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Well Integrity Services

Casing and Cement Evaluation

Identifying structural anomalies,


defining remediation strategies, and
protecting your oil and gas assets
with an array of advanced diagnostic
tools and integrated expertise

How Secure Are Your Assets?


Damage to a well can cause unwanted fluid flows, can negatively impact
the economics of field development, and can create environmental hazards.
The purpose of drilling and completing a well is to
construct a secure subsurface pressure vessel. We
create and maintain well integrity by applying technical,
operational, and organizational solutions to reduce the
risk of uncontrolled release of formation fluids throughout
the life cycle of the well. This is facilitated by a thorough
understanding of well risks and uncertainties and by
managing with multi-disciplined well engineering. Well
integrity over the life of the well is achieved through well
and field monitoring, appropriate well intervention, and
eventual decommissioning.
Multiple factors are critical for achieving well integrity:
Risk management
Drilling hazard mitigation
Operational constraints
Well head requirements
Completion design
Split collars
Casing and cement integrity

Well integrity problems vary in complexity. They can arise


from an imperfect cement bond: The cement quality, the
casing-to-cement bond, and the cement-to-formation
bond determine the integrity of the hydraulic seal required
to isolate a producing zone. Correct cement placement
is also necessary to provide structural support to the
casing. Other factors that affect lifetime well integrity
include wear to the casing and tubular walls, corrosion,
and tubular failures due to geomechanical stresses from
within the reservoir.

Casing
trajectory
issues
Casing wear

Cement
channeling

Pitting

Common
well integrity
problems
Pipe
deformations

Metal loss

Internal
and external
corrosion

Formation
movement
Holes

2014 Weatherford. All rights reserved.

Well Integrity Services

Uncover Threats
Using a complete measurement suite of industry-leading
technologies, well integrity management experts, and multidisciplinary data integration, Weatherford assists clients in
identifying, evaluating, and mitigating risks to well integrity.

Wear
Deformation
Thickness

Pinpoint Casing String Problems


With advanced measurement tools and analysis software,
we provide a thorough examination and diagnosis of
downhole tubulars that identifies, qualifies, and quantifies
any anomalies. Weatherford services can also provide
critical data to determine the best course of action to stop
or prevent leaks and fluid incursions.

Defects (internal and external)


Pressure
CASING

The full suite of Weatherford tools includes premium


wireline tools, unmatched in the industry for providing data
for accurate, comprehensive analysis of casing and cement
integrity. The Ultrasonic Radial Scanner (URS), Multi-Sensor
Caliper (MSC), Cement Bond Tool (CBT), and Casing
Imaging Tool (CIT) represent a tool combination that no
other service company provides. These tools can be run
in combination or separately on single-conductor or
multi-conductor wireline cables.

THREATS TO
WELL INTEGRITY

Safe Well Abandonment


Planning for well abandonment or decommissioning should
be considered in the field development planning phase.
That allows for identifying and mitigating abandonment
risks, which minimizes decommissioning costs and longterm liabilities. Weatherford teams can identify the potential
for future problems and advise clients on addressing them
economically, cost effectively, and with minimum risk to the
environment.

Secure Natural Gas Storage


Long-term wellbore integrity is paramount in wells used for
natural gas storage. Leaks in storage wells cause product
loss and pose a threat to the surrounding environment. Our
well integrity services, in particular CIT service, help clients
identify and resolve problems with casing integrity.

CEMENT
Location
Bond to pipe
Bond to formation
Compressive strength

2014 Weatherford. All rights reserved.

Maximizing Efficiency: Tool Combinations


To maximize efficiency and reduce costs, Weatherford has
developed technology that enables running all or part of our
premium well integrity tools together. The URS, CIT, and HBC
(a 3-ft/5-ft sonic tool) can already be combined in a single tool
string. Soon the MSC and the CBT, a shorter and lighter
3-ft/5-ft sonic tool, will be combinable with the URS and the
CIT tools.
Our goal is to provide our clients with a comprehensive well
integrity profile acquired efficiently. We then assemble and
present the acquired data in a manner that provides the
required answers and enables making the best possible
decisions regarding your assets and our environment.

In addition to combining our premier logging tools in a single


string, we have developed technology allowing us to use
either a traditional, single-conductor, cased-hole wireline
or a more robust multi-conductor wireline generally used
in openhole logging operations. We have also developed
downhole memory technology to overcome the common
industry challenge of limited bandwidth. Therefore, when
using single-conductor wireline, we are more limited by the
weight of the tool string that we can safely deploy than by
the amount of data that can be transmitted on the wireline.

