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113

C H A P T E ß
3
Learning Objectives
AIter studying this chapter, ynu shnuId be abIe tn:
ConcisoIy dofino oacl of llo foIIoving Ioy lorms: enhanced entity-reIatinnship (EER)
mndeI, subtype, supertype, attribute inheritance, generaIizatinn, speciaIizatinn,
cnmpIeteness cnnstraint, tntaI speciaIizatinn ruIe, partiaI speciaIizatinn ruIe,
disjnintness cnnstraint, disjnint ruIe, nverIap ruIe, subtype discriminatnr, supertype/
subtype hierarchy, entity cIuster, and universaI data mndeI.
Rocognizo vlon lo uso suporlypo/sublypo roIalionslips in dala modoIing.
Uso boll spociaIizalion and gonoraIizalion as loclniquos for dofining
suporlypo/sublypo roIalionslips.
Spocify boll compIolonoss conslrainls and disjoinlnoss conslrainls in modoIing
suporlypo/sublypo roIalionslips.
DovoIop a suporlypo/sublypo liorarcly for a roaIislic businoss silualion.
DovoIop an onlily cIuslor lo simpIify prosonlalion of an I-R diagram.
IxpIain llo major foaluros and dala modoIing slrucluros of a univorsaI (pacIagod)
dala modoI.
Doscribo llo spociaI foaluros of a dala modoIing projocl vlon using a pacIagod
dala modoI.
lNIRODUCIlON
1he basic L-R model described ih ChapIer 2 was !irsI ihIroduced durihg Ihe mid-
1970s. II has beeh suiIable !or modelihg mosI commoh busihess problems ahd has
eh|oyed widespread use. However, Ihe busihess ehvirohmehI has chahged
dramaIically sihce IhaI Iime. 8usihess relaIiohships are more complex, ahd as a
resulI, busihess daIa are much more complex as well. For example, orgahizaIiohs
musI be prepared Io segmehI Iheir markeIs ahd Io cusIomize Iheir producIs, which
places much greaIer demahds oh orgahizaIiohal daIabases.
1o cope beIIer wiIh Ihese chahges, researchers ahd cohsulIahIs have cohIihued
Io ehhahce Ihe L-R model so IhaI iI cah more accuraIely represehI Ihe complex
daIa ehcouhIered ih Ioday's busihess ehvirohmehI. 1he Ierm enhanced entity-
reIationship (EEß) modeI is used Io idehIi!y Ihe model IhaI has resulIed !rom
exIehdihg Ihe origihal L-R model wiIh Ihese hew modelihg cohsIrucIs. 1hese
exIehsiohs make Ihe LLR model semahIically similar Io ob|ecI-oriehIed daIa
modelihg, which we cover ih ChapIer 13.
Enhanced entity-reIatinnship
(EER) mndeI
AmodoI llal las rosuIlod from
oxlonding llo originaI I-R modoI
vill nov modoIing conslrucls.
VisiI www.pearsohhighered.com/
ho!!er Io view Ihe accompahyihg
video !or Ihis chapIer.
114 Iarl II º Dalabaso AnaIysis
1he mosI imporIahI modelihg cohsIrucI ihcorporaIed ih Ihe LLR model is
superIype/subIype relaIiohships. 1his !aciliIy ehables us Io model a geheral ehIiIy Iype
(called Ihe ) ahd Iheh subdivide iI ihIo several specialized ehIiIy Iypes (called
). 1hus, !or example, Ihe ehIiIy Iype CAR cah be modeled as a superIype, wiIh
subIypes SLDAN, SPOR1S CAR, COUPL, ahd so oh. Lach subIype ihheriIs aIIribuIes
!rom iIs superIype ahd ih addiIioh may have special aIIribuIes ahd be ihvolved ih
relaIiohships o! iIs owh. Addihg hew hoIaIioh !or modelihg superIype/subIype
relaIiohships has greaIly improved Ihe !lexibiliIy o! Ihe basic L-R model.
L-R, ahd especially LLR, diagrams cah become large ahd complex, requirihg
mulIiple pages (or very small !ohI) !or display. Some commercial daIabases ihclude
huhdreds o! ehIiIies. Mahy users ahd mahagers speci!yihg requiremehIs !or or
usihg a daIabase do hoI heed Io see all Ihe ehIiIies, relaIiohships, ahd aIIribuIes Io
uhdersIahd Ihe parI o! Ihe daIabase wiIh which Ihey are mosI ihIeresIed. LhIiIy
clusIerihg is a way Io Iurh a parI o! ah ehIiIy-relaIiohship daIa model ihIo a more
macro-level view o! Ihe same daIa. LhIiIy clusIerihg is a hierarchical decomposiIioh
Iechhique (a hesIihg process o! breakihg a sysIem ihIo !urIher ahd !urIher
subparIs), which cah make L-R diagrams easier Io read ahd daIabases easier Io
desigh. 8y groupihg ehIiIies ahd relaIiohships, you cah lay ouI ah L-R diagram ih
such a way IhaI you Io give aIIehIioh Io Ihe deIails o! Ihe model IhaI maIIer mosI
ih a giveh daIa modelihg Iask.
As ihIroduced ih ChapIer 2, uhiversal ahd ihdusIry-speci!ic geheralizable daIa
models, which exIehsively uIilized LLR capabiliIies, have become very imporIahI !or
cohIemporary daIa modelers. 1hese packaged daIa models ahd daIa model paIIerhs
have made daIa modelers more e!!iciehI ahd produce daIa models o! higher qualiIy.
1he LLR !eaIures o! superIypes/subIypes are essehIial Io creaIe geheralizable daIa
models, addiIiohal geheralizihg cohsIrucIs, such as Iypihg ehIiIies ahd relaIiohships,
are also employed. II has become very imporIahI !or daIa modelers Io khow how Io
cusIomize a daIa model paIIerh or daIa model !or a ma|or so!Iware package (e.g.,
ehIerprise resource plahhihg or cusIomer relaIiohship mahagemehI), |usI as iI has
become commohplace !or ih!ormaIioh sysIem builders Io cusIomize o!!-Ihe-shel!
so!Iware packages ahd so!Iware compohehIs.
REPRE5ENIlNG 5UPERIYPE5 AND 5UBIYPE5
RocaII from Claplor 2 llal an onlily lypo is a coIIoclion of onlilios llal slaro common
proporlios or claraclorislics. AIllougl llo onlily inslancos llal composo an onlily lypo
aro simiIar, vo do nol oxpocl llom lo lavo oxaclIy llo samo allribulos. Ior oxampIo,
rocaII roquirod and oplionaI allribulos from Claplor 2. Ono of llo major claIIongos in
dala modoIing is lo rocognizo and cIoarIy roprosonl onlilios llal aro aImosl llo samo,
llal is, onlily lypos llal slaro common proporlios bul aIso lavo ono or moro dislincl
proporlios llal aro of inlorosl lo llo organizalion.
Ior llis roason, llo I-R modoI las boon oxlondod lo incIudo suporlypo/sublypo
roIalionslips. A subtype is a subgrouping of llo onlilios in an onlily lypo llal is moan-
ingfuI lo llo organizalion. Ior oxampIo, STUDINT is an onlily lypo in a univorsily. Tvo
sublypos of STUDINT aro GRADUATI STUDINT and UNDIRGRADUATI STU-
DINT. In llis oxampIo, vo rofor lo STUDINT as llo suporlypo. A supertype is a
gonoric onlily lypo llal las a roIalionslip vill ono or moro sublypos.
In llo I-R diagramming vo lavo dono so far, suporlypos and sublypos lavo boon
liddon. Ior oxampIo, considor again Iiguro 2-22, vlicl is llo I-R diagram (in
Microsofl Visio) for Iino VaIIoy Iurniluro Company. Nolico llal il is possibIo for a cus-
lomor lo nol do businoss in any lorrilory (i.o., no associalod inslancos of llo DOIS
BUSINISS IN associalivo onlily). Wly is llis` Ono possibIo roason is llal lloro aro lvo
lypos of cuslomors÷nalionaI accounl cuslomors and roguIar cuslomors÷and onIy rog-
uIar cuslomors aro assignod lo a saIos lorrilory. Tlus, in Iiguro 2-22, llo roason for llo
oplionaI cardinaIily noxl lo llo DOIS BUSINISS IN associalivo onlily coming from
CUSTOMIR is obscurod. IxpIicilIy draving a cuslomor onlily suporlypo and sovoraI
onlily sublypos viII loIp us lo maIo llo I-R diagram moro moaningfuI. Ialor in llis
claplor, vo slov a rovisod I-R diagram for Iino VaIIoy Iurniluro, vlicl domonslralos
sovoraI IIR nolalions lo maIo vaguo aspocls of Iiguro 2-22 moro oxpIicil.
Subtype
Asubgrouping of llo onlilios in an
onlily lypo llal is moaningfuI lo
llo organizalion and llal slaros
common allribulos or roIalionslips
dislincl from ollor subgroupings.
Supertype
Agonoric onlily lypo llal las a
roIalionslip vill ono or moro
sublypos.
Claplor 3 º Tlo Inlancod I-R ModoI 115
Basic Concepts and Notation
Tlo nolalion llal is usod for suporlypo/sublypo roIalionslips in llis loxl is slovn in
Iiguro 3-1a. Tlo suporlypo is connoclod vill a Iino lo a circIo, vlicl in lurn is con-
noclod vill a Iino lo oacl sublypo llal las boon dofinod. Tlo U-slapod symboI on oacl
Iino connocling a sublypo lo llo circIo omplasizos llal llo sublypo is a subsol of llo
suporlypo. Il aIso indicalos llo diroclion of llo sublypo/suporlypo roIalionslip. (Tlis U
is oplionaI bocauso llo moaning and diroclion of llo suporlypo/sublypo roIalionslip is
usuaIIy obvious, in mosl oxampIos, vo viII nol incIudo llis symboI). Iiguro 3-1b slovs
llo lypo of IIR nolalion usod by Microsofl Visio (vlicl is vory simiIar lo llal usod in
llis loxl), and Iiguro 3-1c slovs llo lypo of IIR nolalion usod by somo CASI looIs
(o.g., OracIo Dosignor), llo nolalion in Iiguro 3-1c is aIso llo form oflon usod for univor-
saI and induslry-spocific dala modoIs. Tloso difforonl formals lavo idonlicaI basic
foaluros, and you slouId oasiIy bocomo comforlabIo using any of lloso forms. Wo pri-
mariIy uso llo loxl nolalion for oxampIos in llis claplor bocauso advancod IIR foaluros
aro moro slandard vill llis formal.
and so forth
SÜPEPTYPE
Attributes shared
by all entities
(including identifier)
SÜBTYPE 1
Attributes unique
to subtype 1
SÜBTYPE 2
Attributes unique
to subtype 2
SÜPEPTYPE
Attributes shared
by all entities
Pe|at|onsh|ps |n wh|ch a||
|nstances part|c|pate
SÜBTYPE 1
Attributes unique
Pe|at|onsh|ps |n wh|ch
on|y spec|a||zed vers|ons
part|c|pate
)
Genera|
ent|ty type
Spec|a||zed
vers|ons of
supertype
FlGURE 3-1 ßasic notation
!or supertypelsubtype
reIationships
(a) EEß notation
Shared attributes
and so forth
Attributes unique to subtype 1
E 1
Attributes unique to subtype 2
SÜBTYPE 2
Pe|at|onsh|ps |n wh|ch
on|y spec|a||zed vers|ons
part|c|pate
Pe|at|onsh|ps |n wh|ch a||
|nstances part|c|pate
Genera|
ent|ty type
Spec|a||zed
vers|ons of
supertype
(b) Microso!t Visio notation
(contlnued)
116 Iarl II º Dalabaso AnaIysis
SÜPEPTYPE
ldentifier
Shared attributes
SÜBTYPE 1
Attributes unique
to subtype 1
SÜBTYPE 2
Attributes unique
to subtype 2
.
. and so forth
.
Pe|at|onsh|ps |n wh|ch a||
|nstances part|c|pate
Pe|at|onsh|ps |n wh|ch
on|y spec|a||zed vers|ons
part|c|pate
Spec|a||zed
vers|ons of
supertype
FlGURE 3-1 ()
(c) 5ubtypes inside
supertypes notation
Allribulos llal aro slarod by aII onlilios (incIuding llo idonlifior) aro associalod vill
llo suporlypo. Allribulos llal aro uniquo lo a parlicuIar sublypo aro associalod vill llal
sublypo. Tlo samo is lruo for roIalionslips. Ollor compononls viII bo addod lo llis
nolalion lo provido addilionaI moaning in suporlypo/sublypo roIalionslips as vo
procood llrougl llo romaindor of llis claplor.
AN EXANPLE OF A 5UPERIYPE/5UBIYPE RELAIlON5HlP Iol us iIIuslralo suporlypo/
sublypo roIalionslips vill a simpIo yol common oxampIo. Supposo llal an organiza-
lion las llroo basic lypos of ompIoyoos: lourIy ompIoyoos, saIariod ompIoyoos, and
conlracl consuIlanls. Tlo foIIoving aro somo of llo imporlanl allribulos for oacl of
lloso lypos of ompIoyoos:
- HourIµ empIoµees ImpIoyoo Numbor, ImpIoyoo Namo, Addross, Dalo Hirod,
HourIy Ralo
- SuIurled empIoµees ImpIoyoo Numbor, ImpIoyoo Namo, Addross, Dalo Hirod,
AnnuaI SaIary, SlocI Oplion
- Contruct consuItunts ImpIoyoo Numbor, ImpIoyoo Namo, Addross, Dalo
Hirod, Conlracl Numbor, BiIIing Ralo
Nolico llal aII of llo ompIoyoo lypos lavo sovoraI allribulos in common:
ImpIoyoo Numbor, ImpIoyoo Namo, Addross, and Dalo Hirod. In addilion, oacl lypo
las ono or moro allribulos dislincl from llo allribulos of ollor lypos (o.g., HourIy Ralo
is uniquo lo lourIy ompIoyoos). If you voro dovoIoping a concopluaI dala modoI in llis
silualion, you migll considor llroo cloicos:
1. Dofino a singIo onlily lypo caIIod IMIIOYII. AIllougl concopluaIIy simpIo, llis
approacl las llo disadvanlago llal IMIIOYII vouId lavo lo conlain aII of
llo allribulos for llo llroo lypos of ompIoyoos. Ior an inslanco of an lourIy
ompIoyoo (for oxampIo), allribulos sucl as AnnuaI SaIary and Conlracl Numbor
vouId nol appIy (oplionaI allribulos) and vouId bo nuII or nol usod. Wlon laIon
lo a dovoIopmonl onvironmonl, programs llal uso llis onlily lypo vouId nocos-
sariIy nood lo bo quilo compIox lo doaI vill llo many varialions.
2. Dofino a soparalo onlily lypo for oacl of llo llroo onlilios. Tlis approacl vouId
faiI lo oxpIoil llo common proporlios of ompIoyoos, and usors vouId lavo lo bo
carofuI lo soIocl llo corrocl onlily lypo vlon using llo syslom.
3. Dofino a suporlypo caIIod IMIIOYII vill sublypos HOURIY IMIIOYII,
SAIARIID IMIIOYII, and CONSUITANT. Tlis approacl oxpIoils llo common
proporlios of aII ompIoyoos, yol rocognizos llo dislincl proporlios of oacl lypo.
Claplor 3 º Tlo Inlancod I-R ModoI 117
Iiguro 3-2 slovs a roprosonlalion of llo IMIIOYII suporlypo vill ils llroo sub-
lypos, using onlancod I-R nolalion. Allribulos slarod by aII ompIoyoos aro associalod
vill llo IMIIOYII onlily lypo. Allribulos llal aro pocuIiar lo oacl sublypo aro
incIudod vill llal sublypo onIy.
AIIRlBUIE lNHERlIANCE A sublypo is an onlily lypo in ils ovn rigll. An onlily in-
slanco of a sublypo roprosonls llo samo onlily inslanco of llo suporlypo. Ior oxampIo, if
¨Tloroso }onos¨ is an occurronco of llo CONSUITANT sublypo, llon llis samo porson
is nocossariIy an occurronco of llo IMIIOYII suporlypo. As a consoquonco, an onlily
in a sublypo musl possoss nol onIy vaIuos for ils ovn allribulos, bul aIso vaIuos for ils
allribulos as a mombor of llo suporlypo, incIuding llo idonlifior.
Attribute inheritance is llo proporly by vlicl sublypo onlilios inloril vaIuos of
aII allribulos and inslanco of aII roIalionslips of llo suporlypo. Tlis imporlanl prop-
orly maIos il unnocossary lo incIudo suporlypo allribulos or roIalionslips rodundanlIy
vill llo sublypos (romombor, vlon il comos lo dala modoIing, rodundancy = bad,
simpIicily = good). Ior oxampIo, ImpIoyoo Namo is an allribulo of IMIIOYII
(Iiguro 3-2) bul nol of llo sublypos of IMIIOYII. Tlus, llo facl llal llo ompIoyoo's
namo is ¨Tloroso }onos¨ is inlorilod from llo IMIIOYII suporlypo. Hovovor, llo
BiIIing Ralo for llis samo ompIoyoo is an allribulo of llo sublypo CONSUITANT.
Wo lavo oslabIislod llal a mombor of a sublypo musl bo a mombor of llo supor-
lypo. Is llo convorso aIso lruo÷llal is, is a mombor of llo suporlypo aIso a mombor of
ono (or moro) of llo sublypos` Tlis may or may nol bo lruo, doponding on llo businoss
silualion. (Suro, ¨il doponds¨ is llo cIassic acadomic ansvor, bul il's lruo in llis caso.)
Wo discuss llo various possibiIilios Ialor in llis claplor.
WHEN IO U5E 5UPERIYPE/5UBIYPE RELAIlON5HlP5 So, lov do you Inov vlon lo uso
a suporlypo/sublypo roIalionslip` You slouId considor using sublypos vlon oillor (or
boll) of llo foIIoving condilions aro prosonl:
1. Tloro aro allribulos llal appIy lo somo (bul nol aII) inslancos of an onlily lypo. Ior
oxampIo, soo llo IMIIOYII onlily lypo in Iiguro 3-2.
2. Tlo inslancos of a sublypo parlicipalo in a roIalionslip uniquo lo llal sublypo.
Iiguro 3-3 is an oxampIo of llo uso of sublypo roIalionslips llal iIIuslralos boll of
lloso silualions. Tlo lospilaI onlily lypo IATIINT las lvo sublypos: OUTIATIINT
and RISIDINT IATIINT. (Tlo idonlifior is Ialionl ID.) AII palionls lavo an Admil
CONSÜLTANT
EMPLOYEE
Emp|oyee Number
Employee Name
Address
Date Hired
SALAPlED
EMPLOYEE
Annual Salary
Stock Option
Contract Number
Billing Pate Hourly Pate
HOÜPLY
EMPLOYEE
FlGURE 3-2 EmpIoyee
supertype vith three
subtypes
Attribute inheritance
Aproporly by vlicl sublypo
onlilios inloril vaIuos of aII
allribulos and inslancos of aII
roIalionslips of lloir suporlypo.
118 Iarl II º Dalabaso AnaIysis
Dalo allribulo, as voII as a Ialionl Namo. AIso, ovory palionl is carod for by a RISION-
SIBII IHYSICIAN vlo dovoIops a lroalmonl pIan for llo palionl.
Iacl sublypo las an allribulo llal is uniquo lo llal sublypo. Oulpalionls lavo
ClocIbacI Dalo, vloroas rosidonl palionls lavo Dalo Disclargod. AIso, rosidonl
palionls lavo a uniquo roIalionslip llal assigns oacl palionl lo a bod. (Nolico llal llis
is a mandalory roIalionslip, il vouId bo oplionaI if il voro allaclod lo IATIINT.) Iacl
bod may or may nol bo assignod lo a palionl.
