalent circuits of SEIG
(Y) Positive-sequence (b) Negative-sequence
(11) 0 )
2
Z Z Z )(
2
Z Z Z (
) Z Z
2
Z Z Z )( Z Z Z Z Z (
1 10 2 0 9 2 8 1 0 7
2 1 6 0 5 n 0 4 2 1 3
2
0 2 p 0 1
= + +
+ + + +



The resulting characteristic equation for any connection
combination may be found by substituting the relevant
constants from table 1. The derived model was tested
against the machine with the parameters mentioned in
appendix A.
TABLE 1
PARAMETERS OF CHARACTERISTICS EQUATION
SEIG-Load 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
- -1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1
Y Y w/n -1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1
Y Y 1 1 0 -1 1 0 1 0 1 0
Y 1 3 0 -1 3 0 3 0 3 0
Y- 3 1 -1 -3 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1

3. Results and Discussion

SEIG - Load

1. No Load Case
This is a balanced excitation at no load case. The results
are shown in Fig.3. The solid line in all figures represents
the simulation results while the dashed line represents the
experimental recordings. The figure shows the variation of
generator (load) phase voltage as well as the variation of
line current against the excitation capacitance. The voltage
as well as the current increase as the excitation capacitance
increases as expected. In both curves, i.e. the phase voltage
and the line current, there is a good agreement with
experimental readings.

2. Unbalanced Load Case
The simulation results for an unbalanced resistive load
that consists of RLab
= 5.3 p.u., RLbc
= p.u., and RLca
= 2.6
p.u. are shown in Figs 4-5. The generator (load) phase
voltages are slightly unbalanced as shown in Fig. 4. Vab is
the highest reaching a value of 1.1 p.u. while Vbc is the
lowest reaching a value of 1.05 p.u.. Fig. 5 shows the
variation of line currents with the excitation capacitance.
The highest current is carried by line (c) reaching a value
of 1.62 p.u. while the lowest current is carried by line (b)
reaching a value of 1.3 p.u.

B. Y SEIG Y Load without Neutral Connection
The characteristic equation for this type of connection is
as follows:
0 )
2
Z
1
(Z )
n
Z
0
)(Z
0
Z
p
(Z = +
(12)
This model was solved for the test machine against an
unbalanced load that consists of RLan
= 2.6 p.u., RLbn
= 8 p.u.,
and RLcn
= 4 p.u. The simulation results are shown in Figs
6-7. Fig.6 shows the load phase voltages where it is clear
that these voltages are unbalanced due to the unbalance
present in the load and are close to the experimental
results. On the other hand, Fig. 7 shows the variation of
line (phase) currents where it shows a good agreement with
experimental readings.

C. Y SEIG Y Load with Neutral Connection
The characteristics equation for this type of connection
is:
0 )
2
1
Z
2
Z
0
)(Z
1
Z
0
Z
2
2
(Z
)
2
Z
1
Z
n
Z
0
Z
2
0
)(Z
2
0
Z
p
Z
0
Z
2
Z
1
(Z
=

(13)

The model was solved for a two excitation capacitors
and unbalanced load case. The two excitation capacitors
are placed over phase (a) and phase (b). Furthermore, RLan
= 1.8 p.u., RLbn
= 4 p.u., and RLcn
= 8 p.u.. The generator
(load) phase voltages are unbalanced, as shown in Fig. 8,
Vbn is the highest reaching a value of 1.1 p.u. while Vcn is
the lowest reaching a value of 0.92 p.u.. The line (phase)
currents vary almost linearly with the excitation
capacitance as shown in Fig. 9. The highest current is
carried by line (a) reaching a value of 1.2 p.u. while the
lowest current is carried by line (b) reaching a value of
0.28 p.u.. The neutral current is somewhat high in this
case; it reaches a value of 0.87 p.u.. The unbalance in
excitation capacitors lead to a higher degree of unbalance
in the phase currents resulting in a higher neutral current.