Deployment and diagnostic capabilities of three Weatherford tool combinations


Single
Conductor
CIT/MSC/CBT/URS

Seven
Conductor

Casing
Wear

Casing
Deformation

Casing
Thickness

Internal
Casing
Defects

External
Casing
Defects

Burst
Pressure

Cement
Bond to
Pipe

Cement
Bond to
Formation

Cement
Compressive
Strength

CIT/MSC

MSC/CBT/URS

2014 Weatherford. All rights reserved.

Well Integrity Services

Circumferential Cement and Casing Evaluation


Ultrasonic Radial Scanner
The ultrasonic radial scanner (URS) delivers both cement
and casing inspection data simultaneously in casing as
large as 20 in., and downhole URS processing provides
casing thickness measurements. In fact, URS standardresolution measurement of casing thickness is even
better than the high resolution claimed by other vendors.
A patent-protected mud chamber on the URS and
improved fluid measurement techniques determine not
only fluid slowness, but also the fluid acoustic impedance
and densityespecially important for stratigraphic mud
columns in wells. Moreover, improved centralization makes
the URS reliable for use in highly deviated wells.
The rotating measuring head at the bottom of the URS
transmits and receives ultrasonic waveforms. Evaluation of
the waveforms enables us to determine cement bond to
pipe, casing ID, and tool eccentricity. Pipe thickness and
the subsequent interpretation of outer casing wall defects
are currently post-processed deliverables. Cement bond
to formation and a secondary cement bond to casing
measurement are derived from 3-ft and 5-ft sonic data
acquired apart from the URS but run at the same time.
The blending of ultrasonic and traditional sonic data
analysis provides the location of an insufficient hydraulic
seal behind the casing, as well as the size and location
of vertical channels in cement that can provide paths
for wellbore fluids to escape into the annulus. The URS
can identify channels in the cement map as small as 5
(1 in. / 25 mm). Identifying even the smallest channels is
advantageous because they could eventually expand to
create larger problems.

Visual Proof of Defects


High-resolution wellbore imaging provides detail of internal
casing corrosion, defects, and perforation patterns.
URSVision processing of measurements by the highresolution URS transducer produces a high-resolution
image map of the casing dimensions and an accurate
determination of burst pressure. This azimuthal image
indicates the reflectivity or smoothness of the inner wall,
which allows the user to identify areas of internal corrosion.

URS Tool
Applications
Cement evaluation
Casing inspection
- Monitoring internal wear and corrosion
- Locating internal and
external casing defects
- Analyzing casing thickness
High-resolution wellbore imaging
Foam cement analysis
Fluid slowness
Acoustic impedance
Density

Diameter

Impedance

Amplitude Map

Impedance Map

Precision Firing for Increased Accuracy


The URS provides one of the highest circumferential
rates in the industry. An advanced, high-speed DC motor
rotates the primary measurement transducer, which fires
upon arriving at a precise point in its rotation. This feature
ensures consistent transducer firing, minimizes chances
of overlooking important features, provides more accurate
depiction of cement distribution around casing, and
enables faster logging speeds or higher-resolution images
at industry standard logging speeds. Other technologies
that base transducer firing on time and a constant rotating
speed are more likely to miss important features or
anomalies.

Channeling

2014 Weatherford. All rights reserved.

Detailed Internal Casing Profile


Multi-Sensor Caliper Tool
With a sampling rate ten times that of comparable tools,
the Weatherford multi-sensor caliper (MSC) tool delivers
an accurate internal casing profile. Expert analysis of MSC
data identifies internal casing corrosion or scale buildup,
drilling wear, split or parted casing, and deformations
caused by geo-mechanical stresses. Onboard inclinometers
enable a rigorous eccentricity correction algorithm and
analysis of casing deformation.
The MSC tool is available in 40- and 60-arm variants.
The array of independently-measuring, precision-calibrated,
carbide-tipped caliper arms can log casing ranging from
4.5-in. to 22-in. OD. The MSC and CIT tools have a
resolution match and are combinable.
The cement bond tool (CBT), which provides cement
bond and variable density logs (CBL-VDL) with short
length and low eccentralization weight, is combinable
with the MSC platform.