IarIior vo discussod llo proporly of allribulo inlorilanco. Tlus, oacl oulpalionl
and oacl rosidonl palionl inlorils llo allribulos of llo paronl suporlypo IATIINT:
Ialionl ID, Ialionl Namo, and Admil Dalo. Iiguro 3-3 aIso iIIuslralos llo principIo of
roIalionslip inlorilanco. OUTIATIINT and RISIDINT IATIINT aro aIso inslancos of
IATIINT, lloroforo, oacl Is Carod Ior by a RISIONSIBII IHYSICIAN.
Representing 5pecialization and Generalization
Wo lavo doscribod and iIIuslralod llo basic principIos of suporlypo/sublypo roIalion-
slips, incIuding llo claraclorislics of ¨good¨ sublypos. Bul in dovoIoping roaI-vorId
dala modoIs, lov can you rocognizo opporlunilios lo oxpIoil lloso roIalionslips` Tloro
aro lvo procossos÷gonoraIizalion and spociaIizalion÷llal sorvo as monlaI modoIs in
dovoIoping suporlypo/sublypo roIalionslips.
GENERALlZAIlON A uniquo aspocl of luman inloIIigonco is llo abiIily and proponsily
lo cIassify objocls and oxporioncos and lo gonoraIizo lloir proporlios. In dala modoIing,
generaIizatinn is llo procoss of dofining a moro gonoraI onlily lypo from a sol of moro
spociaIizod onlily lypos. Tlus gonoraIizalion is a bollom-up procoss.
An oxampIo of gonoraIizalion is slovn in Iiguro 3-4. In Iiguro 3-4a, llroo onlily
lypos lavo boon dofinod: CAR, TRUCK, and MOTORCYCII. Al llis slago, llo dala
modoIor inlonds lo roprosonl lloso soparaloIy on an I-R diagram. Hovovor, on cIosor
oxaminalion, vo soo llal llo llroo onlily lypos lavo a numbor of allribulos in com-
mon: VolicIo ID (idonlifior), VolicIo Namo (vill compononls MaIo and ModoI),
Irico, and Ingino DispIacomonl. Tlis facl (roinforcod by llo prosonco of a common
idonlifior) suggosls llal oacl of llo llroo onlily lypos is roaIIy a vorsion of a moro
gonoraI onlily lypo.
Tlis moro gonoraI onlily lypo (namod VIHICII) logollor vill llo rosuIling
suporlypo/sublypo roIalionslips is slovn in Iiguro 3-4b. Tlo onlily CAR las llo spo-
cific allribulo No Of Iassongors, vloroas TRUCK las lvo spocific allribulos: Capacily
and Cab Typo. Tlus, gonoraIizalion las aIIovod us lo group onlily lypos aIong vill
GeneraIizatinn
Tlo procoss of dofining a moro
gonoraI onlily lypo from a sol of
moro spociaIizod onlily lypos.
Checkback Date
OÜTPATlENT PESlDENT
PATlENT
Date Discharged
ls Cared For
ls Assigned
BED
Bed ID
PATlENT
Pat|ent ID
Patient Name
Admit Date
PESPONSlBLE
PHYSlClAN
Phys|c|an ID
FlGURE 3-3 5upertypel
subtype reIationships in a
hospitaI
Claplor 3 º Tlo Inlancod I-R ModoI 119
lloir common allribulos and al llo samo limo prosorvo spocific allribulos llal aro pocu-
Iiar lo oacl sublypo.
Nolico llal llo onlily lypo MOTORCYCII is nol incIudod in llo roIalionslip. Is
llis simpIy an omission` No. Insload, il is doIiboraloIy nol incIudod bocauso il doos nol
salisfy llo condilions for a sublypo discussod oarIior. Comparing Iiguro 3-4 parls a and b,
you viII nolico llal llo onIy allribulos of MOTORCYCII aro lloso llal aro common lo
aII volicIos, lloro aro no allribulos spocific lo molorcycIos. Iurllormoro, MOTORCY-
CII doos nol lavo a roIalionslip lo anollor onlily lypo. Tlus lloro is no nood lo croalo
a MOTORCYCII sublypo.
Tlo facl llal lloro is no MOTORCYCII sublypo suggosls llal il musl bo possibIo
lo lavo an inslanco of VIHICII llal is nol a mombor of any of ils sublypos. Wo discuss
llis lypo of conslrainl in llo soclion on spocifying conslrainls.
5PEClALlZAIlON As vo lavo soon, gonoraIizalion is a bollom-up procoss.
SpeciaIizatinn is a lop-dovn procoss, llo dirocl rovorso of gonoraIizalion. Supposo
llal vo lavo dofinod an onlily lypo vill ils allribulos. SpociaIizalion is llo procoss
of dofining ono or moro sublypos of llo suporlypo and forming suporlypo/sublypo
roIalionslips. Iacl sublypo is formod basod on somo dislinguisling claraclorislic,
sucl as allribulos or roIalionslips spocific lo llo sublypo.
An oxampIo of spociaIizalion is slovn in Iiguro 3-5. Iiguro 3-5a slovs an onlily
lypo namod IART, logollor vill sovoraI of ils allribulos. Tlo idonlifior is Iarl No, and
ollor allribulos aro Doscriplion, Unil Irico, Iocalion, Qly On Hand, Rouling Numbor,
CAP
veh|c|e ID
Price
Engine Displacement
vehicle Name
(Make, Model)
No Of Passengers
TPÜCK
veh|c|e ID
Price
Engine Displacement
vehicle Name
(Make, Model)
Capacity
Cab Type
MOTOPCYCLE
veh|c|e ID
Price
Engine Displacement
vehicle Name
(Make, Model)
No Of Passengers
CAP TPÜCK
Capacity
Cab Type
vEHlCLE
veh|c|e ID
Price
Engine Displacement
vehicle Name
(Make, Model)
FlGURE 3-4 ExampIe o!
generaIization
(a) Three entity types. CAß,
TßUCK, and MOTOßCYCLE
(b) GeneraIization to VEHICLE
supertype
SpeciaIizatinn
Tlo procoss of dofining ono or
moro sublypos of llo suporlypo
and forming suporlypo/sublypo
roIalionslips.
120 Iarl II º Dalabaso AnaIysis
and SuppIior. (Tlo Iasl allribulo is muIlivaIuod and composilo bocauso lloro may bo
moro llan ono suppIior vill an associalod unil prico for a parl.)
In discussions vill usors, vo discovor llal lloro aro lvo possibIo sourcos for
parls: Somo aro manufaclurod inlornaIIy, vloroas ollors aro purclasod from oulsido
suppIiors. Iurllor, vo discovor llal somo parls aro oblainod from boll sourcos. In llis
caso, llo cloico doponds on faclors sucl as manufacluring capacily, unil prico of llo
parls, and so on.
Somo of llo allribulos in Iiguro 3-5a appIy lo aII parls, rogardIoss of sourco.
Hovovor, ollors dopond on llo sourco. Tlus Rouling Numbor appIios onIy lo manufac-
lurod parls, vloroas SuppIior ID and Unil Irico appIy onIy lo purclasod parls. Tloso
faclors suggosl llal IART slouId bo spociaIizod by dofining llo sublypos MANUIAC-
TURID IART and IURCHASID IART (Iiguro 3-5b).
In Iiguro 3-5b, Rouling Numbor is associalod vill MANUIACTURID IART. Tlo
dala modoIor iniliaIIy pIannod lo associalo SuppIior ID and Unil Irico vill IUR-
CHASID IART. Hovovor, in furllor discussions vill usors, llo dala modoIor sug-
goslod insload llal lloy croalo a SUIIIIIR onlily lypo and an associalivo onlily IinIing
IURCHASID IART vill SUIIIIIR. Tlis associalivo onlily (namod SUIIIIIS in
Iiguro 3-5b) aIIovs usors lo moro oasiIy associalo purclasod parls vill lloir suppIiors.
Nolico llal llo allribulo Unil Irico is nov associalod vill llo associalivo onlily, so llal
llo unil prico for a parl may vary from ono suppIior lo anollor. In llis oxampIo, spociaI-
izalion las pormillod a proforrod roprosonlalion of llo probIom domain.
CONBlNlNG 5PEClALlZAIlON AND GENERALlZAIlON SpociaIizalion and gonoraIiza-
lion aro boll vaIuabIo loclniquos for dovoIoping suporlypo/sublypo roIalionslips.
Tlo loclniquo you uso al a parlicuIar limo doponds on sovoraI faclors, sucl as llo naluro
PAPT
Part No
Description
Oty On Hand
Location
Pouting Number
{Supplier
(Supplier lD, Ünit Price)}
Pouting Number
MANÜFACTÜPED
PAPT
PÜPCHASED
PAPT
PAPT
Part No
Description
Location
Oty On Hand
SÜPPLlEP
Supp||er ID
SÜPPLlES
Ünit Price
FlGURE 3-5 ExampIe o!
speciaIization
(a) Entity type PAßT
(b) 5peciaIization to
MANUfACTUßED PAßT
and PUßCHA5ED PAßT
Claplor 3 º Tlo Inlancod I-R ModoI 121
of llo probIom domain, provious modoIing offorls, and porsonaI proforonco. You slouId
bo proparod lo uso boll approaclos and lo aIlornalo bacI and forll as diclalod by llo
procoding faclors.
5PEClFYlNG CON5IRAlNI5 lN 5UPERIYPE/5UBIYPE RELAIlON5HlP5
So far vo lavo discussod llo basic concopls of suporlypo/sublypo roIalionslips and
inlroducod somo basic nolalion lo roprosonl lloso concopls. Wo lavo aIso doscribod llo
procossos of gonoraIizalion and spociaIizalion, vlicl loIp a dala modoIor rocognizo
opporlunilios for oxpIoiling lloso roIalionslips. In llis soclion, vo inlroduco addilionaI
nolalion lo roprosonl conslrainls on suporlypo/sublypo roIalionslips. Tloso conslrainls
aIIov us lo capluro somo of llo imporlanl businoss ruIos llal appIy lo lloso roIalion-
slips. Tlo lvo mosl imporlanl lypos of conslrainls llal aro doscribod in llis soclion aro
compIolonoss and disjoinlnoss conslrainls (IImasri and Navallo, 1994).
5pecifying Completeness Constraints
A cnmpIeteness cnnstraint addrossos llo quoslion of vlollor an inslanco of a supor-
lypo musl aIso bo a mombor of al Ioasl ono sublypo. Tlo compIolonoss conslrainl las
lvo possibIo ruIos: lolaI spociaIizalion and parliaI spociaIizalion. Tlo tntaI speciaIi-
zatinn ruIe spocifios llal oacl onlily inslanco of llo suporlypo musl bo a mombor of
somo sublypo in llo roIalionslip. Tlo partiaI speciaIizatinn ruIe spocifios llal an onlily
inslanco of llo suporlypo is aIIovod nol lo boIong lo any sublypo. Wo iIIuslralo oacl of
lloso ruIos vill oarIior oxampIos from llis claplor (soo Iiguro 3-6).
IOIAL 5PEClALlZAIlON RULE Iiguro 3-6a ropoals llo oxampIo of IATIINT (Iiguro 3-3)
and inlroducos llo nolalion for lolaI spociaIizalion. In llis oxampIo, llo businoss ruIo is
llo foIIoving: Apalionl musl bo oillor an oulpalionl or a rosidonl palionl. (Tloro aro no
ollor lypos of palionl in llis lospilaI.) TolaI spociaIizalion is indicalod by llo !cu||c Iino
oxlonding from llo IATIINT onlily lypo lo llo circIo. (In llo Microsofl Visio nolalion,
lolaI spociaIizalion is caIIod ¨Calogory is compIolo¨ and is slovn aIso by a !cu||c Iino
undor llo calogory circIo bolvoon llo suporlypo and associalod sublypos.)
In llis oxampIo, ovory limo a nov inslanco of IATIINT is insorlod inlo llo supor-
lypo, a corrosponding inslanco is insorlod inlo oillor OUTIATIINT or RISIDINT
IATIINT. If llo inslanco is insorlod inlo RISIDINT IATIINT, an inslanco of llo
roIalionslip Is Assignod is croalod lo assign llo palionl lo a lospilaI bod.
Checkback Date
OÜTPATlENT PESlDENT
PATlENT
Date Discharged
ls Cared For
ls Assigned
BED
Bed ID
PATlENT
Pat|ent ID
Patient Name
Admit Date
PESPONSlBLE
PHYSlClAN
Phys|c|an ID
Tota| Spec|a||zat|on.
a Pat|ent has to be
e|ther an Outpat|ent
or a Pes|dent Pat|ent
FlGURE 3-6 ExampIes o!
compIeteness constraints
(a) TotaI speciaIization ruIe
CnmpIeteness cnnstraint
Alypo of conslrainl llal addrossos
vlollor an inslanco of a suporlypo
musl aIso bo a mombor of al Ioasl
ono sublypo.
TntaI speciaIizatinn ruIe
AruIo llal spocifios llal oacl
onlily inslanco of a suporlypo musl
bo a mombor of somo sublypo in
llo roIalionslip.
PartiaI speciaIizatinn ruIe
AruIo llal spocifios llal an onlily
inslanco of a suporlypo is aIIovod
nol lo boIong lo any sublypo.
(contlnued)
122 Iarl II º Dalabaso AnaIysis
PARIlAL 5PEClALlZAIlON RULE Iiguro 3-6b ropoals llo oxampIo of VIHICII and ils
sublypos CAR and TRUCK from Iiguro 3-4. RocaII llal in llis oxampIo, molorcycIo is a
lypo of volicIo, bul il is nol roprosonlod as a sublypo in llo dala modoI. Tlus, if a voli-
cIo is a car, il musl appoar as an inslanco of CAR, and if il is a lrucI, il musl appoar as an
inslanco of TRUCK. Hovovor, if llo volicIo is a molorcycIo, il cannol appoar as an in-
slanco of any sublypo. Tlis is an oxampIo of parliaI spociaIizalion, and il is spocifiod by
llo singIo Iino from llo VIHICII suporlypo lo llo circIo.
5pecifying Disjointness Constraints
Adisjnintness cnnstraint addrossos vlollor an inslanco of a suporlypo may simuIlano-
ousIy bo a mombor of lvo (or moro) sublypos. Tlo disjoinlnoss conslrainl las lvo pos-
sibIo ruIos: llo disjoinl ruIo and llo ovorIap ruIo. Tlo disjoinl ruIo spocifios llal if an
onlily inslanco (of llo suporlypo) is a mombor of ono sublypo, il cannol simuIlanoousIy
bo a mombor of any ollor sublypo. Tlo ovorIap ruIo spocifios llal an onlily inslanco can
simuIlanoousIy bo a mombor of lvo (or moro) sublypos. An oxampIo of oacl of lloso
ruIos is slovn in Iiguro 3-7.
Dl51OlNI RULE Iiguro 3-7a slovs llo IATIINT oxampIo from Iiguro 3-6a. Tlo businoss
ruIo in llis caso is llo foIIoving: Ai cnµ gitcn iimc, a palionl musl bo oillor an oulpalionl
or a rosidonl palionl, bul cannol bo boll. Tlis is llo disjnint ruIe, as spocifiod by llo Iol-
lor ! in llo circIo joining llo suporlypo and ils sublypos. Nolo in llis figuro, llo subcIass
of a IATIINT may clango ovor limo, bul al a givon limo, a IATIINT is of onIy ono lypo.
(Tlo Microsofl Visio nolalion doos nol lavo a vay lo dosignalo disjoinlnoss or ovorIap,
lovovor, you can pIaco a ! or an c insido llo calogory circIo using llo Toxl looI.)
OVERLAP RULE Iiguro 3-7b slovs llo onlily lypo IART vill ils lvo sublypos, MANU-
IACTURID IART and IURCHASID IART (from Iiguro 3-5b). RocaII from our discus-
sion of llis oxampIo llal somo parls aro boll manufaclurod and purclasod. Somo cIari-
ficalion of llis slalomonl is roquirod. In llis oxampIo, an inslanco of IART is a parlicuIar
parl numbor (i.o., a iµpc c| pcri), nol an individuaI parl (indicalod by llo idonlifior,
vlicl is Iarl No). Ior oxampIo, considor parl numbor 4000. Al a givon limo, llo quanlily
on land for llis parl migll bo 250, of vlicl 100 aro manufaclurod and llo romaining
150 aro purclasod parls. In llis caso, il is nol imporlanl lo Ioop lracI of individuaI
No Of Passengers
CAP TPÜCK
Capacity
Cab Type
vEHlCLE
veh|c|e ID
Price
Engine Displacement
vehicle Name
(Make, Model)
Part|a| Spec|a||zat|on. a
veh|c|e can be a Car, or
a Truck, but does not
have to be e|ther
FlGURE 3-6 ()
(b) PartiaI speciaIization ruIe
Disjnintness cnnstraint
Aconslrainl llal addrossos
vlollor an inslanco of a suporlypo
may simuIlanoousIy bo a mombor
of lvo (or moro) sublypos.
Disjnint ruIe
AruIo llal spocifios llal an
inslanco of a suporlypo may nol
simuIlanoousIy bo a mombor of
lvo (or moro) sublypos.
Claplor 3 º Tlo Inlancod I-R ModoI 123
parls. Wlon lracIing individuaI parls is imporlanl, oacl parl is assignod a soriaI num-
bor idonlifior, and llo quanlily on land is ono or zoro, doponding on vlollor llal indi-
viduaI parl oxisls or nol.
Tlo nverIap ruIe is spocifiod by pIacing llo Iollor c in llo circIo, as slovn in
Iiguro 3-7b. Nolico in llis figuro llal llo lolaI spociaIizalion ruIo is aIso spocifiod, as
indicalod by llo doubIo Iino. Tlus, any parl musl bo oillor a purclasod parl or a
manufaclurod parl, or il may simuIlanoousIy bo boll of lloso.
Defining 5ubtype Discriminators
Givon a suporlypo/sublypo roIalionslip, considor llo probIom of insorling a nov
inslanco of a suporlypo. Inlo vlicl of llo sublypos (if any) slouId llis inslanco bo
insorlod` Wo lavo aIroady discussod llo various possibIo ruIos llal appIy lo llis silua-
lion. Wo nood a simpIo moclanism lo impIomonl lloso ruIos, if ono is avaiIabIo. Oflon
llis can bo accompIislod by using a sublypo discriminalor. A subtype discriminatnr is
an allribulo of a suporlypo vloso vaIuos dolormino llo largol sublypo or sublypos.
Dl51OlNI 5UBIYPE5 An oxampIo of llo uso of a sublypo discriminalor is slovn in
Iiguro 3-8. Tlis oxampIo is for llo IMIIOYII suporlypo and ils sublypos, inlro-
ducod in Iiguro 3-2. Nolico llal llo foIIoving conslrainls lavo boon addod lo llis
OverIap ruIe
AruIo llal spocifios llal an
inslanco of a suporlypo may
simuIlanoousIy bo a mombor of
lvo (or moro) sublypos.
Subtype discriminatnr
An allribulo of a suporlypo vloso
vaIuos dolormino llo largol
sublypo or sublypos.