D. Y SEIG - Load
The characteristic equation for this connection
configuration is as follows:

0 )
2
1
Z
2
Z
0
)(Z
2
2
Z
1
Z
0
(Z
)
n
Z
0
Z 3
2
Z
1
Z
2
0
)(Z
2
Z
1
Z
2
0
Z
p
Z
0
Z 3 (
=
+
(14)

35 40 45 50 55 60
Excitation capacitance - (F)
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
(
p
.
u
.
)
Phase voltage-experiment
Line current-experiment
Phase voltage-Simulation
Line current-Simulation


Fig. 3. Variation of phase voltage and line current of unloaded SEIG.

30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Excitation capacitance - (F)
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
(
p
.
u
.
)
V
ab
-experiment
V
bc
-experiment
V
ca
-experiment
V
ab
-Simulation
V
ca
-Simulation
V
bc
-Simulation


Fig. 4. SEIG output phase voltages for unbalanced load, RLab = 5.3 p.u.,
RLbc = p.u., and RLca = 2.6 p.u..

30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Excitation capacitance - (F)
0.6
1
1.4
1.8
(
p
.
u
.
)
I
a
-experiment
I
b
-experiment
I
c
-experiment
I
c
-Simulation
I
a
-Simulation
I
b
-Simulation


Fig. 5. SEIG output line currents for unbalanced load, RLab = 5.3 p.u.,
RLbc = p.u., and RLca = 2.6 p.u..
35 40 45 50 55 60 65
Excitation capacitance - (F)
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
(
p
.
u
.
)
V
an
-experiment
V
bn
-experiment
V
cn
-experiment
V
cn
-Simulation
V
bn
-Simulation
V
an
-Simulation


Fig. 6. SEIG output phase voltages for unbalanced load, RLan = 2.6 p.u.,
RLbn = 8 p.u., and RLcn = 4 p.u..
35 40 45 50 55 60 65
Excitation capacitance - (F)
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
(
p
.
u
.
)
I
a
-experiment
I
b
-experiment
I
c
-experiment
I
a
-Simulation
I
c
-Simulation
I
b
-Simulation


Fig. 7. SEIG output line (phase) currents for unbalanced load, RLan = 2.6
p.u., RLbn = 8 p.u., and RLcn = 4 p.u..

50 55 60 65 70 75 80
Excitation capacitance - (F)
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
(
p
.
u
.
)
V
an
-experiment
V
bn
-experiment
V
cn
-experiment
V
bn
-Simulation
V
cn
-Simulation
V
an
-Simulation


Fig. 8 .SEIG output phase voltages when it is excited by Ca and Cb only
with unbalanced load, RLan = 1.8 p.u., RLbn = 4 p.u., and RLcn = 8 p.u..

This model was solved against an unbalanced - connected
load that consists of RLab
= 5.3 p.u., RLbc
= 8 p.u., and RLca
=
p.u. The variation of generator phase voltages against
excitation capacitance is shown in Fig. 10. The generator
phase voltages are unbalanced. Vbn is the highest among
phase voltages reaching a value of 1.15 p.u.. The variation
of load phase voltages is shown in Fig. 11.. The load phase
voltages are unbalanced where Vbc is the highest reaching a
value of 2 p.u. and Vca is the lowest reaching a value of
1.95 p.u.. The variation of line currents against excitation
capacitance is shown in Fig. 12. Ia is the highest reaching a
value of 1.3 p.u. and Ic is the lowest reaching a value of
1.05 p.u.. Furthermore, the operating range of the SEIG
has been reduced to one-third.

