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IB DIPLOMA BIOLOGY

PAST PAPER QUESTIONS


ON

DIGESTION
A Test
Answer Qs 1 to 4 by drawing a circle around
the best answer.
Answer the remaining questions in the spaces
provided.
Question 10 is for HL only.
Total marks: HL

46

SL

36

Diploma Biology 2013/2014/2015

John Osborne
October 2014

Diploma Biology 2013/2014/2015

1.

Which of the following is correct regarding the enzymes listed in the table?
Enzyme
Amylase

Lipase

Protease

A.

Substrate polysaccharide

emulsified fat

dipeptide or polypeptide

B.

Substrate emulsified fat

dipeptide or polypeptide

polysaccharide

C.

Product

amino acids

small polysaccharides or
monosaccharides

fatty acids and glycerol

D.

Product

small polysaccharides or amino acids


monosaccharides

fatty acids and glycerol


(Total 1 mark)

2.

What does the digestion of starch by amylase produce?


A.

Lactose

B.

Sucrose

C.

Galactose

D.

Maltose
(Total 1 mark)

3.

In the digestive system, enzyme A has an optimum pH of 1.5 and enzyme B an optimum
pH of 7.
What are the possible substrates of these enzymes?
Enzyme A

Enzyme B

A.

proteins

amino acids

B.

lipids

proteins

C.

carbohydrates

lipids

D.

proteins

lipids
(Total 1 mark)

4.

Two cellular activities that support human life are absorption and assimilation. What is needed
for assimilation but not for absorption?
A.

Enzymes to synthesize new molecules

B.

Blood capillaries

C.

Dissolved nutrients

D.

Microvilli
(Total 1 mark)

Diploma Biology 2013/2014/2015

5.

The diagram below shows a transverse section of the ileum.

[Source: P H Raven and G B Johnson, Biology, (2002), 6th edition, McGraw-Hill, page 1024]

(a)

(i)

State the name and function of the structures labelled 1 and 2.

1:

...........................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................

2:

............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Distinguish between the muscles labelled 3 and 4.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 3 marks)

Diploma Biology 2013/2014/2015

6.

Draw a labelled diagram of the digestive system.


(Total 5 marks)

Diploma Biology 2013/2014/2015

7.

Carbohydrates are one of the constituents of a balanced diet in humans,


(a)

Carbohydrates can be used as a substrate in cell respiration.


(i)

State one other constituent of human diets that can be used as a respiratory
substrate.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Outline two uses of carbohydrates in the human body, other than as a respiratory
substrate.
1. ......................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
2. .......................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Monosaccharides are useful if energy is needed rapidly, but polysaccharides are a better
form of carbohydrate if energy is needed over a longer period.
(i)

State two foods that are a good source of monosaccharides.

1. ........................................................

2. ......................................................
(1)

(ii)

State two foods that are a good source of polysaccharides.

1. ........................................................

2. ......................................................
(1)
(Total 5 marks)

8.

(a)

Describe how the ileum uses active transport in the absorption of food.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b)

List two substances resulting from the breakdown of haemoglobin in the liver.
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 4 marks)

Diploma Biology 2013/2014/2015

9.

Lipids are essential nutrients that must be included in the diet.


(a)

State one food rich in lipids suitable for a vegan diet.


.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Outline two functions of lipids in the body.


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

Discuss the possible health problems associated with diets rich in lipids.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 7 marks)

10.

HL
Enzymes are used by living organisms to catalyse reactions. Some of these reactions occur in
the cytoplasm of cells. Other reactions take place outside cells, for example the digestion of
foods in the human gut.
(a)

State the name used by biochemists for the chains and cycles of reactions that occur
inside cells.
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

Diploma Biology 2013/2014/2015

(b)
Enzymes of digestion in humans are secreted by glands. They have a pH optimum
which allows them to work efficiently in the part of the gut into which they are secreted.
(i)

In the table below, identify the missing enzyme, the two glands, and the pH
optimum
Name of
enzyme
amylase

Gland secreting
the enzyme

Substrate

Products

starch

maltose

triglycerides

fatty acids and


glycerol

pH optimum

7
(4)

(ii)

Outline the effect of pH values above and below the optimum on enzyme structure.

.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

Enzymes that work inside cells are sometimes affected by non-competitive inhibitors.
Explain how a non-competitive inhibitor affects the activity of an enzyme.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 10 marks)

Diploma Biology 2013/2014/2015

11.
Osteoporosis is a major health problem for many post-menopausal women. As the
ovaries reduce their secretion of estrogen, calcium is gradually lost from bones, weakening them
and increasing the chance of fractures. To test whether diet influences the rate of calcium loss,
ovaries were removed from groups of female rats and the rats were then either fed a control diet or
the same diet with one gram of a supplementary food per day. The rate at which the rats excreted
calcium was measured. The ratio of calcium loss between the control rats and the rats that were

Ratio

given a supplementary food was calculated.

loss with supplementary food

loss in control rats

The results are shown in the graph below.


1 .2
1 .0
0 .8
C a lc iu m lo s s ra tio

0 .6
0 .4
0 .2
0 .0

S u p p le m e n ta ry fo o d
[Source: Muhlbauer and Li, Nature, 1999, 401, pages 343344]

(a)

(i)

Identify which supplementary food was most effective in reducing calcium loss.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Identify which supplementary food was least effective in reducing calcium loss.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Among the ten foods shown in the graph, seven are plant products (vegetables) and three
are animal products. Discuss whether the plant or the animal products were more
effective at reducing calcium loss.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

Diploma Biology 2013/2014/2015

(c)

Suggest a trial, based on the results shown in the graph, that could be done to try to
reduce osteoporosis in humans.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 8 marks)

Diploma Biology 2013/2014/2015

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