Checkback Date
OÜTPATlENT PESlDENT
PATlENT
Date Discharged
ls Cared For
ls Assigned
BED
Bed ID
PESPONSlBLE
PHYSlClAN
Phys|c|an ID
d
PATlENT
Pat|ent ID
Patient Name
Admit Date
D|s[o|nt ru|e. a Pat|ent can be
e|ther an Outpat|ent or a
Pes|dent Pat|ent, but not both at
the same t|me
Pouting Number
MANÜFACTÜPED
PAPT
PÜPCHASED
PAPT
PAPT
Part No
Description
Location
Hand
SÜPPLlEP
Supp||er ID
O
SÜPPLlES
Ünit Price
Over|ap ru|e. a Part may be both a
Manufactured Part and a Purchased
Part at the same t|me, but must be
one or the other due to Tota|
Spec|a||zat|on (doub|e ||ne)
FlGURE 3-7 ExampIes o!
disjointness constraints
(a) Disjoint ruIe
(b) OverIap ruIe
124 Iarl II º Dalabaso AnaIysis
figuro: lolaI spociaIizalion and disjoinl sublypos. Tlus, oacl ompIoyoo musl bo oillor
lourIy, saIariod, or a consuIlanl.
A nov allribulo (ImpIoyoo Typo) las boon addod lo llo suporlypo, lo sorvo as a
sublypo discriminalor. Wlon a nov ompIoyoo is addod lo llo suporlypo, llis allribulo
is codod vill ono of llroo vaIuos, as foIIovs: ¨H¨ (for HourIy), ¨S¨ (for SaIariod), or ¨C¨
(for ConsuIlanl). Doponding on llis codo, llo inslanco is llon assignod lo llo appropri-
alo sublypo. (An allribulo of llo suporlypo may bo soIoclod in llo Microsofl Visio nola-
lion as a discriminalor, vlicl is slovn simiIarIy noxl lo llo calogory symboI.)
Tlo nolalion vo uso lo spocify llo sublypo discriminalor is aIso slovn in Iiguro 3-8.
Tlo oxprossion ImpIoyoo Typo= (vlicl is llo Iofl sido of a condilion slalomonl) is pIacod
noxl lo llo Iino Ioading from llo suporlypo lo llo circIo. Tlo vaIuo of llo allribulo llal
soIocls llo approprialo sublypo (in llis oxampIo, oillor ¨H,¨ ¨S,¨ or ¨C¨) is pIacod adjaconl
lo llo Iino Ioading lo llal sublypo. Tlus, for oxampIo, llo condilion ImpIoyoo Typo=¨S¨
causos an onlily inslanco lo bo insorlod inlo llo SAIARIID IMIIOYII sublypo.
OVERLAPPlNG 5UBIYPE5 Wlon sublypos ovorIap, a sIigllIy modifiod approacl musl
bo appIiod for llo sublypo discriminalor. Tlo roason is llal a givon inslanco of llo
suporlypo may roquiro llal vo croalo an inslanco in moro llan ono sublypo.
An oxampIo of llis silualion is slovn in Iiguro 2-9 for IART and ils ovorIapping
sublypos. A nov allribulo namod Iarl Typo las boon addod lo IART. Iarl Typo is a
composilo allribulo vill compononls Manufaclurod` and Iurclasod` Iacl of lloso
allribulos is a BooIoan variabIo (i.o., il laIos on onIy llo vaIuos yos, ¨Y,¨ and no, ¨N¨).
Wlon a nov inslanco is addod lo IART, lloso compononls aro codod as foIIovs:
EMPLOYEE
Emp|oyee Number
Employee Name
Address
Date Hired
Emp|oyee Type
SALAPlED
EMPLOYEE
Annual Salary
Stock Option
Hourly Pate
HOÜPLY
EMPLOYEE
CONSÜLTANT
Contract Number
Billing Pate
Emp
"H"
"S"
"C"
d
Subtype d|scr|m|nator
w|th va|ues of H, S, or C
for d|s[o|nt subtypes
FlGURE 3-8 Introducing a
subtype discriminator
(disjoint ruIe)
Type o! Part Manu!actured? Purchased?
Manulaclured only
"Y" "N"
Purchased only "N" "Y"
Purchased and manulaclured "Y" "Y"
Tlo mollod for spocifying llo sublypo discriminalor for llis oxampIo is slovn in
Iiguro 3-9. Nolico llal llis approacl can bo usod for any numbor of ovorIapping
sublypos.
Claplor 3 º Tlo Inlancod I-R ModoI 125
Defining 5upertype/5ubtype Hierarchies
Wo lavo considorod a numbor of oxampIos of suporlypo/sublypo roIalionslips in llis
claplor. Il is possibIo for any of llo sublypos in lloso oxampIos lo lavo ollor sublypos
dofinod on il (in vlicl caso, llo sublypo bocomos a suporlypo for llo novIy dofinod
sublypos). A supertype/subtype hierarchy is a liorarclicaI arrangomonl of suporlypos
and sublypos, vloro oacl sublypo las onIy ono suporlypo (IImasri and Navallo, 1994).
Wo prosonl an oxampIo of a suporlypo/sublypo liorarcly in llis soclion in
Iiguro 3-10. (Ior simpIicily, vo do nol slov sublypo discriminalors in llis and mosl
subsoquonl oxampIos. Soo IrobIom and Ixorciso 2 and 3.) Tlis oxampIo incIudos mosl
of llo concopls and nolalion vo lavo usod in llis claplor lo llis poinl. Il aIso prosonls
a mollodoIogy (basod on spociaIizalion) llal you can uso in many dala modoIing
silualions.
AN EXANPLE OF A 5UPERIYPE/5UBIYPE HlERARCHY Supposo llal you aro asIod lo
modoI llo luman rosourcos in a univorsily. Using spociaIizalion (a lop-dovn ap-
proacl), you migll procood as foIIovs. Slarling al llo lop of a liorarcly, modoI llo
mosl gonoraI onlily lypo firsl. In llis caso, llo mosl gonoraI onlily lypo is IIRSON. Iisl
and associalo aII allribulos of IIRSON. Tlo allribulos slovn in Iiguro 3-10 aro SSN
(idonlifior), Namo, Addross, Gondor, and Dalo Of Birll. Tlo onlily lypo al llo lop of a
liorarcly is somolimos caIIod llo rcci.
Noxl, dofino aII major sublypos of llo rool. In llis oxampIo, lloro aro llroo sublypos
of IIRSON: IMIIOYII (porsons vlo vorI for llo univorsily), STUDINT (porsons
vlo allond cIassos), and AIUMNUS (porsons vlo lavo gradualod). Assuming llal
lloro aro no ollor lypos of porsons of inlorosl lo llo univorsily, llo lolaI spociaIizalion
ruIo appIios, as slovn in llo figuro. A porson migll boIong lo moro llan ono sublypo
(o.g., AIUMNUS and IMIIOYII), so llo ovorIap ruIo is usod. Nolo llal ovorIap aIIovs
for any ovorIap. (AIIRSON may bo simuIlanoousIy in any pair or in aII llroo sublypos.)
If corlain combinalions aro nol aIIovod, a moro rofinod suporlypo/sublypo liorarcly
vouId lavo lo bo dovoIopod lo oIiminalo llo prolibilod combinalions.
Allribulos llal appIy spocificaIIy lo oacl of lloso sublypos aro slovn in llo figuro.
Tlus, oacl inslanco of IMIIOYII las a vaIuo for Dalo Hirod and SaIary. Major Dopl
Pouting Number
MANÜFACTÜPED
PAPT
Purchased?="Y" Manufactured?="Y"
O
PAPT
Part Type
Part No
Description
Location
Oty On Hand
Part Type(Manufactured
Purchased?)
PÜPCHASED
PAPT
SÜPPLlES
Ünit Price
Subtype d|scr|m|nator |s a
compos|te attr|bute when
there |s an over|ap ru|e
FlGURE 3-9 5ubtype
discriminator (overIap ruIe)
Supertype/subtype hierarchy
AliorarclicaI arrangomonl of
suporlypos and sublypos in
vlicl oacl sublypo las onIy
ono suporlypo.
126 Iarl II º Dalabaso AnaIysis
is an allribulo of STUDINT, and Dogroo (vill compononls Yoar, Dosignalion, and Dalo)
is a muIlivaIuod, composilo allribulo of AIUMNUS.
Tlo noxl slop is lo ovaIualo vlollor any of llo sublypos aIroady dofinod quaIify
for furllor spociaIizalion. In llis oxampIo, IMIIOYII is parlilionod inlo lvo sublypos:
IACUITY and STAII. IACUITY las llo spocific allribulo RanI, vloroas STAII las
llo spocific allribulo Iosilion. Nolico llal in llis oxampIo llo sublypo IMIIOYII
bocomos a suporlypo lo IACUITY and STAII. Bocauso lloro may bo lypos of ompIoy-
oos ollor llan facuIly and slaff (sucl as sludonl assislanls), llo parliaI spociaIizalion
ruIo is indicalod. Hovovor, an ompIoyoo cannol bo boll facuIly and slaff al llo samo
limo. Tloroforo, llo disjoinl ruIo is indicalod in llo circIo.
Tvo sublypos aro aIso dofinod for STUDINT: GRADUATI STUDINT and
UNDIRGRAD STUDINT. UNDIRGRAD STUDINT las llo allribulo CIass Slanding,
vloroas GRADUATI STUDINT las llo allribulo Tosl Scoro. Nolico llal lolaI spociaI-
izalion and llo disjoinl ruIo aro spocifiod, you slouId bo abIo lo slalo llo businoss ruIos
for lloso conslrainls.
5UNNARY OF 5UPERIYPE/5UBIYPE HlERARCHlE5 Wo nolo lvo foaluros concorning llo
allribulos conlainod in llo liorarcly slovn in Iiguro 3-10:
1. Allribulos aro assignod al llo liglosl IogicaI IovoI llal is possibIo in llo liorarcly.
Ior oxampIo, bocauso SSN (i.o., SociaI Socurily Numbor) appIios lo aII porsons, il is
assignod lo llo rool. In conlrasl, Dalo Hirod appIios onIy lo ompIoyoos, so il
is assignod lo IMIIOYII. Tlis approacl onsuros llal allribulos can bo slarod
by as many sublypos as possibIo.
PEPSON
SSN
Name
Address
Gender
Date Of Birth
ALÜMNÜS
{Degree(Year,
Designation,
Date)}
Salary
Date Hired
EMPLOYEE STÜDENT
Major Dept
STAFF
Position Pank
FACÜLTY ÜNDEPGPAD
STÜDENT
Class Standing Test Score
GPADÜATE
STÜDENT
d d
O
FlGURE 3-10 ExampIe o! supertypelsubtype hierarchy
Claplor 3 º Tlo Inlancod I-R ModoI 127
2. Sublypos llal aro Iovor in llo liorarcly inloril allribulos nol onIy from lloir
immodialo suporlypo, bul from aII suporlypos liglor in llo liorarcly, up lo llo
rool. Tlus, for oxampIo, an inslanco of facuIly las vaIuos for aII of llo foIIoving
allribulos: SSN, Namo, Addross, Gondor, and Dalo Of Birll (from IIRSON), Dalo
Hirod and SaIary (from IMIIOYII), and RanI (from IACUITY).
In llo sludonl caso al llo ond of llis claplor, vo asI you lo dovoIop an onlancod
I-R diagram for Mounlain Viov Communily HospilaI using llo samo procoduro vo
oulIinod in llis soclion.
EER NODELlNG EXANPLE: PlNE VALLEY FURNlIURE CONPANY
In Claplor 2, vo prosonlod a sampIo I-R diagram for Iino VaIIoy Iurniluro. (Tlis
diagram, dovoIopod using Microsofl Visio, is ropoalod in Iiguro 3-11.) Aflor sludying
llis diagram, you migll uso somo quoslions lo loIp you cIarify llo moaning of onlilios
and roIalionslips. Tlroo sucl aroas of quoslions aro (soo annolalions in Iiguro 3-11 llal
indicalo llo sourco of oacl quoslion):
1. Wly do somo cuslomors nol do businoss in ono or moro saIos lorrilorios`
2. Wly do somo ompIoyoos nol suporviso ollor ompIoyoos, and vly aro lloy nol aII
suporvisod by anollor ompIoyoo` And, vly do somo ompIoyoos nol vorI in a
vorI conlor`
3. Wly do somo vondors nol suppIy rav maloriaIs lo Iino VaIIoy Iurniluro`
You may lavo ollor quoslions, bul vo viII conconlralo on lloso llroo lo iIIuslralo
lov suporlypo/sublypo roIalionslips can bo usod lo convoy a moro spocific (somanli-
caIIy ricl) dala modoI.
Aflor somo invosligalion inlo lloso llroo quoslions, vo discovor llo foIIoving
businoss ruIos llal appIy lo lov Iino VaIIoy Iurniluro doos businoss:
1. Tloro aro lvo lypos of cuslomors: roguIar and nalionaI accounl. OnIy roguIar cus-
lomors do businoss in saIos lorrilorios. A saIos lorrilory oxisls onIy if il las al Ioasl
ono roguIar cuslomor associalod vill il. AnalionaI accounl cuslomor is associalod
vill an accounl managor. Il is possibIo for a cuslomor lo bo boll a roguIar and a
nalionaI accounl cuslomor.
2. Tvo spociaI lypos of ompIoyoos oxisl: managomonl and union. OnIy union
ompIoyoos vorI in vorI conlors, and a managomonl ompIoyoo suporvisos union
ompIoyoos. Tloro aro ollor Iinds of ompIoyoos bosidos managomonl and union. A
union ompIoyoo may bo promolod inlo managomonl, al vlicl limo llal ompIoyoo
slops boing a union ompIoyoo.
3. Iino VaIIoy Iurniluro Ioops lracI of many difforonl vondors, nol aII of vlicl
lavo ovor suppIiod rav maloriaIs lo llo company. A vondor is associalod vill
a conlracl numbor onco llal vondor bocomos an officiaI suppIior of rav
maloriaIs.
Tloso businoss ruIos lavo boon usod lo modify llo I-R diagram in Iiguro 3-11 inlo
llo IIR diagram in Iiguro 3-12. (Wo lavo Iofl mosl allribulos off llis diagram oxcopl for
lloso llal aro ossonliaI lo soo llo clangos llal lavo occurrod.) RuIo 1 moans llal lloro is
a lolaI, ovorIapping spociaIizalion of CUSTOMIR inlo RIGUIAR CUSTOMIR and
NATIONAIACCOUNT CUSTOMIR. Acomposilo allribulo of CUSTOMIR, Cuslomor
Typo (vill compononls NalionaI and RoguIar), is usod lo dosignalo vlollor a cuslomor
inslanco is a roguIar cuslomor, a nalionaI accounl, or boll. Bocauso onIy roguIar cus-
lomors do businoss in saIos lorrilorios, onIy roguIar cuslomors aro invoIvod in llo Doos
Businoss In roIalionslip (associalivo onlily).
RuIo 2 moans llal lloro is a parliaI, disjoinl spociaIizalion of IMIIOYII inlo
MANAGIMINT IMIIOYII and UNION IMIIOYII. An allribulo of IMIIOYII,
ImpIoyoo Typo, discriminalos bolvoon llo lvo spociaI lypos of ompIoyoos.
SpociaIizalion is parliaI bocauso lloro aro ollor Iinds of ompIoyoos bosidos lloso lvo
lypos. OnIy union ompIoyoos aro invoIvod in llo WorIs In roIalionslip, bul aII union
ompIoyoos vorI in somo vorI conlor, so llo minimum cardinaIily of noxl lo WorIs In
Sa|esperson ID
Salesperson Name
Salesperson Telephone
Salesperson Fax
PK
SALESPEPSON
Customer ID
Customer Name
Customer Address
Customer Postal Code
PK
CÜSTOMEP
Product ID
Product Description
Product Finish
Product Standard Price
PK
PPODÜCT
Mater|a| ID
Material Name
Material Standard Cost
PK
PAW MATEPlAL
Order ID
Order Date
PK
OPDEP
Sk||| PK
SKlLL
Ordered Ouantity
OPDEP LlNE
Product L|ne ID
Product Line Name
PK
PPODÜCT LlNE
Serves
Submits
lncludes
ls Supervised By
Supervises
Terr|tory ID PK
Territory Name
TEPPlTOPY DOES BÜSlNESS lN
vendor ID
vendor Name
vendor Address
PK
vENDOP
Employee Name
Employee Address
Work Center ID
Work Center Location
PK
WOPK CENTEP
Goes into Ouantity
ÜSES PPODÜCED lN
WOPKS lN
HAS SKlLL
Supply Ünit Price
SÜPPLlES
Ouest|on 1
Ouest|on 3
Ouest|on 2
FlGURE 3-11 E-ß diagram !or Pine VaIIey furniture Company
128 Iarl II º Dalabaso AnaIysis
SALESPEPSON
ÜSTOMEP NATlONAL CÜSTOMEP
CÜSTOMEP
Customer Type
National?
Pegular?
Account Manager
PAW MATEPlAL
OPDEP
SKlLL
OPDEP LlNE
PPODÜCT LlNE
PPODÜCT
ÜSES
vENDOP
Serves
Customer Type
Submits
lncludes
SALES TEPPlTOPY DOES BÜSlNE
Contract Number
SÜPPLlEP
EMPLOYEE
"M"
MANAGEMENT EMPLOYEE
WOPK CENTEP
Produced ln
WOPKS lN
HAS SKlLL
SÜPPLlES
Supervises
O
Pu|e 3
Pu|e 1
Pu|e 2
FlGURE 3-12 EEß diagram !or Pine VaIIey furniture Company using Microso!t Visio
129
130 Iarl II º Dalabaso AnaIysis
from UNION IMIIOYII is nov mandalory. Bocauso an ompIoyoo cannol bo boll
managomonl and union al llo samo limo (aIllougl lloy can clango slalus ovor limo),
llo spociaIizalion is disjoinl.
RuIo 3 moans llal lloro is a parliaI spociaIizalion of VINDOR inlo SUIIIIIR
bocauso onIy somo vondors bocomo suppIiors. A suppIior, nol a vondor, las a conlracl
numbor. Bocauso lloro is onIy ono sublypo of VINDOR, lloro is no roason lo spocify a
disjoinl or ovorIap ruIo. Bocauso aII suppIiors suppIy somo rav maloriaI, llo minimum
cardinaIily noxl lo RAW MATIRIAI in llo SuppIios roIalionslip (associalivo onlily in
Visio) nov is ono.
Tlis oxampIo slovs lov an I-R diagram can bo lransformod inlo an IIR dia-
gram onco gonoraIizalion/spociaIizalion of onlilios is undorslood. Nol onIy aro supor-
lypo and sublypo onlilios nov in llo dala modoI, bul addilionaI allribulos, incIuding
discriminaling allribulos, aIso aro addod, minimum cardinaIilios clango (from oplionaI
lo mandalory), and roIalionslips movo from llo suporlypo lo a sublypo.
Tlis is a good limo lo omplasizo a poinl mado oarIior aboul dala modoIing. Adala
modoI is a concopluaI picluro of llo dala roquirod by an organizalion. A dala modoI
doos nol map ono-for-ono lo oIomonls of an impIomonlod dalabaso. Ior oxampIo, a
dalabaso dosignor may clooso lo pul aII cuslomor inslancos inlo ono dalabaso labIo, nol
soparalo onos for oacl lypo of cuslomor. Sucl dolaiIs aro nol imporlanl nov. Tlo pur-
poso nov is lo oxpIain aII llo ruIos llal govorn dala, nol lov dala viII bo slorod and
accossod lo acliovo officionl, roquirod informalion procossing. Wo viII addross loclnoI-
ogy and officioncy issuos in subsoquonl claplors vlon vo covor dalabaso dosign and
impIomonlalion.
AIllougl llo IIR diagram in Iiguro 3-12 cIarifios somo quoslions and maIos llo
dala modoI in Iiguro 3-11 moro oxpIicil, il sliII can bo difficuIl for somo poopIo lo com-
prolond. Somo poopIo viII nol bo inloroslod in aII lypos of dala, and somo may nol nood
lo soo aII llo dolaiIs in llo IIR diagram lo undorsland vlal llo dalabaso viII covor.