E. SEIG - Y Load
The characteristic equation that describes this
connection is as follows:
(15) 0 ) Z Z Z 9 ( ) Z Z Z 3 )( Z 3 Z Z (
2 1
2
0 n 0
2
0
2
0 p 0
= +

A single phase load case is presented here. The loads of
phase (b) and (c) are removed and the only load present is
a 2.6 p.u. resistive load connected to phase (a). The
variation of load phase voltages is shown in Fig. 13. The
figure shows that the load voltages are slightly unbalanced
where Vcn is the highest reaching a value of 0.65 p.u. and
Vbn is the lowest reaching a value of 0.6 p.u.. Furthermore,
Fig. 14 shows the variation of line currents with excitation
capacitance. The currents are slightly unbalanced where Ic
is the highest reaching a value of 1.35 p.u. and Ib is the
lowest reaching a value of 1.25 p.u.

4. Conclusion
A general model based on the sequence equivalent
circuits of the SEIG and the sequence components of the
three-phase load was developed. The performance of the
SEIG was determined for No-load and unbalanced load for
different SEIG and/or load connections. The operating
conditions were found by solving the proposed model
iteratively. The results are in good agreement with those
reported experimentally. The model is generalized to cover
more connection types. The characteristic equation of each
type may be found by substituting the appropriate
parameters in the general model.

APPENDIX A
Parameters of The Self-Excited Induction Generator:
The test machine was a three-phase, Y/, 460/265 V,
7.1/12.3 A, 60 HZ, induction machine with the following
parameters: R
s
= 0.085, R
r
= 0.042, X
s
= 0.075, X
r
= 0.112,
X
u
= 2.176 (all in p.u.), Z
base
= 37.406, base speed = 1800
rpm. The test machine was driven at base speed (v = 1).
Then a variable voltage at base frequency (F = 1) was
applied and X
m
was measured as a function of V
g
/F for
increasing voltages. The variation of V
g
/F with X
m
may be
approximated over the saturated region as follows:

p.u. 211 . 6
m
X 073 . 25
2
m
X 176 . 50
3
m
X 777 . 51
4
m
X 906 . 28
5
m
X 286 . 8
6
m
X 951 . 0 /F
g
V
+ +
+ =


Also the core resistance R
c
was measured experimentally
and plotted against X
m
as shown in Fig. 15. This variation
may be approximated by the following equation:
p.u. 699 . 35
m
X 372 . 33
2
m
X 159 . 17 )
m
(X
c
R + + =


50 55 60 65 70 75 80
Excitation capacitance - (F)
0
0.35
0.7
1.05
1.4
(
p
.
u
.
)
I
a
-experiment
I
b
-experiment
I
c
-experiment
I
n
-experiment
I
a
-Simulation
I
c
-Simulation
I
n
-Simulation
I
b
-Simulation

Fig. 9. SEIG output line currents when it is excited by Ca and Cb only
with unbalanced load, RLan = 1.8 p.u., RLbn = 4 p.u., and RLcn = 8 p.u..

Acknowledgment
This study was supported by the Research Center, College
of Engineering, King Saud University and Saudi Basic
Industries Corporation (SABIC) under the project No
26/426. This work would not have been completed without
the financial support provided by SABIC which is
gratefully acknowledged.

References
[1] Murthy, S., Malik, O., and Tandon, A., "Analysis of Self-Excited
Induction Generators", IEE Proc., pt. B, (129), No. 6, pp. 260-265, 1982.

[2] Bansal, R. C., Bhatti, T. S., and Kothari, D. P., Induction generator for
isolated hybrid power system applications: A review, J. Inst. Eng., vol.
83, pp. 262269, Mar. 2003.

[3] Quazene, I., and Mcpherson, G., "Analysis of Self-Excited Induction
Generators", IEEE Trans., Vol. PAS-102(8), pp. 2793-2797, 1983.
[4] Raina, G., and Malik, O., "Wind Energy Conversion Using a Self-
Excited Induction Generator", ibid., Power System Apparatus, Vol. PAS-
102(12), pp. 3933-3936, 1983.
[5] Bansal, R. C., Bhatti, T. S., and Kothari, D. P., A bibliographical
survey on induction generators for application of nonconventional energy
systems,IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 433439, Sep.
2003.
[6] Grantham, C., Sutanto, D., and Mismail, B., "Steady State and
Transient Analysis of Self-Excited Induction Generators", IEE Proc., pt. B,
(136), No. 2, pp. 61-68, 1989.