MSC Tool

Applications
Monitoring internal casing corrosion
or scale buildup
Evaluation of drilling wear
Inspection of marine risers
(with available extended-reach kit)
Identification of split, parted, or deformed casing
Evaluation of deformation caused by
geomechanical issues (pipe axis deformation,
clearance circle analysis, ovality analysis)

Joint-By-Joint Analysis
TVision analysis software classifies each casing joint,
identifies the worst-case defect found, and provides a
convenient joint-by-joint well summary. The software
produces graphic cross-sectional and 3D plots of casing
ID for easy identification of anomalies and advanced
interpretation of deformation. From high-resolution color
depictions of the inside surface of casing and cross
sections, you can graphically evaluate casing defects,
variations in casing trajectory, and deformation.

Assessing Drift Diameter


Clearance diameter is a critical parameter for determining
whether a downhole assembly can be conveyed
successfully in the wellbore. Determining clearance
diameter requires detection of bends and changes in
casing trajectory. Weatherford TVision software and
data from the MSC tool let you analyze the complete
well from top to bottom and determine drift diameter.

2014 Weatherford. All rights reserved.

A Highly Versatile Tool: MSC Capabilities


Internal casing corrosion monitoring
Casing wear from drilling operations
Casing integrity evaluation before sidetracking
Casing trajectory
Temperature measurement
Drift diameter calculation
Compaction monitoring

Well Integrity Services

Weatherford TVision interactive software


provides graphic views of data from the MSC
tool. An interactive 3D view of the well includes
trajectory, plate view, section magnification
and various contour modes. Manipulating this
image aids in visualizing problems that the
tool uncovered in the casing inspection log.
A cross-sectional view displays the remaining
wall thickness and the clearance diameter
at specified depths. A traditionally formatted
log plot with all analysis output parameters
complements the graphical views.

2014 Weatherford. All rights reserved.

High Resolution Casing Inspection Inside and Out


Casing Imaging Tool
By employing state-of-the-art magnetic flux leakage
technology, the Weatherford casing imaging tool (CIT)
accurately locates and quantifies the penetration of
casing defects seen on both the inner and outer casing
walls. Our CITVision analysis software provides a
graphical depiction of detected defects even in casing
collars where traditional analysis techniques fail.

CIT Tool

Locating Defects
The CIT uses a powerful rare-earth magnet to fully
saturate the casing with magnetic flux. A multi-pad,
multi-sensor array of Hall-Effect sensors detects
localized fluctuations in the magnetic field within the
casing created by internal or external defects. Additional
Hall-Effect sensors are used to discriminate whether
the observed defect is internal. Using the independent
reading of each sensor, we can not only detect a defect
but also its geometry, length, and width, which are
used to calculate the burst pressure and the percent
penetration for the worst defect per joint.

Fast Logging Speeds


High-resolution CIT data is output at 400 samples/meter
(122 samples/ft). A maximum logging speed of 98 ft
(30 m) per minute is achievable without loss of
resolution. In addition to the high-resolution data and
the high logging speeds attainable, the CIT delivers
repeatability that is second to none.

Internal or external defects, pitting, or wear on downhole tubulars threaten well integrity.

2014 Weatherford. All rights reserved.

CIT Applications
Time-lapse monitoring of casing degradation
Establishing requirements for remediation
Regulatory compliance for drill wear, well
abandonment, and well conversion applications
Remedial workover requirements to assess
casing condition and integrity
Locating and identifying casing hardware
Evaluating perforation performance
Burst pressure
Percent penetration of defects
Burst pressure
Percent penetration of defects

Well Integrity Services

Auxiliary

Depth

Processed Corrosion Curves

Averages

Med/Max
& Class

Defects

Collar with
potential
defects

XXXX

Perforations

Collar
Perforations

The standard HD image


presentation provides a 360
view of each collar, hardware,
or defect and the depth at
which each item is located.

Centralizer

Wellhead

Good collar

90

180

270

2014 Weatherford. All rights reserved.

Quantifying Metal Loss


Acquired data is post-processed using advanced
CITVision 3D visualization and analysis software.
CITVision analysis distinguishes between general corrosion
and isolated pitting, and determines the penetration depth
of detected defects. Final post-processed logs include a
color-coded and labeled display of individual casing joints,
the percent penetration of the worst-case defect within the
joint, and the depth at which the defect was located. A joint
summary provides a quick-look evaluation of the inspection
and graphical depictions of all worst-case defects in
excess of 40% penetration. All casing collars, all detected
hardware, and any observed anomalies are appended to
the bottom of the final post-processed product.