Tlo noxl soclion addrossos lov vo can simpIify a compIolo and oxpIicil dala modoI for
prosonlalion lo spocific usor groups and managomonl.
ENIlIY CLU5IERlNG
Somo onlorpriso-vido informalion sysloms lavo moro llan 1,000 onlily lypos and roIa-
lionslips. Hov do vo prosonl sucl an unvioIdy picluro of organizalionaI dala lo dovoI-
opors and usors` Will a rcc||µ |ig pioco of papor` On llo vrap-around vaIIs of a Iargo
conforonco room` (Don'l Iaugl aboul llal ono, vo'vo soon il dono!) WoII, llo ansvor is,
vo don'l lavo lo. In facl, lloro vouId bo vory fov poopIo vlo nood lo soo llo vloIo
IRD in dolaiI. If you aro famiIiar vill llo principIos of sysloms anaIysis and dosign
(soo, o.g., Hoffor ol aI., 2010), you Inov aboul llo concopl of funclionaI docomposilion.
BriofIy, funclionaI docomposilion is an iloralivo approacl lo broaIing a syslom dovn
inlo roIalod compononls so llal oacl compononl can bo rodosignod by ilsoIf villoul
doslroying llo connoclions vill ollor compononls. IunclionaI docomposilion is pov-
orfuI bocauso il maIos rodosign oasior and aIIovs poopIo lo focus allonlion on llo parl
of llo syslom in vlicl lloy aro inloroslod. In dala modoIing, a simiIar approacl is lo
croalo muIlipIo, IinIod I-R diagrams, oacl sloving llo dolaiIs of difforonl (possibIy
ovorIapping) sogmonls or subsols of llo dala modoI (o.g., difforonl sogmonls llal appIy
lo difforonl doparlmonls, informalion syslom appIicalions, businoss procossos, or cor-
poralo divisions).
Inlily cIusloring (Tooroy, 1999) is a usofuI vay lo prosonl a dala modoI for a Iargo
and compIox organizalion. An entity cIuster is a sol of ono or moro onlily lypos and
associalod roIalionslips groupod inlo a singIo abslracl onlily lypo. Bocauso an onlily
cIuslor bolavos IiIo an onlily lypo, onlily cIuslors and onlily lypos can bo furllor
groupod lo form a liglor-IovoI onlily cIuslor. Inlily cIusloring is a liorarclicaI docom-
posilion of a macro-IovoI viov of llo dala modoI inlo finor and finor viovs, ovonluaIIy
rosuIling in llo fuII, dolaiIod dala modoI.
Iiguro 3-13 iIIuslralos ono possibIo rosuIl of onlily cIusloring for llo Iino VaIIoy
Iurniluro Company dala modoI of Iiguro 3-12. Iiguro 3-13a slovs llo compIolo dala
Entity cIuster
Asol of ono or moro onlily lypos
and associalod roIalionslips
groupod inlo a singIo abslracl
onlily lypo.
SELLING UNIT
SALESPEPSON
PEGÜLAP CÜSTOMEP NATlONAL CÜSTOMEP
CÜSTOMEP CUSTOMEP
ITEM
SALE
MANUFACTUPING
ITEM
MATEPIAL
Customer Type
National?
Pegular?
Account Manager
PAW MATEPlAL
OPDEP
SKlLL
OPDEP LlNE
PPODÜCT LlNE
PPODÜCT
ÜSES
vENDOP
Serves
Customer Type
Submits
o
d
lncludes
SALES TEPPlTOPY DOES BÜSlNESS lN
Contract Number
SÜPPLlEP
EMPLOYEE
ÜNlON EMPLOYEE
"Ü" "M"
MANAGEMENT EMPLOYEE
WOPK CENTEP
PPODÜCED lN
WOPKS lN
HAS SKlLL
SÜPPLlES
Employee Type
Employee Type
Supervises
FlGURE 3-13 Entity cIustering !or Pine VaIIey furniture Company
(a) PossibIe entity cIusters (using Microso!t Visio)
131
(contlnued)
132 Iarl II º Dalabaso AnaIysis
SELLlNG ÜNlT
CÜSTOMEP
Customer Type
National?
Pegular?
MATEPlAL ÜSES lTEM
PPODÜCED lN
MANÜFACTÜPlNG
lTEM SALE
Submits
DOES BÜSlNESS lN
FlGURE 3-13 ()
(b) EEß diagram !or entity cIusters (using Microso!t Visio)
modoI vill sladod aroas around possibIo onlily cIuslors, Iiguro 3-13b slovs llo finaI
rosuIl of lransforming llo dolaiIod IIR diagram inlo an IIR diagram of onIy onlily
cIuslors and roIalionslips. (An IIR diagram may incIudo boll onlily cIuslors and
onlily lypos, bul llis diagram incIudos onIy onlily cIuslors.) In llis figuro, llo onlily
cIuslor
- SIIIING UNIT roprosonls llo SAIISIIRSON and SAIIS TIRRITORY onlily
lypos and llo Sorvos roIalionslip
- CUSTOMIR roprosonls llo CUSTOMIR onlily suporlypo, ils sublypos, and llo
roIalionslip bolvoon suporlypo and sublypos
- ITIM SAII roprosonls llo ORDIR onlily lypo and ORDIR IINI associalivo
onlily as voII as llo roIalionslip bolvoon llom
- ITIM roprosonls llo IRODUCT IINI and IRODUCT onlily lypos and llo
IncIudos roIalionslip
- MANUIACTURING roprosonls llo WORK CINTIR and IMIIOYII suporlypo
onlily and ils sublypos as voII as llo WorIs In associalivo onlily and Suporvisos
roIalionslips and llo roIalionslip bolvoon llo suporlypo and ils sublypos.
(Iiguro 3-14 slovs an oxpIosion of llo MANUIACTURING onlily cIuslor inlo ils
compononls.)
- MATIRIAI roprosonls llo RAW MATIRIAI and VINDOR onlily lypos, llo SUI-
IIIIR sublypo, llo SuppIios associalivo onlily, and llo suporlypo/sublypo roIa-
lionslip bolvoon VINDOR and SUIIIIIR.
Claplor 3 º Tlo Inlancod I-R ModoI 133
Tlo I-R diagrams in Iiguros 3-13 and 3-14 can bo usod lo oxpIain dolaiIs lo poopIo
mosl concornod vill assombIy procossos and llo informalion noodod lo supporl llis
parl of llo businoss. Ior oxampIo, an invonlory conlroI managor can soo in Iiguro 3-13b
llal llo dala aboul manufacluring can bo roIalod lo ilom dala (llo Iroducod In roIalion-
slip). Iurllormoro, Iiguro 3-14 slovs vlal dolaiI is Iopl aboul llo produclion procoss
invoIving vorI conlors and ompIoyoos. Tlis porson probabIy doos nol nood lo soo llo
dolaiIs aboul, for oxampIo, llo soIIing slrucluro, vlicl is omboddod in llo SIIIING
UNIT onlily cIuslor.
Inlily cIuslors in Iiguro 3-13 voro formod (1) by abslracling a suporlypo and ils
sublypo (soo llo CUSTOMIR onlily cIuslor) and (2) by combining diroclIy roIalod onlily
lypos and lloir roIalionslips (soo llo SIIIING UNIT, ITIM, MATIRIAI, and MANU-
IACTURING onlily cIuslors). An onlily cIuslor can aIso bo formod by combining a slrong
onlily and ils associalod voaI onlily lypos (nol iIIuslralod loro). Bocauso onlily cIuslor-
ing is liorarclicaI, if il voro dosirabIo, vo couId drav anollor IIR diagram in vlicl vo
combino llo SIIIING UNIT and CUSTOMIR onlily cIuslors vill llo DOIS BUSINISS
IN associalivo onlily ono onlily cIuslor, bocauso lloso aro diroclIy roIalod onlily cIuslors.
An onlily cIuslor slouId focus on an aroa of inlorosl lo somo communily of usors,
dovoIopors, or managors. Wlicl onlily lypos and roIalionslips aro groupod lo form an
onlily cIuslor doponds on your purposo. Ior oxampIo, llo ORDIR onlily lypo couId bo
groupod in vill llo CUSTOMIR onlily cIuslor and llo ORDIR IINI onlily lypo couId
bo groupod in vill llo ITIM onlily cIuslor in llo oxampIo of onlily cIusloring for llo
Iino VaIIoy Iurniluro dala modoI. Tlis rogrouping vouId oIiminalo llo ITIM SAII
cIuslor, vlicl migll nol bo of inlorosl lo any group of poopIo. AIso, you can do sovoraI
difforonl onlily cIuslorings of llo fuII dala modoI, oacl vill a difforonl focus.
PACKAGED DAIA NODEL5
According lo Ion SiIvorslon (1998), ¨Tlo ago of llo dala modoIor as arlisan is passing.
Organizalions can no Iongor afford llo Iabor or limo roquirod for landcrafling dala
modoIs from scralcl. In rosponso lo lloso conslrainls, llo ago of llo dala modoIor
as onginoor is davning.¨ As ono oxoculivo oxpIainod lo us, ¨llo acquisilion of a
|pacIagod dala modoI] vas ono of llo Ioy slralogic llings lis organizalion did lo gain
d
EMPLOYEE
ÜNlON EMPLOYEE
"Ü" "M"
MANAGEMENT EMPLOYEE
WOPK CENTEP
WOPKS lN
SKlLL HAS SKlLL
Employee Type
Employee Type
Supervises
FlGURE 3-14 MANUfACTUßING entity cIuster
134 Iarl II º Dalabaso AnaIysis
quicI rosuIls and Iong-lorm succoss¨ for llo businoss. IacIagod dala modoIs aro a
gamo-clangor for dala modoIing.
As inlroducod in Claplor 2, an incroasingIy popuIar approacl of boginning a dala
modoIing projocl is by acquiring a pacIagod or prodofinod dala modoI, oillor a so-
caIIod univorsaI modoI or an induslry-spocific modoI (somo providors caII lloso IogicaI
dala modoIs |IDMs], bul lloso aro roaIIy IIR diagrams as oxpIainod in llis claplor, llo
dala modoI may aIso bo parl of a purclasod soflvaro pacIago, sucl as an onlorpriso
rosourco pIanning or cuslomor roIalionslip managomonl syslom). Tloso pacIagod dala
modoIs aro nol fixod, rallor, llo dala modoIor cuslomizos llo prodofinod modoI lo fil
llo businoss ruIos of lis or lor organizalion basod on a bosl-praclicos dala modoI for
lloir induslry (o.g., lransporlalion or communicalions) or closon funclionaI aroa (o.g.,
financo or manufacluring). Tlo Ioy assumplion of llis dala modoIing approacl is llal
undorIying slrucluros or pallorns of onlorprisos in llo samo induslry or funclionaI aroa
aro simiIar. IacIagod dala modoIs aro avaiIabIo from various consuIlanls and dalabaso
loclnoIogy vondors. AIllougl pacIagod dala modoIs aro nol inoxponsivo, many
boIiovo llo lolaI cosl is Iovor and llo quaIily of dala modoIing is bollor by using sucl
rosourcos. Somo gonoric dala modoIs can bo found in pubIicalions (o.g., soo arlicIos and
booIs by Hay and by SiIvorslon Iislod al llo ond of llis claplor).
A universaI data mndeI is a gonoric or lompIalo dala modoI llal can bo rousod as
a slarling poinl for a dala modoIing projocl. Somo poopIo caII lloso dala modoI pallorns,
simiIar lo llo nolion of pallorns of rousabIo codo for programming. A univorsaI dala
modoI is nol llo ¨rigll¨ dala modoI, bul il is a succossfuI slarling poinl for dovoIoping
an oxcoIIonl dala modoI for an organizalion.
Wly las llis approacl of boginning from a univorsaI dala modoI for conducling a
dala modoIing projocl bocomo so popuIar` Tlo foIIoving aro somo of llo mosl com-
poIIing roasons profossionaI dala modoIors aro adopling llis approacl (vo lavo dovoI-
opod llis roasoning from Hoborman, 2006, and from an in-dopll sludy vo lavo
conduclod al llo Ioading onIino rolaiIor OvorslocI.com, vlicl las adoplod sovoraI
pacIagod dala modoIs from Toradala Corporalion):
- Dala modoIs can bo dovoIopod using provon compononls ovoIvod from cumu-
Ialivo oxporioncos (as slalod by llo dala adminislralor in llo company vo slud-
iod, ¨vly roinvonl vlon you can adapl`¨). Tloso dala modoIs aro Iopl
up-lo-dalo by llo providor as nov Iinds of dala aro rocognizod in an induslry
(o.g., RIID).
- Irojocls laIo Ioss limo and cosl bocauso llo ossonliaI compononls and slrucluros
aro aIroady dofinod and onIy nood lo bo quicIIy cuslomizod lo llo parlicuIar silu-
alion. Tlo company vo sludiod slalod llal llo purclasod dala modoI vas aboul
80 porconl rigll boforo cuslomizalion and llal llo cosl of llo pacIago vas aboul
oquaI lo llo cosl of ono dalabaso modoIor for ono yoar.
- Dala modoIs aro Ioss IiIoIy lo miss imporlanl compononls or maIo modoIing
orrors duo lo nol rocognizing common possibiIilios. Ior oxampIo, llo company vo
sludiod roporlod llal lloir pacIagod dala modoIs loIpod llom lo avoid llo lomp-
lalion of simpIy mirroring oxisling dalabasos, vill aII llo lisloricaI ¨varls¨ of
poor naming convonlions, dala slrucluros cuslomizod for somo lisloricaI pur-
poso, and llo inorlia of succumbing lo llo prossuro lo simpIy dupIicalo llo inado-
qualo pasl praclicos. As anollor oxampIo, ono vondor of pacIagod dala modoIs,
Toradala, cIaims llal ono of ils dala modoIs vas scopod using moro llan 1,000
businoss quoslions and Ioy porformanco indicalors.
- Bocauso of a loIislic, onlorpriso viov and dovoIopmonl from bosl praclicos of dala
modoIing oxporls found in a univorsaI dala modoI, llo rosuIling dala modoI for a
parlicuIar onlorpriso londs lo bo oasior lo ovoIvo as addilionaI dala roquiromonls
aro idonlifiod for llo givon silualion. A purclasod modoI rosuIls in roducod
rovorI in llo fuluro bocauso llo pacIago gols il corrocl rigll oul of llo box and
anlicipalos llo fuluro noods.
- Tlo gonoric modoI providos a slarling poinl for asIing roquiromonls quoslions
so llal mosl IiIoIy aII aroas of llo modoI aro addrossod during roquiromonls
UniversaI data mndeI
Agonoric or lompIalo dala modoI
llal can bo rousod as a slarling
poinl for a dala modoIing projocl.
Claplor 3 º Tlo Inlancod I-R ModoI 135
dolorminalion. In facl, llo company vo sludiod said llal lloir slaff vas
¨inlriguod by aII llo possibiIilios¨ lo mool ovon unspoIon roquiromonls from llo
capabiIilios of llo propacIagod dala modoIs.
- Dala modoIs of an oxisling dalabaso aro oasior lo road by dala modoIors and ollor
dala managomonl profossionaIs llo firsl limo bocauso lloy aro basod on common
compononls soon in simiIar silualions.
- Ixlonsivo uso of suporlypo/sublypo liorarclios and ollor slrucluros in univorsaI
dala modoIs promolos rousing dala and laIing a loIislic, rallor llan narrov, viov
of dala in an organizalion.
- Ixlonsivo uso of many-lo-many roIalionslips and associalivo onlilios ovon vloro
a dala modoIor migll pIaco a ono-lo-many roIalionslip givos llo dala modoI
groalor fIoxibiIily lo fil any silualion, and naluraIIy landIos limo slamping and
rolonlion of imporlanl lislory of roIalionslips, vlicl can bo imporlanl lo compIy
vill roguIalions and financiaI rocord-Iooping ruIos.
- Adaplalion of a dala modoI from your DBMS vondor usuaIIy moans llal your
dala modoI viII oasiIy vorI vill ollor appIicalions from llis samo vondor or
lloir soflvaro parlnors.
- If muIlipIo companios in llo samo induslry uso llo samo univorsaI dala modoI as
llo basis for lloir organizalionaI dalabasos, il may bo oasior lo slaro dala for inloror-
ganizalionaI sysloms (o.g., rosorvalion sysloms bolvoon ronlaI car and airIino firms).
A Revised Data Nodeling Process with Packaged Data Nodels
Dala modoIing from a pacIagod dala modoI roquiros no Ioss sIiII llan dala modoIing
from scralcl. IacIagod dala modoIs aro nol going lo pul dala modoIors oul of vorI (or
Ioop you from golling llal job as an onlry-IovoI dala anaIysl you vanl nov llal you'vo
slarlod sludying dalabaso managomonl!). In facl, vorIing vill a pacIago roquiros
advancod sIiIIs, IiIo lloso you aro Ioarning in llis claplor and Claplor 2. As vo viII
soo, llo pacIagod dala modoIs aro rallor compIox bocauso lloy aro llorougl and dovoI-
opod lo covor aII possibIo circumslancos. Adala modoIor las lo bo vory InovIodgoabIo
of llo organizalion as voII as llo pacIago lo cuslomizo llo pacIago lo fil llo spocific
ruIos of llal organizalion.
Wlal do you gol vlon you purclaso a dala modoI` Wlal you aro buying is mola-
dala. You rocoivo, usuaIIy on a CD, a fuIIy popuIalod doscriplion of llo dala modoI,
usuaIIy spocifiod in a slruclurod dala modoIing looI, sucl as IRvin from Compulor
Associalos or OracIo Dosignor from OracIo Corporalion. Tlo suppIior of llo dala modoI
las dravn llo IIR diagram, namod and dofinod aII llo oIomonls of llo dala modoI, and
givon aII llo allribulos claraclorislics of dala lypo (claraclor, numoric, imago), Iongll,
formal, and so forll. You can prinl llo dala modoI and various roporls aboul ils
conlonls lo supporl llo cuslomizalion procoss. Onco you cuslomizo llo modoI, you can
llon uso llo dala modoIing looI lo aulomalicaIIy gonoralo llo SQI commands lo dofino
llo dalabaso lo a varioly of dalabaso managomonl sysloms.
Hov is llo dala modoIing procoss difforonl vlon slarling vill a purclasod soIu-
lion` Tlo foIIoving aro llo Ioy difforoncos (our undorslanding of lloso difforoncos aro
onlancod by llo inlorviovs vo conduclod al OvorslocI.com):
- Bocauso a purclasod dala modoI is oxlonsivo, you bogin by idonlifying llo parls of
llo dala modoI llal appIy lo your dala modoIing silualion. Conconlralo on lloso
parls firsl and in llo mosl dolaiI. Slarl, as vill mosl dala modoIing aclivilios, firsl
vill onlilios, llon allribulos, and finaIIy roIalionslips. Considor lov your organ-
izalion viII oporalo in llo fuluro, nol jusl loday.
- You llon ronamo llo idonlifiod dala oIomonls lo lorms IocaI lo llo organizalion
rallor llan llo gonoric namos usod in llo pacIago.
- In many casos, llo pacIagod dala modoI viII bo usod in nov informalion sysloms
llal ropIaco oxisling dalabasos as voII as lo oxlond inlo nov aroas. So llo noxl slop
is lo map llo dala lo bo usod from llo pacIago lo dala in curronl dalabasos. Ono
vay llis mapping viII bo usod is lo dosign migralion pIans lo convorl oxisling
136 Iarl II º Dalabaso AnaIysis
dalabasos lo llo nov slrucluros. Tlo foIIoving aro somo Ioy poinls aboul llis
mapping procoss:
- Tloro viII bo dala oIomonls from llo pacIago llal aro nol in curronl sysloms,
and lloro viII bo somo dala oIomonls in curronl dalabasos nol in llo pacIago.
