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UNIT2WelcometoaModernPort

Todayamajorportisaworldofitsown.Modernportfacilitieshavetomeetthe
demandsofhighlyspecialisedtransportsystemsbysea,landandair.Andsowithin
theboundariesofanylargeseaportwefindanamazingrangeofservices.
Amodernportmaintainsshippingchannels,harbourbasins,andnavigationaidsas
wellastheportinfrastructuresuchaswharves,quays,docks,storageareasand
warehouses,cranesforcargohandlingandterminalsforcargoesandpassengers.It
providespilotsandpilotvessels,tugsfortowageandemergencyresponsevesselsin
casesofaccidentsatsea.
Withinitsareawefindofficebuildingsforallthevariouscompaniescateringforthe
shippingindustryShipBrokers,ShippingAgents,StevedoringandLashing
Companies,ShipsChandlers,MarineEngineeringCompanies,Companiesfor
MarineEquipmentandShipsRepair,CargoSurveyorsandInspectionCompanies,
tonameonlyafew.Todaytherearealsostrictsecurityrequirements.

ThePortofSantander
Elegant,picturesqueSantander,situatedintheregionofCantabria,istypicalof
NorthSpain.Thecityliesinabeautifulsetting,backedbyopencountrysideand
dramaticmountains.AverygoodroadnetworkconnectsSantandertothewholeof
Spain,PortugalandtheSouthofFrance.Abustlingregionalcapitalandapopular
holidayresort,Santanderoffersexcellentbeaches,splendidviewpoints,museums,
galleriesandalivelymarket.
TheportactivityinSantanderdatesbackmorethan2000years,thetownbeing
foundedbytheRomansin19BC.

TodaythePortofSantanderisafast-growingportandanimportantjunctionin
Spainforcombinedwater,roadandrailwaytransport.In2003thetotalporttraffic
comprisedaboutfivemilliontonsofgoods.ThePortofSantanderhasfacilitiesfor
handlingalltypesofcargo:dryandliquidbulk,generalcargo,ROROandcontainer
traffic.Thepassengerterminalintheheartofthecityhasfacilitiesforbothferriesand
cruiseshipsandthereisregularferrylinertraffictotheUnitedKingdom.
Fourmilliontonnesofdrybulksuchascoal,ore,fertilisers,grain,soyabeans,
cerealsandsodiumcarbonatepassedthroughSantanderin2003.Morethan1
milliontonsofgeneralcargowashandled,ROROtrafficaccountedfor65%ofthis
typeofcargo.Ofliquidbulkpetroleumisthelargestelement,followedbychemical
productsandmolasses.

Dependingonthetype,bulkgoodscanbeloadedandunloadedusingaconveyor,
grabberorbucket.Thebulkisloadedintoahopper,whichpassesitontoaconveyor
beltsystemtodeliverittoastockpile.
Somebulkcargosuchasscrapmetalisloadedintobigmetalbinsknownasskips
andliftedintotheholdofthebulkcarrier.
DuringthelastfewyearsvehiclehandlingshowsthegreatestincreaseinSantander:
36%in2003.Thisisimportantfortheportsimage,asshipmentofmotorvehicles
requiresexcellentstandardsoflogisticsoperators,aswellasportfacilitiesand
shippinglines.
Theporthasinvestedinandiscontinuallymakingnewinvestmentsinspecialised
handlinginstallationsforallthetypesofcargoalreadymentioned.
ReadingComprehension:VesselsandCargoes

Thegeneralcargoship
Duringthelastfewdecadesshippinghasseenagreatdealofchange.Untilthe20th
centurythemostimportantcargoshipwasthebreak-bulkcarrier,sometimescalled
thegeneralcargoshiporfreighter.Thecargoholdsontheseshipscouldcarry
almostanykindofcargo,bothpiecegoodsandbulkcargo.Thecargowaspacked
intodrums,boxes,bags,balesandcratesoronpallets.Theshipwasloadedand
unloadedusingportsidecranesandshipsderricksthatliftedthecargothroughthe
hatchesandstoreditintotheholds.Cargocouldalsobesecuredbylashingand
storedondeck.

Thebulkcarrier
Todaymoderncommercialvesselsarehighlyspecialised,designedtocarryspecific
typesofcargo.Thenamesoftheshipstelluswhattypeofcargotheyaredesigned
tocarry.Thebulkcarriercarriesbulkcargo,loosecargo,eitherdrybulksuchas
coal,grain,ironore,fertilisersorliquidbulksuchasarangeofchemicalsincluding
petroleumproducts.Bulkcarriershavehugeunder-deckspecialisedholdswherethe
bulkproductsarepouredandstored.Bulkcarrierscomeindifferentsizes,fromthe
so-calledhandysizebulkcarriersofabout25000DWTtoverylargecarriersofup
to200000DWT.