14 16 18 20 22 24 26
Excitation capacitance - (F)
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
(
p
.
u
.
)
V
an
-experiment
V
bn
-experiment
V
cn
-experiment
V
bn
-Simulation
V
cn
-Simulation
V
an
-Simulation

Fig. 10. SEIG output phase voltages for unbalanced load, RLab = 5.3 p.u.,
RLbc = 8 p.u., and RLca = p.u..

14 16 18 20 22 24 26
Excitation capacitance - (F)
1.5
1.7
1.9
2.1
(
p
.
u
.
)
V
ab
-experiment
V
bc
-experiment
V
ca
-experiment
V
bc
-Simulation
V
ab
-Simulation
V
ca
-Simulation


Fig. 11. Load phase voltages for unbalanced load, RLab = 5.3 p.u.,
RLbc = 8 p.u., and RLca = p.u..
14 16 18 20 22 24 26
Excitation capacitance - (F)
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
(
p
.
u
.
)
I
a
-experiment
I
b
-experiment
I
c
-experiment
I
a
-Simulation
I
b
-Simulation
I
c
-Simulation


Fig. 12. SEIG output line currents for unbalanced load, RLab = 5.3 p.u.,
RLbc = 8 p.u., and RLca = p.u..

[7] Malik, N., and Mazi, A., "Capacitance Requirements for Isolated Self-
Excited Induction Generators", IEEE Trans., EC-2(1), pp. 62-69, 1987.

[8] Al-Jabri, A., and Alolah, A., "Capacitance Requirements for Isolated
Self-Excited Induction Generators", IEE Proc., (137), pt. B, No. 3, pp.
154-159, 1990.
[9] Singh, B., and Shilpakar, "Steady State Analysis of Single Phase Self-
Excited Induction Generator", ibid., (146), No. 5, pp. 421-427, 1999.

[10] Al-Bahrani, A., and Malik, N., Steady State Analysis and
Performance Characteristics of a Three-Phase Induction Generator Self
Excited with a Single Capacitor, IEEE Trans., EC-4(4), pp. 725-732,
1990.


105 115 125 135 145 155
Excitation capacitance - (F)
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
(
p
.
u
.
)
V
an
-experiment
V
bn
-experiment
V
cn
-experiment
V
cn
-Simulation
V
bn
-Simulation
V
an
-Simulation


Fig. 13. Load phase voltages for unbalanced load, RLan = 2.6 p.u.,
RLbn = p.u., and RLcn = p.u.

105 115 125 135 145 155
Excitation capacitance - (F)
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
(
p
.
u
.
)
I
a
-experiment
I
b
-experiment
I
c
-experiment
I
a
-Simulation
I
b
-Simulation
I
c
-Simulation

Fig. 14. SEIG output line currents for unbalanced load, RLan = 2.6 p.u.,
RLbn = p.u., and RLcn = p.u..

0.8 1.2 1.6 2 2.4
Magnetising Reactance (X
m
)- (p.u.)
0
20
40
60
C
o
r
e

R
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e

(
R
c

)
-

(
p
.
u
.
)

Fig. 15. Core resistance Rc as function of magnetizing reactance Xm.


[11] Ojo, O., "Performance of Self-Excited Single Phase Induction
Generators with Shunt, Short Shunt and Long Shunt Excitation
Connections", IEEE Trans., EC-11(3), pp. 477-482, 1996.

[12] Idjdarene K., Rekioua D., Rekioua T., and Tounzi A., "Performance
of an Isolated Induction Generator under Unbalanced Loads," IEEE
Trans, Vol.EC-25, NO. 2, JUNE 2010.

[13] MathCAD Package.

[14] C.F. Wagner, and R.D. Evans, Symmetrical Components, McGraw-
Hill, Book, 1933.