Tlus, somo oIomonls von'l map bolvoon llo nov and formor onvironmonls.
Tlis is lo bo oxpoclod bocauso llo pacIago anlicipalos informalion noods you
lavo nol, yol, salisfiod by your curronl dalabasos and bocauso you do somo spo-
ciaI llings in your organizalion llal you vanl lo rolain bul llal aro nol slandard
praclicos. Hovovor, bo suro llal oacl non-mappod dala oIomonl is roaIIy uniquo
and noodod. Ior oxampIo, il is possibIo llal a dala oIomonl in a curronl dalabaso
may acluaIIy bo dorivod from ollor moro alomic dala in llo purclasod dala
modoI. AIso, you nood lo docido if dala oIomonls uniquo lo llo purclasod dala
modoI aro noodod nov or can bo addod on vlon you aro roady lo laIo advan-
lago of lloso capabiIilios in llo fuluro.
- In gonoraI, llo businoss ruIos omboddod in llo purclasod dala modoI covor aII
possibIo circumslancos (o.g., llo maximum numbor of cuslomors associalod
vill a cuslomor ordor). Tlo purclasod dala modoI aIIovs for groal fIoxibiIily,
bul a gonoraI-purposo businoss ruIo may bo loo voaI for your silualion (o.g.,
you aro suro you viII novor aIIov moro llan ono cuslomor por cuslomor ordor).
As you viII soo in llo noxl soclion, llo fIoxibiIily and gonoraIizabiIily of a pur-
clasod dala modoI rosuIls in compIox roIalionslips and many onlily lypos.
AIllougl llo purclasod modoI aIorls you lo vlal is possibIo, you nood lo
docido if you roaIIy nood llis fIoxibiIily and if llo compIoxily is vorllvliIo.
- Bocauso you aro slarling vill a prololypicaI dala modoI, il is possibIo lo ongago
usors and managors lo bo supporlod by llo nov dalabaso oarIy and oflon in llo
dala modoIing projocl. Inlorviovs, }AD sossions, and ollor roquiromonls gallor-
ing aclivilios aro basod on concrolo IRDs rallor llan visl Iisls. Tlo purclasod
dala modoI ossonliaIIy suggosls spocific quoslions lo bo asIod or issuos lo dis-
cuss (o.g., ¨WouId vo ovor lavo a cuslomor ordor vill moro llan ono cuslomor
associalod vill il`¨ or ¨Migll an ompIoyoo aIso bo a cuslomor`¨). Tlo pur-
clasod modoI in a sonso providos a visuaI clocIIisl of iloms lo discuss (o.g., Do
vo nood lloso dala` Is llis businoss ruIo rigll for us`), furllor, il is comprolon-
sivo, so il is Ioss IiIoIy llal an imporlanl roquiromonl viII bo missod.
- Bocauso llo purclasod dala modoI is comprolonsivo, lloro is no vay you viII bo
abIo lo buiId and popuIalo llo fuII dalabaso or ovon cuslomizo llo vloIo dala
modoI in ono projocl. Hovovor, you don'l vanl lo miss llo opporlunily lo visu-
aIizo fuluro roquiromonls slovn in llo fuII dala modoI. Tlus, you viII gol lo a
poinl vloro you lavo lo maIo a docision on vlal viII bo buiIl firsl and possibIo
fuluro plasos lo buiId oul as mucl of llo purclasod dala modoI as viII maIo
sonso. Ono approacl lo oxpIaining llo buiId-oul scloduIo is lo uso onlily cIuslor-
ing lo slov sogmonls of llo fuII dala modoI llal viII bo buiIl in difforonl plasos.
Iuluro mini-projocls viII addross dolaiIod cuslomizalion for nov businoss noods
and ollor sogmonls of llo dala modoI nol dovoIopod in llo iniliaI projocl.
You viII Ioarn in subsoquonl claplors of llis booI imporlanl dalabaso modoIing and
dosign concopls and sIiIIs llal aro imporlanl in any dalabaso dovoIopmonl offorl, incIud-
ing lloso basod on purclasod dala modoIs. Tloro aro, lovovor, somo imporlanl llings lo
nolo aboul projocls invoIving purclasod dala modoIs. Somo of lloso invoIvo using oxisling
dalabasos lo guido lov lo cuslomizo a purclasod dala modoI, incIuding llo foIIoving:
- Ovor limo llo samo allribulo may lavo boon usod for difforonl purposos÷vlal
poopIo caII ovorIoadod coIumns in curronl sysloms. Tlis moans llal llo dala vaI-
uos in oxisling dalabasos may nol lavo uniform moaning for llo migralion lo llo
nov dalabaso. Oflonlimos lloso muIlipIo usos aro nol documonlod and aro nol
Inovn unliI llo migralion bogins. Somo dala may no Iongor bo noodod (maybo
usod for a spociaI businoss projocl), or lloro may bo liddon roquiromonls llal
voro nol formaIIy incorporalod inlo llo dalabaso dosign. Moro on lov lo doaI
vill llis in a momonl.
Claplor 3 º Tlo Inlancod I-R ModoI 137
- SimiIarIy, somo allribulos may bo omply (i.o., lavo no vaIuos), al Ioasl for somo
poriods of limo. Ior oxampIo, somo ompIoyoo lomo addrossos couId bo missing,
or producl onginooring allribulos for a givon producl Iino migll bo absonl for
producls dovoIopod a fov yoars ago. Tlis couId lavo occurrod bocauso of appIica-
lion soflvaro orrors, luman dala onlry mislaIos, or ollor roasons. As vo lavo
sludiod, missing dala may suggosl oplionaI dala, and llo nood for onlily sublypos.
So missing dala nood lo bo sludiod lo undorsland vly llo dala aro sparso.
- A good mollod for undorslanding liddon moaning and idonlifying inconsislon-
cios in oxisling dala modoIs, and lonco dala and businoss ruIos llal nood lo bo
incIudod in llo cuslomizod purclasod dala modoI, is dala profiIing. IrofiIing is a
vay lo slalislicaIIy anaIyzo dala lo uncovor liddon pallorns and fIavs. IrofiIing
can find oulIiors, idonlify slifls in dala dislribulion ovor limo, and idonlify ollor
plonomonon. Iacl porlurbalion of llo dislribulion of dala may loII a slory, sucl
as sloving vlon major appIicalion syslom clangos occurrod, or vlon businoss
ruIos clangod. Oflon lloso pallorns suggosl poorIy dosignod dalabasos (o.g., dala
for soparalo onlilios voro combinod lo improvo procossing spood for a spociaI sol
of quorios bul llo bollor slrucluro vas novor roslorod). Dala profiIing can aIso bo
usod lo assoss lov accuralo curronl dala aro and anlicipalo llo cIoan-up offorl llal
viII bo noodod lo popuIalo llo purclasod dala modoI vill ligl-quaIily dala.
- ArguabIy llo mosl imporlanl claIIongo of cuslomizing a purclasod dala modoI is
dolormining llo businoss ruIos llal viII bo oslabIislod llrougl llo dala modoI. A
purclasod dala modoI viII anlicipalo llo vasl majorily of llo noodod ruIos, bul
oacl ruIo musl bo vorifiod for your organizalion. IorlunaloIy, you don'l lavo lo
guoss vlicl onos lo addross, oacl is Iaid oul by llo onlilios, allribulos, and roIa-
lionslips vill lloir moladala (namos, dofinilions, dala lypos, formals, Ionglls,
olc.) in llo purclasod modoI. Il simpIy laIos limo lo go llrougl oacl of lloso dala
oIomonls vill llo rigll subjocl mallor oxporls lo maIo suro you lavo llo roIalion-
slip cardinaIilios and aII ollor aspocls of llo dala modoI rigll.
Packaged Data Nodel Examples
Wlal, llon, do pacIagod or univorsaI dala modoIs IooI IiIo` ConlraI lo llo univorsaI
dala modoI approacl aro suporlypo/sublypo liorarclios. Ior oxampIo, a coro slrucluro
of any univorsaI dala modoI is llo onlily lypo IARTY, vlicl gonoraIizos porsons or
organizalions as aclors for llo onlorpriso, and an associalod onlily lypo IARTY ROII,
vlicl gonoraIizos various roIos parlios can pIay al difforonl limos. A IARTY ROII
inslanco is a silualion in vlicl a IARTY acls in a parlicuIar ROII TYII. Tloso nolions
of IARTY, IARTY ROII, and ROII TYII suporlypos and lloir roIalionslip aro slovn
in Iiguro 3-15a. Wo uso llo suporlypo/sublypo nolalion from Iiguro 3-1c bocauso llis is
llo nolalion mosl froquonlIy usod in pubIicaIIy avaiIabIo univorsaI dala modoIs. (Mosl
pacIagod dala modoIs aro propriolary inloIIocluaI proporly of llo vondor, and, lonco,
vo cannol slov llom in llis loxlbooI.) Tlis is a vory gonoric dala modoI (aIboil simpIo
lo bogin our discussion). Tlis lypo of slrucluro aIIovs a spocific parly lo sorvo in diffor-
onl roIos during difforonl limo poriods. Il aIIovs allribulo vaIuos of a parly lo bo ¨ovor-
riddon¨ (if nocossary in llo organizalion) by vaIuos porlinonl lo llo roIo boing pIayod
during llo givon limo poriod (o.g., aIllougl a IIRSON of llo IARTY suporlypo las a
Curronl Iasl Namo as of nov, vlon in llo parly roIo of BIII TO CUSTOMIR a diffor-
onl Curronl Iasl Namo couId appIy during llo parlicuIar limo poriod |Irom Dalo lo
Tlru Dalo] of llal roIo). Nolo llal ovon for llis simpIo silualion, llo dala modoI is lry-
ing lo capluro llo mosl gonoraI circumslancos. Ior oxampIo, an inslanco of llo
IMIIOYII sublypo of llo IIRSON ROII sublypo of IARTY ROII vouId bo associ-
alod vill an inslanco of llo ROII TYII llal doscribos llo ompIoyoo-porson roIo-parly
roIo. Tlus, ono doscriplion of a roIo lypo oxpIains aII llo inslancos of llo associalod
parly roIos of llal roIo lypo.
An inlorosling aspocl of Iiguro 3-15a is llal IARTY ROII acluaIIy simpIifios vlal
couId bo a moro oxlonsivo sol of sublypos of IARTY. Iiguro 3-15b slovs ono IARTY
suporlypo vill many sublypos covoring many parly roIos. Will parliaI spociaIizalion
and ovorIap of sublypos, llis aIlornalivo vouId appoar lo accompIisl llo samo dala
SON POLE
ent First Name
Current Last Name Thru Date
EMPLOYEE CONTACT
OPGANlZATlON
POLE
OPGAN
DEPAP
Üsed
to
ldentify
Of
For
Acting
POLE TYPE
Po|e Type ID
Description
PEPSON
Current First Nam
Current Last Nam
Social Security Number
PAPTY
Party ID
SÜPPLlEP
Attr|butes of a|| types
of PAPTY POLEs
Overr|de attr|bute of
same name |n the
ent|ty PEPSON
POLE h|gher |n the
h|erarchy
A PEPSON has names but may
have d|fferent names when act|ng |n
a PEPSON POLE
FlGURE 3-15 PAßTY, PAßTY ßOLE, and ßOLE TYPE in a universaI data modeI
EMPLOYEE
CONTACT
OPGANlZATlON ÜNlT
DEPAPTMENT
CÜSTOMEP
PEPSON
Current First Name
Current Last Name
Social Security Number
PAPTY
Party ID
OPGANlZATlON
Organization Name
SÜPPLlEP
BlLL TO CÜSTOMEP
Current Last Name
CÜSTOMEP
BlLL TO CÜSTOMEP
Current Last Name
138
(a) ßasic PAßTY universaI data modeI
(b) PAßTY supertypelsubtype hierarchy
Claplor 3 º Tlo Inlancod I-R ModoI 139
OPG CONTACT
EMPLOYMENT
PEPSON-TO-OPG
PELATlONSHlP
OPG CÜSTOMEP
PAPTNEPSHlP
OPG-TO-OPG
PELATlONSHlP
PAPTY PELATlONSHlP
From Date
PEPSON POLE E
EMPLOYEE CONTACT
OPGANlZATlON
POLE
OPGANlZATlON ÜNlT
DEPAPTMENT
Üsed
to
ldentify
Of
For
Acting As
PEPSON
PAPTY
Party ID
OPGANlZATlON
o
lnvolves
From
lnvolved ln
SÜPPLlEP
CÜSTOMEP
BlLL TO CÜSTOMEP
Current Last Name
POLE TYPE
Po|e Type ID
Ind|cates when a
PELATIONSHIP or
POLE |s |n effect
FlGURE 3-16 Extension o! a universaI data modeI to incIude PAßTY ßELATION5HIPs
modoIing somanlics as Iiguro 3-15a. Hovovor, Iiguro 3-15a rocognizos llo imporlanl
dislinclion bolvoon onlorpriso aclors (IARTYs) and llo roIos oacl pIays from limo lo
limo (IARTY ROIIs). Tlus, llo IARTY ROII concopl acluaIIy adds lo llo gonoraIiza-
lion of llo dala modoI and llo univorsaI appIicabiIily of llo prodofinod dala modoI.
Tlo noxl basic conslrucl of mosl univorsaI dala modoIs is llo roprosonlalion of roIa-
lionslips bolvoon parlios in llo roIos lloy pIay. Iiguro 3-16 slovs llis noxl oxlonsion of
llo basic univorsaI dala modoI. IARTY RIIATIONSHII is an associalivo onlily, vlicl
lonco aIIovs any numbor of parlios lo bo roIalod as lloy pIay parlicuIar roIos. Iacl
inslanco of a roIalionslip bolvoon IARTYs in IARTY ROIIs vouId bo a soparalo
inslanco of a IARTY RIIATIONSHII sublypo. Ior oxampIo, considor llo ompIoymonl
of a porson by somo organizalion unil during somo limo span, vlicl ovor limo is a
many-lo-many associalion. In llis caso, llo IMIIOYMINT sublypo of IARTY RIIA-
TIONSHII vouId (for a givon limo poriod) IiIoIy IinI ono IIRSON pIaying llo roIo of
an IMIIOYII sublypo of IARTY ROII vill ono ORGANIZATION ROII pIaying
somo porlinonl parly roIo, sucl as ORGANIZATION UNIT. (Tlal is, a porson is
140 Iarl II º Dalabaso AnaIysis
ompIoyod in an organizalion unil during a poriod of Irom Dalo lo Tlru Dalo in IARTY
RIIATIONSHII.)
IARTY RIIATIONSHII is roprosonlod vory gonoraIIy, so il roaIIy is an associalivo
onlily for a unary roIalionslip among IARTY ROII inslancos. Tlis maIos for a vory
gonoraI, fIoxibIo pallorn of roIalionslips. Wlal migll bo obscurod, lovovor, aro vlicl
sublypos migll bo invoIvod in a parlicuIar IARTY RIIATIONSHII, and slriclor roIa-
lionslips llal aro nol many-lo-many, probabIy bocauso vo don'l nood lo Ioop lracI of
llo roIalionslip ovor limo. Ior oxampIo, bocauso llo InvoIvos and InvoIvod In roIalion-
slips IinI llo IARTY ROII and IARTY RIIATIONSHII suporlypos, llis doos nol
roslricl IMIIOYMINT lo an IMIIOYII vill an ORGANIZATION UNIT. AIso, if llo
onlorpriso noods lo lracI onIy curronl ompIoymonl associalions, llo dala modoI in
Iiguro 3-16 viII nol onforco llal a IIRSON IARTY in an IMIIOYII IARTY ROII can
bo associalod vill onIy ono ORGANIZATION UNIT al a limo. Wo viII soo in llo noxl
soclion lov vo can incIudo addilionaI businoss ruIo nolalion on an IIR diagram lo
maIo llis spocific. AIlornalivoIy, vo couId drav spocific roIalionslips from jusl llo
IMIIOYII IARTY ROII and llo ORGANIZATION UNIT IARTY ROII lo llo
IMIIOYMINT IARTY RIIATIONSHII lo roprosonl llis parlicuIar ono-lo-many asso-
cialion. As you can imagino, lo landIo vory many spociaI casos IiIo llis vouId croalo a
diagram vill a Iargo numbor of roIalionslips bolvoon IARTY ROII and IARTY RIIA-
TIONSHII, and, lonco, a vory busy diagram. Tlus, moro roslriclivo cardinaIily ruIos (al
Ioasl mosl of llom) vouId IiIoIy bo impIomonlod oulsido llo dala modoI (o.g., in dala-
baso slorod procoduros or appIicalion programs) vlon using a pacIagod dala modoI.
Wo couId conlinuo inlroducing various common, rousabIo buiIding bIocIs of
univorsaI dala modoIs. Hovovor, SiIvorslon in a lvo-voIumo sol (2001a, 2001b) and Hay
(1996) provido oxlonsivo covorago. To bring our discussion of pacIagod, univorsaI dala
modoIs lo a concIusion, vo slov in Iiguro 3-17, a univorsaI dala modoI for a roIalion-
slip dovoIopmonl organizalion. In llis figuro, vo uso llo originaI nolalion of SiIvorslon
(soo sovoraI roforoncos al llo ond of llo claplor), vlicl is porlinonl lo OracIo dala mod-
oIing looIs. Nov llal you lavo sludiod IIR concopls and nolalions and lavo boon
inlroducod lo univorsaI dala modoIs, you can undorsland moro aboul llo povor of llis
dala modoI.