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2014 Weatherford. All rights reserved.

A joint summary report provides a concise listing of


casing joints in the well and the classification of each
joint, based on the maximum penetration indicated by
the TVision or CITVision processing results. The front
page of the report includes basic well and casing
information and a summary of joint types. The report
also includes a chart of joints with depth intervals,
lengths, penetration information, and classifications.

Well Integrity Services

Post-processing of data by Weatherford CITVision software provides


an interactive 3D image, generated from the high-resolution
magnetic flux leakage measurements by the CIT tool. This image
enables visually exploring the well and identifying areas of corrosion,
defects, collars, and hardware. A waterfall CITVision log is provided
for correlation with the 3D image.

2014 Weatherford. All rights reserved.

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Produced by an experienced Petroleum


Consulting analyst, a casing integrity report
provides a detailed overview of the results of
TVision or CITVision processing. The report
provides analysis parameters and notes about
the data quality, casing conditions, and areas
of internal and external corrosion observed
within the full interval logged.
Auxiliary

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2014 Weatherford. All rights reserved.

Processed Corrosion Curves

Averages

Med/Max
& Class

Defects

Well Integrity Services

Bond Logging for Cement Evaluation


Weatherford also offers cement bond logging tools that
provide quality data for interpreting cement bond to casing
and formation and for detecting the vertical length of these
bonds. Applicable technologies include the Sector Bond
tool and Slim Sector Bond tool.
The versatile Weatherford Sector Bond tool operates in
3.5 in. (89 mm) to 9-5/8 in. (244 mm). It indicates the
quality of the cement bond around the circumference
of the casing. Nine transmitters and ten receivers
provide traditional 3-ft and 5-ft amplitudes, travel time,
and waveform data, as well as eight individual sector
measurements that depict distribution of the cement
around the pipe.
Eight sector transmitter-receiver pairs,
each spaced at 2 ft longitudinally and
45 circumferentially, fire and measure
sequentially to scan the casing
circumference for the presence or
absence of cement. An additional
transmitter and 3-ft and 5-ft receivers
provide traditional amplitude, travel time,
signature, and VDL measurements.

Depth

Sector Bond Tool

Auxiliary

VDL

Sector Map

Bond Amplitude

The Slim Sector Bond tool operates


in casing from 2.5 in. (6.35 cm) to
7.0 in. (17.8 cm). It measures cement
bond quality laterally around the casing
circumference and performs traditional
vertical extent measurement in a single
pass. It provides measurements similar
to those that the Sector Bond tool
provides. Because of its reduced size
(1-11/16 in. vs. 2.75 in. OD), however,
the Slim Sector Bond tool has only six
sector receivers and uses the same
transmitter that is used for the 3-ft
and 5-ft measurements.

Free Pipe

Good Bond

Channeling

Both tools can be run simultaneously


with gamma ray, neutron, and
casing-collar locator tools.

2014 Weatherford. All rights reserved.

13

Field-proven Value

Alberta, Canada
URS Confirms Zonal Isolation, Enables Operator to Meet
Regulatory Requirements, Convert Well to Acid-Gas Injector
In this well the operator deployed the Weatherford URS to
provide a clear, accurate representation of the materials
behind casing by measuring the acoustic impedance of
the material. The URS results demonstrated zonal isolation
above and below the perforated intervals and over the
surface casing shoe. If the operator had used only the
conventional cement bond log, the regulatory agency would
have requested that the operator perform remedial cement
squeezes, which would have been costly and unsuccessful.

Gulf of Mexico
Multi-Sensor Caliper Tool Minimizes Expense of Operators
Decision to Abandon Hurricane-Damaged Offshore Well
To assess the viability of a directional well after Hurricane
Ivan tore the rig from its legs and set it adrift 40 miles
(64 km) from its drilling location, Weatherford ran the
multi-sensor caliper (MSC) tool and processed the
gathered data through TotalView visualization software.
With the MSC tool, the operator could analyze the
complete well from top to bottom. The resulting log
indicated that the OD of the storm packer (14-3/8 in.)
exceeded that of the drift (13.9 in.). The operator
concluded that the storm packer could not be
removed and that the well must be abandoned.

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2014 Weatherford. All rights reserved.