Themulti-purposecarrier
TheMSMarina,theshipinourstory,isatypeofmulti-purposedrycargocarrier.
Multi-PurposeCarrierstransportdifferentkindsofcargo:break-bulkand/orpure
bulkcargoesand/orcontainers,evenreefercontainersforfrozenmeatsorfruit.
Manyofthesecarriersareso-calledgearedvessels,theyareequippedwiththeir
owncargocranesforloadinganddischarging.Hatchopeningsaredesignedtofit
standardcontainersizes.Removablebetweendecksor(tweendecks)increasethe
numberofavailableholds.Inthehugebulkholdsthereareremovablebulkheadsthat
helppreventthegrainandotherbulkcargoesfromshifting.

Thecontainership
Itwasinthe1960sthatthefirstcontainershipwasbuiltandsincethenshehas
revolutionisedshipping.Acontainershipisdesignedtocarrycargointhousandsof
standard-sizeboxes-containers,either20ftunitsor40ftunits.Atthecontainer
terminalstheseshipscanquicklyloadanddischargebymeansoflargequay-side
cranescalledportainersorgantrycranes.Thecranesliftthecontainersofforonto
thequayortrucksandofforontotheshipsdeck.Whileaconventionaldrycargo
vesselmaytake3-4daystoloadordischarge,acontainershipcandothesameina
matterofhours.Todaycontainershipsareseeninportsallovertheworldandare
graduallyreplacingthegeneralcargoships.
Seenfromadistancethecontainershiphasaverycharacteristicflatsilhouette.
Thesmallsuperstructurewiththenavigatingbridgeisatthesternoftheshipandthe
manycontainersarestackedforeofthebridgealongthewholelengthofthevessel.

Thereefer
TheRefrigeratedCargoCarryingVessels,reefers,arebuilttocarryfruit,meat,
vegetablesandotherrefrigeratedfoodproductsthatrequirerefrigeratingequipment
tostayfreshduringaseavoyage.Thecargocanbestowedonpalletsinthe
refrigeratedholds.Somereeferscarryreefercontainers.
Perhapsthemostfamousofthesetypesofvesselsarethebananacarriers,trading
betweentheCaribbeanandEurope.

TheROROvessel
AnotherspecialcargovesselisknownastheRORO,whichmeansaroll-on,roll-off
vessel.TheROROshipshavehugestern(orbow)doorswhichareloweredtomake
abridgefromtheshiptothewharf.OntheRORO-vesselwholetruckscanrollon
andoffveryrapidlyatports.ROROisoftenusedtocarrylargenumbersof
cars/motorvehicles,whicharerapidlyloadedviaasternramp.
Thewharfmachinerycanalsogetintototheshipsinteriorandcollectcargotobring
itashore.
Theroll-on,roll-offvesselcomesintwomaintypes:thepassengerROROandthe
cargoRORO.Moderncar-passengerferriestakecareofmostpassengertrafficon
short-searoutesintheBalticSeaandtheNorthSea.Itisprobablytheonlytypeof
cargovesselthatmostpeoplehavetravelledon.Thevehiclesaredrivenonandoff
throughasterndoor(sometimesabowdoor)andstoredonthecardeckbelowthe
passengeraccommodationareas.SincetheEstoniadisaster,whenthebowvisor
gavewayintheheavystormandthecardeckwasflooded,safetyregulationson
boardcar-passengerferrieshavebecomestricterandthedoorstructureshave
improved.

Theoiltanker
Oneofthemostimportantvesselsintheworld'smerchantfleetstodayisthetanker.
Thegrowthinsizeofthetankershasbeenextremelyrapidduringrecentyears.
Tankerscarryliquidcargo,notonlyoil,intanks.Thebestknownaretheoiltankers.
Theycomeintwokinds:thecrudecarrier,whichcarriescrudeoil,andtheclean
productstanker,whichcarriesrefinedproductssuchaspetrol,gasoline,aviationfuel,
keroseneandparaffin.Tankersrangeinallsizesfromsmallbunkeringtankersof
1000DWT,usedforrefuellinglargervessels,totherealgiantstheVLCC(Very
LargeCrudeCarrier)of200000-300000DWTandtheULCC(UltraLargeCrude
Carrier)ofover300000DWT.
In1990,theUnitedStatesenactedtheOilPollutionAct(OPA).Itrequiresagradual
introductionoftankerswithdoublehulls,i.e.notjustwithdoublebottomsbutalso
doubleonbothsides.Fullcompliancewiththelawisasfarawayas2015.This
stampshowsapictureofthemoderndouble-hulledMobilOiltankerEagle,built
1993,of284,493DWT.However,mosttankerstradingworldwidetodayarestill
single-hulledvessels.