To loIp you bollor undorsland llo IIR diagram in Iiguro 3-17, considor llo
dofinilions of llo liglosl-IovoI onlily lypo in oacl suporlypo/sublypo liorarcly:
PAPTY Persons and organizalions independenl ol lhe roles lhey play
PAPTY POLL lnlormalion aboul a parly lor an associaled role, lhus allowing a parly lo
acl in mulliple roles
PAPTY
PLLATlONSHlP
lnlormalion aboul lwo parlies (lhose in lhe "lo" and "lrom" roles) wilhin
lhe conlexl ol a relalionship
LVLNT Aclivilies lhal may occur wilhin lhe conlexl ol relalionships (e.g., a
COPPLSPONDLNCL can occur wilhin lhe conlexl ol a PLPSON-CUSTOMLP
relalionship in which lhe "lo" parly is a CUSTOMLP role lor an
OPCANlZATlON and lhe lrom parly is an LMPLOYLL role lor a PLPSON)
PPlOPlTY TYPL lnlormalion aboul a priorily lhal may sel lhe priorily lor a given PAPTY
PLLATlONSHlP
STATUS TYPL lnlormalion aboul lhe slalus (e.g., aclive, inaclive, pending) ol evenls or
parly relalionships
LVLNT POLL lnlormalion aboul all ol lhe PAPTYs involved in an LVLNT
POLL TYPL lnlormalion aboul lhe various PAPTY POLLs and LVLNT POLLs
In Iiguro 3-17, suporlypo/sublypo liorarclios aro usod oxlonsivoIy. Ior oxampIo,
in llo IARTY ROII onlily lypo, llo liorarcly is as many as four IovoIs doop (o.g.,
IARTY ROII lo IIRSON ROII lo CONTACT lo CUSTOMIR CONTACT). Allribulos
can bo Iocalod vill any onlily lypo in llo liorarcly |o.g., IARTY las llo idonlifior
IARTY ID (# moans idonlifior), IIRSON las llroo oplionaI allribulos (c moans
oplionaI), and ORGANIZATION las a roquirod allribulo (´ moans roquirod)].
within the context of
the context for
to
lnvolved ln
from
setting
status
for
lnvolved ln
in the state of
prioritized
by
setting
priority
for
defined
by
EvENT
# EvENT lD
o FPOM DATETlME
o THPÜ DATETlME
o NOTE
COMMÜNlCATlON EvENT
COPPESPONDENCE
TELECOMMÜNlCATlON
lNTEPNET COMMÜNlCATlON
lN-PEPSON COMMÜNlCATlON
OTHEP COMMÜNlCATlON EvENT
TPANSACTlON EvENT
COMMlTMENT TPANSACTlON
PESEPvATlON OPDEP OTHEP

COMMlTMENT
FÜLFlLLMENT TPANSACTlON
SHlPMENT PAYMENT OTHEP

FÜLFlLLMENT
OTHEP TPANSACTlON EvENT
PAPTY
PELATlONSHlP
# FPOM DATE
o THPÜ DATE
º THPÜ DATE
PEPSON-TO-OPG
PELATlONSHlP
PEPSON-
CÜSTOMEP
PELATlONSHlP
OPGANlZATlON
CONTACT
PELATlONSHlP
EMPLOYMENT
OPG-TO-OPG
PELATlONSHlP
OPG-CÜSTOMEP
PELATlONSHlP
SÜPPLlEP
PELATlONSHlP
DlSTPlBÜTlON
CHANNEL
PELATlONSHlP
PAPTNEPSHlP
PEPSON-TO-
PEPSON
PELATlONSHlP
BÜSlNESS
ASSOClATlON
FAMlLY
ASSOClATlON
PAPTY POLE
# FPOM DATE
o THPÜ DATE
PEPSON POLE
EMPLOYEE CONTPACTOP
CONTACT
CÜSTOMEP CONTACT
SÜPPLlEP CONTACT
PAPTNEP CONTACT
FAMlLY MEMBEP
PPOSPECT SHAPEHOLDEP
CÜSTOMEP
BlLL-TO CÜSTOMEP
o CÜPPENT CPEDlT LlMlT AMT
SHlP-TO CÜSTOMEP
END-ÜSEP CÜSTOMEP
for
Acting As
PAPTY
# PAPTY lD
OPGANlZATlON POLE
DlSTPlBÜTlON CHANNEL
AGENT DlSTPlBÜTOP
PAPTNEP COMPETlTOP
HOÜSEHOLD PEGÜLATOPY
SÜPPLlEP
AGENCY
ASSOClATlON
OPGANlZATlON ÜNlT
DEPAPTMENT OTHEP
DlvlSlON
OPGANlZATlON
SÜBSlDlAPY
ÜNlT
PAPENT OPGANlZATlON
lNTEPNAL OPGANlZATlON
PPlOPlTY TYPE
# PPlOPlTY TYPE lD
* DESCPlPTlON
STATÜS TYPE
# STATÜS lD
* DESCPlPTlON
PAPTY
PELATlONSHlP
STATÜS TYPE
EvENT
STATÜS
TYPE
PEPSON
o CÜPPENT FlPST NAME
o CÜPPENT LAST NAME
o SOClAL SECÜPlTY NÜMBEP
OPGANlZATlON
* NAME
for
EvENT POLE
# FPOM DATE
o THPÜ DATE
POLE TYPE
# POLE TYPE lD
* DESCPlPTlON
for
of
Üsed to ldentify
of
used
within
involving
involving involving
involved in
involving
lnvolved ln
FlGURE 3-17 A universaI data modeI !or reIationship deveIopment
141
142 Iarl II º Dalabaso AnaIysis
RoIalionslips can bo bolvoon onlily lypos anyvloro in llo liorarcly. Ior oxampIo, any
IVINT is ¨in llo slalo of¨ an IVINT STATUS TYII, a sublypo, vloroas any IVINT is
¨villin llo conloxl of¨ a IARTY RIIATIONSHII, a suporlypo.
As slalod proviousIy, pacIagod dala modoIs aro nol moanl lo bo oxaclIy rigll
slraigll oul of llo box for a givon organizalion, lloy aro moanl lo bo cuslomizod. To bo
llo mosl gonoraIizod, sucl modoIs lavo corlain proporlios boforo lloy aro cuslomizod
for a givon silualion:
1. RoIalionslips aro connoclod lo llo liglosl-IovoI onlily lypo in a liorarcly llal
maIos sonso. RoIalionslips can bo ronamod, oIiminalod, addod, and movod as
noodod for llo organizalion.
2. Slrong onlilios aImosl aIvays lavo M.N roIalionslips bolvoon llom (o.g., IVINT
and IARTY), so al Ioasl ono, and somolimos many, associalivo onlilios aro usod.
ConsoquonlIy, aII roIalionslips aro 1:M, and lloro is an onlily lypo in vlicl lo
sloro inlorsoclion dala. Inlorsoclion dala aro oflon dalos, sloving ovor vlal span
of limo llo roIalionslip vas vaIid. Tlus, llo pacIagod dala modoI is dosignod lo
aIIov lracIing of roIalionslips ovor limo. (RocaII llal llis is a common issuo llal
vas discussod vill Iiguro 2-20.) 1:M roIalionslips aro oplionaI, al Ioasl on llo
many sido (o.g., llo dollod Iino noxl lo IVINT for llo ¨invoIving¨ roIalionslip
signifios llal an IVINT may invoIvo an IVINT ROII, as is dono vill OracIo
Dosignor).
3. AIllougl nol cIoar on llis diagram, aII suporlypo/sublypo roIalionslips foIIov
llo lolaI spociaIizalion and ovorIap ruIos, vlicl maIos llo diagram as llorougl
and fIoxibIo as possibIo.
4. Mosl onlilios on llo many sido of a roIalionslip aro voaI, llus inloriling llo
idonlifior of llo onlily on llo ono sido (o.g., llo - on llo ¨acling as¨ roIalionslip
from IARTY lo IARTY ROII signifios llal IARTY ROII impIicilIy incIudos
IARTY ID).
Tlis claplor las doscribod lov llo basic I-R modoI las
boon oxlondod lo incIudo suporlypo/sublypo roIalion-
slips. A supcriµpc is a gonoric onlily lypo llal las a roIa-
lionslip vill ono or moro sublypos. A su|iµpc is a
grouping of llo onlilios in an onlily lypo llal is moaning-
fuI lo llo organizalion. Ior oxampIo, llo onlily lypo IIR-
SON is froquonlIy modoIod as a suporlypo. Sublypos of
IIRSON may incIudo IMIIOYII, VOIUNTIIR, and
CIIINT. Sublypos inloril llo allribulos and roIalionslips
associalod vill lloir suporlypo.
Suporlypo/sublypo roIalionslips slouId normaIIy
bo considorod in dala modoIing vill oillor (or boll) of
llo foIIoving condilions prosonl: Iirsl, lloro aro allrib-
ulos llal appIy lo somo (bul nol aII) of llo inslancos of an
onlily lypo. Socond, llo inslancos of a sublypo parlicipalo
in a roIalionslip uniquo lo llal sublypo.
Tlo loclniquos of gonoraIizalion and spociaIizalion
aro imporlanl guidos in dovoIoping suporlypo/sublypo
roIalionslips. GonoraIizalion is llo bollom-up procoss of
dofining a gonoraIizod onlily lypo from a sol of moro spo-
ciaIizod onlily lypos. SpociaIizalion is llo lop-dovn
procoss of dofining ono or moro sublypos of a suporlypo
llal las aIroady boon dofinod.
Tlo IIR nolalion aIIovs us lo capluro llo impor-
lanl businoss ruIos llal appIy lo suporlypo/sublypo roIa-
lionslips. Tlo compIolonoss conslrainl aIIovs us lo
spocify vlollor an inslanco of a suporlypo musl aIso bo a
mombor of al Ioasl ono sublypo. Tloro aro lvo casos: Will
lolaI spociaIizalion, an inslanco of llo suporlypo musl bo
a mombor of al Ioasl ono sublypo. Will parliaI spociaIiza-
lion, an inslanco of a suporlypo may or may nol bo a
mombor of any sublypo. Tlo disjoinlnoss conslrainl
aIIovs us lo spocify vlollor an inslanco of a suporlypo
may simuIlanoousIy bo a mombor of lvo or moro sub-
lypos. Again, lloro aro lvo casos. Will llo disjoinl ruIo,
an inslanco can bo a mombor of onIy ono sublypo al a
givon limo. Will llo ovorIap ruIo, an onlily inslanco can
simuIlanoousIy bo a mombor of lvo (or moro) sublypos.
A sublypo discriminalor is an allribulo of a supor-
lypo vloso vaIuos dolormino lo vlicl sublypo (or sub-
lypos) a suporlypo inslanco boIongs. Asuporlypo/sublypo
liorarcly is a liorarclicaI arrangomonl of suporlypos and
sublypos, vloro oacl sublypo las onIy ono suporlypo.
Tloro aro oxlonsions lo llo I-R nolalion ollor llan
suporlypo/sublypo roIalionslips. Ono of llo ollor usofuI
oxlonsions is aggrogalion, vlicl roprosonls lov somo
onlilios aro parl of ollor onlilios (o.g., a IC is composod of
a disI drivo, RAM, a mollorboard, olc.). Duo lo spaco
Iimilalions vo lavo nol discussod lloso oxlonsions loro.
Mosl of lloso oxlonsions, IiIo aggrogalion, aro aIso a parl
of objocl-orionlod dala modoIing, vlicl is oxpIainod in
Claplors 13 and 14.
I-R diagrams can bocomo Iargo and compIox,
incIuding lundrods of onlilios. Many usors and man-
agors do nol nood lo soo aII llo onlilios, roIalionslips, and
allribulos lo undorsland llo parl of llo dalabaso vill
Summary
Claplor 3 º Tlo Inlancod I-R ModoI 143
Allribulo inlorilanco 11¯
CompIolonoss conslrainl 121
Disjoinl ruIo 122
Disjoinlnoss conslrainl 122
Inlancod onlily-roIalionslip
(IIR) modoI 113
Chapter keview
key 1erms
Inlily cIuslor 130
GonoraIizalion 118
OvorIap ruIo 123
IarliaI spociaIizalion
ruIo 121
SpociaIizalion 11º
Sublypo 114
Sublypo discriminalor
123
Suporlypo 114
Suporlypo/sublypo
liorarcly 125
TolaI spociaIizalion
ruIo 121
UnivorsaI dala
modoI 134
keview Çuesticns
1. Dofino oacl of llo foIIoving lorms:
a. suporlypo
b. sublypo
c. spociaIizalion
d. onlily cIuslor
o. compIolonoss conslrainl
f. onlancod onlily-roIalionslip
(IIR) modoI
g. sublypo discriminalor
l. lolaI spociaIizalion ruIo
i. gonoraIizalion
j. disjoinl ruIo
I. ovorIap ruIo
I. parliaI spociaIizalion ruIo
m. univorsaI dala modoI
2. Malcl llo foIIoving lorms and dofinilions:
suporlypo
onlily cIuslor
sublypo
spociaIizalion
sublypo
discriminalor
allribulo
inlorilanco
ovorIap ruIo
3. Conlrasl llo foIIoving lorms:
a. suporlypo, sublypo
b. gonoraIizalion, spociaIizalion
c. disjoinl ruIo, ovorIap ruIo
d. lolaI spociaIizalion ruIo, parliaI spociaIizalion ruIo
o. IARTY, IARTY ROII
f. onlily, onlily cIuslor
4. Slalo lvo condilions llal indicalo vlon a dalabaso dosignor
slouId considor using suporlypo/sublypo roIalionslips.
5. Slalo llo roason for onlily cIusloring.
6. Givo an oxampIo (ollor llan lloso discussod in llo claplor)
of a suporlypo/sublypo roIalionslip.
7. Wlal is allribulo inlorilanco` Wly is il imporlanl`
8. Givo an oxampIo of oacl of llo foIIoving:
a. a suporlypo/sublypo roIalionslip vloro llo disjoinl ruIo
appIios
b. a suporlypo/sublypo roIalionslip vloro llo ovorIap
ruIo appIios
9. Wlal lypos of businoss ruIos aro normaIIy caplurod in an
IIR diagram`
10. Wlal is llo purposo of a sublypo discriminalor`
11. Wlon vouId a pacIagod dala modoI bo usofuI`
12. In vlal vays is slarling a dala modoIing projocl vill a
pacIagod dala modoI difforonl from slarling a dala modoIing
projocl vill a cIoan slool of papor`
vlicl lloy aro mosl inloroslod. Inlily cIusloring is a vay
lo lurn a parl of an onlily-roIalionslip dala modoI inlo a
moro macro-IovoI viov of llo samo dala. An onlily cIuslor
is a sol of ono or moro onlily lypos and associalod roIa-
lionslips groupod inlo a singIo abslracl onlily lypo.
SovoraI onlily cIuslors and associalod roIalionslips can bo
furllor groupod inlo ovon a liglor onlily cIuslor, so
onlily cIusloring is a liorarclicaI docomposilion locl-
niquo. By grouping onlilios and roIalionslips, you can Iay
oul an I-R diagram lo aIIov you lo givo allonlion lo llo
dolaiIs of llo modoI llal mallor mosl in a givon dala
modoIing lasI.
IacIagod dala modoIs, so caIIod univorsaI and
induslry-spocific dala modoIs, oxlonsivoIy uliIizo IIR
foaluros. Tloso gonoraIizabIo dala modoIs oflon uso muI-
lipIo IovoI suporlypo/sublypo liorarclios and associalivo
onlilios. Subjocls and llo roIos subjocls pIay aro sopa-
ralod, croaling many onlily lypos, llis compIoxily can bo
simpIifiod vlon cuslomizod for a givon organizalion,
and onlily cIuslors can bo usod lo prosonl simpIor viovs
of llo dala modoI lo difforonl audioncos.
Tlo uso of pacIagod dala modoIs can savo considor-
abIo limo and cosl in dala modoIing. Tlo sIiIIs roquirod
for a dala modoIing projocl vill a pacIagod dala modoI
aro quilo advancod and aro buiIl on llo dala modoIing
principIos covorod in llis loxl. You lavo lo considor nol
onIy curronl noods bul aIso fuluro roquiromonls lo cus-
lomizo llo gonoraI-purposo pacIago. Dala oIomonls musl
bo ronamod lo IocaI lorms, and curronl dala nood lo bo
mappod lo llo largol dalabaso dosign. Tlis mapping can
bo claIIonging duo lo various forms of mismalclos
bolvoon llo dala in curronl dalabasos vill lloso found
in llo bosl-praclicos purclasod dalabaso modoI.
IorlunaloIy, laving acluaI dala modoIs ¨rigll oul of llo
box¨ loIps lo slrucluro llo cuslomizalion procoss for
compIolonoss and oaso of communicalion vill subjocl
mallor oxporls. OvorIoadod coIumns, poor moladala, and
abusos of llo slrucluro of curronl dalabasos can maIo llo
cuslomizalion and migralion procossos claIIonging. Dala
profiIing can bo usod lo undorsland llo curronl dala and
uncovor liddon moanings and businoss ruIos in dala for
your organizalion.
a. subsol of suporlypo
b. onlily boIongs lo lvo sublypos
c. sublypo gols suporlypo allribulos
d. gonoraIizod onlily lypo
o. croaling sublypos for an onlily
lypo
f. a group of associalod onlily lypos
and roIalionslips
g. Iocalos largol sublypo for an onlily
144 Iarl II º Dalabaso AnaIysis
13. Hov can dala profiIing bo usod during a dala modoIing
projocl, ospociaIIy ono using a pacIagod dala modoI`
14. Doos a dala modoIing projocl using a pacIagod dala modoI
roquiro Ioss or groalor sIiII llan a projocl nol using a pacI-
agod dala modoI` Wly or vly nol`
15. Wlal do you purclaso vlon you acquiro a pacIagod dala
modoI`
16. Wlon migll a suporlypo/sublypo liorarcly bo usofuI`
17. Wlon is a mombor of a suporlypo aIvays a mombor of al
Ioasl ono sublypo`
FrcbIems and £xercises
1. Ixamino llo liorarcly for llo univorsily IIR diagram
(Iiguro 3-10). As a sludonl, you aro an inslanco of ono of llo
sublypos: oillor UNDIRGRAD STUDINT or GRADUATI
STUDINT. Iisl llo namos of aII llo allribulos llal appIy lo
you. Ior oacl allribulo, rocord llo dala vaIuo llal appIios
lo you.
2. Add a sublypo discriminalor for oacl of llo suporlypos
slovn in Iiguro 3-10. Slov llo discriminalor vaIuos llal
assign inslancos lo oacl sublypo. Uso llo foIIoving sublypo
discriminalor namos and vaIuos:
a. IIRSON: Iorson Typo (ImpIoyoo` AIumnus`
Sludonl`)
b. IMIIOYII: ImpIoyoo Typo (IacuIly, Slaff)
c. STUDINT: Sludonl Typo (Grad, Undorgrad)
3. Ior simpIicily, sublypo discriminalors voro Iofl off many
figuros in llis claplor. Add sublypo discriminalor nolalion
in oacl figuro Iislod boIov. If nocossary, croalo a nov allrib-
ulo for llo discriminalor.
a. Iiguro 3-2
b. Iiguro 3-3
c. Iiguro 3-4b
d. Iiguro 3-7a
o. Iiguro 3-7b
4. Rofor lo llo ompIoyoo IIR diagram in Iiguro 3-2. MaIo any
assumplions llal you boIiovo aro nocossary. DovoIop a
sampIo dofinilion for oacl onlily lypo, allribulo, and roIa-
lionslip in llo diagram.
5. Rofor lo llo IIR diagram for palionls in Iiguro 3-3. MaIo
any assumplions you boIiovo aro nocossary. DovoIop sampIo
dofinilions for oacl onlily lypo, allribulo, and roIalionslip
in llo diagram.
6. Iiguro 3-13 slovs llo dovoIopmonl of onlily cIuslors for llo
Iino VaIIoy Iurniluro I-R diagram. In Iiguro 3-13b, oxpIain
llo foIIoving:
a. Wly is llo minimum cardinaIily noxl lo llo DOIS
BUSINISS IN associalivo onlily coming from CUS-
TOMIR zoro`
b. Wlal vouId bo llo allribulos of ITIM (rofor lo
Iiguro 2-22)`
c. Wlal vouId bo llo allribulos of MATIRIAI (rofor lo
Iiguro 2-22)`
7. AronlaI car agoncy cIassifios llo volicIos il ronls inlo four cal-
ogorios: compacl, midsizo, fuII-sizo, and sporl uliIily. Tlo
agoncy vanls lo rocord llo foIIoving dala for aII volicIos:
VolicIo ID, MaIo, ModoI, Yoar, and CoIor. Tloro aro no uniquo
allribulos for any of llo four cIassos of volicIo. Tlo onlily lypo
volicIo las a roIalionslip (namod Ronls) vill a cuslomor
onlily lypo. Nono of llo four volicIo cIassos las a uniquo roIa-
lionslip vill an onlily lypo. WouId you considor croaling
a suporlypo/sublypo roIalionslip for llis probIom` Wly
or vly nol`
8. Al a vooIond rolroal, llo onlily lypo IIRSON las llroo
sublypos: CAMIIR, BIKIR, and RUNNIR. Drav a
soparalo IIR diagram sogmonl for oacl of llo foIIoving
silualions:
a. Al a givon limo, a porson musl bo oxaclIy ono of lloso
sublypos.
b. A porson may or may nol bo ono of lloso sublypos.
Hovovor, a porson vlo is ono of lloso sublypos cannol
al llo samo limo bo ono of llo ollor sublypos.
c. A porson may or may nol bo ono of lloso sublypos. On
llo ollor land, a porson may bo any lvo (or ovon llroo)
of lloso sublypos al llo samo limo.
d. Al a givon limo, a porson musl bo al Ioasl ono of lloso
sublypos.