Well Integrity Services

British Columbia, Canada


Multi-Sensor Caliper Yields Clearer Picture
of Casing Damage than Video Camera

Northern Alberta, Canada


A Dynamic Duo: Sector Bond Tool and
Casing Inspection Tool Ensure Successful Back-Off

The operator wanted to reenter a well originally completed


in 1974 and abandoned in 1984. Previous use of a
downhole video camera did not yield an adequate casing
damage assessment. The client ran the MSC tool to
properly identify the extent of damage and determine the
best remedy. TotalView visualization software processed
the caliper data to identify casing restrictions, assess drift
ID, and determine the depth at which the casing returned
to nominal ID. Analysis determined that the casing was
severely deformed from the surface to about 39 ft (12 m)
and that the average diameter was reduced from about
6.29 in. (160 mm) to about 4.72 in. (120 mm). As a result,
the client was able to excavate around the wellhead, cut
off and replace the damaged casing, re-complete the
abandoned well, and return it to profitable production.

Logging the hole with the Weatherford CIT tool


revealed significant external casing corrosion and
located a casing hole immediately above a collar.
Data analysis indicated that the pipe had sufficient
integrity to allow a string shot and back-off operation.
Logging the section in question with Weatherfords
Sector Bond tool showed that no cement existed
from the region of the hole up to the surface,
indicating a good probability of successfully backing
off the pipe. No other tool or interpretation method
on the market could have located the hole in such
close proximity to a collar. Use of the Sector Bond
tool and CIT combination allowed the operator to
successfully remove the damaged pipe, replace it,
and put the well back into production.

Venezuela
Wireline Services Evaluation of High-Angle
Horizontal Well Helps Avoid Costly Workover

Saskatchewan, Canada
Casing Imaging Tool Finds Corroded
Casing Section Where Other Methods Fail

Weatherford performed a high-resolution, cementbond evaluation in a high-angle horizontal well to


determine possible fluid communication behind
casing. The Weatherford URS; high-resolution,
borehole-compensated sonic tool; universal gamma
ray tool; casing-collar locator; wireline communication
cartridge; and a motorized unit tractor were deployed.
The resulting high-resolution, cement-bond evaluation
data enabled the operator to improve casing
centralization, achieve a better cement job, and
avoid a costly workover.

Weatherfords CIT tool was used to determine the exact


location of production casing holes, pinpointing the
problem to a section of corroded casing just 11-1/2 ft
(3.5 m) below the surface. This proximity to the surface
made it impossible to successfully use surface packerpressure testing equipment or other competing devices.
(With the coil-type sensors used in competing devices,
measurement quality and accuracy suffer at the slow
logging speeds required near the surface.) Damaged
casing was successfully recovered from the well and
replaced without significant diagnostic work.

Well Integrity: from Detection to Remediation


At Weatherford, not only do we detect defects in your
wellbore, but we also fix them. We are a premier, global
provider of re-entry services. Our vast portfolio includes
thru-tubing intervention, casing repair, and a multidisciplinary well abandonment service. If at any phase
in your wells life cycle we detect a problem, we can
recommend and implement an appropriate remediation
strategywhether you need a patch, a plug, or a seal.
For example, Weatherford MetalSkin solid-tubular
expandable systems permanently isolate damaged
casing or perforations, and that eliminates repeated
workover operations. Elastomer seals provide more

reliable zonal isolation than cement squeezes. Most


importantly, MetalSkin systems provide a larger ID
and better access than scab liners for future drilling,
completion, production, or injection operations.
On the other end of the spectrum, we also offer
production logging. Because a production decline can
be an early warning sign that you have a leak, this
service is an integral component of well integrity

2014 Weatherford. All rights reserved.

15

Well Integrity Services

To learn more about ensuring well integrity through our comprehensive


suite of diagnostic tools, contact your nearest authorized Weatherford
representative, or visit us at weatherford.com.

weatherford.com

2013 Weatherford. All rights reserved.

10536.00

Weatherford products and services are subject to the Companys standard terms and conditions, available on request or at weatherford.com. For more information contact an authorized Weatherford representative. Unless noted
otherwise, trademarks and service marks herein are the property of Weatherford and may be registered in the United States and/or other countries. Weatherford products named herein may be protected by one or more U.S. and/
or foreign patents. Specifications are subject to change without notice. Weatherford sells its products and services in accordance with the terms and conditions set forth in the applicable contract between Weatherford and the client.