TheLNGcarrier
(LiquifiedNaturalGas)andtheLPGcarrier(LiquifiedPetroleumGas)arereallya
kindoftankerandcameininthenineteen-hundreds.LNGandLPGarenotthe
easiestofcargoestotransport.Initsnaturalstate,LNGisagas;itmustbe
pressurisedintobeingliquidorkeptasaliquidbyreducingthetemperatureinorder
totransportit.TheshapeoftheLNGCarrier,withthehugeroundMosstanksseen
alongthedeck,hasledtothenicknameofDinosaurEggsCarriers.
TheLNGvesselscarryexplosivegas-keptatbelowfreezingtemperatures-asan
unstableliquid.Thismeansthattheycarryextremelydangerouscargo.Thevessels
mustbemaintainedverythoroughlyandsafetymeasuresonboardhavetobevery
strict.
TheLash
AnotherkindofcargocarrieristheLash.LASHmeanslighteraboardship(lighter=
barge).Thevesselhasahuge500toncraneonthemaindeck.Theholdsare
dividedintocellstomakeroomfortheLASHbargeswhichthecraneplucksfromthe
wateratthesternoftheship,carriesalongthedeckandstowsintheshipscellsfor
thevoyage.LASHbargesareloadedatinlandriverandoceanports.Thebargesare
thentowedtomeettheLASHmothervesselandliftedaboard.Whenthemother
vesselarrivesatitsportofdestinationthehugecranelowerstheLASHbargesinto
thewater,wheretheyarethentowedtotheirfinaldestination.ALashshipdoesnot
needtotieuptoaportduringdischarging.

Heavyliftships
Anotherveryspecialtypeofshipistheheavy-liftship.Thistypeisalittlelikethe
LASH.Theheavy-liftshipisdesignedtocarryexceptionallyheavyloadsandunusual
cargoessuchaspowerplants,oilrigs,generators,andyachts.Thecargo(even
smallvessels)canbestowedaboardtheshipsbyalift-onlift-offmethodusingthe
shipsowncranesorbyafloat-infloat-outmethodwherethemothershipispartly
submergedunderwaterduringloadingandunloadingthecargosheistocarry.

Do: hacer, realizar, cumplir, actuar
Make: hacer
efectuar
poner
crear
dejar
ganar
fabricar
preparar
cometer
introducir
confeccionar
pronunciar
meter
doblar
creer

Say: decir
afirmar
expresar
dar

Tell decir
contar
saber
informar
indicar
distinguir
relatar
conocer
comunicar
anunciar
mandar
reconocer
marcar
enterar
recitar
rezar
confesarse
hacer mella
admitir
soplar
marear

Hi: Hola
Hello: interjeccin
hola
caramba
al
oiga
diga
vale
bueno

Start:
iniciar
comenzar
empezar
poner en marcha
abrir
emprender
entablar
fundar
ponerse en marcha
dar
funcionar
principiar
levantar
causar
saltarse
asustarse
empear
combarse
declarar

Begin:
comenzar
empezar
entablar
dar
romper

Ship: barco
navo
tripulacin
avin
dirigible

Vessel: buque
recipiente
vaso
barco
vasija
bajel

Some:
Diccionario
1. adjetivo
algunos
algunas
algn
unos
algo de
un poco de
alguno
unas
ciertos
varios
unos cuantos

Any:
Diccionario
1. adjetivo
cualquier
cualquiera
todo
alguno
ninguno

Speak:
hablar
decir
intervenir
sonar
ladrar
Talk:
hablar
conversar
platicar
charlar
seguir hablando
hablar mucho
chismear
no parar de hablar
no cesar de hablar

What
Diccionario
1. Qu
2. adjetivo
qu
que
bueno
cual de
lindo
pariente
3. pronombre
que
4. interjeccin
qu
cul
qu
cmo
cmo

That
Diccionario
1. adjetivo
ese
esa
aquel
aquella
2. adverbio
tan
3. conjuncin
en que
para que
a que
cuanto
de modo que
4. pronombre
que
eso
cual
aquello
se
sa
aqul
aqulla