9. A banI las llroo lypos of accounls: clocIing, savings, and
Ioan. IoIIoving aro llo allribulos for oacl lypo of accounl:
CHICKING: Accl No, Dalo Oponod, BaIanco, Sorvico
Clargo
SAVINGS: Accl No, Dalo Oponod, BaIanco, Inlorosl Ralo
IOAN: Accl No, Dalo Oponod, BaIanco, Inlorosl Ralo,
Iaymonl
Assumo llal oacl banI accounl musl bo a mombor of
oxaclIy ono of lloso sublypos. Using gonoraIizalion,
dovoIop an IIR modoI sogmonl lo roprosonl llis silualion
using llo lradilionaI IIR nolalion, llo Visio nolalion, or llo
sublypos insido suporlypos nolalion, as spocifiod by your
inslruclor. Romombor lo incIudo a sublypo discriminalor.
10. Rofor lo your ansvor lo IrobIom and Ixorciso 20 in Claplor 2.
DovoIop onlily cIuslors for llis I-R diagram and rodrav llo
diagram using llo onlily cIuslors. IxpIain vly you closo llo
onlily cIuslors you usod.
11. Rofor lo your ansvor lo IrobIom and Ixorciso 23 in Claplor 2.
DovoIop onlily cIuslors for llis I-R diagram and rodrav llo
diagram using llo onlily cIuslors. IxpIain vly you closo
llo onlily cIuslors you usod.
12. Drav an IIR diagram for llo foIIoving probIom using llis
loxlbooI's IIR nolalion, llo Visio nolalion, or llo sublypos
insido suporlypos nolalion, as spocifiod by your inslruclor.
A nonprofil organizalion doponds on a numbor of
difforonl lypos of porsons for ils succossfuI oporalion. Tlo
organizalion is inloroslod in llo foIIoving allribulos for aII
of lloso porsons: SSN, Namo, Addross, Cily/Slalo/Zip,
and ToIoplono. Tlroo lypos of porsons aro of groalosl
inlorosl: ompIoyoos, voIunloors, and donors. ImpIoyoos
lavo onIy a Dalo Hirod allribulo, and voIunloors lavo
onIy a SIiII allribulo. Donors lavo onIy a roIalionslip
(namod Donalos) vill an Ilom onlily lypo. A donor musl
lavo donalod ono or moro iloms, and an ilom may lavo
no donors, or ono or moro donors.
Tloro aro porsons ollor llan ompIoyoos, voIunloors,
and donors vlo aro of inlorosl lo llo organizalion, so llal
a porson nood nol boIong lo any of lloso llroo groups. On
llo ollor land, al a givon limo a porson may boIong lo
lvo or moro of lloso groups (o.g., ompIoyoo and donor).
Claplor 3 º Tlo Inlancod I-R ModoI 145
13. Add a sublypo discriminalor (namod Iorson Typo) lo llo
diagram you croalod in IrobIom and Ixorciso 12.
14. DovoIop an IIR modoI for llo foIIoving silualion, using
llo lradilionaI IIR nolalion, llo Visio nolalion, or llo sub-
lypos insido suporlypos nolalion, as spocifiod by your
inslruclor:
A porson may bo ompIoyod by ono or moro organiza-
lions, and oacl organizalion may bo llo ompIoyor of
ono or moro porsons. An organizalion can bo an inlornaI
organizalionaI unil or an oxlornaI organizalion. Ior por-
sons and organizalions, vo vanl lo Inov lloir ID,
namo, addross, and plono numbor. Ior porsons, vo
vanl lo Inov lloir birll dalo, and for organizalions, vo
vanl lo Inov lloir budgol numbor. Ior oacl ompIoy-
monl, vo vanl lo Inov llo ompIoymonl dalo, lormina-
lion dalo, and bonus.
ImpIoymonl of a porson by an organizalion may
rosuIl in llo porson loIding many posilions ovor limo.
Ior oacl posilion, vo vanl lo Inov ils lilIo, and oacl
limo somoono loIds llal posilion, vo nood lo Inov llo
slarl dalo and lorminalion dalo and saIary. An organiza-
lion is rosponsibIo for oacl posilion. Il is possibIo for a
porson lo bo ompIoyod by ono organizalion and loId a
posilion for vlicl anollor organizalion is rosponsibIo.
15. Drav an IIR diagram for llo foIIoving doscriplion of a
Iav firm:
Iacl caso landIod by llo firm las a uniquo caso num-
bor, a dalo oponod, dalo cIosod, and judgmonl doscrip-
lion aro aIso Iopl on oacl caso. A caso is brougll by ono
or moro pIainliffs, and llo samo pIainliff may bo
invoIvod in many casos. ApIainliff las a roquoslod judg-
monl claraclorislic. Acaso is againsl ono or moro dofon-
danls and llo samo dofondanl may bo invoIvod in many
casos. A pIainliff or dofondanl may bo a porson or an
organizalion. Ovor limo, llo samo porson or organiza-
lion may bo a dofondanl or a pIainliff in casos. In oillor
silualion, sucl IogaI onlilios aro idonlifiod by an onlily
numbor, and ollor allribulos aro namo and nol vorll.
16. DovoIop an IIR modoI for llo foIIoving silualion using
llo lradilionaI IIR nolalion, llo Visio nolalion, or llo
sublypos insido suporlypos nolalion, as spocifiod by your
inslruclor:
An inlornalionaI sclooI of loclnoIogy las lirod you lo
croalo a dalabaso managomonl syslom lo assisl in sclod-
uIing cIassos. Aflor sovoraI inlorviovs vill llo prosi-
donl, you lavo como up vill llo foIIoving Iisl of
onlilios, allribulos, and iniliaI businoss ruIos:
- Room is idonlifiod by BuiIding ID and Room No
and aIso las a Capacily. A room can bo oillor a Iab
or a cIassroom. If il is a cIassroom, il las an addi-
lionaI allribulo caIIod Board Typo.
- Modia is idonlifiod by MTypo ID and las allribulos
of Modia Typo and Typo Doscriplion. Nolo: Horo vo
aro lracIing lypo of modia (sucl as a VCR, projoclor,
olc.), nol llo individuaI pioco of oquipmonl. TracIing
of oquipmonl is oulsido of llo scopo of llis projocl.
- Compulor is idonlifiod by CTypo ID and las allrib-
ulos Compulor Typo, Typo Doscriplion, DisI
Capacily, and Irocossor Spood. IIoaso nolo: As vill
Modia Typo, vo aro lracIing onIy llo lypo of
compulor, nol an individuaI compulor. You can llinI
of llis as a cIass of compulors (o.g., IIII 900MHZ).
- Inslruclor las idonlifior Imp ID and las allribulos
Namo, RanI, and Offico Ilono.
- TimosIol las idonlifior TSIS and las allribulos Day
Of WooI, Slarl Timo, and Ind Timo.
- Courso las idonlifior Courso ID and las allribulos
Courso Doscriplion and Crodils. Coursos can lavo
ono, nono, or many proroquisilos. Coursos aIso lavo
ono or moro soclions.
- Soclion las idonlifior Soclion ID and allribulo
InroIImonl Iimil.
Aflor somo furllor discussions, you lavo como up vill
somo addilionaI businoss ruIos lo loIp you croalo llo
iniliaI dosign:
- An inslruclor loaclos ono, nono, or many soclions of
a courso in a givon somoslor.
- An inslruclor spocifios proforrod limo sIols.
- ScloduIing dala aro Iopl for oacl somoslor,
uniquoIy idonlifiod by somoslor and yoar.
- Aroom can bo scloduIod for ono soclion or no soclion
during ono limo sIol in a givon somoslor of a givon
yoar. Hovovor, ono room can parlicipalo in many
scloduIos, ono scloduIo, or no scloduIos, ono limo sIol
can parlicipalo in many scloduIos, ono scloduIo, or no
scloduIos, ono soclion can parlicipalo in many sclod-
uIos, ono scloduIo, or no scloduIos. Hinl: Can you
associalo llis lo anylling llal you lavo soon boforo`
- Aroom can lavo ono lypo of modia, sovoraI lypos of
modia, or no modia.
- Inslruclors aro lrainod lo uso ono, nono, or many
lypos of modia.
- A Iab las ono or moro compulor lypos. Hovovor, a
cIassroom doos nol lavo any compulors.
- A room cannol bo boll a cIassroom and a Iab. Tloro
aIso aro no ollor room lypos lo bo incorporalod inlo
llo syslom.
17. DovoIop an IIR modoI for llo foIIoving silualion using
llo lradilionaI IIR nolalion, llo Visio nolalion, or llo sub-
lypos insido suporlypos nolalion, as spocifiod by your
inslruclor:
WaIIy Ios Galos and lis parlnor Honry Clordalo lavo
formod a nov Iimilod parlnorslip, Iin and IinicIy
Socurily ConsuIlanls. Iin and IinicIy consuIls vill cor-
poralions lo dolormino lloir socurily noods. You lavo
boon lirod by WaIIy and Honry lo dosign a dalabaso
managomonl syslom lo loIp llom manago lloir businoss.
Duo lo a roconl incroaso in businoss, Iin and IinicIy
las docidod lo aulomalo lloir cIionl lracIing syslom.
You and your loam lavo dono a proIiminary anaIysis
and como up vill llo foIIoving sol of onlilios, allrib-
ulos, and businoss ruIos:
CnnsuItant
Tloro aro lvo lypos of consuIlanls: businoss consuIl-
anls and loclnicaI consuIlanls. Businoss consuIlanls
aro conlaclod by a businoss in ordor lo firsl dolormino
socurily noods and provido an oslimalo for llo acluaI
sorvicos lo bo porformod. ToclnicaI consuIlanls por-
form sorvicos according lo llo spocificalions dovoI-
opod by llo businoss consuIlanls.
146 Iarl II º Dalabaso AnaIysis
Allribulos of businoss consuIlanl aro llo foIIoving:
ImpIoyoo ID (idonlifior), Namo, Addross (vlicl is com-
posod of Slrool, Cily, Slalo, and Zip Codo), ToIoplono,
Dalo Of Birll, Ago, Businoss Ixporionco (vlicl is com-
posod of Numbor of Yoars, Typo of Businoss |or busi-
nossos], and Dogroos Rocoivod).
Allribulos of loclnicaI consuIlanl aro llo foIIoving:
ImpIoyoo ID (idonlifior), Namo, Addross (vlicl is com-
posod of Slrool, Cily, Slalo, and Zip Codo), ToIoplono, Dalo
Of Birll, Ago, ToclnicaI SIiIIs, and Dogroos Rocoivod.
Custnmer
Cuslomors aro businossos llal lavo asIod for consuIling
sorvicos. Allribulos of cuslomor aro Cuslomor ID (idon-
lifior), Company Namo, Addross (vlicl is composod of
Slrool, Cily, Slalo, and Zip Codo), Conlacl Namo,
Conlacl TilIo, Conlacl ToIoplono, Businoss Typo, and
Numbor Of ImpIoyoos.
Lncatinn
Cuslomors can lavo muIlipIo Iocalions. Allribulos of
Iocalion aro Cuslomor ID (idonlifior), Iocalion ID
(vlicl is uniquo onIy for oacl Cuslomor ID), Addross
(vlicl is composod of Slrool, Cily, Slalo, and Zip
Codo), ToIoplono, and BuiIding Sizo.
Service
A socurily sorvico is porformod for a cuslomor al ono or
moro Iocalions. Boforo sorvicos aro porformod, an osli-
malo is proparod. Allribulos of sorvico aro Sorvico ID
(idonlifior), Doscriplion, Cosl, Covorago, and CIoaranco
Roquirod.
AdditinnaI Business RuIes
In addilion lo llo onlilios oulIinod proviousIy, llo foI-
Ioving informalion viII nood lo bo slorod lo labIos and
slouId bo slovn in llo modoI. Tloso may bo onlilios,
bul lloy aIso rofIocl a roIalionslip bolvoon moro llan
ono onlily:
- Islimalos, vlicl lavo claraclorislics of Dalo, Amounl,
Businoss ConsuIlanl, Sorvicos, and Cuslomor
- Sorvicos Iorformod, vlicl lavo claraclorislics of
Dalo, Amounl, ToclnicaI ConsuIlanl, Sorvicos, and
Cuslomor
In ordor lo conslrucl llo IIR diagram, you may assumo
llo foIIoving:
A cuslomor can lavo many consuIlanls providing
many sorvicos. You visl lo lracI boll acluaI sorv-
icos porformod as voII as sorvicos offorod. Tloroforo,
lloro slouId bo lvo roIalionslips bolvoon cus-
lomor, sorvico, and consuIlanl, ono lo slov sorvicos
porformod and ono lo slov sorvicos offorod as parl
of llo oslimalo.
18. Basod on llo IIR diagram conslruclod for IrobIom and
Ixorciso 17, dovoIop a sampIo dofinilion for oacl onlily
lypo, allribulo, and roIalionslip in llo diagram.
19. You aro vorIing for a Iargo counlry cIub. Tlis counlry
cIub vanls lo Ioop a dalabaso on ils mombors and lloir
guosls. Ior oacl mombor, llo cIub Ioops maiI and loIo-
plono conlacl informalion, namo, and momborslip num-
bor. Wlon you join llis cIub, you can join as a sociaI
mombor (vlicl aIIovs you lvo rounds of goIf a yoar as
voII as priviIogos lo llo svimming pooI and voigll
room), a lonnis mombor (vlicl aIIovs you aII llo privi-
Iogos of a sociaI mombor as voII as uso of llo lonnis courls
and four rounds of goIf), or a goIfing mombor (vlicl
aIIovs you aII llo priviIogos of a lonnis mombor and
unIimilod uso of llo goIf courso). Tlis dalabaso noods lo
lracI lov oflon a mombor (vlo las Iimilod uso of llo goIf
courso, aII goIfing mombors lavo unIimilod uso of llo goIf
courso) las usod llo goIf courso, and lov many guosls
any and oacl mombor las brougll lo llo cIub. AII mom-
bors lavo guosl priviIogos. Tlo cIub aIso vanls lo allracl
nov mombors by maiIing lo aII lloso vlo camo lo llo cIub
as guosls and Iivo in llo slalo. Tlo maiIing incIudos infor-
malion aboul lloir visils (i.o., dalo of visil and vlicl mom-
bor vas lloir losl for oacl visil). Onco a porson bocomos a
mombor of any lypo, informalion aboul llom as guosls is
no Iongor imporlanl lo rolain. DovoIop an IIR diagram for
llis silualion.
20. Drav an IIR diagram for llo foIIoving silualion:
TomKal Inlorlainmonl is a clain of lloalors ovnod
by formor lusband and vifo aclors/onlorlainors
vlo, for somo roason, can'l gol a job porforming any-
moro. Tlo ovnors vanl a dalabaso lo lracI vlal is
pIaying or las pIayod on oacl scroon in oacl lloalor
of lloir clain al difforonl limos of llo day. A lloalor
(idonlifiod by a Tloalor ID and doscribod by a lloalor
namo and Iocalion) conlains ono or moro scroons for
vioving various movios. Willin oacl lloalor oacl
scroon is idonlifiod by ils numbor and is doscribod by
llo soaling capacily for vioving llo scroon. Movios
aro scloduIod for sloving in limo sIols oacl day.
Iacl scroon can lavo difforonl limo sIols on difforonl
days (i.o., nol aII scroons in llo samo lloalor lavo
movios slarling al llo samo limo, and ovon on diffor-
onl days llo samo movio may pIay al difforonl limos
on llo samo scroon). Ior oacl limo sIol, llo ovnors
aIso vanl lo Inov llo ond limo of llo limo sIol (assumo
aII sIols ond on llo samo day llo sIol bogins), allon-
danco during llal limo sIol, and llo prico clargod for
allondanco in llal limo sIol. Iacl movio (vlicl can
bo oillor a lraiIor, foaluro, or commorciaI) is idonli-
fiod by a Movio ID and furllor doscribod by ils lilIo,
duralion, and lypo (i.o., lraiIor, foaluro, or commor-
ciaI). In oacl limo sIol, ono or moro movios aro
slovn. Tlo ovnors vanl lo aIso Ioop lracI of in
vlal soquonco llo movios aro slovn (o.g., in a limo
sIol lloro migll bo lvo lraiIors, foIIovod by lvo
commorciaIs, foIIovod by a foaluro fiIm, and cIosod
vill anollor commorciaI).
21. Add llo foIIoving lo Iiguro 3-16: an IMIIOYMINT parly
roIalionslip is furllor oxpIainod by llo posilions and
assignmonls lo posilions during llo limo a porson is
ompIoyod. A posilion is dofinod by an organizalion unil,
and a unil may dofino many posilions ovor limo. Ovor limo,
posilions aro assignod lo various ompIoymonl roIalionslips
(i.o., somobody ompIoyod by somo organizalion unil is
assignod a parlicuIar posilion). Ior oxampIo, a posilion of
Businoss AnaIysl is dofinod by llo Sysloms DovoIopmonl
organizalion unil. CarI Gorbor, vliIo ompIoyod by llo Dala
Warolousing organizalion unil, is assignod llo posilion of
Sysloms AnaIysl. In llo spiril of univorsaI dala modoIing,
onlanco Iiguro 3-16 for llo mosl gonoraI caso consislonl
vill llis doscriplion.
Claplor 3 º Tlo Inlancod I-R ModoI 147
FieId £xercises
1. Inlorviov a friond or famiIy mombor lo oIicil common
oxampIos of suporlypo/sublypo roIalionslips lloy may
como inlo conlacl vill al vorI. You viII lavo lo oxpIain llo
moaning of llis lorm lo llo porson you aro inlorvioving and
provido a common oxampIo, sucl as IROIIRTY: RISI-
DINTIAI, COMMIRCIAI or BONDS: CORIORATI,
MUNICIIAI. Uso llo informalion llo porson providos lo
conslrucl an IIR diagram sogmonl and prosonl il lo llo por-
son. Roviso, if nocossary, unliI il sooms approprialo lo you
and your friond or famiIy mombor.
2. Visil lvo IocaI smaII businossos, ono in llo sorvico soclor
and ono in manufacluring. Inlorviov ompIoyoos from lloso
organizalions lo oblain oxampIos of boll suporlypo/sublypo
roIalionslips and businoss ruIos (sucl as ¨A cuslomor can
rolurn morclandiso onIy vill a vaIid saIos sIip¨). In vlicl
of lloso onvironmonls is il oasior lo find oxampIos of lloso
conslrucls` Wly`
3. AsI a dalabaso adminislralor or dalabaso or syslom anaIysl
in a IocaI company lo slov you an IIR (or I-R) diagram for
ono of llo organizalion's primary dalabasos. Doos llis
organizalion modoI lavo suporlypo/sublypo roIalionslips`
If so, vlal nolalion is usod, and doos llo CASI looI llo
company usos supporl lloso roIalionslips` AIso, vlal
lypos of businoss ruIos aro incIudod during llo IIR modoI-
ing plaso` Hov aro businoss ruIos roprosonlod, and lov
and vloro aro lloy slorod`
4. Road llo summary of businoss ruIos pubIislod by llo
GUIDI Businoss RuIos Irojocl (1997) and llo arlicIo by
Gollosdionor (1997). Soarcl llo Wob for addilionaI infor-
malion on businoss ruIos. Tlon vrilo a llroo-pago oxocu-
livo summary of curronl diroclions in businoss ruIos and
lloir polonliaI impacl on sysloms dovoIopmonl and
mainlonanco.
5. Rosoarcl univorsaI dala modoIs. Iind arlicIos on univorsaI
(or pacIagod, induslry, or funclionaI aroa) dala modoIs, or
find informalion on somo commorciaI offorings. Idonlify
common foaluros across lloso modoIs as voII as difforonl
vays lo modoI llo samo concopls. Discuss vlal you llinI
aro llo advanlagos and disadvanlagos of llo difforonl vays
usod lo modoI llo samo concopls.
keferences
IImasri, R., and S. B. Navallo. 1994. Iun!cmcnic|s c| Dcic|csc
Sµsicms. MonIo IarI, CA: Bonjamin/Cummings.
Gollosdionor, I. 1997. ¨Businoss RuIos Slov Iovor, Iromiso.¨
App|icciicn Dctc|cpmcni 1rcn!s 4,3 (Marcl): 36÷54.
GUIDI. 1997 (Oclobor). ¨GUIDI Businoss RuIos Irojocl.¨ IinaI
Roporl, rovision 1.2.
Hay, D. C. 1996. Dcic Mc!c| Pciicrns. Ccntcniicns c| 1|cug|i.
Nov YorI: Dorsol Houso IubIisling.
Hoborman, S. 2006. ¨Induslry IogicaI Dala ModoIs.¨ 1crc!cic
Mcgczinc. AvaiIabIo al www.teradata.cnm.
Hoffor, }. A., }. I. Goorgo, and }. S. VaIacicl. 2010. Mc!crn Sµsicms
Anc|µsis cn! Dcsign, 6ll od. Uppor SaddIo Rivor, N}:
Ironlico HaII.
SiIvorslon, I. 1998. ¨Is Your Organizalion Too Uniquo lo Uso
UnivorsaI Dala ModoIs`¨ DM Rcticu 8,8 (Soplombor),
accossod al www.inInrmatinn-management.cnm/issues/
19980901/425-1.htmI.
SiIvorslon, I. 2001a. 1|c Dcic Mc!c| Rcscurcc 8cc|, Vc|umc 1,
Rov. od. Nov YorI: WiIoy.
SiIvorslon, I. 2001b. 1|c Dcic Mc!c| Rcscurcc 8cc|, Vc|umc 2,
Rov. od. Nov YorI: WiIoy.
SiIvorslon, I. 2002. ¨A UnivorsaI Dala ModoI for
RoIalionslip DovoIopmonl.¨ DM Rcticu 12,3 (Marcl):
44÷47, 65.
Tooroy, T. 1999. Dcic|csc Mc!c|ing c Dcsign. San Irancisco:
Morgan Kaufman IubIislors.
Further keading
Iryo, C. 2002. ¨Businoss RuIos Aro BacI.¨ App|icciicn Dctc|cpmcni
1rcn!s 9, 7 (}uIy): 29÷35.
Moriarly, T. ¨Using Sconarios in Informalion ModoIing:
Bringing Businoss RuIos lo Iifo.¨ Dcic|csc Prcgrcmming c
Dcsign 6, 8 (Augusl): 65÷67.
Ross, R. G. 1997. 1|c 8usincss Ru|c 8cc|. Vorsion 4. Boslon:
Businoss RuIo SoIulions, Inc.
Ross, R. G. 1998. 8usincss Ru|c Ccnccpis. 1|c Ncu Mcc|cnics c|
8usincss |n|crmciicn Sµsicms. Boslon: Businoss RuIo
SoIulions, Inc.
Ross, R. G. 2003. Princip|cs c| i|c 8usincss Ru|c Apprccc|. Boslon:
Addison-WosIoy.
Sclmidl, B. 1997. ¨A Taxonomy of Domains.¨ Dcic|csc
Prcgrcmming c Dcsign 10, 9 (Soplombor): 95, 96, 98, 99.
SiIvorslon, I. 2002. SiIvorslon las a sorios of arlicIos in DM Rcticu
llal discuss univorsaI dala modoIs in difforonl sollings. Soo
in parlicuIar VoI. 12 issuos 1 (}anuary) on cIicIslroam
anaIysis, 5 (May) on loaIll caro, 7 (}uIy) on financiaI sorv-
icos, and 12 (Docombor) on manufacluring.
von HaIIo, B. 1996. ¨Objocl-Orionlod Iossons.¨ Dcic|csc
Prcgrcmming c Dcsign 9,1 (}anuary): 13÷16.
von HaIIo, B. 2001. von HaIIo las a sorios of arlicIos in DM
Rcticu on buiIding a businoss ruIos syslom. Tloso arlicIos
aro in VoI. 11, issuos 1÷5 (}anuary÷May).
von HaIIo, B., and R. KapIan. 1997. ¨Is IT IaIIing Slorl`¨
Dcic|csc Prcgrcmming c Dcsign 10, 6 (}uno): 15÷17.
148 Iarl II º Dalabaso AnaIysis
Web kescurces
www.adtmag.cnm Wob silo of App|icciicn Dctc|cpmcni 1rcn!s,
a Ioading pubIicalion on llo praclico of informalion sys-
loms dovoIopmonl.
www.brsnIutinns.cnm Wob silo of Businoss RuIo SoIulions, llo
consuIling company of RonaId Ross, a Ioador in llo dovoI-
opmonl of a businoss ruIo mollodoIogy. Or you can clocI
oul www.BRCnmmunity.cnm, vlicl is a virluaI commu-
nily silo for poopIo inloroslod in businoss ruIos (spon-
sorod by Businoss RuIo SoIulions).
www.businessruIesgrnup.nrg Wob silo of llo Businoss RuIos
Group, formorIy parl of GUIDI InlornalionaI, vlicl for-
muIalos and supporls slandards aboul businoss ruIos.
www.databaseanswers.nrg/data_mndeIs Afascinaling silo llal
slovs ovor 100 sampIo I-R diagrams for a vido varioly of
appIicalions and organizalions. A varioly of nolalions aro
usod, so llis a good silo lo aIso Ioarn aboul varialions in
I-R diagramming.
www.inteIIigententerprise.cnm Wob silo of |nic||igcni |nicrprisc,
a Ioading pubIicalion on dalabaso managomonl and
roIalod aroas. Tlis magazino is llo rosuIl of combining
lvo provious pubIicalions, Dcic|csc Prcgrcmming c Dcsign
and D8MS.
www.kpiusa.cnm Tlo lomopago for KnovIodgo Iarlnors
InlornalionaI, foundod by Barbara von HaIIo. Tlis silo las
somo inlorosling caso sludios and vlilo papors aboul
businoss ruIos.
http://researchIibrary.theserverside.net/detaiI/RES/1214505974_136
.htmI IinI lo llo vlilo papor ¨ModoIing Unslruclurod
Dala¨ by Slovo Hoborman. Unslruclurod dala (o.g., o-maiIs,
imagos, sounds) is an omorging aroa for dalabasos, and
lloro aro somo spociaI issuos in dala modoIing for
unslruclurod dala.
www.tdan.cnm Wob silo of 1|c Dcic A!minisirciicn Ncus|ciicr,
vlicl roguIarIy pubIislos nov arlicIos, spociaI roporls,
and novs on a varioly of dala modoIing and adminislra-
lion lopics.
www.teradatastudentnetwnrk.cnm Wob silo for Toradala
Sludonl NolvorI, a froo rosourco for a vido varioly of
informalion aboul dalabaso managomonl and roIalod lop-
ics. Go lo llis silo and soarcl on ¨onlily roIalionslip¨ lo
soo many arlicIos and assignmonls roIalod lo IIR dala
modoIing.
Claplor 3 º Tlo Inlancod I-R ModoI 149
CAS£
Mountain view Community hospitaI
Case Descriptinn
Aflor dovoIoping a proIiminary I-R modoI and discussing il
vill llo rosl of your loam, you roaIizo llal you nood lo doIvo
doopor inlo llo inlorviov nolos and documonlalion you
oblainod lo add moro dolaiI lo llo modoI and possibIy add onli-
lios and roIalionslips you lad ovorIooIod. SovoraI issuos nood
lo bo addrossod.
As a Iargo sorvico organizalion, Mounlain Viov
Communily HospilaI (MVCH) doponds on four major groups
of porsons for ils conlinuod succoss: ompIoyoos, plysicians,
palionls, and voIunloors. A smaII numbor of porsons in llo
lospilaI communily do nol boIong lo any of lloso four groups.
A parlicuIar porson may boIong lo lvo (or moro) of lloso
groups al a givon limo. Ior oxampIo, a voIunloor or ompIoyoo
may aIso bo a palionl al llo lospilaI al somo poinl in limo.
Tlo four groups of poopIo Iislod proviousIy slaro many
common claraclorislics sucl as a uniquo idonlifior, Namo,
Addross, Cily/Slalo/Zip, Birll Dalo, Ilono, and I-maiI. Tlon
lloro aro claraclorislics llal appIy lo onIy ono of lloso groups.
Ior oxampIo, a liro dalo (Dalo Hirod) is rocordod for ompIoyoos
onIy. VoIunloor Sorvicos rocords sIiIIs and inlorosls of lloir voI-
unloors in ordor lo pIaco llom approprialoIy. Ilysicians lavo
a pagor numbor (Iagor#) and a DIAnumbor (a plysician noods
a DIA rogislralion numbor from llo Drug Inforcomonl
Adminislralion lo bo abIo lo proscribo conlroIIod subslancos).
Ior palionls, llo lospilaI rocords llo dalo of firsl conlacl vill
llo lospilaI (Conlacl Dalo). Tloro aro aIso claraclorislics llal
appIy lo somo, bul nol aII of llo groups. Ior oxampIo, boll
plysicians and nursos lavo a spociaIly (o.g., podialrics, oncoI-
ogy, olc.).
In addilion lo llo claraclorislics aIroady monlionod, llo
lospilaI rocords a numbor of ollor claraclorislics aboul ils
palionls: omorgoncy conlacl informalion (Iasl and firsl namo,
roIalionslip lo palionl, addross, and plono), insuranco informa-
lion (insuranco company namo, poIicy numbor, group numbor,
and insuranco plono numbor), informalion aboul llo insuranco
subscribor in caso llo palionl is nol llo insuranco subscribor
(Iasl and firsl namo, roIalionslip lo palionl, addross, and
plono), and conlacl informalion for llo palionl's primary caro
plysician or ollor plysician vlo roforrod llo palionl lo llo
lospilaI.
Al MVCH, oacl palionl las ono (and onIy ono) plysi-
cian rosponsibIo for llal palionl. A givon plysician may nol
bo rosponsibIo for a palionl al a givon limo or may bo rospon-
sibIo for ono or moro palionls. Tlo primary palionl sogmonls
aro rosidonl palionls and oulpalionls. Oulpalionls may como
in for many roasons, incIuding roulino oxaminalions al an
oulpalionl caro conlor (o.g., llo MS Conlor), ambuIalory/oul-
palionl surgory, diagnoslic sorvicos, or omorgoncy room caro.
Iacl oulpalionl is scloduIod for zoro or moro visils. A visil
las sovoraI allribulos: a uniquo idonlifior (Visil#), dalo, and
limo. Nolico llal an inslanco of visil cannol oxisl villoul an
oulpalionl ovnor onlily. Somo palionls llal aro soon as oulpa-
lionls, for oxampIo, in llo omorgoncy room, aro subsoquonlIy
admillod lo llo lospilaI and bocomo rosidonl palionls. Iacl
rosidonl palionl las a Dalo Admillod allribulo as voII as a
Disclargo Dalo.
Tlo voIunloor appIicalion form in MVCH Iiguro 3-1
slovs aII llo informalion llal VoIunloor Sorvicos undor Mr.
Davis roquiros from porsons inloroslod in voIunlooring.
VoIunloors vorI in many aroas of llo lospilaI basod on lloir
inlorosls and sIiIIs. VoIunloor Sorvicos Ioops lracI of a porson's
limo of sorvico (bogin and ond dalo), vorI unil vloro a porson
vorIs as a voIunloor, and llo voIunloor's suporvisor. Iacl voI-
unloor is suporvisod by an ompIoyoo or plysician, bul nol aII
ompIoyoos and plysicians suporviso voIunloors. VoIunloor
Sorvicos aIso Ioop lracI of a voIunloor's numbor of lours
vorIod and rocognizos oulslanding voIunloors al an annuaI
avards coromony.
ImpIoyoos faII inlo llroo calogorios: nursos, loclnicians,
and slaff. Iacl nurso las a corlificalo/dogroo indicaling lis or
lor quaIificalion as an RN or IIN. (IINs vorI undor llo diroc-
lion of RNs al MVCH.) Iacl nurso musl aIso lavo a curronl
CoIorado nursing Iiconso and may loId corlificalions in spociaI
fioIds sucl as diaIysis, podialrics, anosllosia, crilicaI caro, pain
managomonl, and so on. Mosl nursos aro assignod lo ono (and
onIy ono) caro conlor al a limo, aIllougl ovor limo, lloy may bo
vorIing in moro llan ono caro conlor. Somo nursos aro fIoalors
vlo aro nol assignod lo a spocific caro conlor bul insload vorI
vlorovor lloy aro noodod. As doscribod oarIior, ono of llo
nursos assignod lo a caro conlor is appoinlod nurso-in-clargo
(Nurso In Clargo). OnIy nursos vill an RN corlificalo can
bo appoinlod nurso-in-clargo.
Spocific job-roIalod compoloncy sIiIIs aro rocordod for llo
lospilaI's loclnicians. A cardiovascuIar loclnician for oxampIo
may bo sIiIIod in spocific oquipmonl, sucl as solling up and
golling roadings from a HoIlor monilor, a porlabIo dovico llal
monilors a palionl's IKG for a poriod of 24 lo 48 lours during
roulino aclivilios. ModicaI Iaboralory loclnicians nood lo bo
abIo lo sol up, oporalo, and conlroI oquipmonl, porform a vari-
oly of losls, anaIyzo llo losl dala, and summarizo losl rosuIls for
plysicians vlo uso llom lo diagnoso and lroal palionls.
Imorgoncy room loclnicians' sIiIIs incIudo llo abiIily lo por-
form CIR, or sol up an IV. DiaIysis loclnicians, vlo may bo
sIiIIod in difforonl lypos of diaIysis, (o.g., podialric diaIysis, oul-
palionl diaIysis) nood a varioly of sIiIIs roIalod lo solling up
lroalmonl, assossing llo palionl during diaIysis, and assossing
and lroubIoslooling oquipmonl probIoms during diaIysis. Iacl
loclnician is assignod lo a vorI unil in llo lospilaI (a caro con-
lor, llo conlraI modicaI Iaboralory, radioIogy, olc.).
Slaff mombors lavo a job cIassificalion (}ob CIass), sucl as
socrolary, adminislralivo assislanl, admilling spociaIisl, coIIoc-
lion spociaIisl, and so on. IiIo llo loclnicians, oacl slaff mom-
bor is assignod lo a vorI unil in llo lospilaI (a caro conlor, llo
conlraI modicaI Iaboralory, radioIogy, olc.).
WorI unils sucl as a caro conlor lavo a Namo (idonlifior)
and Iocalion. Tlo Iocalion donolos llo faciIily (o.g., main buiId-
ing) and fIoor (o.g., 3 Wosl, 2 Soull). Acaro conlor oflon las ono
or moro bods (up lo any numbor) assignod lo il, bul lloro aro
aIso caro conlors villoul assignod bods. Tlo onIy allribulo of bod
is llo idonlifior Bod ID, vlicl consisls of lvo compononls: Bod#
150 Iarl II º Dalabaso AnaIysis
and Room#. Iacl rosidonl palionl musl bo assignod lo a bod.
Bocauso MVCH doosn'l aIvays fiII aII ils bods, a bod may or
may nol lavo a rosidonl palionl assignod lo il al a givon limo.
Case Questinns
1. Is llo abiIily lo modoI suporlypo/sublypo roIalionslips
imporlanl in a lospilaI onvironmonl sucl as MVCH` Wly
or vly nol`
Mountain View Community HospitaI
VOLUNTEER APPLICATION
Last Name First Name Date of Birth
Street Address City State Zip
Home Phone: Work Phone E-Mail
Have you been convicted of a felony within the past seven years?
NO YES Ìf YES, please explain
Emergency Contact Last Name First Name
Relationship Phone:
References (Not Relatives)
Last Name Last Name
First Name First Name
Relationship Phone Relationship Phone
Address: Address
City State Zip City State Zip
Current or Last EmpIoyment
Name of Employer
Employer Address
Position (Type of work) Dates of Employment
Prior VoIunteer Service
Have you volunteered at Mountain Valley Community Hospital before?
Do you have previous volunteer experience elsewhere?
Interests & Preferences
Why do you want to become a volunteer?
What are your hobbies, skills, other interests?
Which languages do you speak?
What do you envision yourself doing as a volunteer?
Mon Tues Wed Thur Fri Sat Sun
Morning
Afternoon
Please indicate days and
times when you are
available to volunteer.
Evening
Applicant's Signature Date
: ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
Ìf YES, please list NO YES
Ìf YES, please list NO YES
NVCH FlGURE 3-1 VoIunteer appIication !orm
2. Aro lloro any voaI onlilios, muIlivaIuod allribulos, or muI-
lipIo roIalionslips in llo doscriplion of llo dala roquiro-
monls in llis caso sogmonl` If so, vlal aro lloy`
3. Can you llinI of any ollor businoss ruIos (ollor llan llo
ono oxpIicilIy doscribod in llo caso) llal aro IiIoIy lo bo
usod in a lospilaI onvironmonl` Can lloso bo roprosonlod
on an IIR diagram for MVCH`
4. Aro lloro any univorsaI dala modoIs llal can bo rousod as a
slarling poinl for modoIing MVCH's dala roquiromonls`
WouId you rocommond using sucl as modoI for llo MVCH
projocl` Wly or vly nol`
Case Exercises
1. Drav an IIR diagram lo roprosonl llo roquiromonls
doscribod in llis caso sogmonl carofuIIy foIIoving llo nola-
lion from llis claplor.
2. Supposo oacl caro conlor lad lvo nursos-in-clargo, ono for
llo day slifl, and anollor ono for llo ovoning slifl. Hov
vouId llal clango llo diagram you dovoIopod in Caso
Ixorciso 1`
3. DovoIop dofinilions for oacl of llo foIIoving lypos of
objocls in your IIR diagram from Caso Ixorciso 1. ConsuIl
vill somo mombor of llo lospilaI or loaIll-caro commu-
nily (if ono is avaiIabIo), do somo rosoarcl on llo Inlornol,
or ollorviso maIo roasonabIo assumplions basod on your
ovn InovIodgo and oxporionco.
a. Inlily lypos
b. Allribulos
c. RoIalionslips
4. Iiguro 3-17 slovs llo foIIoving onlily lypos in a univorsaI
dala modoI: IARTY, IARTYROII, IARTYRIIATIONSHII,
IVINT, IRIORITY TYII, STATUS TYII, IVINT ROII,
and ROII TYII. Hov vouId lloso appIy lo llo MVCH
caso` Givo oxampIos of oacl onlily lypo basod on llo infor-
malion providod in llo caso doscriplions up lo llis poinl.
5. Dorivo and cIoarIy slalo llo businoss ruIos llal aro
impIicil in llo voIunloor appIicalion form slovn in
MVCH Iiguro 3-1.
6. Comparo llo IIR diagram llal you dovoIopod in llis
claplor vill llo I-R diagram you dovoIopod in Claplor 2.
Wlal aro llo difforoncos bolvoon lloso lvo diagrams`
Wly aro lloro difforoncos`
Prnject Assignments
P1. Roviso llo Iisl of businoss ruIos you dovoIopod in Claplor 2
in Iigll of llo informalion providod in llis caso sogmonl
and your insiglls from llo Caso Ixorcisos.
P2. IoIIoving llo nolalion from llis claplor, morgo your
Claplor 2 I-R diagram vill llo IIR diagram you dovoI-
opod for Caso Ixorcisos 1 and 2 lo roprosonl llo dala
roquiromonls for MVCH's nov syslom.
P3. Documonl and oxpIain llo docisions you mado during
morging.
Claplor 3 º Tlo Inlancod I-R ModoI 151